The Full Wiki

Edinburgh Castle: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Edinburgh Castle
Edinburgh, Scotland
UK grid reference NT250734
EdinburghCastle.jpg
The castle dominates the Edinburgh skyline, as seen here from the Grassmarket to the south
Edinburgh Castle is located in Scotland
Shown within Scotland
Coordinates 55°56′55″N 3°12′03″W / 55.948611°N 3.200833°W / 55.948611; -3.200833Coordinates: 55°56′55″N 3°12′03″W / 55.948611°N 3.200833°W / 55.948611; -3.200833
Built Site occupied since the late Bronze Age. Buildings of present castle date from the 12th to 21st centuries
In use Still in use today
Current
owner
Ministry of Defence
Open to
the public
Yes
Garrison 52 Infantry Brigade
Current
commander
Major General Andrew MacKay
Commanders List of Governors of Edinburgh Castle
Battles/wars Sieges and occupations during the Wars of Scottish Independence (1296–1357); Lang Siege (1571–1573); sieges in 1640, 1650, 1689, 1745

Edinburgh Castle is a castle fortress which dominates the sky-line of the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, from its position atop the volcanic Castle Rock. Human habitation of the site is dated back as far as the 9th century BC, although the nature of early settlement is unclear. There has been a royal castle here since at least the reign of David I in the 12th century, and the site continued to be a royal residence until the Union of the Crowns in 1603. As one of the most important fortresses in the Kingdom of Scotland, Edinburgh Castle has been involved in many historical conflicts, from the Wars of Scottish Independence in the 14th century, up to the Jacobite Rising of 1745, and has been besieged, both successfully and unsuccessfully, on several occasions. From the later 17th century, the castle became a military base, with a large garrison. Its importance as a historic monument was recognised from the 19th century, and various restoration programmes have been carried out since.

Few of the present buildings pre-date the Lang Siege of the 16th century, when the medieval fortifications were largely destroyed by artillery bombardment. The notable exception is St Margaret's Chapel, the oldest surviving building in Edinburgh, which dates from the early 12th century.[1] Among other significant buildings of the castle are the Royal Palace, and the early-16th-century Great Hall. The castle also houses the Scottish National War Memorial, and National War Museum of Scotland.

Although formally owned by the Ministry of Defence, most of the castle is now in the care of Historic Scotland, and is Scotland's second-most-visited tourist attraction.[2] Although the garrison left in the 1920s, there is still a military presence at the castle, largely ceremonial and administrative, and including a number of regimental museums. It is also the backdrop to the annual Edinburgh Military Tattoo, and has become a recognisable symbol of Edinburgh and of Scotland.

Contents

History

Advertisements

Pre-history of Castle Rock

The north side of the castle, on the basalt plug of Castle Rock

Geology

The castle stands up on the plug of an extinct volcano, which is estimated to have risen some 350 million years ago, during the lower Carboniferous period. The Castle Rock is the remains of a volcanic pipe, which cut through the surrounding sedimentary rock, before cooling to form very hard dolerite, a type of basalt. Subsequent glacial erosion was resisted by the dolerite, which protected the softer rock to the east, leaving a crag and tail formation.[3]

The summit of the Castle Rock is 120 metres (390 ft) above sea level, with rocky cliffs to the south, west and north, rearing up to 80 metres (260 ft) from the surrounding landscape. This means that the only readily accessible route to the castle lies to the east, where the ridge slopes more gently. But just as its location has rendered the castle all but impregnable, it has also presented difficulties. Not the least of these is that basalt is an extremely poor aquifer, and therefore providing water to the Upper Ward of the castle has long been problematic, particularly under siege conditions, for instance when the garrison ran out of water during the Lang Siege of 1573.[4]

Earliest habitation

It has been suggested that a documentary reference to occupation of the Castle Rock can be found as early as the mid-second century AD.[5] Ptolemy (c. 83 – c. 168) refers to a settlement of the Votadini known to the Romans as "Alauna", meaning "rock place", which may be the earliest known name for the Castle Rock.[6] The Orygynale Cronykil of Andrew of Wyntoun (c. 1350 – c. 1423), an early chronicler of Scottish history, alludes to "Ebrawce" (Ebraucus), a legendary King of the Britons, who "byggyd [built] Edynburgh".[7] According to the earlier chronicler, Geoffrey of Monmouth (c. 1100 – c. 1155), Ebraucus had fifty children by his twenty wives, and was the founder of "Kaerebrauc" (York), "Alclud" (Dumbarton), and the "Maidens' Castle".[8] John Stow (c. 1525 – 1605), credited Ebraucus with building "the Castell of Maidens called Edenbrough" in 989 BC.[9]

The name "Maiden Castle", or Castellum Puellarum in Latin, was commonly used until at least the 16th century.[10] It appears in charters of David I (ruled 1124–1153) and his successors,[11] although its origins are obscure. William Camden's 1607 Britannia records that "the Britans called [it] Castle Myned Agned, the Scots, the Maidens Castle and the Virgins Castle, of certaine young maidens of the Picts roiall bloud who were kept there in old time".[12] According to the 17th-century antiquarian Father Richard Hay, the "maidens" were a group of nuns, who were ejected from the castle and replaced by canons, considered "fitter to live among soldiers".[13][14] However, this story has been considered "apocryphal" by Daniel Wilson and later historians.[15] Possibly the earliest maidens were those belonging to a "Cult of the Nine Maidens" type of legend. Arthurian legends suggest that the site once held a shrine to Morgain la Fee, one of nine sisters.[16] Later, St Monenna is said to have invested a church at Edinburgh, as well as at Dumbarton and other places, and is also said to have been one of nine companions.[17][18] More simply, the term "Maiden Castle" may refer to a castle which has never been taken by force.

An archaeological survey of the castle in the late 1980s shows evidence of the site having been settled during the late Bronze Age or early Iron Age, potentially making Castle Rock the longest continually occupied site in Scotland.[19] However, the extent of the finds was not particularly significant and was insufficient to draw any certain conclusions about the precise nature or scale of this earliest known phase of occupation.

The archaeological evidence becomes more compelling in the Iron Age. Traditionally, it had been supposed that the tribes which inhabited this part of central Scotland had made little or no use of the Castle Rock. Excavations at nearby Traprain Law, Dunsapie Hill, Duddingston and Inveresk had revealed relatively large settlements and it was supposed that these sites had, for some reason, been chosen in preference to the Castle Rock. However, the excavations of the 1980s suggested that there was probably an enclosed hill fort on the rock, although only the fringes of the site were excavated. House fragments revealed were similar to Votadini houses previously found in Northumbria.[20]

The dig revealed clear signs of habitation from the first and second centuries AD, consistent with Ptolemy's reference to "Alauna". Interestingly, these signs of occupation included a good deal of Roman material, including pottery, bronzes and brooches. This may reflect a trading relationship between the Votadini and the Romans beginning with Agricola's foray north, and continuing through to the establishment of the Antonine Wall, when the Romans temporarily established themselves nearby at Cramond.The nature of the settlement at this time is inconclusive, but Driscoll and Yeoman suggest it may have been a broch, similar to the one at Edin's Hall in the Borders.[21] There is no evidence that the Romans actually occupied the Castle Rock, as they did at nearby Traprain Law.[22] From this point onwards there is strong evidence pointing towards continuous habitation of the site through to the present—albeit with fluctuations in population levels.

