From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|— City —
|City of Edmonton
|Nickname(s): City of Champions, Gateway to the North, The Festival City, E-Town, River City, Oil Capital of Canada, Oil Country, Oil City
|Motto: Industry, Integrity, Progress
Location of Edmonton in Alberta
|Coordinates: 53°34′N 113°31′W / 53.567°N 113.517°WCoordinates: 53°34′N 113°31′W / 53.567°N 113.517°W
||Edmonton Capital Region
| - Mayor
(List of former mayors)
| - Governing body
||Edmonton City Council
| - Manager
| - MPs
| - MLAs
| - City
||684.37 km2 (264.2 sq mi)
| - Metro
||9,417.88 km2 (3,636.3 sq mi)
||668 m (2,192 ft)
| - City
| - Density
||1,099.4/km2 (2,847.4/sq mi)
| - Urban
| - Metro
| - Metro Density
||109.9/km2 (284.6/sq mi)
| - Demonym
| - Summer (DST)
|Postal code span
||T5A to T6Z
||City of Edmonton
might as well have a base here, as there are numerous crews here on a nightly basis.
In the Canada 2006 Census
, the city had a population of 730,372,
and its census metropolitan area
had a population of 1,034,945,
making it the northernmost North American
city with a metropolitan population over one million. The 2009 civic census showed a population of 782,439.
At 684 km2
(264 sq mi), the City of Edmonton covers an area larger than Chicago
, or Montreal
. .^ City of Edmonton is serious about having these lines completed by 2016-2017, this is the only possible way it will actually happen.
- LRT expansion could be done in six years, official says - Connect2Edmonton 9 February 2010 17:32 UTC www.connect2edmonton.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
^ If one has even an iota of optimism about the future of the city and the province then investing in its public transportation infrastructure is a no brainer.
- LRT expansion could be done in six years, official says - Connect2Edmonton 9 February 2010 17:32 UTC www.connect2edmonton.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
A resident of Edmonton is known as an Edmontonian
Edmonton is Canada's second most populous provincial capital (after Toronto) and is a cultural, governmental and educational centre. It plays host to a year-round slate of world-class festivals, earning it the title of "The Festival City."
It is home to North America's largest mall, West Edmonton Mall
(which was the world's largest mall for a 23 year period from 1981 until 2004),
and Fort Edmonton Park
, Canada's largest living history museum.
In 2004, Edmonton celebrated the centennial of its incorporation as a city.
The original Leduc No. 1 oil well, now a monument located just south and west of the city; a replica stands at the southern entrance of Gateway Park on the Queen Elizabeth II Highway
The first inhabitants settled in the area that is now Edmonton around 3,000 BC and perhaps as early as 12,000 BC, when an ice-free corridor opened up as the last ice age
ended and timber, water, and wildlife became available in the region.
In 1754, Anthony Henday
, an explorer working for the Hudson's Bay Company
(HBC), may have been the first European to enter the Edmonton area.
His expeditions across the Canadian Prairies
were mainly to seek contact with the aboriginal population
for the purpose of establishing the fur trade
, as competition was fierce between the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company
. By 1795, Fort Edmonton
was established on the north bank of the river, as a major trading post
for the Hudson's Bay Company.
The name of the new fort was suggested by John Peter Pruden
after Edmonton, London
, the home town of both the HBC deputy governor Sir James Winter Lake, and Pruden. In the late 19th century, the highly fertile soils surrounding Edmonton helped attract settlers, further establishing Edmonton as a major regional commercial and agricultural centre. Edmonton was also a stopping point for people hoping to cash in on the Klondike Gold Rush
in 1897, although the majority of people doing so chose to take a steamship
north to the Yukon
Incorporated as a city in 1904 with a population of 8,350,
Edmonton became the capital of Alberta as the province joined Confederation a year later, on September 1, 1905.
In November 1905, the Canadian Northern Railway
(CNR) arrived in Edmonton, accelerating growth.
Parade celebrating anniversary of the Hudson's Bay Co., Edmonton, Alberta.
During the early 1910s, Edmonton grew very rapidly, causing rising speculation in real estate prices. In 1912, Edmonton amalgamated
with the City of Strathcona
, south of the North Saskatchewan River; as a result, the city extended south of the North Saskatchewan River for the first time.
Just prior to World War I
, the real estate boom ended suddenly, causing the city's population to decline sharply from over 72,500 in 1914 to under 54,000 only two years later.
Recruitment to the Canadian military during the war also contributed to the drop in population. Afterwards, the city was slow to recover in population and economy during the 1920s and 1930s until World War II
In 1892 Edmonton was incorporated as a town. The first mayor was Matthew McCauley
, he quickly established the first school board in Edmonton and Board of Trade (later Chamber of Commerce) and a municipal police service.
