Edmund Hillary: Wikis

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Sir Edmund Hillary

Hillary in 2006
Born 20 July 1919(1919-07-20)
Auckland, New Zealand
Died 11 January 2008 (aged 88)
Auckland, New Zealand
Cause of death Myocardial infarction
Spouse(s) Louise Mary Rose (m. 1953–1975) «start: (1953)–end+1: (1976)»"Marriage: Louise Mary Rose to Edmund Hillary" Location: (linkback:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Hillary)
June Mulgrew, QSM (1989-2008)
Children Peter (b.1954)
Sarah (b.1955)
Belinda (1959-1975)
Parents Percival Augustus Hillary
Gertrude Hillary, née Clark

Sir Edmund Percival Hillary, KG, ONZ, KBE (20 July 1919 – 11 January 2008) was a New Zealand mountaineer and explorer. On 29 May 1953 at the age of 33, he and Sherpa mountaineer Tenzing Norgay became the first climbers known to have reached the summit of Mount Everest - see Timeline of climbing Mount Everest. They were part of the ninth British expedition to Everest, led by John Hunt. He was named by Time magazine as one of 100 most influential people of the 20th century.

Hillary became interested in mountaineering while in secondary school, making his first major climb in 1939, reaching the summit of Mount Ollivier. He served in the RNZAF as a navigator during World War II. Before the successful expedition in 1953 to Everest, he had been part of a reconnaissance expedition to the mountain in 1951 and an unsuccessful attempt to climb Cho Oyu in 1952. As part of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition he reached the South Pole overland in 1958. He would later also travel to the North Pole.

Following his ascent of Everest he devoted much of his life to helping the Sherpa people of Nepal through the Himalayan Trust, which he founded. Through his efforts many schools and hospitals were built in this remote region of Nepal.

Contents

Youth

Hillary was born to Percival Augustus Hillary and Gertrude Hillary, née Clark, in Auckland, New Zealand, on 20 July 1919.[1] His family moved to Tuakau (south of Auckland) in 1920, after his father (who served at Gallipoli) was allocated land there.[2] His grandparents were early settlers in northern Wairoa in the mid-19th century after emigrating from Yorkshire, England.[3]

Hillary was educated at Tuakau Primary School and then Auckland Grammar School.[2] He finished primary school two years early, but struggled at high school, achieving only average marks.[4] He was initially smaller than his peers there and very shy so he took refuge in his books and daydreams of a life filled with adventure. His daily train journey to and from high school was over two hours each way, during which he regularly used the time to read. He gained confidence after he learned to box. At 16 his interest in climbing was sparked during a school trip to Mount Ruapehu. Though gangly at 6 ft 5 in (195 cm) and uncoordinated, he found that he was physically strong and had greater endurance than many of his tramping companions.[5] He studied mathematics and science at The University of Auckland, and in 1939 completed his first major climb, reaching the summit of Mount Ollivier, near Aoraki/Mount Cook in the Southern Alps.[2] With his brother Rex, Hillary became a beekeeper,[1][6] a summer occupation that allowed him to pursue climbing in the winter.[7] His interest in beekeeping later led Hillary to commission Michael Ayrton to cast a golden sculpture in the shape of honeycomb in imitation of Daedalus's lost-wax process. This was placed in his New Zealand garden, where his bees took it over as a hive and "filled it with honey and their young".[8]

World War II

Upon the outbreak of World War II Hillary applied to join the air force, but withdrew the application before it was considered because he was "harassed by [his] religious conscience".[9] Following the introduction of conscription on the outbreak of war in the Pacific, in 1943 Hillary joined the RNZAF as a navigator and served on Catalina flying boats. In 1945 he was sent to Fiji and to the Solomon Islands where he was badly burnt in a boat accident, after which he was repatriated to New Zealand.[9]

Expeditions

Harry Ayres, along with Mick Sullivan led Hillary and Ruth Adams up the south ridge of Aoraki/Mount Cook, New Zealand's highest peak, on 30 January 1948.[10]

Hillary was part of a British reconnaissance expedition to Everest in 1951 led by Eric Shipton before joining the successful British attempt of 1953.

In 1952 Hillary and George Lowe were part of the British team led by Eric Shipton that attempted Cho Oyu. After that attempt failed due to the lack of route from the Nepal side, Hillary and Lowe crossed the Lho-La into Tibet and reached the old Camp II, on the northern side, where all the pre-war expeditions camped.