Early Middle Ages

Yr.Hen.Ogledd.550.650.Koch.jpg

The castle does not re-appear in contemporary historical records from the time of Ptolemy until around AD 600. Then, in the brythonic epic Y Gododdin, we find a reference to Din Eidyn, "the stronghold of Eidyn". This has been viewed as an early reference to the Castle Rock.[23] The poem tells of the Gododdin King Mynyddog Mwynfawr,[24] and his band of warriors, who, after a year of feasting in their fortress, set out to do battle with the Angles in the area of contemporary Yorkshire. Despite performing glorious deeds of valour and bravery the Brythons were massacred.

The Irish annals record that in 638, after the events related in Y Gododdin, "Etin" was besieged by the Angles under Oswald of Northumbria, and the Gododdin were defeated.[25] The territory around Edinburgh then became part of the Kingdom of Northumbria, which was itself absorbed by England in the 10th century, when Athelstan of England, according to the Annals of Clonmacnoise, "spoiled the Kingdom of Edinburgh".[26] The English withdrew, and Lothian became part of Scotland, during the reign of Indulf (ruled 954–962).[27]

The archaeological evidence is equivocal; for the relevant period it is entirely based on analysis of midden heaps, with no evidence of structures. Few conclusions can therefore be derived about the status of the settlement during this period, although the midden deposits show no clear break since Roman times.[28]

Early morning at Edinburgh Castle, seen from the west

High Middle Ages

The first documentary reference to a castle at Edinburgh is in John of Fordun's account of the death of King Malcolm III. Fordun places his widow, the future Saint Margaret, at the "Castle of Maidens", where she learns of his death in November 1093. Fordun's account goes on to relate how Margaret died of grief within days, and how Malcolm's brother Donald Bane laid siege to the castle. However, Fordun's chronicle was not written until the later 14th century, and the near-contemporary account of the life of St Margaret, by Bishop Turgot, makes no mention of a castle.[29] During the reign of Malcolm III, Dunfermline rather than Edinburgh was the primary royal residence. This began to change though during the reign of his youngest son, King David I (ruled 1124–1153).

King David's largest contribution to the development of Edinburgh as a site of royal power undoubtedly lay in his administrative reforms.[30] However, he is also credited with effecting more tangible changes to the fabric of the castle. Knowing that the first meeting of the Scottish Parliament occurred at the castle around 1140,[31] it seems there were large buildings occupying the rock at this time. These buildings, and any defences, would probably have been of timber,[32] although two 12th-century stone buildings are known. Of these, St. Margaret's Chapel remains at the summit of the rock. The second was a church, dedicated to St. Mary, which stood on the site of the Scottish National War Memorial.[32] Given that the southern part of the Upper Ward (where Crown Square is now sited) was not suited to being built upon until the construction of the vaults in the fifteenth century, it seems probable that these earlier buildings would have been located towards the northern part of the rock; that is around the area where St. Margaret's Chapel stands. This has led to a suggestion that the chapel is the last remnant of a square, stone keep, which would have formed the bulk of the twelfth-century fortification.[33] The structure may have been similar to the keep of Carlisle Castle, which David I began after 1135.[34]

In 1174, David's successor King William "the Lion" (ruled 1165–1214) was captured by the English at the Battle of Alnwick. He was forced to sign the Treaty of Falaise to secure his release, in return for surrendering Edinburgh Castle, along with the castles of Berwick, Roxburgh and Stirling, to the English King, Henry II. The castle was occupied by the English for twelve years, until 1186, when it was returned to William as the dowry of his English bride, Ermengarde de Beaumont, who had been chosen for him by King Henry.[35]

Wars of Scottish Independence

Statue of Robert the Bruce, placed at the castle entrance in 1929 to mark the 600th anniversary of his death

A century later, on the death of King Alexander III, the throne of Scotland became vacant. Edward I of England was appointed to adjudicate the competing claims for the Scottish crown, but attempted to use the opportunity to establish himself as the feudal overlord of Scotland. During the negotiations, Edward stayed briefly at Edinburgh Castle, and had much of the country's records and treasure removed from the castle to England.[35]

In March 1296, Edward I launched an invasion of Scotland, sparking the First War of Scottish Independence. Edinburgh Castle soon came under English control, surrendering after three days of bombardment.[36] A large garrison was installed, 325 strong in 1300.[37] After the death of Edward I in 1307, however, England's control over Scotland weakened. On 14 March 1314, a surprise night attack by Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray, recaptured the castle. The daring plan involved a party of thirty hand-picked men, led by one William Francis, who had lived in the castle as a boy, making a difficult ascent up the north face of the Castle Rock, and taking the garrison by surprise. Robert the Bruce immediately ordered the destruction of the castle's defences to prevent re-occupation by the English.[38] Shortly after, Bruce's army secured victory at the Battle of Bannockburn.

After Bruce's death, Edward III of England determined to carry on his grandfather's project, and supported the claim of Edward Balliol, son of the former King John Balliol, over that of the young David II, son of the Bruce. Edward invaded in 1333, marking the start of the Second War of Scottish Independence, and the English forces reoccupied and refortified Edinburgh Castle in 1335,[39] holding it until 1341. This time, the Scottish assault was led by William Douglas, 1st Earl of Douglas. Douglas's party disguised themselves as merchants bringing supplies to the garrison. Driving a cart into the castle, they halted it to prevent the gates closing. A larger force hidden nearby rushed to join them, and the castle was retaken.[35] The English garrison, numbering 100, were all killed.[39]

David's Tower and the fifteenth century

The Treaty of Berwick of 1357 brought the Wars of Independence to a close. David II resumed his rule, and set about rebuilding Edinburgh Castle, which became his principal seat of government.[40] David's Tower was begun around 1367, and was incomplete when David died at the Castle in 1371, being completed by his successor, Robert II, in the 1370s. The tower stood on the site of the present Half Moon Battery, and was connected by a section of curtain wall to the smaller, Constable's Tower, a round tower built between 1375 and 1379 where the Portcullis Gate now stands.[35][41]

Edinburgh Castle as it looked before the Lang Siege of 1573, with David's Tower in the centre

In the early 15th century, another English invasion, this time under Henry IV, reached Edinburgh Castle and began a siege, but due to a lack of supplies, the English withdrew.[35] From 1437, Sir William Crichton was Keeper of Edinburgh Castle,[42] and soon after became Chancellor of Scotland. In an attempt to gain the regency of Scotland, Crichton sought to overthrow the power of the Earls of Douglas, the principal noble family in the kingdom. The sixteen-year-old William Douglas, 6th Earl of Douglas, and his younger brother David, were summoned to Edinburgh Castle in November 1440. The so-called "Black Dinner" which followed saw the two boys summarily beheaded on trumped-up charges, in the presence of the ten-year-old King James II (ruled 1437–1460). Douglas' supporters subsequently laid siege to the castle, causing some damage.[43] Construction continued during these events, with the area now known as Crown Square being laid out over vaults in the 1430s. Royal apartments were built, forming the nucleus of the later palace block, and a Great Hall was in existence by 1458. In 1464, the access to the castle was improved, with the current approach road up the north-east side of the rock being laid out.[41]