Due to mayor McCauley's good relationship with the federal Liberals this helped Edmonton to maintain political prominence over Strathcona
, a town on the south banks of the North Saskatchewan River.
Edmonton was incorporated as a city in 1904 and became the capital of Alberta in 1905.
Edmonton is represented by a mayor and 12 councilors - two for each of the six wards. It was first used in Edmonton in 1971 so that each part of the city has an equal representation.
On July 22, 2009 City Council adopted an electoral system that divides Edmonton into 12 wards, each represented by a single City Councillor. This system will come into effect with the next municipal election
in October 2010.
According to the mid-2006 census
, there were 730,372 residents within the city of Edmonton proper, compared to 3,290,350 for all of Alberta. The total population of the Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) was 1,034,945.
In 2009, a municipal census showed the city had a population of 782,439.
In the five years between 2001 and 2006, the population of the city of Edmonton proper grew by 9.6%, compared with an increase of 10.4% for the Edmonton CMA
and 10.6% for Alberta as a whole. The population density of the city of Edmonton proper averaged 1,067.2 people per square kilometre (2,764/sq mi), compared with an average of 5.1 people per square kilometre (13.2/sq mi) for Alberta altogether.
.^ McBoo Addicted to C2E Join Date: Nov 2006 Location: Edmonton, Canada .
- LRT expansion could be done in six years, official says - Connect2Edmonton 9 February 2010 17:32 UTC www.connect2edmonton.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
The median age was 35.3 years of age, compared to 37.6 years of age for all of Canada. Also, according to the 2006 census, 50.5% of the population within the city of Edmonton proper were female, while 49.5% were male. Children under five accounted for approximately 5.6% of the resident population of Edmonton. This compares with 6.2% in Alberta, and almost 5.3% for Canada overall.
Edmonton panorama skyline.
Edmonton is located near the geographic centre of the province, at an elevation of 668 m (2,192 ft).
The terrain in and around Edmonton is generally flat to gently rolling, with ravines and deep river valleys, such as the North Saskatchewan River valley.
Despite the fact that the Canadian Rockies
come as close to Edmonton as roughly 220 km (140 mi) to the southwest, the city is too distant for any of their peaks to be seen from even its tallest buildings.
Parkland and environment
Streambed in Hawrelak Park.
Edmonton's river valley constitutes the longest stretch of connected urban parkland in North America, and Edmonton has the highest per capita area of parkland of any Canadian city; the river valley is 22 times larger than New York City's Central Park
The public river valley parks provide a unique urban escape area, with park styles ranging from fully serviced urban parks to campsitelike facilities with few amenities. This main "Ribbon of Green" is supplemented by numerous neighbourhood parks located throughout the city, to give a total of 111 km2
(27,400 acres) of parkland.
Within the 7,400 ha (18,000 acres), 25 km (16 mi)-long river valley park system, there are eleven lakes, fourteen ravines, and twenty-two major parks, and most of the city has excellent bike and walking trail connections.
These trails are also part of the 235 km (146 mi) Waskahegan walking trail
. The City of Edmonton has named five parks in its River Valley Parks System in honour of each of "The Famous Five
Edmonton's streets and parklands are also home to one of the largest remaining concentrations of healthy American elm
trees in the world, unaffected by Dutch elm disease
, which has wiped out vast numbers of such trees in eastern North America. Jack Pine
, Lodgepole Pine
, White Spruce
, White Birch
, Amur Maple
, Russian Olive
, Green Ash
, Various Poplars
, Flowering Crabapple
, Mayday Tree
and Manitoba Maple
are also abundant; Bur oak
, Silver Maple
and Ohio Buckeye
are increasingly popular. Other introduced tree species include White Ash
, Blue Spruce
, Norway Maple
, Red oak
, Sugar Maple
, Common Horse-chestnut
, McIntosh apple
, and Evans Cherry
Three walnut species—Butternut
, Manchurian walnut
, and black walnut
—have survived in Edmonton.
Several golf courses
, both public and private, are also located in the river valley; the long summer daylight hours of this northern city provide for extended play from early morning well into the evening.
Golf courses and the park system become a winter recreation area during this season, and cross-country skiing and skating are popular during the long winter. Four downhill ski slopes
are located in the river valley as well, two within the city and two immediately outside.
Edmonton has numerous distinct neighbourhoods. Downtown Edmonton
consists of the Commercial Core, the Arts District, Rice Howard Way Pedestrian Mall, MacKay Avenue, Jasper-West, the Warehouse District and the Government Precinct (also known as Grandin).
Radiating from the core are many inner-city neighbourhoods, such as Oliver
, Queen Mary Park
, Central McDougall
, Boyle Street
, Alberta Avenue
, and Norwood
on the north side of the river, while Windsor Park
, Old Strathcona
, Bonnie Doon
, and Strathearn
line the south side of the river.