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1953 Everest Expedition

The route to Everest was closed by Chinese-controlled Tibet, and Nepal only allowed one expedition per year. A Swiss expedition (in which Tenzing took part) had attempted to reach the summit in 1952 but was turned back by bad weather 800 feet (240 m) from the summit. During a 1952 trip in the Alps Hillary discovered he and his friend George Lowe had been invited by the Joint Himalayan Committee for the approved British 1953 attempt and immediately accepted.[11]

Shipton was named as leader but was replaced by Hunt. Hillary considered pulling out, but both Hunt and Shipton talked him into remaining. Hillary was intending to climb with Lowe but Hunt named two teams for the assault: Tom Bourdillon and Charles Evans; and Hillary and Tenzing. Hillary therefore made a concerted effort to forge a working friendship with Tenzing.[11]

The Hunt expedition totalled over 400 people, including 362 porters, twenty Sherpa guides and 10,000 lbs of baggage,[12][13] and like many such expeditions, was a team effort. Lowe supervised the preparation of the Lhotse Face, a huge and steep ice face, for climbing. Hillary forged a route through the treacherous Khumbu Icefall.[11]

On top of the world: Tenzing Norgay on the summit of Mt Everest. Photograph taken by Hillary, 29 May 1953

The expedition set up base camp in March 1953. Working slowly it set up its final camp at the South Col at 25,900 feet (7,890 m). On 26 May Bourdillon and Evans attempted the climb but turned back when Evans' oxygen system failed. The pair had reached the South Summit, coming within 300 vertical feet (91 m) of the summit.[13][14] Hunt then directed Hillary and Tenzing to go for the summit.

Snow and wind held the pair up at the South Col for two days. They set out on 28 May with a support trio of Lowe, Alfred Gregory and Ang Nyima. The two pitched a tent at 27,900 feet (8,500 m) on 28 May while their support group returned down the mountain. On the following morning Hillary discovered that his boots had frozen solid outside the tent. He spent two hours warming them before he and Tenzing attempted the final ascent wearing 30-pound (14 kg) packs.[11] The crucial move of the last part of the ascent was the 40-foot (12 m) rock face later named the "Hillary Step". Hillary saw a means to wedge his way up a crack in the face between the rock wall and the ice and Tenzing followed.[15] From there the following effort was relatively simple. They reached Everest's 29,028 ft (8,848 m) summit, the highest point on earth, at 11:30 am.[1][16] As Hillary put it, "A few more whacks of the ice axe in the firm snow, and we stood on top."[17]

They spent only about 15 minutes at the summit. They looked for evidence of the 1924 Mallory expedition, but found none.[18] Hillary took the famous photo of Tenzing posing with his ice-axe, but since Tenzing had never used a camera, Hillary's ascent went unrecorded.[19][20] Tenzing left chocolates in the snow as an offering and Hillary left a cross that he had been given.[11] Additional photos were taken looking down the mountain in order to re-assure that they had made it to the top and that the ascent was not faked.[20] The two had to take care on the descent after discovering that drifting snow had covered their tracks, complicating the task of retracing their steps. The first person they met was Lowe, who had climbed up to meet them with hot soup.

Well, George, we knocked the bastard off.

—Hillary's first words to lifelong friend George Lowe on returning from Everest's summit[5][11]

News of the successful expedition reached Britain on the day of the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II. The group was surprised by the international acclaim that they received upon arriving in Kathmandu.[11] Hillary and Hunt were knighted by the young queen,[21] while Tenzing received either the British Empire Medal,[17] or the George Medal from the British Government for his efforts with the expedition.[22][23] It has been suggested that Indian prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru refused permission for Tenzing to be knighted.[22]

After Everest

Hillary in 1957 after accompanying the first plane to land at the Marble Point ground air strip, Antarctica

Hillary climbed ten other peaks in the Himalayas on further visits in 1956, 1960–61, and 1963–65. He also reached the South Pole as part of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition, for which he led the New Zealand section, on 4 January 1958. His party was the first to reach the Pole overland since Amundsen in 1911 and Scott in 1912, and the first ever to do so using motor vehicles. In 1977, he led a jetboat expedition, titled "Ocean to Sky", from the mouth of the Ganges River to its source.

True, why make a fuss over something that's done anyway? I was never one to obsess about the past. Too much to do in the future!

—Hillary about his reaction to the destruction of one of the jetboats by his friend Jim Wilson

Between 1977 and 1979, Hillary commentated aboard several Antarctic sightseeing flights operated by Air New Zealand.[24] He was scheduled to commentate on the 28 November 1979 Air New Zealand Flight 901, but had to pull out due to work commitments in the United States, and was replaced by his close friend Peter Mulgrew. The aircraft crashed into Mount Erebus in Antarctica, killing all 257 on board.[25] Hillary later married Mulgrew's widow.[26][27]

Hillary took part in the 1975 general election, as a member of the "Citizens for Rowling" campaign. His involvement in this campaign was seen as precluding his nomination as Governor-General,[28] with the position instead being offered to Keith Holyoake in 1977. However, in 1985 he was appointed New Zealand High Commissioner to India (concurrently High Commissioner to Bangladesh and Ambassador to Nepal) and spent four and a half years based in New Delhi. In 1985 he accompanied Neil Armstrong in a small twin-engined ski plane over the Arctic Ocean and landed at the North Pole. He thus became the first man to stand at both poles and on the summit of Everest.[29][30][31]