In 1479, Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany, was imprisoned in David's Tower for plotting against his brother, King James III (ruled 1460–1488). He escaped by getting his guards drunk, then lowering himself from a window on a rope.[43] Albany fled to France, then England, where he allied himself with King Edward IV. In 1482, Albany marched into Scotland with Richard, Duke of Gloucester (later King Richard III) and an English army. He occupied Edinburgh Castle, and imprisoned the King for two months, before the rebellion collapsed.[43]

During the 15th century, the castle was increasingly used as an arsenal and armaments factory. The first known purchase of a gun was in 1384, and the "great bombard" Mons Meg was delivered to Edinburgh in 1457.[44] Meanwhile, the royal family began to stay more frequently at the Abbey of Holyrood, at the opposite end of the Royal Mile. Around the end of the century, King James IV (ruled 1488–1513) built Holyroodhouse, by the abbey, for his principal Edinburgh residence, and the castle's role as a royal home subsequently declined.[43] James IV did, however, construct the present Great Hall, which was completed in the early 16th century.[41]

Sixteenth century and the Lang Siege

James IV was killed in battle at Flodden Field, on 9 September 1513. Expecting the English to press their advantage, the Scots hastily constructed a town wall around Edinburgh and augmented the castle's defences. A Frenchman, Antoine d'Arces, was involved in designing artillery works in 1514.[45] Three years later, King James V (ruled 1513–1542), still only five years old, was brought to the castle for safety.[43] Upon James' death 25 years later, the crown passed to his week-old daughter, Mary, Queen of Scots. English invasions followed, as King Henry VIII attempted to force a dynastic marriage on Scotland, although Edinburgh Castle remained largely unaffected.[41] Following these campaigns, refortifications included an earthen angle-bastion, known as the Spur, of the type known as trace italienne, one of the earliest examples in Britain.[46] It my have been designed by Migliorino Ubaldini, an Italian engineer from the court of Henry II of France.[46] James V's widow, Mary of Guise, based herself at Edinburgh Castle, acting as regent from 1554 until 1560, when she died at the castle.[43] The following year, her daughter Mary returned from France to begin her reign.

The reign of the Catholic Queen Mary was marred by crises and quarrels amongst the powerful Protestant Scottish nobility. In 1565, the Queen married Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, and the following year, in a small room of the Palace at Edinburgh Castle, she gave birth to James, who would later be King of both Scotland and England. Mary's own reign, however, was already drawing to a close. Three months after the murder of Darnley at Kirk o' Field in 1567, she married James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, one of the murder suspects. A large proportion of the nobility rebelled, resulting ultimately in the imprisonment and forced abdication of Mary at Loch Leven Castle. However, she eventually escaped and fled to England, and some of the nobility remained faithful to her cause. Edinburgh Castle was initially handed by its Captain, James Balfour, to the Regent Moray, who had forced Mary's abdication, and now held power in the name of the infant King James VI. Moray appointed Sir William Kirkcaldy of Grange as Keeper of the Castle.[43]

Detail of a contemporary drawing of Edinburgh Castle under siege in 1573, showing the batteries constructed around it

Kirkcaldy of Grange was a trusted lieutenant of the Regent, but after Moray's murder in January 1570 his allegiance to the King's cause began to waver. Intermittent civil war continued between the supporters of the two monarchs, and in April 1571 Dumbarton Castle fell to the King's men. Under the influence of William Maitland of Lethington, Mary's secretary, Grange changed sides, occupying the town and castle of Edinburgh for Queen Mary, and against the new regent, the Earl of Lennox.[47] The stand-off which followed was not resolved until two years later, and became known as the "Lang Siege", from the Scots word for "long". Hostilities began in May, with a month-long siege of the town, and a short second siege in October. Blockades and skirmishing continued meanwhile, and Grange continued to refortify the castle. The King's party appealed to Elizabeth I of England for assistance, as they lacked the artillery and money required to reduce the castle, and feared that Grange would receive aid from France. Elizabeth sent ambassadors to negotiate, and in July 1572 a truce was agreed and the blockade lifted. The town was effectively surrendered to the King's party, with Grange confined to the castle.[48]

The truce ran out on 1 January 1573, and Grange began bombarding the town. His supplies of powder and shot, however, were running low, and despite having 40 cannon available, there were only seven gunners in the garrison.[49] The King's forces, now with the Earl of Morton in charge as regent, were making headway with plans for a siege. Trenches were dug to surround the castle, and St Margaret's Well was poisoned.[50] By February, all Queen Mary's other supporters had surrendered to the Regent, but Grange resolved to resist, despite water shortages within the castle. The garrison continued to bombard the town, killing a number of citizens. Grange's unpopularity with the townsfolk was further increased after his men made a sortie to set fires, burning 100 houses in the town, and then firing on anyone attempting to put out the flames.[51]

In April, a force of around 1,000 English troops, led by Sir William Drury, arrived in Edinburgh. They were followed by 27 cannon from Berwick-upon-Tweed,[52] including one that had been cast within Edinburgh Castle, and captured by the English at Flodden.[43] The English troops built a battery on Castle Hill, immediately facing the east walls of the Castle, and five other batteries to the north, west and south. By 17 May these were ready, and the bombardment began. Over the next 12 days, the gunners dispatched around 3,000 shots at the castle.[4] On 22 May, the south wall of David's Tower collapsed, and the next day the Constable's Tower also fell. The debris blocked the castle entrance, as well as the Fore Well, although this had already run dry.[4] On 26 May, the English attacked and captured the Spur, the outer fortification of the castle, which had been isolated by the collapse. The following day, Grange came out, calling a ceasefire while surrender could be negotiated. When it was made clear that he would not be allowed to go free, Grange resolved to continue the resistance, but the garrison threatened to mutiny. He therefore arranged for Drury and his men to come into the castle on 28 May, surrendering to the English rather than to the Regent Morton.[53] Edinburgh Castle was handed over to George Douglas of Parkhead, the Regent's brother, and the garrison were allowed to go free.[54] William Kirkcaldy of Grange, his brother James, and two jewellers who had been minting coins in Mary's name inside the castle, were hanged at the mercat cross on 3 August.[55]

Nova Scotia and Civil War

Memorial plaque to Sir William Alexander, on the Castle Esplanade

Much of the castle was subsequently rebuilt by Regent Morton, including the Spur, the new Half Moon Battery, and the Portcullis Gate. The battered palace block remained unused,[56] although James VI had repairs carried out in 1584, and again in 1615-1617, in preparation for his return visit to Scotland, after he had acceded to the English throne in 1603.[57] James held court in the refurbished palace, but still preferred to sleep at Holyrood.[41]

In 1621, King James granted Sir William Alexander the land in North America between New England and Newfoundland, as Nova Scotia ("New Scotland"). To promote the settlement and plantation of Nova Scotia, the Baronetage of Nova Scotia was created in 1624. Under Scots Law, baronets had to take sasine by symbolically receiving the earth and stone of the land of which they were baronet. To make this possible, since Nova Scotia was far distant, the King declared that sasine could be taken either in Nova Scotia or, alternatively, "at the castle of Edinburgh as the most eminent and principal place of Scotland."[58]