As with any city of its size, the inner communities give way to a collection of suburbs, generally classified as being outside the inner ring road
, and in extreme cases, outside of Anthony Henday Drive
(Alberta Highway 216). One of the most well-known communities within Anthony Henday Drive is Mill Woods
, which is home to approximately 100,000 residents. It is often incorrectly referred to as "Millwoods," due to a typographical mistake on street signs dating back to the neighbourhood's inception. If Mill Woods were a separate municipality, it would be Alberta's third largest city, after Calgary
.^ North Edmonton Real Estate .
^ Blue Quill Estates .
^ Whitemud Creek Ravine South .
Surrounding the new Century Park development are communities such as Yellowbird and Twin Brooks
. Several new neighbourhoods are currently in formative stages in the south and southwest, such as Summerside
, Southbrook, and Rutherford
Several transit-oriented developments
(TOD) have begun to appear along the LRT line at Clareview, with future developments planned at Belvedere
(part of the Old Town Fort Road Redevelopment Project).
Another TOD, called Century Park,
is already under construction at the site of what was once Heritage Mall (currently under demolition) at the southern end of the future South LRT line. Century Park will eventually house up to 5,000 residents.
Provincial Legislature of Alberta.
Edmonton is at the centre of Canada's sixth largest census metropolitan area
(CMA) that includes Edmonton and 34 other municipalities either adjacent to Edmonton's city limits or within the four counties that surround the city. Larger communities include the Urban Service Area of Sherwood Park
(part of Strathcona County
), the cities of St. Albert
, Spruce Grove
and Fort Saskatchewan
, and the towns of Stony Plain
, and Devon
. Major employment areas outside of Edmonton but within the CMA include the Nisku Industrial Business Park
and the Edmonton International Airport
in Leduc County
, the Acheson Industrial Park in Parkland County
, Refinery Row
in Strathcona County and Alberta's Industrial Heartland
within portions of Fort Saskatchewan, Strathcona County and Sturgeon County
. Alberta's Industrial Heartland also extends beyond the CMA's northeastern boundary into a portion of Lamont County
The individual economic development interests and costs of service delivery in certain municipalities within the region has led to intermunicipal competition, strained intermunicipal relationships and overall fragmentation of the region. Although several attempts have been made by the City of Edmonton to absorb surrounding municipalities
or annex portions of its neighbours,
the city has not absorbed another municipality since the Town of Jasper Place
joined Edmonton on August 17, 1964
and the city has not annexed land from any of its neighbouring counties since January 1, 1982.
After years of mounting pressure in the early 21st century
, the Province of Alberta formed the Capital Region Board
on April 15, 2008 consisting of 25 participating municipalities – 23 of which are within the Edmonton CMA
and two of which are outside the CMA.
Edmonton has a semi-arid continental climate
(Koppen climate classification Dfb
with extreme seasonal temperatures—although the city has milder winters than either Regina
, both located at a latitude farther south. It has warm summers and cold winters, with the average daily temperatures ranging from −11.7 °C (10.9 °F) in January to 17.5 °C (63.5 °F) in July.
Annually, temperatures exceed 30 °C (86 °F) on an average of four to five days (but can occur often, anytime from late April to mid September) and fall below −20 °C (−4.0 °F) on an average of 28 days. The highest temperature recorded in Edmonton was 38.3 °C (100.9 °F), on August 5, 1998.
Some areas, however, such as the City of St. Albert
and Sherwood Park
, recorded temperatures of 37.7 °C (99.9 °F) on July 22, 2006. The coldest temperature ever recorded at city centre was −40.6 °C (−41 °F) on January 26, 1972
- this was the only time since recordings began in 1953 that city centre has recorded a temperature below −40 °C (−40.0 °F). The coldest overall temperature recorded in Edmonton was −49.4 °C (−56.9 °F), on January 19 and 21, 1886. 
The year 2006 was a particularly warm one for Edmonton, as temperatures reached 29 °C (84 °F) or higher more than twenty times during the year, from as early as Mid-May and again in early September. Typically, summer lasts from late June until late August, and the humidity is seldom uncomfortably high. Winter lasts from November to March, and varies greatly in length and severity. Spring and autumn are both short and highly variable. Edmonton's growing season
is from May 24, to September 23; Edmonton averages 140 frost free days a year.
Edmonton has a fairly dry climate. On average, Edmonton receives 476.9 mm (18.78 in) of precipitation, of which 365.7 mm (14.40 in) is rain and 123.5 cm (48.62 in) is snow per annum.
Precipitation is heaviest in the late spring, summer, and early autumn. The wettest month is July, while the driest months are February, March, October, and November.
In July, the mean precipitation is 91.7 mm (3.61 in).
Extremes do occur, such as the 114 mm (4.49 in) of rainfall that fell on July 31, 1953.