In January 2007, Hillary travelled to Antarctica to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the founding of Scott Base. He flew to the station on 18 January 2007 with a delegation including the Prime Minister. [32][33][34] While there he called for the British government to contribute to the upkeep of Scott's and Shackleton's huts.[35] On 22 April 2007 while on a trip to Kathmandu he is reported to have suffered a fall. There was no comment on the nature of his illness and he did not immediately seek treatment. He was hospitalized after returning to New Zealand.[36]

Public recognition

Edmund Hillary on the New Zealand five-dollar note

Hillary was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) on 6 June 1953;[21] member of the Order of New Zealand (ONZ) in 1987; and Knight of the Order of the Garter (KG) on 22 April 1995.[37] He was also awarded the Polar Medal for his part in the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition.[38] His favoured New Zealand charity was the Sir Edmund Hillary Outdoor Pursuits Centre of New Zealand of which he was Patron for 35 years. Hillary was particularly keen on the work this organisation did in introducing young New Zealanders to the outdoors in a very similar way to his first experience of a school trip to Mt Ruapehu at the age of 16. Various streets, schools and organisations around New Zealand and abroad are named after him. A few examples are Hillary College (Otara), Edmund Hillary Primary School (Papakura) and the Hillary Commission (now SPARC).

Statue of Hillary permanently gazing towards Aoraki/Mount Cook, one of his favourite peaks.[39]

In 1992 Hillary appeared on the updated New Zealand $5 note, thus making him the only New Zealander to appear on a banknote during his or her lifetime, in defiance of the established convention for banknotes of using only depictions of deceased individuals, and current heads of state. The Reserve Bank governor at the time, Don Brash, had originally intended to use a deceased sportsperson on the $5 note but could not find a suitable candidate. Instead he broke with convention by requesting and receiving Hillary's permission — along with an insistence from Hillary to use Aoraki/Mount Cook rather than Mount Everest in the backdrop. The image also features a Ferguson TE20 tractor like the one Hillary used to reach the South Pole on the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition.[40]

To mark the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the first successful ascent of Everest the Nepalese Government conferred honorary citizenship upon Hillary at a special Golden Jubilee celebration in Kathmandu. He was the first foreign national to receive such an honour from the Nepalese government.[41]

In 2008, the same year he died, the Indian Government conferred him with Padma Vibhushan, the second highest civilian honour of the country.[42]

A 2.3-metre (7.5 ft) bronze statue of "Sir Ed" was installed outside The Hermitage hotel at Mount Cook Village, New Zealand, in 2003.

Edmund Hillary in Warsaw, 2004

Two Antarctic features are named after Hillary. The Hillary Coast is a section of coastline south of Ross Island and north of the Shackleton Coast. It is formally recognised by New Zealand, the United States of America and Russia. The Hillary Canyon, an undersea feature in the Ross Sea appears on the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans, which is published by the International Hydrographic Organization.[43]

In 1974, Folkways Records released Interview with Sir Edmund Hillary: Mountain Climbing which included his thoughts on the Everest Expedition and the Abominable Snowman.

Private life

Hillary married Louise Mary Rose on 3 September 1953, soon after the ascent of Everest. A shy man, he relied on his future mother-in-law to propose on his behalf.[6][7][44] They had three children: Peter (1954), Sarah (1955) and Belinda (1959-1975).[1][14] In 1975 while en route to join Hillary in the village of Phaphlu, where he was helping to build a hospital, Louise and Belinda were killed in a plane crash near Kathmandu airport shortly after take-off.[6] Hillary married June Mulgrew, the widow of his close friend Peter Mulgrew, on 21 December 1989.[7][45] His son Peter Hillary has also become a climber, summiting Everest in 1990. In April 2003 Peter and Jamling Tenzing Norgay (son of Tenzing; Tenzing himself had died in 1986) climbed Everest as part of a 50th anniversary celebration.[46] Hillary had six grandchildren, altogether.

He spent most of his life (when not away on expeditions) living in a property on Remuera Road in Auckland City.[47]

He was also known for liking to read adventure and science fiction novels, especially in his retirement.[47]

Philanthropy

Following his ascent of Everest he devoted much of his life to helping the Sherpa people of Nepal through the Himalayan Trust, which he founded. Through his efforts many schools and hospitals were built in this remote region of the Himalayas. He was the Honorary President of the American Himalayan Foundation, a United States non-profit body that helps improve the ecology and living conditions in the Himalayas. He was also the Honorary President of Mountain Wilderness, an international NGO dedicated to the worldwide protection of mountains .

