The Full Wiki

More info on Edmund Beecher Wilson

Edmund Beecher Wilson: Wikis

  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Edmund Beecher Wilson

Edmund Beecher Wilson
Born October 19, 1856(1856-10-19)
Geneva, Illinois
Died March 3, 1939 (aged 82)
Nationality United States
Fields Zoology
Genetics
Institutions Williams College
MIT
Bryn Mawr College
Columbia University
Known for XY sex-determination system
Image from his textbook "The cell in Development and Inheritance", second edition, 1900.

Edmund Beecher Wilson (19 October 1856 – 3 March 1939) was a pioneering American zoologist and geneticist. He wrote one of the most famous textbooks in the history of modern biology, The Cell.[1][2]

Contents

Career

Wilson was born in Geneva, Illinois, and graduated from Yale in 1878. He earned his doctorate at Johns Hopkins in 1881.

He was a lecturer at Williams College in 1883–84 and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1884–85. He served as professor of biology at Bryn Mawr College from 1885 to 1891.

He spent the balance of his career at Columbia University where he was successively adjunct professor of biology (1891–94), professor of invertebrate zoology (1894–1897), and professor of zoology (from 1897).

Wilson is credited as America's first cell biologist. In 1898 he used the similarity in embryos to describe phylogenetic relationships. By observing spiral cleavage in molluscs, flatworms and annelids he concluded that the same organs came from the same group of cells and concluded that all these organisms must have a common ancestor.

He also discovered the chromosomal XY sex-determination system in 1905—that males have XY and females XX sex chromosomes. Nettie Stevens independently made the same discovery the same year.

In 1907, he described, for the first time, the additional or supernumerary chromosomes, now called B-chromosomes.

Professor Wilson published many papers on embryology, and served as president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1913.

The American Society for Cell Biology annually awards the E. B. Wilson Medal in his honour.[3]

Sutton and Boveri

1902–1904: Theodor Heinrich Boveri (1862–1915), a German biologist, in a series of papers, drew attention to the correspondence between the behaviour of chromosomes and the results obtained by Mendel.[4] He said that chromosomes were "independent entities which retain their independence even in the resting nucleua... What comes out of the nucleus is what goes into it".

In 1903 Walter Sutton suggested that chromosomes, which segregate in a Mendelian fashion, are hereditary units.[5] Wilson, who was Sutton's teacher, called this the Sutton–Boveri hypothesis.

Works

  • An Introduction to General Biology (1887), with W. T. Sedgwick
  • The Embryology of the Earthworm (1889)
  • Amphioxus, and the Mosaic Theory of Development (1893)
  • Atlas of Fertilization and Karyokinesis (1895)
  • The Cell in Development and Inheritance (1896; second edition, 1915; third edition, 1925)

References

  • Dröscher, Ariane (. 2002). "Edmund B. Wilson's the cell and cell theory between 1896 and 1925". History and philosophy of the life sciences 24 (3-4): 357–89. doi:10.1080/03919710210001714473. PMID 15045830. 
  • Baxter, A L (September 1977). "E. B. Wilson's "destruction" of the germ-layer theory". Isis; an international review devoted to the history of science and its cultural influences 68 (243): 363–74. PMID 336580. 
  • Baxter, A L (. 1976). "Edmund B. Wilson as a preformationist: some reasons for his acceptance of the chromosome theory". Journal of the history of biology 9 (1): 29–57. doi:10.1007/BF00129172. PMID 11615633. 
  • Wilson, Edmund B. (1907). "The supernumerary chromosomes of Hemiptera". Science 26: 870–71. 

External links

  1. ^ Wilson E.B. 1896; 1900; 1925. The cell in development and inheritance. Macmillan. The third edition ran to 1232 pages, and was still in use after WWII.
  2. ^ Sturtevant A.H. 1965. A history of genetics. Harper & Row, N.Y. p33
  3. ^ [1] E. B. Wilson award page at ASCB.org
  4. ^ Boveri T. 1904. Ergebnisse uber die Konstitution der chromatischen Substanz des Zellkerns. Fischer, Jena.
  5. ^ Ernest W. Crow and James F. Crow (2002-01-01). "100 Years Ago: Walter Sutton and the chromosome theory of heredity". Genetics 160 (1): 1–4. PMID 11805039. http://www.genetics.org/cgi/content/full/160/1/1. 

Simple English

Edmund Beecher Wilson (Geneva, Illinois, 19 October 1856 – 3 March 1939) was a pioneering American zoologist and cell biologist. He wrote one of the most famous textbooks in the history of modern biology, The Cell.[1][2]

Career

Wilson graduated from Yale in 1878. He earned his doctorate at Johns Hopkins in 1881. He was a lecturer at Williams College in 1883–84 and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1884–85. He served as professor of biology at Bryn Mawr College from 1885 to 1891.

He spent the balance of his career at Columbia University where he was successively adjunct professor of biology (1891–94), professor of invertebrate zoology (1894–1897), and professor of zoology (from 1897).

Wilson is credited as America's first cell biologist. In 1898 he used the similarity in embryos to describe evolutionary relationships. By observing spiral cleavage in molluscs, flatworms and annelids he concluded that the same organs came from the same group of cells and concluded that all these organisms must have a common ancestor.

He also discovered the chromosomal XY sex-determination system in 1905—that males have XY and females XX sex chromosomes. Nettie Stevens independently made the same discovery the same year.

In 1907, he described, for the first time, the additional or supernumerary chromosomes, now called B-chromosomes.

Professor Wilson published many papers on embryology, and served as President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1913.

The American Society for Cell Biology annually awards the E.B. Wilson Medal in his honour. [3]

Sutton and Boveri

1902–1904: Theodor Boveri (1862–1915), a German biologist, in a series of papers, drew attention to the correspondence between the behaviour of chromosomes and the results obtained by Mendel.[4] He said that chromosomes were "independent entities which retain their independence even in the resting nucleus... What comes out of the nucleus is what goes into it".

In 1903 Walter Sutton suggested that chromosomes, which segregate in a Mendelian fashion, are hereditary units.[5] Wilson, who was Sutton's teacher, called this the Sutton–Boveri hypothesis.

References

Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
Wikimedia Commons has images, video, and/or sound related to:
  1. Wilson E.B. 1896; 1900; 1925. The cell in development and inheritance. Macmillan. The third edition ran to 1232 pages, and was still in use after WWII.
  2. Sturtevant A.H. 1965. A history of genetics. Harper & Row, N.Y. p33
  3. [1] E. B. Wilson award page at ASCB.org
  4. Boveri T. 1904. Ergebnisse uber die Konstitution der chromatischen Substanz des Zellkerns. Fischer, Jena.
  5. Ernest W. Crow and James F. Crow (2002-01-01). "100 Years Ago: Walter Sutton and the chromosome theory of heredity". Genetics 160 (1): 1–4. http://www.genetics.org/cgi/content/full/160/1/1. 








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message