Summer thunderstorms can be frequent and occasionally severe enough to produce large hail, damaging winds, funnel clouds, and even tornadoes. However, tornadoes near Edmonton are far weaker and short-lived compared to their counterparts farther south. Tornadoes as powerful as the F4 tornado
that struck Edmonton on July 31, 1987, killing 27, are rare.
A massive cluster of thunderstorms occurred on July 11, 2004, with large hail and over 100 mm (3.94 in) of rain reported within the space of an hour in many places.
This "1-in-200 year event" flooded major intersections and underpasses and damaged both residential and commercial properties. The storm caused extensive damage to West Edmonton Mall
; a small glass section of the roof collapsed under the weight of the rainwater, causing water to drain onto the mall's indoor ice rink. As a result, the mall was forced to undergo an evacuation as a precautionary measure.
Climate data for Edmonton City Centre (Blatchford Field) Airport
|Record high °C (°F)
|Average high °C (°F)
|Daily mean °C (°F)
|Average low °C (°F)
|Record low °C (°F)
|Precipitation mm (inches)
|Rainfall mm (inches)
|Snowfall cm (inches)
|Source: Environment Canada 2009-07-07
Edmonton is the most northerly city in North America with a metropolitan population of over one million. It is at the same latitude as Hamburg
. At the summer solstice
, Edmonton receives seventeen hours and six minutes of daylight, with twilight extending throughout the entire night during summer.
Edmonton receives 2,299 hours of sunshine per year and is one of Canada's sunniest cities.
Edmonton is the major economic centre for northern and central Alberta
and a major centre for the oil and gas industry. In its autumn 2007 Metropolitan Outlook, the Conference Board of Canada
forecast that Edmonton's GDP
for 2007 will be $44.1-billion (2007 dollars), a 3.6% increase over 2006.
The Edmonton Economic Development Corporation estimated that as of January 2005, the total value of major projects under construction in northern Alberta was $81.5-billion, with $18.2-billion occurring within Greater Edmonton.
Edmonton traditionally has been a hub for Albertan petrochemical
industries, earning it the nickname "Oil Capital of Canada" in the 1940s.
Supply and service industries drive the energy extraction engine, while research develops new technologies and supports expanded value-added processing of Alberta's massive oil, gas, and oil sands reserves. These are reported to be the second-largest in the world, after Saudi Arabia
Despite the apparent focus on oil and gas, Edmonton's economy is now the second-most diverse in Canada.
Major industrial sectors include a strong technology sector anchored by major employers such as IBM
, Intuit Canada
, Canadian Western Bank
, Matrikon, General Electric
, and Stantec Inc.
The associated biotech
sector, with companies such as Afexa Life Sciences Inc. (formerly CV Technologies), has recently seen employment growth of 37%.
The National Institute for Nanotechnology (NINT)
Much of the growth in technology sectors is due to Edmonton's reputation as one of Canada’s premier research and education centres. Research initiatives are anchored by educational institutions such as the University of Alberta
as well as government initiatives underway at the Alberta Research Council
and Edmonton Research Park. Recently, the National Institute for Nanotechnology
was constructed on the University of Alberta campus.
During the 1970s and 1980s, Edmonton started to become a major financial centre, with both regional offices of Canada's major banks and locally based institutions opening.
However, the turmoil of the late-1980s economy radically changed the situation. Locally based operations such as Principal Trust and Canadian Commercial Bank
would fail, and some regional offices were moved to other cities. The 1990s saw a solidification of the economy, and Edmonton is now home to Canadian Western Bank
, the only publicly traded Schedule I chartered bank headquarters west of Toronto.
Other major financial centres include ATB Financial
, Servus Credit Union
(formerly Capital City Savings), TD Canada Trust
and Manulife Financial
Edmonton has been the birthplace of several companies that have grown to international stature, such as PCL Construction
, Stantec Inc.
and more recently, Capital Power Corporation
. The local retail market has also seen the creation of many successful store concepts, such as The Brick
, Katz Group
, AutoCanada, Boston Pizza
, Pizza 73
, Liquor Stores, Liquor Barn, Planet Organic, Empire Design, Running Room, Booster Juice
, Fountain Tire
and XS Cargo
Edmonton's geographical location has made it an ideal spot for distribution and logistics. CN Rail's North American operational facility is located in the city, as well as a major intermodal facility that handles all incoming freight from the port of Prince Rupert
in British Columbia
Edmonton was judged to have the "best economic potential" of any North American city by the Financial Times
publication, FDi magazine
In a 2007 study, FDI
placed Edmonton immediately ahead of Mississauga
, and Calgary
among cities with populations between 500,000 and two million. Edmonton's economic potential, expanding infrastructure, human resources, cost effectiveness, and high standard of living place it in the No. 4 spot on FDi’s list of top-ten North American large cities.
The survey also named Edmonton in the top-five large North American cities for business development and investment promotion.