Hillary spoke of his disdain for the attitudes displayed by many modern mountaineers. In particular he publicly criticized New Zealander Mark Inglis and 40 other climbers who, in various groups, left British climber David Sharp to die in May 2006. He said:[48]

I think the whole attitude towards climbing Mount Everest has become rather horrifying. The people just want to get to the top. They don't give a damn for anybody else who may be in distress and it doesn't impress me at all that they leave someone lying under a rock to die.

Australian mountaineer Adam Darragh in turn considered Hillary's criticism of Inglis and his team as too harsh,[49] and Inglis himself, while maintaining that he remained on good terms with Hillary after the incident,[50] noted that Sharp was "almost frozen solid" and "effectively dead" when the team found him in the difficult terrain on their descent.[51]

Death

New Zealand flag at half-mast to mark the death of Hillary

On 11 January 2008, Hillary died of heart failure at the Auckland City Hospital at around 9 am NZDT (10 January at 20:00 UTC) at the age of 88.[52] Hillary's death was announced by New Zealand Prime Minister Helen Clark at around 11:20 am. She stated that his passing was a "profound loss to New Zealand".[53] His death was recognised by the lowering of flags to half-mast on all Government and public buildings and at Scott Base in Antarctica.[54] Actor and adventurer Brian Blessed, who attempted to climb Everest three times, described Sir Edmund as a "kind of titan".[55] He was in hospital at the time of his death but was expected to come home that day according to his family.[56][57][5][58][59][60]

After Hillary's death the Green Party proposed a new public holiday for 20 July or the Monday nearest to it.[61] Renaming mountains after Hillary was also proposed. The Mt Cook Village's Hermitage Hotel, the Sir Edmund Hillary Alpine Centre and Alpine Guides, proposed a renaming of Mount Ollivier, the first mountain climbed by Hillary. The family of Arthur Ollivier, for whom the mountain is named, are against such a renaming.[62]

Funeral

People draped in the Flag of New Zealand at the Auckland Domain as the hearse drives past at Sir Edmund Hillary's state funeral.

A state funeral was held for Hillary on 22 January 2008,[63] after which his body was cremated. The first part of this funeral was on 21 January when Hillary's casket was taken into Holy Trinity Cathedral to lie in state.[64] On 29 February 2008, in a private ceremony, Hillary's ashes were scattered in Auckland's Hauraki Gulf as he had desired.[65]

On 2 April 2008, a service of thanksgiving was held in his honour at St George's Chapel in Windsor Castle. It was attended by the Queen (but not the Duke of Edinburgh owing to a chest infection) and New Zealand dignitaries including Prime Minister Helen Clark. Sir Edmund's family and family members of Tenzing Norgay attended as well. Gurkha soldiers from Nepal, a country Sir Edmund Hillary held much affection for, stood guard outside the ceremony.[66][67]

Tribute

There have been many calls for lasting tributes to Sir Edmund Hillary. The first major public tribute has been by way of the "Summits for Ed" tribute tour organised by the Sir Edmund Hillary foundation (www.summitsfored.org.nz). This tribute tour went from Bluff at the bottom of the South Island to Cape Reinga at the tip of the North Island, visiting 39 towns and cities along the way. In each venue school children and members of the public were invited to join together to climb a significant hill or site in their area to show their respect for Hillary. Public were also invited to bring small rocks or pebbles that had special significance to them, that would be collected and included in a memorial to Hillary at the base of Mt Ruapehu in the grounds of the Sir Edmund Hillary Outdoor Pursuits Centre. Any funds donated during the tour are to be used by the foundation to sponsor young New Zealanders on outdoor courses to continue the values that Hillary espoused. Over 8,000 members of the public attended these "Summit" climbs between March and May 2008.[68]

View from the Hillary Trail

On 23 October 2008, it was announced that all future England vs New Zealand rugby test matches will be played for the Hillary Shield named in honour of Sir Edmund. The shield was contested for the first time on 29 November 2008 at Twickenham Stadium, and was presented to the winning team, the New Zealand national rugby union team, by Lady Hillary.[69][70] Also on 23 October 2008 the Duke of Edinburgh's Award in New Zealand (formerly the Young New Zealanders' Challenge) was announced as the youth programme that would take Sir Edmund's name as part of its brand (at the request of the NZ Govt and the Hillary family). The organisation re-branded on 20 August 2009 as "The Duke of Edinburgh's Hillary Award".[71]

On 11 January 2009 at 9am the New Zealand duo, "The Kiwis" performed their tribute song "Hillary 88" in front of the Beehive in Wellington. This has been recorded as the official world memorial song for Sir Edmund Hillary with the endorsement of Lady Hillary. The band members were Dean Ward and George Watson of Levin New Zealand.[72]