James' successor, King Charles I, visited Edinburgh Castle only once, hosting a feast in the Great Hall, and staying the night before his coronation as King of Scots in 1633, the last occasion that a reigning monarch has resided in the castle.[43] In 1639, in response to Charles' attempts to reform the Scottish Church, civil war broke out between the King's forces and the Presbyterian Covenanters. The Covenanters, led by Alexander Leslie, captured Edinburgh Castle after a short siege, although it was restored to Charles after the Peace of Berwick of June the same year. The peace was short lived, however, and the following year the Covenanters took the castle again, this time after a three-month siege, during which the garrison ran out of supplies. The Spur was badly damaged, and was demolished in the 1640s.[41] The Royalist commander James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose was imprisoned here after his capture in 1650.[59]

In May 1650, the Covenanters signed the Treaty of Breda, allying themselves with King Charles II against the English Parliamentarians, who had executed King Charles I the previous year. In response, Oliver Cromwell launched an invasion of Scotland, defeating the Covenanter army at Dunbar in September. Edinburgh Castle was taken after a three-month siege, which caused further damage. The Governor of the Castle, Colonel Walter Dundas, surrendered to Cromwell despite having enough supplies to hold out, allegedly because he wished to change sides.[59]

Edinburgh Castle engraved by John Slezer in 1675, showing an unexecuted scheme for outer defences

Garrison fortress: Jacobites and prisoners

After his Restoration as King of England and Scotland in 1660, Charles II opted to maintain a full-time standing army based on Cromwell's New Model Army. From this time until 1923, a garrison was continuously maintained at the castle.[60] The medieval royal castle was transformed into a garrison fortress, but continued to see military and political action. The Marquis of Argyll was imprisoned here in 1661, during the mopping up of the King's enemies after the Restoration. Twenty years later, his son, the Earl of Argyll, was also imprisoned in the castle for religious Nonconformism. He escaped by disguising himself as his sister's footman, but was brought back to the castle after his failed rebellion against King James VII in 1685.[59]

James VII was deposed and exiled by the Glorious Revolution of 1688-89, which installed William of Orange as King of England. The Parliament of Scotland also accepted William as their new king, and required the Duke of Gordon, Governor of the Castle, to surrender the fortress. Gordon, who had been appointed by James VII as a fellow Catholic, refused. In March 1689, the castle was blockaded by 7,000 troops, against a garrison of 160 men, who were further weakened by religious disputes. On 18 March, Viscount Dundee climbed up the Castle Rock, and attempted to persuade Gordon to ride out with him in rebellion against the new King.[61] Gordon chose to stay, and during the ensuing siege, he refused to fire upon the town, while the besiegers inflicted little damage on the castle. Despite Dundee's initial successes in the north, Gordon eventually surrendered on 14 June, due to dwindling supplies, and having lost 70 men during the three-month siege.[62][63] Under the terms of the Acts of Union, which joined England and Scotland in 1707, Edinburgh was one of the four Scottish castles to be maintained and permanently garrisoned by the new British Army, along with Stirling, Dumbarton and Blackness.[64]

Edinburgh Castle with the Nor Loch in foreground, around 1780, by Alexander Nasmyth

The castle was almost taken in the first Jacobite rising in support of James Stuart, the "Old Pretender", in 1715. On 8 September, just two days after the rising began, a party of around 100 Jacobite Highlanders, led by Lord Drummond, attempted to scale the walls with the assistance of members of the garrison. However, the rope ladder lowered by the castle sentries was too short, and the alarm was raised after a change in the watch. The Jacobites fled, while the deserters within the castle were hanged or flogged.[65] General Wade reported in 1728 that the castle's defences were decayed and inadequate,[59] and major refortifications were carried out throughout the 1720s and 1730s, when most of the artillery defences and bastions on the north and west sides of the castle were built. These were designed by military engineer Captain John Romer, and built by William Adam, and include the Argyle Battery, Mills Mount Battery, the Low Defences and the Western Defences.[66]

The last military action the castle saw was during the 1745 Jacobite Rising. The Jacobite army, under Charles Edward Stuart, "Bonnie Prince Charlie", captured Edinburgh without a fight in September 1745, but the castle remained in the hands of the ageing Deputy Governor, General George Preston, who refused to surrender.[67] After their victory over the government army at Prestonpans on 21 September, the Jacobites attempted to blockade the castle. Preston's response was to bombard Jacobite positions within the town. After several buildings had been demolished, and four people killed, Charles called off the blockade.[68][69] The Jacobites themselves had no heavy guns with which to respond, and by November they had marched on to England, leaving Edinburgh to the castle garrison.[70]

Over the next century, the castle vaults were used to hold prisoners of war during several conflicts, including the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), the American War of Independence (1775–1783) and the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815).[71] During this time, several new buildings were erected within the castle, including powder magazines, stores, the Governor's House (1742), and the New Barracks (1796–1799).

19th century to the present

The castle during the visit of George IV in 1822, drawn by James Skene

A mass prison break in 1811, in which 49 prisoners of war escaped via a hole in the south wall, persuaded the authorities that the castle vaults were no longer a suitable prison. This use ceased in 1814,[72] and the castle began to take on a different role as a national monument. In 1818, Sir Walter Scott was given permission to search the castle for the Crown of Scotland, which had been stored away since the union of Scotland and England in 1707. Breaking open the Crown Room, he retrieved the Honours of Scotland, which were then put on public display, with an entry charge of one shilling.[73] In 1822, King George IV made a visit to Edinburgh, becoming the first reigning monarch to visit to the castle since Charles II in 1651. In 1829, the cannon Mons Meg was returned from London, and the palace began to be opened up to visitors during the 1830s. St Margaret's Chapel was "rediscovered" in 1845, having been used as a store for many years.[73] Works in the 1880s, funded by the publisher William Nelson and carried out by Hippolyte Blanc, saw the Argyle Tower built over the Portcullis Gate, and the Great Hall restored after years of use as a barracks.[41] A new gatehouse was built in 1888. During the 19th century, several schemes were put forward for rebuilding the whole castle as a Scottish Baronial style château. Work began in 1858, but was soon abandoned, and only the hospital building was remodelled in 1897.[41] Following the death of Prince Albert in 1861, the architect David Bryce put forward a proposal for a 50-metre (160 ft) keep as a memorial, although Queen Victoria objected, and the scheme was not pursued.[74]

Edinburgh Castle from the Foot of the Vennel, 1845, by Horatio McCulloch

In 1905, responsibility for the castle was transferred from the War Office to the Office of Works,[75] although the garrison remained until 1923, when the troops moved to Redford Barracks in south-west Edinburgh. The castle again became a prison during the First World War, when "Red Clydesider" David Kirkwood was confined here, and during the Second World War, when it housed German Luftwaffe pilots.[76] The position of Governor of Edinburgh Castle, which had been vacant since 1876, was revived in 1935 as an honorary title for the General Officer Commanding in Scotland, the first holder being Lieutenant-General Sir Archibald Cameron of Lochiel.[77] The castle passed into the care of Historic Scotland when it was established in 1991, and is a Scheduled Ancient Monument.[78] The buildings and structures of the castle are further protected by 24 separate listings, including 13 at category A, the highest level of protection for a historic building in Scotland.[79]