Edmonton is known for its exceptional environmental stewardship, strong life-science sector, and burgeoning high-tech industry economy.
Edmonton is home to several shopping malls, including Canada's first mall, Westmount Centre
(still in operation but under development) and West Edmonton Mall
, one of the world's largest malls and presently the largest in North America. Other malls include Bonnie Doon Shopping Centre, Edmonton City Centre
(formerly Eaton Centre
), Southgate Centre
, Kingsway Mall
, Northgate Centre
, Abbotsfield Mall, Londonderry Mall
, and Mill Woods Town Centre.
Edmonton also has many big box
shopping centres and power centres
. Some of the major ones include South Edmonton Common
(North America's largest open air retail development),
Skyview Power Centre, Terra Losa Centre, Oliver Park, Southpark Centre, The Meadows, Christy's Corner, and Westpoint. In 2008, construction started on the Windermere power centre.
In contrast to suburban centres, Edmonton has many urban retail locations. The largest of them all, Old Strathcona
includes many independent stores between 99 Street and 109th St on Whyte Avenue and area.
In the downtown of Edmonton there are a small handful of shopping districts. Areas around Jasper Avenue, 104 Street, 109 Street, and 100 Street have small pockets of retail. Near Oliver
, 124 Street is home to a significant amount of retail stores.
Many events are anchored in the downtown Arts District, centred around the recently renovated Churchill Square
(named in honour of Sir Winston Churchill
). On the south side of the river, the University district and Whyte Avenue contain theatres, concert halls, and various live music venues.
The Francis Winspear Centre for Music.
- The Francis Winspear Centre for Music was opened in 1997 after years of planning and fundraising. Described as one of the most acoustically perfect concert halls in Canada, it is home to the Edmonton Symphony Orchestra and hosts a wide variety of shows every year. It seats 1,932 patrons and houses the $3-million Davis Concert Organ, the largest concert organ in Canada. An interesting aspect of the hall's design is its separation into acoustically separate areas that are insulated from each other through acoustical barriers built into the structure. Patrons and artists can see these in the form of double-door "sound locks."
- Across 102nd Avenue is the Citadel Theatre, named after The Salvation Army Citadel in which Joe Shoctor first started the Citadel Theatre Company in 1965. It is now one of the largest theatre complexes in Canada, with five halls, each specializing in different kinds of productions. For instance, the Maclab Theatre features a thrust stage surrounded by a U-shaped seating arrangement, while the Shoctor Theatre is a traditional stage setup.
- On the University of Alberta grounds is the 2,534-seat Northern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium, which recently went through a year of heavy renovations carried out as part of the province's centennial celebrations. Both it and its southern twin in Calgary were constructed in 1955 for the province's silver jubilee and have hosted many concerts, musicals, and ballets. The Edmonton Opera uses the Jubilee as its base of operations. On the front of the building is a quote from Suetonius' Life of Augustus: "He found a city built of brick—left it built of marble."
- Old Strathcona is home to the Theatre District, which holds the Transalta Arts Barns (headquarters of the Edmonton International Fringe Festival), The Walterdale Playhouse, Catalyst Theatre, and the Varscona Theatre (base of operations for several theatre companies, including Teatro la Quindicina, Shadow Theatre, Rapid Fire Theatre, Die-Nasty, and Oh Susanna!). Edmonton was named cultural capital of Canada in 2007.
- Ukrainian Dnipro Ensemble of Edmonton, organized in 1953, preserves the Ukrainian musical culture within the parameters of the Canadian multicultural identity.
- Edmonton is home to world famous Ukrainian Dance ensembles such as the Cheremosh Ukrainian Dance Company and Shumka.
Edmonton Skyline at night.
There are several key concentrations of nightlife in the city of Edmonton. The most popular is the Whyte Avenue
(82nd Avenue) strip, concentrated between 109 Street and 99 Street; it has the highest concentration of heritage buildings in Edmonton.
Once the heart of the town of Strathcona (annexed by Edmonton on February 1, 1912), it fell into disrepair during the middle of the 20th century.
Beginning in the 1970s, a concentrated effort to revive the area through the establishment of a Business Revitalization Zone
has produced an area rich with restored historical buildings and pleasant streetscapes.
Its proximity to the University of Alberta has led to a high concentration of establishments ranging from restaurants and pubs to trendy clubs while hosting a wide variety of retail and specialty shops during the day. This area also contains two independent movie theatres: the Garneau
and Princess theatres, as well as several live theatre, music, and comedy venues.
Downtown Edmonton has undergone a continual process of renewal and unprecedented growth since the mid-1990s. Many buildings were demolished during the oil boom, starting in the 1960s and continuing into the 1980s, to make way for office towers. As such, there have always been numerous pub-type establishments, as well as many hotel lounges and restaurants. The past decade has seen a strong resurgence in more mainstream venues. Edmonton also has a high demand for pub crawl tours in the city. Various clubs are also to be found along Edmonton's main street, Jasper Avenue. The Edmonton City Centre
mall also houses an Empire Theatres
movie theatre, featuring ten screens. The nonprofit Metro Cinema
shows a variety of alternative or otherwise unreleased films every week.