A four-day track in the Waitakere Ranges, along Auckland's west coast, is named the Hillary Trail. It was opened on 11 January 2010.[73]

Arms

Publications

Books written by Hillary include:

  • High Adventure (1955), Hodder & Stoughton (London) (reprinted Oxford University Press (paperback) ISBN 1932302026 and as High Adventure: The True Story of the First Ascent of Everest ISBN 0195167341)
  • East of Everest — An Account of the New Zealand Alpine Club Himalayan Expedition to the Barun Valley in 1954, with George Lowe (1956), E. P. Dutton and Company, Inc. ASIN B000EW84UM
  • No Latitude for Error (1961), Hodder & Stoughton. ASIN B000H6UVP6.
  • The New Zealand Antarctic Expedition (1959), R.W. Stiles, printers. ASIN B0007K6D72.
  • The crossing of Antarctica; the Commonwealth Transantarctic Expedition, 1955-1958 with Sir Vivian Fuchs (1958). Cassell ASIN B000HJGZ08
  • High in the thin cold air; the story of the Himalayan Expedition, led by Sir Edmund Hillary, sponsored by World Book Encyclopedia, with Desmond Doig (1963) ASIN B00005W121
  • Schoolhouse in the Clouds (1965) ASIN B00005WRBB
  • Nothing Venture, Nothing Win (1975) Hodder & Stoughton General Division ISBN 0340212969
  • From the Ocean to the Sky: Jet Boating Up the Ganges Ulverscroft Large Print Books Ltd (November 1980) ISBN 0-7089-0587-0
  • Two Generations with Peter Hillary (1984) Hodder & Stoughton Ltd ISBN 0340354208
  • Ascent: Two Lives Explored: The Autobiographies of Sir Edmund and Peter Hillary (1992) Paragon House Publishers ISBN 1557784086
  • View from the Summit: The Remarkable Memoir by the First Person to Conquer Everest (2000) Pocket ISBN 0743400674