Description

Plan of Edinburgh Castle
Key:
1. Esplanade: A=Ditch
2. Lower Ward: B=Gatehouse, C=Ticket office
3. Middle Ward: D=Argyle Tower, E=Argyle Battery, F=Mills Mount Battery & One o'Clock Gun, G=Cartsheds, H=Western Defences, I=Hospital, J=Butts Battery, K=Scottish National War Museum, L=Governors House, M=New Barracks, N=Military Prison, O=Royal Scots Museum
4. Upper Ward: P=Foog's Gate, Q=Reservoirs, R=Mons Meg, S=Pet Cemetery, T=St. Margaret's Chapel, U=Half Moon Battery
5. Crown Square: V=Royal Palace, W=Great Hall, X=Queen Anne Building, Y=Scottish National War Memorial

Edinburgh Castle is located at the top of the Royal Mile, at the west end of Edinburgh's Old Town. The volcanic Castle Rock offers a naturally defended position, with sheer cliffs to north and south, and a steep ascent from the west. The only easy approach is from the town to the east, and the castle's defences are situated accordingly. The castle is divided into three areas known as "wards", separated by gates, which step up to the summit area of the Castle Rock.

In front of the castle is a long sloping forecourt known as the Esplanade. Originally the Spur, a 16th-century hornwork, was located here. The present Esplanade was laid out as a parade ground in 1753, and extended in 1845.[41] It is upon this Esplanade that the Edinburgh Military Tattoo takes place annually. From the Esplanade may be seen the Half Moon Battery, with the Royal Palace to its left, and the main gate below, which gives access to the Lower Ward.

Lower Ward

The gatehouse was built as an architecturally cosmetic addition to the castle in 1888.[80] Statues of Robert the Bruce by Thomas Clapperton, and William Wallace by Alexander Carrick, flanking the entrance were added in 1929, and the Latin motto Nemo me impune lacessit is inscribed above the gate. The dry ditch in front of the entrance was completed in its present form in 1742.[81] Within the gatehouse are offices, and to the north is the most recent addition to the castle; the ticket office, completed in 2008 to a design by Gareth Hoskins Architects.[82] The road, built by James III in 1464 for the transport of cannon, leads upward and around to the north of the Half Moon Battery and the Forewall Battery, to the Portcullis Gate, the entrance to the Middle Ward. In 1990, an alternative access was opened by digging a tunnel from the north of the esplanade to the north-west part of the castle, separating visitor and service traffic.[83]

The Portcullis Gate, entrance to the Middle Ward

Middle Ward

The Portcullis Gate was built by the Regent Morton after the Lang Siege of 1571–73 to replace the round Constable's Tower, which was destroyed in the siege. The Portcullis Gate was rebuilt in 1584 by William Schaw, when the upper parts were added, and again in 1750.[84] In 1886 it was embellished by the architect Hippolyte Blanc. Just inside the gate is the Argyle Battery overlooking Princes Street, with Mills Mount Battery, the location of the One O'Clock Gun, to the west. Below these is the Low Defence, while at the base of the rock is the ruined Wellhouse Tower, built in 1362 to guard St. Margaret's Well.[85] This natural spring provided and important secondary source of water for the castle, the water being lifted up by a crane mounted on a platform known as the Crane Bastion.[86]

Adjacent to Mills Mount are the 18th-century cart sheds, now the tea rooms.[81] The Governor's House to the south was built in 1742 as accommodation for the Governor, Storekeeper, and Master Gunner,[87] and was used until the post of Governor became vacant in the later 19th century; it was then used by nurses of the castle hospital. Today, it functions as an officers' mess, and as the office of the Governor, since the restoration of the post in 1936.

The New Barrack Block, Headquarters of 52 Infantry Brigade and The Royal Regiment of Scotland

South of the Governor's House is the New Barrack Block, completed in 1799 to house 600 soldiers, and replacing the outdated accommodation in the Great Hall. It now houses the headquarters of the 52nd Infantry Brigade, the Regimental Headquarters of the Royal Regiment of Scotland, and the Regimental Headquarters and Museum of the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards (Carabiniers and Greys). The latter was opened in 2006 by the regiment's Colonel, Queen Elizabeth II, after a refurbishment. Also nearby, in the former Royal Scots drill hall, constructed in 1900, is the regimental museum of the Royal Scots (The Royal Regiment). The military prison was built in 1842 for the castle garrison and was extended in the 1880s. It was last used in 1923, when the garrison moved to Redford Barracks.

National War Museum of Scotland

West of the Governor's House, a store for munitions was built in 1747–48, and this was later extended to form a courtyard, in which the main gunpowder magazine also stood.[88] In 1897 the area was remodelled as a military hospital, formerly housed in the Great Hall. The building to the south of this courtyard is now the National War Museum of Scotland, which forms part of the National Museums of Scotland. It was formerly known as the Scottish United Services Museum, and, prior to this, the Scottish Naval and Military Museum, when it was located in the Queen Anne Building.[89] It covers Scottish military history over the past 400 years, and includes a wide range of military artefacts, such as uniforms, medals and weapons. The exhibitions also place emphasis on the history and causes behind the many wars Scotland has been involved in. Beside the museum is Butts Battery, named for the archery butts, or targets, formerly placed here. Below it are the Western Defences, where a postern gate gives access to the western slope of the rock.

Upper Ward

Foog's Gate

The Upper Ward occupies the highest part of the Castle Rock, and is entered from the Middle Ward via the late 17th-century Foog's Gate.[81] The origin of this name is unknown, although it was formerly known as the Foggy Gate, which may relate to the dense sea-fog, known as haar, which commonly affects Edinburgh.[90] Adjacent to the gates are the reservoirs, built to reduce the castle's dependency on well water, and a former fire station, now used as a shop. The summit of the rock is occupied by St Margaret's Chapel, and the 15th century siege gun Mons Meg. On a ledge below this area is a small, 19th-century cemetery of soldiers' and regimental mascot dogs. Beside this, the Lang Stair leads down to the Middle Ward, past a section of a medieval bastion,[81] and gives access to the Argyle Tower. The eastern end of the Upper Ward is occupied by the Forewall and Half Moon Batteries, with Crown Square to the south.

St. Margaret's Chapel

St. Margaret's Chapel

The oldest building in the castle, and in Edinburgh, is the small St. Margaret's Chapel.[1] One of the few 12th-century structures surviving in any Scottish castle,[91] it dates to the reign of King David I (ruled 1124–1153), who built it as a private chapel for the royal family and dedicated it to his mother, Saint Margaret of Scotland, who died in the castle in 1093. It survived the slighting of 1314, when the castle's defences were destroyed, and was used as a gunpowder store from the 16th century, when the present roof was built. In 1845, when it was "discovered" by the antiquary Daniel Wilson, it formed part of the larger garrison chapel, and was restored in 1851–1852.[41] The chapel is still used for various religious ceremonies, such as weddings and christenings, with a capacity of approximately 25 people.