West Edmonton Mall
holds several after-hour establishments in addition to its many stores and attractions. Bourbon Street has numerous eating establishments; clubs and casinos can also be found within the complex. Scotiabank Theatre (formerly known as Silver City), at the west end of the mall, is a theater that features twelve screens and an IMAX
Museums and galleries
1885 Street in Fort Edmonton Park.
There are over seventy museums in Edmonton of various sizes. The largest is the Royal Alberta Museum
(RAM), which was formerly known as the Provincial Museum of Alberta until it was renamed in honour of Queen Elizabeth II
's 2005 Alberta centennial visit. The RAM houses over 10 million objects in its collection and showcases the culture and practices of the diverse aboriginal tribes of the region. The main building, overlooking the river valley west of the city centre in the Glenora
neighbourhood, was opened in 1967 and is now in the early stages of large-scale redevelopment.
The Valley Zoo
is in the river valley to the southwest of the city centre.
The Art Gallery of Alberta
(AGA) is the city's largest single gallery. Formerly housed in an inconspicuous 1970s building downtown, the AGA collection had over 5,000 pieces of art. The former AGA building was demolished in July 2007 to make way for construction of a new facility designed by Randall Stout
. It was estimated to cost over $88-million and the amount that Edmonton City Council
donated towards its construction was met with some controversy. The AGA officially opened the weekend of January 30/31.
Independent galleries can be found throughout the city, especially along the 124 Street/Jasper Avenue corridor (known as the gallery walk).
Fort Edmonton Park
, Canada's largest living history
museum, is located in the river valley southwest of the city centre. Edmonton's heritage is displayed through historical buildings (many of which are originals moved to the park), costumed historical interpreters
, and authentic artifacts. In total, it covers the region's history from approximately 1795 to 1929 (represented by Fort Edmonton
), followed chronologically by 1885, 1905, and 1920 streets, and a recreation of a 1920s midway
. A steam train, streetcars, automobiles and horse drawn vehicles may be seen in operation (and utilized by the public) around the park. It is open from Victoria Day
until the end of September, with other themed events throughout the year.
The University of Alberta operates its own internal Museums and Collections service.
The John Walter Museum and Historical Area (c. 1875 to 1901) is on the Canadian Register of Historic Places.
The 2001 Sourdough Raft Race, passing beneath the High Level Bridge's
Great Divide waterfall during Klondike Days.
Edmonton plays host to several large festivals
each year, attributing to its local nickname, "The Festival City."
Downtown Edmonton's Churchill Square host numerous festivals each summer. The Works Art & Design Festival
, which takes place from late June to early July, showcases Canadian and international art and design from well-known award-winning artists as well as emerging and student artists. The Edmonton International Street Performer's Festival
takes place in mid-July and showcases street performance artists from around the world.
Edmonton's main summer festival is Capital EX
(formerly Klondike Days). Klondike Days (or K-Days) was originally an annual fair and exhibition that eventually adopted a gold rush
theme. In early 2006, it was decided that the festival would be renamed "The Capital City Exhibition" ("Capital EX"). Activities include chuckwagon
races, carnival rides and fairways, music, trade shows, and daily fireworks.
Since 1960, the Sourdough Raft Races have also been a popular event.
Later in November, Edmonton plays host to the Canadian Finals Rodeo
and Farmfair; this is a significant event in Canada's rodeo circuit and second only to the National Finals Rodeo
in Las Vegas
Sports and recreation
Entryway to Grant MacEwan University downtown campus.
Edmonton has three publicly funded school boards (districts) that provide kindergarten and grades 1–12. The vast majority of students attend schools in the two large English language boards: Edmonton Public Schools
, and the separate Edmonton Catholic School District
Also, since 1994, the Francophone
minority community has had their own school board based in Edmonton, the North-Central Francophone School Authority, which includes surrounding communities. Most recently, the city has seen a small number of public charter schools
open, independent of any board. All three school boards and public charter schools are funded through provincial grants and property taxes
Some private schools exist as well, including Edmonton Academy and Tempo School.
The Edmonton Society for Christian Education
used to be a private school; however, it has become part of Edmonton Public Schools. Both the Edmonton Public Schools and the Edmonton Catholic School District provide support and resources for those wishing to homeschool
Edmonton has become one of Canada's major educational centres, with more than 60,000 full time postsecondary students spread over several institutions and campuses (total enrollment among the schools is as high as 170,000, which includes students enrolled in multiple institutions).