References

  1. ^ a b c d Christchurch City Libraries, Famous New Zealanders. Retrieved 23 January 2007.
  2. ^ a b c The early years - Ed Hillary, New Zealand History online - Nga korero aipurangi o Aotearoa, Ministry for Culture and Heritage, Wellington, New Zealand. Updated 11 January 2008. Retrieved 12 January 2008.
  3. ^ Tyler, Heather Tyler Authorised Hillary biography reveals private touches. NZ Herald. 8 October 2005.
  4. ^ Simon Robinson, Sir Edmund Hillary: Top of the World, Time Magazine, 10 January 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2008.
  5. ^ a b c Hillary mourned, both in Nepal and New Zealand Timesonline.co.uk dated 11 January 2008, retrieved 12 January 2008
  6. ^ a b c Robert Sullivan, Time Magazine, Sir Edmund Hillary—A visit with the world's greatest living adventurer, 12 September 2003. Retrieved 22 January 2007.
  7. ^ a b c National Geographic, Everest: 50 Years and Counting. Retrieved 22 January 2007.
  8. ^ [1] in Guy Davenport's ' The Geography of the Imagination ' (North Point Press, 1981)
  9. ^ a b Calder, Peter (11 January 2008). "Sir Edmund Hillary's life". NZ Herald. APN Holdings NZ Limited. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/section/1/story.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10482158&ref=rss. Retrieved 11 January 2008. 
  10. ^ Langton, Graham (22 June 2007). "Ayres, Horace Henry 1912 - 1987". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. http://www.dnzb.govt.nz/dnzb/default.asp?Find_Quick.asp?PersonEssay=5A28. Retrieved 2 December 2009. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Hillary, Edmund, High Adventure: The True Story of the First Ascent of Everest
  12. ^ Hillary of New Zealand and Tenzing reach the top, Reuter (in The Guardian, 2 June 1953)
  13. ^ a b REACHING THE TOP Royal Geographical Society. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
  14. ^ a b The New Zealand Edge, Sir Edmund Hillary—KING OF THE WORLD. Retrieved 22 January 2007.
  15. ^ Ascent: Two Lives Explored : The Autobiographies of Sir Edmund and Peter Hillary
  16. ^ Everest not as tall as thought Agençe France-Presse (on abc.net.au), 10 October 2005
  17. ^ a b PBS, NOVA, First to Summit, Updated November 2000. Retrieved 31 March 2007.
  18. ^ In 1999, George Mallory's well preserved frozen body was found at the 27,000 ft level. His camera was not located, and if is ever found, the film inside could provide a definitive answer to whether he and Sandy Irvine summited Everest in 1924. "Because it's there," - George Leigh Mallory
  19. ^ Obituary: Sir Edmund Hillary BBC News, 11 January 2008
  20. ^ a b Joanna Wright (2003). "The Photographs", in Everest, Summit of Achievement, by the Royal Geographic Society. Simon & Schuster, New York. ISBN 0743243862. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  21. ^ a b London Gazette: no. 39886, p. 3273, 12 June 1953. Retrieved on 11 January 2008.
  22. ^ a b Hansen, Peter H. (2004). "‘Tenzing Norgay [Sherpa Tenzing (1914–1986)’"] ((subscription required)). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/50064. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  23. ^ Vallely, Paul (10 May 1986). "Man of the mountains Tenzing dies". The Times. 
  24. ^ The Antarctic experience - Erebus disaster New Zealand History online. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
  25. ^ Radio New Zealand, Sir Edmund Hillary: A Tribute. Retrieved 14 January 2008.
  26. ^ On top of the world: Ed Hillary - Full biography of Hillary on NZHistory.net.nz
  27. ^ NZEdge biography
  28. ^ Rowling: The man and the myth by John Henderson, Australia New Zealand Press, 1980.
  29. ^ TIME: The Greatest Adventures of All Time - The Race to the Pole (interview with Sir Edmund)
  30. ^ March 2003 interview with Hillary in The Guardian
  31. ^ "Video: Interview on HardTalk". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/player/nol/newsid_7180000/newsid_7184400/7184434.stm. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  32. ^ NDTV, Sir Edmund Hillary revisits Antarctica, 20 January 2007.
  33. ^ Claire Harvey, The New Zealand Herald, Claire Harvey on Ice: Arriving at Scott Base, 20 January 2007.
  34. ^ Radio Network, PM and Sir Edmund Hillary off to Scott Base, 15 January 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2007.
  35. ^ The Press Hillary slates Brits over historic huts . Retrieved 12 February 2007.
  36. ^ Stuart Dye, The New Zealand Herald, Clark sends goodwill message to Sir Edmund, Tuesday 24 April 2007
  37. ^ London Gazette: no. 54017, p. 6023, 25 April 1995. Retrieved on 11 January 2008.
  38. ^ London Gazette: no. 41384, p. 2997, 13 May 1958. Retrieved on 11 January 2008.
  39. ^ Explaining Currency NZ Government
  40. ^ "Face on a Banknote a Break with Convention", The Dominion Post, 12 January 2008. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
  41. ^ Mountaineering Great Edmund Hillary passes away 12 Jan. 2008 The Rising Nepal
  42. ^ 119 get Padma Awards 25 Jan. 2008 Hindustan Times
  43. ^ "Hillary's first mountain could take name". New Zealand Herald. 16 January 2008. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/section/1/story.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10487079. Retrieved 26 August 2008. 
  44. ^ Famous New Zealanders. Retrieved 22 January 2007.
  45. ^ Sailing Source, Sir Edmund Hillary to Start Rolex Sydney-Hobart Race. Retrieved 22 January 2007.
  46. ^ NPR, Everest: To the Top of the World, 25 April 2003. Retrieved 22 January 2007.
  47. ^ a b Sir Ed's haven on the market - The New Zealand Herald, 28 February 2009
  48. ^ Shtargot, Sasha, and Bennetts, Janine. Death on Everest divides climbers The Age, 25 May 2006
  49. ^ Inglis faces mental stress after harsh criticism - The New Zealand Herald, 25 May 2006
  50. ^ Hillary's loss will be devastating to Nepal - Inglis - The New Zealand Herald, 11 January 2008
  51. ^ Dying Everest climber was frozen solid, says Inglis -The New Zealand Herald, 25 May 2006
  52. ^ State funeral for Sir Edmund Hillary 11 January 2008
  53. ^ CNN.com, Clark statement on Hillary death. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  54. ^ Stuff.co.nz, Flag flies at half-mast over a sad Scott Base. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  55. ^ Lastingtribute.co.uk, Obituary. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  56. ^ Obituary in The Guardian newspaper, by Jim Perrin
  57. ^ Obituary in The Daily Telegraph
  58. ^ report in The Independent
  59. ^ Obituary in The Economist
  60. ^ 'First man to scale Everest, Sir Edmund Hillary, dies', The Straits Times (Singapore), 12 January 2008
  61. ^ Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand (14 January 2008). "Annual Sir Edmund Hillary Day a fitting tribute". Press release. http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/PA0801/S00088.htm. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  62. ^ "Renaming peak for Sir Ed meets resistance". New Zealand Herald. 18 January 2008. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/feature/story.cfm?c_id=1501792&objectid=10487471. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  63. ^ Stuff.co.nz, State funeral for Sir Ed. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  64. ^ "Sir Edmund Hillary lies in state". Fairfax Media. 21 January 2008. http://www.stuff.co.nz/4366732a10.html. Retrieved 21 February 2008. 
  65. ^ Sir Edmund Hillary takes final voyage, ashes scattered at sea, New Zealand Herald, 29 February 2008.
  66. ^ "UK | In pictures: Sir Edmund Hillary service". BBC News. 2008-04-02. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7326720.stm. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  67. ^ "UK | Third night in hospital for duke". BBC News. 2008-04-05. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7331859.stm. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  68. ^ "Summits for Ed Tribute Tour". http://www.summitsfored.org.nz/. Retrieved 4 January 2010. 
  69. ^ England and New Zealand announce new trophy in memory of Sir Edmund Hillary, Joint media release Rugby Football Union/New Zealand Rugby Football Union, 23 October 2008. Retrieved on 23 October 2008.
  70. ^ Gray, Wynne (1 December 2008). "All Blacks: Henry's men reach summit". New Zealand Herald. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/sport/news/article.cfm?c_id=4&objectid=10545863. Retrieved 2 December 2008. 
  71. ^ "The Duke of Edinburgh's Hillary Award". http://www.dofehillary.org.nz. Retrieved 1 September 2009. 
  72. ^ "Horowhenua Musicians Perform Sir Edmund Hillary's Official World Memorial Song". Horowhenua District Council. Archived from the original on 31 May 2009. http://www.webcitation.org/5hALOwjvS. 
  73. ^ "Hillary Trail". Auckland Regional Council. http://www.arc.govt.nz/parks/our-parks/hillary-trail/hillary-trail_home.cfm. Retrieved 4 January 2010. 