Mons Meg

Mons Meg

The 15th-century siege cannon known as Mons Meg is on display outside St. Margaret's Chapel. Mons Meg was constructed in Flanders on the orders of Philip III, Duke of Burgundy in 1449, and was given by him to his niece's husband, King James II in 1457.[92] The 6,040-kilogram (13,300 lb) bombard faces north across the city, towards the Botanic Gardens, which lie 2 miles (3.2 km) distant. It was on the site of the gardens that one of the cannon's 150-kilogram (330 lb) gun stones was found to have landed, when it was fired from the Castle in celebration of the marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots, to the French dauphin François II in 1558. Mons Meg has been defunct since her barrel burst on 14 October 1681 when firing a birthday salute for the Duke of Albany.

Half Moon Battery and David's Tower

The Half Moon Battery, which remains a prominent feature on the east side of the castle, was built as part of the reconstruction works supervised by the Regent Morton, and was erected between 1573 and 1588.[81] The Forewall to the north was built between 1689 and 1695, to link the Half Moon to the Portcullis Tower, although part of the original wall of 1540 was incorporated into it.[81] The Half Moon Battery was built around and over the ruins of David's Tower, two storeys of which survive beneath, with windows facing out onto the interior wall of the battery. David's Tower was built on an L-plan, the main block being 15.4 by 11.6 metres (51 by 38 ft), with a wing measuring 6.3 by 5.6 metres (21 by 18 ft) to the west.[81] The entrance was via a pointed-arched doorway in the inner angle, although in the 16th century this was filled in to make the tower a solid rectangle. Prior to the Lang Siege, the tower was recorded as being 18 metres (59 ft) high, and the remaining portions stand up to 15 metres (49 ft) from the rock.[93]

The tower was rediscovered in 1912, and excavations below the Half Moon Battery revealed the extent of the surviving buildings. Several rooms are accessible to the public, although the lower (ground floor) elements are generally closed. Outside the tower, but within the battery, is a three-story room, where large portions of the exterior wall of the tower are still visible, showing shattered masonry caused by the bombardment of 1573.[93] Beside the tower, a section of the former curtain wall was discovered, with a gun loop which overlooked the High Street. A recess was made in the outer battery wall to reveal this gun loop. Also in 1912–1913, the adjacent Fore Well was cleared and surveyed, and was found to be 33.5 metres (110 ft) deep, and mostly hewn through the rock below the castle.[93]

Crown Square

The Royal Palace in Crown Square

Crown Square, also known as Palace Yard, was laid out in the 15th century, during the reign of King James III, as the principal courtyard of the castle. The foundations were formed by the construction of a series of large stone vaults built onto the uneven Castle Rock in the 1430s. These vaults were used as a state prison until the 19th century, although more important prisoners were "warded" in the main parts of the castle.[94] The square is formed by the Royal Palace to the east, the Great Hall to the south, the Queen Anne Building to the west, and the National War Memorial to the north.

Royal Palace

The Royal Palace comprises the former royal apartments, which were the residence of the later Stewart monarchs. It was begun in the mid 15th century, during the reign of James IV,[95] and it originally communicated with David's Tower.[81] The building was extensively remodelled for the visit of James VI to the castle in 1617, when state apartments for the king and queen were built.[96] On the ground floor is the Laich (low) Hall, now called the King's Dining Room, and upstairs is a small room, known as the Birth Chamber or Mary Room, where James VI was born to Mary, Queen of Scots 1566. Also on the first floor is the vaulted Crown Room, built in 1615 to house the Honours of Scotland: the crown, the sceptre and the sword of state.[97] The Stone of Scone, upon which the monarchs of Scotland were traditionally crowned, is also kept in the Crown Room, since its return to Scotland in 1996. To the south of the palace is the Register House, built in the 1540s to house state archives.[98]

Stained glass in the Great Hall

Great Hall

The Great Hall measures 29 by 12.5 metres (95 by 41 ft), and was the chief place of state assembly in the castle, although there is no evidence that the Parliament of Scotland ever met here, as is sometimes reported.[99] Historians have disagreed over its dating, although it is usually ascribed to the reign of King James IV, and is thought to have been completed in the early years of the 16th century.[100] The decorative carved stone corbels supporting the roof have Renaissance detailing, which shows that the arts in Scotland were relatively advanced at this time, and which has been compared to works at Blois, France, of around 1515.[99] The hall still has its original hammerbeam roof, making it one of only two medieval halls in Scotland with its original roof.[101]

Following Oliver Cromwell's seizure of the castle in 1650, the Great Hall was converted into a barracks for his troops, and was subdivided into three storeys in 1737, to house 312 soldiers.[41] Following the construction of the New Barracks in the 1790s, it became a military hospital until 1897. It was then restored by Hippolyte Blanc in line with contemporary ideas of medieval architecture. The Great Hall is still sometimes used for ceremonial occasions, and is a venue on Hogmanay for BBC Scotland's Hogmanay Live programme. To the south of the hall is a section of 14th century curtain wall, although with a later parapet.[81]

Queen Anne Building

In the 16th century, this area housed the kitchens serving the adjacent Great Hall, and was later the site of the Royal Gunhouse.[102] The present building was named for Queen Anne and built during the attempted invasion by the Old Pretender in 1708. It was designed by Captain Theodore Dury, military engineer for Scotland, who also designed the eponymous Dury's Battery on the south side of the castle in 1713.[103] The Queen Anne Building provided accommodation for Staff Officers, but after the departure of the army it was remodelled in the 1920s as the Naval and Military Museum, to complement the newly-opened Scottish National War Memorial.[81] This later moved to the Middle Ward, and the building now houses a function suite and an education centre.

The Scottish National War Memorial in Crown Square

Scottish National War Memorial

The medieval St. Mary's Church was rebuilt in 1366, and was converted into an armoury in 1540. It was demolished in 1755, and the masonry reused to build a new North Barrack Block on the site, which was vacated by the Army in 1923. It was then adapted by Sir Robert Lorimer as the Scottish National War Memorial, to commemorate Scots and those serving with Scottish regiments who had died in the First World War and subsequent conflicts. The conversion was formally opened on 14 July 1927. The exterior is decorated with gargoyles and sculpture, while the interior contains monuments to the individual regiments. Upon the altar is a casket containing rolls of honour, which list the names of the soldiers killed in the First World War. The stained-glass windows are by Douglas Strachan.[104]

Present use

Tourist attraction

A re-enactor portraying James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, a husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, in the Great Hall

The castle is now run and administered, for the most part, by Historic Scotland, an executive agency of the Scottish Government. It undertakes the dual, and sometimes mutually contradictory, tasks of operating the castle as a commercially viable tourist attraction, while simultaneously having responsibility for conservation of the site. Edinburgh Castle remains the most popular paid visitor attraction in Scotland, with nearly 1.2 million visitors in 2009.[105]

Historic Scotland maintains a number of facilities within the castle, including two cafés/restaurants, several shops, and numerous historical displays. An educational centre in the Queen Anne Building runs events for schools and educational groups, including re-enactors in costume and with period weaponry. There are also a number of re-enactors employed for the general public.