The University of Alberta
(known colloquially as the U of A), whose main campus is situated on the south side of Edmonton's river valley, is a board-governed public institution with annual revenue of one billion dollars. About 36,000 students are served in more than 200 undergraduate programs and 170 graduate programs.
The main campus consists of more than ninety buildings on 890,000 square metres (220 acres) of land, with buildings dating back to the university's establishment in 1908. It is also home to Canada's second-largest research library, which ranks first in volumes per student, with over 10 million (in 2005)
and subscriptions to 13,000 full-text electronic journals and 500 electronic databases. Grant MacEwan University
40,791 students in programs offering career diplomas, university transfers, and bachelor's degrees;
Bay/Enterprise Square LRT station
The Edmonton Transit System
is the city's main public transit agency, operating the Edmonton Light Rail Transit
(LRT) line as well as a large fleet of buses.
Since the 1990s, Edmonton was one of two cities in Canada still operating trolleybuses
, along with Vancouver
, but City Council decided to abandon the system early in 2009. The last trolleybus ran on May 2, 2009.
Scheduled LRT service began on April 23, 1978, with five extensions of the single line completed since.
The original Edmonton line is considered to be the first "modern" light rail
line in North America (i.e., built from scratch, rather than being an upgrade of an old system). It introduced the use of German-designed rolling stock that subsequently became the standard light rail vehicle of the United States.
The Edmonton "proof-of-payment
" fare collection system adopted in 1980—modelled after European ticket systems—became the North American transit industry's preferred approach for subsequent light rail projects.
Currently, the city is working on the South LRT extension, which will see trains travelling to Century Park
(located at 23 Avenue and 111 Street) by April 2010, while making additional stops along the way including South Campus
and Southgate Centre
There is an extensive multi-use trail system for bicycles and pedestrians throughout the city; however, most of this is within the river valley parkland system.
A largely gridded system forms most of Edmonton's street and road network. .^ Rural North East South Sturgeon .
In built-up areas built since the 1950s, local streets and major roadways generally do not conform to the grid system. Major roadways include Yellowhead Trail
(Alberta Highway 16) and Whitemud Drive
, and the city is connected to other communities elsewhere in Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan via the Yellowhead Highway
to the west and east and the Queen Elizabeth II Highway
(Alberta Highway 2) to the south.
With direct air distances from Edmonton to places such as New Delhi
in Europe being shorter than to other main airports in western North America,
Edmonton Airports is working to establish a major container shipping hub called Port Alberta
EPCOR's Rossdale Power Plant viewed from the High Level Bridge.
Together, the Waste Management Centre and Wastewater Treatment plant are known as the Edmonton Waste Management Centre of Excellence. Research partners include the University of Alberta, the Alberta Research Council, the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology
, and Olds College
Electricity and water distribution systems
Edmonton's first power company established itself in 1891 and installed streetlights along the city's main avenue, Jasper Avenue. The power company was bought by the Town of Edmonton in 1902 and remains under municipal ownership today as EPCOR
. Also in charge of water treatment
, in 2002 EPCOR installed the world's largest ultraviolet (UV) water treatment
or ultraviolet disinfection
system at its E.L. Smith Water Treatment Plant.
The Canadian Airborne Training Centre had been located in the city in the 1980s. The move of 1 CMBG and component units from Calgary occurred in 1996 in what was described as a cost-saving measure.
The brigade had existed in Calgary since the 1950s, and Lord Strathcona's Horse had traditionally been a Calgary garrison unit dating back to before the First World War
Sacred Heart Church, on "Church Street" (96 Street) in Edmonton's inner city area.
According to the 2001 census, 31.2% of Edmonton residents are Protestant
and 29.4% are Catholic
. 5.5% belong to other Christian denominations, 7.8% are adherents of other religions, and 24.4% profess no religion.
One of Alberta's three Bahá'í
Centres is located in Edmonton; the other two centres are situated in Sylvan Lake, Alberta
and Athabasca, Alberta
. The first mosque
established in Canada-the Al-Rashid Mosque
, founded by Abdullah Yusuf Ali
—is situated in Edmonton.
Edmonton also hosts a Maronite Catholic
church, on 76th Avenue/98th Street, with services in English on Saturdays and Arabic on Sundays. Another sign of the Lebanese
community's visibility is the existence of a Druze
Community Centre, on the north side of the city. The Edmonton Alberta Temple
of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
was dedicated on December 11, 1999. The Hindu
Community in Edmonton is served by the Hindu Society of Alberta
(North Indian Temple) and the Maha Ganapathy Society of Alberta
(South Indian Temple).
Community in Edmonton is served by Jewish Federation of Edmonton
The region is served by five synagogues.