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

It is not the mountain we conquer, but ourselves.

Sir Edmund Percival Hillary (1919-07-20 - 2008-01-11) was a New Zealand mountaineer and explorer.

Contents

Sourced

Nobody climbs mountains for scientific reasons. Science is used to raise money for the expeditions, but you really climb for the hell of it.
  • My solar plexus was tight with fear as I ploughed on. Halfway up I stopped, exhausted. I could look down 10,000 feet between my legs, and I have never felt more insecure. Anxiously I waved Tenzing up to me.
    • High Adventure : The True Story of the First Ascent of Everest (1955)
I am hell-bent for the South Pole — God willing and crevasses permitting.
  • I am hell-bent for the South Pole — God willing and crevasses permitting.
  • Better if he had said something natural like, "Jesus, here we are."
    • On Neil Armstrong’s famous first words on stepping on the surface of the moon, "That’s one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind." The Sunday Times [London] (21 July 1974)
I think the whole attitude towards climbing Mount Everest has become rather horrifying...
  • It was too late to take risks now. I asked Tenzing to belay me strongly, and I started cutting a cautious line of steps up the ridge. Peering from side to side and thrusting with my ice axe, I tried to discover a possible cornice, but everything seemed solid and firm. I waved Tenzing up to me. A few more whacks of the ice–ax, a few very weary steps, and we were on the summit of Everest.
    It was 11:30 AM. My first sensation was one of relief — relief that the long grind was over, that the summit had been reached before our oxygen supplies had dropped to a critical level; and relief that in the end the mountain had been kind to us in having a pleasantly rounded cone for its summit instead of a fearsome and unapproachable cornice. But mixed with the relief was a vague sense of astonishment that I should have been the lucky one to attain the ambition of so many brave and determined climbers. I seemed difficult to grasp that we'd got there. I was too tired and too conscious of the long way down to safety really to feel any great elation. But as the fact of our success thrust itself more clearly into my mind, I felt a quiet glow of satisfaction spread through my body — a satisfaction less vociferous but more powerful than I had ever felt on a mountain top before. I turned and looked at Tenzing. Even beneath his oxygen mask and the icicles hanging form his hair, I could see his infectious grin of sheer delight. I held out my hand, and in silence we shook in good Anglo-Saxon fashion. But this was not enough for Tenzing, and impulsively he threw his arm around my shoulders and we thumped each other on the back in mutual congratulations.
    • "Adventure's End" in The Norton Book of Sports (1992) edited by George Plimpton, p. 85
On my expedition there was no way that you would have left a man under a rock to die. It simply would not have happened.
  • Tenzing had been waiting patiently, but now, at my request, he unfurled the flags wrapped around his ice–ax and standing at the summit, held them above his head. Clad in all his bulky equipment and with the flags flapping furiously in the wind, he made a dramatic picture, and the thought drifted through my mind that this photograph should be a good one if it came out at all. I didn't worry about getting Tenzing to take a photograph of me — as far as I knew, he had never taken a photograph before, and the summit of Everest was hardly the place to show him how.
    • On the photograph of Sherpa guide Tenzing Norgay at the summit of Everest, in "Adventure's End" in The Norton Book of Sports (1992) edited by George Plimpton, p. 86
  • Reaching the summit of a mountain gives great satisfaction, but nothing for me has been more rewarding in life than the result of our climb on Everest, when we have devoted ourselves to the welfare of our Sherpa friends.
    • As quoted in Great Climbs: A Celebration of World Mountaineering (1994) by Sir Chris Bonington
  • While standing on top of Everest, I looked across the valley, towards the other great peak, Makalu, and mentally worked out a route about how it could be climbed… it showed me that, even though I was standing on top of the world, it wasn’t the end of everything for me, by any means. I was still looking beyond to other interesting challenges.
    • Foreword to Peak Performance : Business Lessons from the World's Top Sports Organizations (2000) by Clive Gibson, Mike Pratt, Kevin Roberts and Ed Weymes.
  • It is not the mountain we conquer, but ourselves.
    • As quoted in That's Life : Wild Wit & Wisdom (2003) by Bonnie Louise Kuchler, p. 20
  • You don't have to be a fantastic hero to do certain things — to compete. You can be just an ordinary chap, sufficiently motivated to reach challenging goals. The intense effort, the giving of everything you've got, is a very pleasant bonus.
    • As quoted in 1000 Brilliant Achievement Quotes (2004) by David Deford, p. 4
  • Nobody climbs mountains for scientific reasons. Science is used to raise money for the expeditions, but you really climb for the hell of it.
    • As quoted in Wise Guys : Brilliant Thoughts and Big Talk from Real Men (2005) by Allan Zullo, p. 5
  • I think the whole attitude towards climbing Mount Everest has become rather horrifying. The people just want to get to the top. They don't give a damn for anybody else who may be in distress and it doesn't impress me at all that they leave someone lying under a rock to die.
  • On my expedition there was no way that you would have left a man under a rock to die. It simply would not have happened. It would have been a disaster from our point of view. There have been a number of occasions when people have been neglected and left to die and I don’t regard this as a correct philosophy. I am absolutely certain that if any member of our expedition all those years ago had been in that situation we would have made every effort.