Military role

Direct administration of the castle by the War Office came to an end in 1905, and in 1923 the Army formally moved to the city's new Redford Barracks. Nevertheless, the castle continues to have a strong connection with the Army, and is one of the few ancient castles in Britain that still has a military garrison, albeit for largely ceremonial and administrative purposes. Public duties performed by the garrison include guarding the Honours of Scotland, and armed sentries stand watch at the castle gatehouse outside opening hours. The post of Governor of Edinburgh Castle is now a ceremonial post, held by the General Officer Commanding of the British Army's 2nd Division. The New Barrack Block is home to the Home Headquarters of the Royal Regiment of Scotland and 52 Infantry Brigade. The Army is also responsible for the Governor's House, which serves as the Officers' Mess.[106]

Military Tattoo

Royal Marines emerging from Edinburgh Castle during the Military Tattoo 2005

A series of performances known as the Edinburgh Military Tattoo take place on the Esplanade each year during August. The basis of the performance is a parade of the pipes and drums of the Scottish regiments, however, since the first performance in 1950, the Tattoo has developed a complex format which includes many invited performers from around the world, although still with a largely military focus. The climax of the evening is the lone piper on the castle battlements, playing a pibroch in memory of dead comrades in arms, followed by the massed pipe bands joining in a medley of traditional Scottish tunes. The Tattoo attracts an annual audience of around 217,000 people, and is broadcast around the world.[107]

The One O'Clock Gun on Mill's Mount Battery

One O'Clock Gun

The One O'Clock Gun is a time signal, and is fired every day, except Sunday,good friday and christmas day at precisely 13:00. The gun was established in 1861 as a time signal for ships in the Firth of Forth, and complemented the time ball, which was installed on Nelson's Monument in 1852, but which was useless during foggy weather. The gun could easily be heard by ships in Leith Harbour, 2 miles (3.2 km) away. Because sound travels relatively slowly (approximately 343 metres per second (770 mph)), maps were produced in the 1860s to show the actual time when the sound of the gun was heard at various locations in Edinburgh.[108]

The original gun was an 18-pound muzzle loading cannon, which needed four men to load, and was fired from the Half Moon Battery. This was replaced in 1913 by a 32-pound breech loader, and in May 1952 by a 25-pound Howitzer.[109] The present One O'Clock Gun is an L118 Light Gun, brought into service on 30 November 2001.[110]

The gun is now fired from Mill's Mount Battery, on the north face of the castle, by the District Gunner from 105th Regiment Royal Artillery (Volunteers). Although the gun is no longer required for its original purpose, the ceremony has become a popular tourist attraction, The longest-serving District Gunner, Staff Sergeant Thomas McKay MBE, nicknamed "Tam the Gun", fired the One O'Clock Gun from 1979 until his death in 2005. McKay helped established the One O'Clock Gun Association, which opened a small exhibition at Mill's Mount, and published a book entitled What Time Does Edinburgh's One O'clock Gun Fire?.[111] As of 2006, the current District Gunner, the 27th man to fill the post, is Sergeant Jamie Shannon, nicknamed "Shannon The Cannon".[112]