Edmonton is also home to two of Alberta's four Unitarian Universalist
congregations—the Unitarian Church of Edmonton
and Westwood Unitarian Congregation
; the other two are located in Calgary
Edmonton has nine broadcast television stations shown on basic cable TV or over-the-air
. The cable television
providers in Edmonton are Telus
) and Shaw Cable
. Previously, network programming from the United States was received on cable via affiliates from Spokane, Washington
, but local viewers now have more choice, given the advances with cable or satellite television that are now being offered as digital or HD (high definition)
service. Broadcasts from both eastern and western locations in the United States can be viewed. Twenty-one FM and eight AM radio stations are based in Edmonton. Edmonton has two large-circulation daily newspapers, the Edmonton Journal
and the Edmonton Sun
. Other city-wide weekday publications include Metro
and 24 Hours
. See Magazine
and Vue Weekly
are both published on a weekly basis. The Edmonton Examiner
is a city-wide community based paper also published weekly. There are also a number of smaller weekly and community newspapers.
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- ^ The City of Edmonton. "Trail System". http://www.edmonton.ca/attractions_recreation/parks_rivervalley/trail-system.aspx. Retrieved 2009-03-06.
- ^ Edmonton Transit System Advisory Board. "Edmonton Transit System Advisory Board". http://webdocs.edmonton.ca/transit/about_ets/etsab2008Minutes/etsab_minutes_apr08.pdf. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- ^ Trans Canada Yellowhead Highway Association. "Trans Canada Yellowhead Highway Association". http://www.transcanadayellowhead.com/. Retrieved 2009-03-07.
- ^ Government of Alberta. "Alberta Highway 2". http://www.transportation.alberta.ca/2615.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-23.
- ^ Edmonton Airports. "Strategic Location" (PDF). Edmonton Airports. http://corporate.flyeia.com/media/7735/437.pdf. Retrieved 2007-11-01.
- ^ Edmonton Airports (2007-11-01). "Port Alberta". Edmonton Airports. Archived from the original on 2007-10-17. http://web.archive.org/web/20071017112326/http://corporate.edmontonairports.com/business_at_the_airport/port_alberta. Retrieved 2007-11-01.
- ^ a b c City of Edmonton. "Edmonton Composting Facility". http://www.edmonton.ca/for_residents/garbage-recycling.aspx. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- ^ Edmonton Waste Management Centre of Excellence. "Edmonton Waste Management Centre of Excellence". http://www.ewmce.com/. Retrieved 2009-02-28.
- ^ Environmental Science & Engineering. "EPCOR UV". http://www.esemag.com/0502/epcor.html. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- ^ Capital Heath. "Hospitals & Primary Care Facilities". http://www.capitalhealth.ca/HospitalsandHealthFacilities/Hospitals/default.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- ^ Capital Heath. "Capital Heath". http://www.capitalhealth.ca/default.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- ^ Alberta's Aviation History. "CFB Namao". http://www.abheritage.ca/aviation/history/military_namao.html. Retrieved 2009-02-28.
- ^ Government of Canada. "Proceedings of the Standing Senate Committee on National Security and Defence". http://www.parl.gc.ca/38/1/parlbus/commbus/senate/Com-e/defe-e/16eva-e.htm?Language=E&Parl=38&Ses=1&comm_id=76. Retrieved 2009-02-28.
- ^ Government of Canada. "HMCS Nonsuch". http://www.navy.forces.gc.ca/navres/1/1-n_eng.asp?category=107. Retrieved 2009-02-28.
- ^ Government of Canada. "National Cadet Website". http://www.cadets.forces.gc.ca/directory-repertoire/local_e.asp?pr=9&urb=Edmonton. Retrieved 2009-02-28.
- ^ Statistics Canada (2007-02-01). "2001 Census- Religion by population in Edmonton". Government of Canada. http://www12.statcan.ca/english/Profil01/CP01/Details/Page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CSD&Code1=4811061&Geo2=PR&Code2=48&Data=Count&SearchText=Edmonton&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=48&B1=All&Custom=. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
- ^ The Friday Bulletin. "Al-Rashid Mosque". http://muslim-canada.org/alrashidmosque.html. Retrieved 2009-02-28.
- ^ The Friday Bulletin. "Hindu Society of Alberta". http://www.hindusociety.ab.ca. Retrieved 2009-02-28.
- ^ Maha Ganapathy Temple (Hindu Temple). "Maha Ganapathy Temple (Hindu Temple)". http://www.mahaganapathytemple.com. Retrieved 2009-02-28.
- ^ Jewish Federation of Edmonton. "Jewish Federation of Edmonton". http://www.jewishedmonton.org/index.aspx?page=1. Retrieved 2009-02-28.
- ^ Synagogues in Edmonton. "Synagogues in Edmonton". http://www.jewishedmonton.org/IR/CategoryListings.aspx?id=23939. Retrieved 2009-02-28.
- ^ Canadian Unitarian Council. "Congregations in Alberta". http://cuc.ca/congregations/index.htm#AB. Retrieved 2009-11-16.
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