Symbol of Edinburgh

Edinburgh Castle as it appears on the coat of arms of the city

The castle has become a recognisable symbol of Edinburgh, and of Scotland.[113] It appears, in stylised form, on the coats of arms of the City of Edinburgh and the University of Edinburgh. Images of the Castle are used as a logo by organisations including Edinburgh Rugby, the Edinburgh Evening News, Hibernian F.C. and the Edinburgh Marathon. It also appears on the "Castle series" of Royal Mail postage stamps, and has been represented on various issues of banknotes issued by Scottish clearing banks. In the 1960s the castle was illustrated on £5 notes issued by the Royal Bank of Scotland,[114] and since 1987 it has featured on the reverse of £1 notes also issued by the Royal Bank.[115] In 1997 the Clydesdale Bank issued a special commemorative £20 note which included an illustration of Edinburgh Castle.[116]The castle is also the focus for a massive fireworks display on New Year's Eve.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Pre-1750 Buildings in Edinburgh Old Town Conservation Area". City of Edinburgh Council, City Development Department. http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk/internet/Attachments/Internet/Environment/Planning_and_buildings/Built_heritage/MedievalBuildingspt1.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-30. 
  2. ^ "Art gallery busiest tourist spot". BBC News Scotland. 2 May 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/glasgow_and_west/6615775.stm. Retrieved 2007-05-03. 
  3. ^ McAdam, David (2003). Edinburgh and West Lothian: a landscape fashioned by geology. Scottish Natural Heritage. p. 16. ISBN 1853973270. 
  4. ^ a b c Potter, p.137
  5. ^ Harris, Stuart (2002). Place Names of Edinburgh. London: Steve Savage. p. 11. ISBN 9781904246060. 
  6. ^ Moffat, pp.268-270
  7. ^ Andrew of Wyntoun, Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland, quoted in Masson, Rosaline, ed (1912). In Praise of Edinburgh, an Anthology in Prose and Verse. Constable and Co. p. 1. http://www.archive.org/stream/inpraiseofedinbu00massuoft/inpraiseofedinbu00massuoft_djvu.txt. 
  8. ^ Geoffrey of Monmouth (1966). Lewis G. M. Thorpe. ed. The History of the Kings of Britain. Penguin Classics. pp. 78–79. ISBN 0140441700. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=NcQPSg_11X8C. 
  9. ^ Stow, John, Generale Chronicle of England, quoted in Masson, Rosaline, ed (1912). In Praise of Edinburgh, an Anthology in Prose and Verse. Constable and Co. p. 1. http://www.archive.org/stream/inpraiseofedinbu00massuoft/inpraiseofedinbu00massuoft_djvu.txt. 
  10. ^ Potter, p.12
  11. ^ Wilson (1887), p.298
  12. ^ Camden, William (1607). "Lauden or Lothien". Britannia. trans. Philemon Holland. http://www.philological.bham.ac.uk/cambrit/scoteng.html#loth4. 
  13. ^ Halkerston, Peter (1831). A Treatise on the History, Law, and Privileges of the Palace and Sanctuary of Holyroodhouse. Maclachlan and Stewart. pp. 8–9. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=WisFSH2PA-gC. 
  14. ^ Gillies, James (1886). Edinburgh Past And Present. Oliphant, Anderson & Ferrier. p. 3. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=m19zB-KxzHwC. 
  15. ^ Wilson claims that Father Hay had "no better authority for this nunnery than the misleading name castellum Puellarum". Wilson (1891), vol.1, p.4, note 4
  16. ^ McKean (1991), p.1
  17. ^ Grant, James. Old and New Edinburgh. I. Cassell and Co. p. 15. http://www.oldandnewedinburgh.co.uk/volume1/page26.html. 
  18. ^ McHardy, Stuart (2007). Tales of Edinburgh Castle. Luath. pp. 13–20. ISBN 9781905222957. 
  19. ^ The claim is advanced by Driscoll & Yeoman, p.2, although other sites including Dumbarton Rock and Kilmartin Glen have similar claims.
  20. ^ Driscoll & Yeoman, pp.222-223
  21. ^ Driscoll & Yeoman, p.226
  22. ^ Lynch, p.4
  23. ^ MacQuarrie, pp.29-30
  24. ^ It has been suggested that this is not in fact a proper name of a ruler at all, but rather adjectives used to refer to the warband as a whole. For further discussion cf. Koch, "Thoughts on the Ur-Goddodin" in Language Sciences, 15 (1993), p.81, and Isaac, "Mynyddogg Mwynfawr" in Bull Board Celtic Studies, 37 (1990), p.111
  25. ^ MacQuarrie, p.37
  26. ^ Driscoll and Yeoman, p.229
  27. ^ Lynch, p.46
  28. ^ Driscoll & Yeoman, p.227
  29. ^ Tabraham (1997), p.13
  30. ^ See Lynch, pp.79–83
  31. ^ Tabraham (2003), p.49
  32. ^ a b Tabraham (2008), p.49
  33. ^ Fernie, p.400-403
  34. ^ Tabraham (1997), p.23
  35. ^ a b c d e Salter, p.46
  36. ^ Tabraham (1997), p.56
  37. ^ Lynch, p.120
  38. ^ Tabraham (2008), p.50
  39. ^ a b Tabraham (2008), p.51
  40. ^ Lynch, p.136
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k McWilliam, et al. pp.85-89
  42. ^ Tabraham (1997), p.91
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i Salter, p.47
  44. ^ Tabraham (1997), p.76
  45. ^ Tabraham (1997), p.102
  46. ^ a b Tabraham (1997), pp.104-105
  47. ^ Potter, p.56
  48. ^ Potter, p.105
  49. ^ Potter, p.131
  50. ^ Potter, pp.121-122
  51. ^ Potter, p.125
  52. ^ Potter, p.131
  53. ^ Potter, pp.139-140
  54. ^ Gray, p.45
  55. ^ Potter, p.146
  56. ^ Tabraham (2008), p.55
  57. ^ Tabraham (2008), p.52
  58. ^ McGrail, Thomas H (1940). Sir William Alexander, First Earl of Stirling: A biographical study. Oliver & Boyd. p. 91. 
  59. ^ a b c d Salter, p.48
  60. ^ MacIvor, p.82
  61. ^ Scott, Andrew Murray (2000). Bonnie Dundee. John Donald. p. 101. ISBN 0859765326. 
  62. ^ Gray, pp.59-63
  63. ^ Tabraham (2008), p.58
  64. ^ Fenwick, p.108
  65. ^ Gray, pp.65-66
  66. ^ "Edinburgh Castle Batteries, Listed Building Report". Historic Scotland. http://hsewsf.sedsh.gov.uk/hslive/hsstart?P_HBNUM=28010. Retrieved 2008-12-04. 
  67. ^ Gibson, p.30
  68. ^ Gibson, pp.38-42
  69. ^ Gray, p.72
  70. ^ Gibson, p.56
  71. ^ Tabraham (2004), pp.25-35
  72. ^ Tbraham (2004), pp.59-63
  73. ^ a b Tabraham (2008), p.60
  74. ^ Devine, p.293
  75. ^ Tabraham (2008), p.61
  76. ^ Tabraham (2004), p.63
  77. ^ Gray, p.79
  78. ^ "The Monument known as Edinburgh Castle, Entry in the Schedule of Monuments". Historic Scotland. 1993. http://hsewsf.sedsh.gov.uk/eschedule/show?id=90130&OK=Y. Retrieved 2009-10-22. 
  79. ^ "Listed buildings in Edinburgh Castle". Historic Scotland. http://hsewsf.sedsh.gov.uk/hslive/hbsearch.results?p_sno=509446&p_out=html&p_page=1. Retrieved 2009-10-22. 
  80. ^ MacIvor, pp.116–117
  81. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Salter, p.49
  82. ^ "Edinburgh Castle opens new ticket office and launches official Edinburgh Castle website". Historic Scotland. 21 January 2008. http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/news_search_results.htm/news_article.htm?articleid=13186. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  83. ^ MacIvor, p.128
  84. ^ McWilliam, et al. p.91
  85. ^ McWilliam, et al. p.89
  86. ^ "Edinburgh Castle, Crane Cradle, NMRS Number: NT27SE 1.13". CANMORE. RCAHMS. http://www.rcahms.gov.uk/pls/portal/canmore.newcandig_details_gis?inumlink=52073. Retrieved 2008-12-18. 
  87. ^ MacIvor, p.95
  88. ^ McWilliam, et al. p.102
  89. ^ MacIvor, p.123
  90. ^ Tabraham (2008), p.18
  91. ^ Tabraham (1997), p.23
  92. ^ Tabraham (1997), p.76
  93. ^ a b c Oldrieve, W. T. (1914). "Account of the recent discovery of the Remains of David's Tower at Edinburgh Castle". Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 48: 230–270. http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/PSAS_2002/pdf/vol_048/48_230_271.pdf. 
  94. ^ Tabraham (2004), pp.10,13
  95. ^ MacIvor, p.62
  96. ^ MacIvor, pp.72–74
  97. ^ MacIvor, p.51
  98. ^ McWilliam et al, p.94
  99. ^ a b MacIvor, pp.49–50
  100. ^ McWilliam et al, p.97, give 1511 as the completion date; MacIvor, p.49, gives 1503, although both note that interpretations vary
  101. ^ The other is at Darnaway Castle in Moray. Tabraham (1997), p.73
  102. ^ Tabraham (2008), p.56
  103. ^ MacIvor, p.90
  104. ^ McWilliam et al, p.99–100
  105. ^ "Edinburgh Castle". British Army. http://www2.army.mod.uk/52bde/edinburgh_castle.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-16.  Archive copy at the Internet Archive
  106. ^ "Tattoo Facts". Edinburgh Military Tattoo. http://www.edinburgh-tattoo.co.uk/tattoo-experience/fact.html. Retrieved 2008-12-16. 
  107. ^ "Time Gun-Maps". EdinPhoto. http://www.edinphoto.org.uk/0_maps_2/0_map_edinburgh_time-gun_1861_-_map_notes.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-16. 
  108. ^ "1952 - 25 Pounder". The One O'Clock Gun Association. http://www.1oclockgun.com/25_pounder_hmb.html. Retrieved 2008-12-16. 
  109. ^ ""Tam the Gun" heralds the start of a new era as Edinburgh's new One O'Clock Gun is fired from the Castle". Edinburgh Military Tattoo. 30 November 2001. http://www.edinburgh-tattoo.co.uk/news/pressrelease16.html. Retrieved 2008-12-16. 
  110. ^ McKay, pp. 14–15
  111. ^ "'Shannon the Cannon' - Edinburgh's District Gunner". Ministry of Defence. 3 February 2009. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/PeopleInDefence/shannonTheCannonEdinburghsDistrictGunner.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  112. ^ Tabraham (2008), p.63
  113. ^ "Royal Bank £5 1969". Ron's Banknote World. http://aes.iupui.edu/rwise/banknotes/scotland/ScotlandP330-5Pounds-1969-donatedth_b.jpg. Retrieved 2008-10-30. 
  114. ^ "Current Banknotes : Royal Bank of Scotland". The Committee of Scottish Clearing Bankers. http://www.scotbanks.org.uk/banknotes_current_royal_bank_of_scotland.php. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  115. ^ "Clydesdale Bank Commemorative Notes". Rampant Scotland. http://www.rampantscotland.com/SCM/clydecomm.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-30. 

Bibliography

External links


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message