Sir Edmund Hillary : King Of The World

We didn’t know if it was humanly possible to reach the top of Mt. Everest...
Quotations of Hillary in "Sir Edmund Hillary : King Of The World" in NZEdge
  • Some day I’m going to climb Everest.
    • Statement to a friend just before World War II.
  • In some ways I believe I epitomise the average New Zealander: I have modest abilities, I combine these with a good deal of determination, and I rather like to succeed.
  • We didn’t know if it was humanly possible to reach the top of Mt. Everest. And even using oxygen as we were, if we did get to the top, we weren’t at all sure whether we wouldn’t drop dead or something of that nature.
  • I was very much aware that we still had to get safely back down the mountain again and that was quite an important factor. I really felt the most excitement when we finally got to the bottom of the mountain again and it was all behind us.
The explorers of the past were great men and we should honour them. But let us not forget that their spirit lives on.
  • I was just an enthusiastic mountaineer of modest abilities who was willing to work quite hard and had the necessary imagination and determination. I was just an average bloke; it was the media that transformed me into a heroic figure. And try as I did, there was no way to destroy my heroic image. But as I learned through the years, as long as you didn’t believe all that rubbish about yourself, you wouldn’t come to much harm.
  • The explorers of the past were great men and we should honour them. But let us not forget that their spirit lives on. It is still not hard to find a man who will adventure for the sake of a dream or one who will search, for the pleasure of searching, not for what he may find.
  • I don't know if I particularly want to be remembered for anything. I have enjoyed great satisfaction from my climb of Everest and my trips to the poles. But there's no doubt, either, that my most worthwhile things have been the building of schools and medical clinics. That has given me more satisfaction than a footprint on a mountain.

Disputed

  • People do not decide to become extraordinary. They decide to accomplish extraordinary things.
    • Though widely attributed to Hillary on the internet, this may have originated as a quote about him in a Rolex advertisement.

Unsourced

  • You defeated me! But you won't defeat me again! Because you have grown all you can grow ... but I am still growing!
    • Discredited statement made to Mount Everest, on an earlier attempt on the summit in 1951. Hillary did not attempt Everest in 1951.

Quotes about Hillary

  • The beekeeper and the Sherpa, one from a remote former colony of the Crown on the edge of the Pacific Ocean, the other from the edge of the heavens. They affirmed the power of humble determination and, placing themselves firmly with the mythic paradigms of their respective cultures, won one for the underdogs. ... On this lonely planet of freeze dried food, computer generated fabrics and commercialised mountain climbing, it is almost impossible to imagine the earth-shaking impact that Hillary and Norgay’s achievement had in 1953. For many it represented the last of the earth’s great challenges. It placed Hillary in the lineage of great terrestrial explorers. ... His achievement as one of mankind’s great accomplishments came at one of the last times in history when such a feat could still be recognised as a distinctly human one, and not technological. ... Hillary’s near-mythical status puts him on a plateau above sporting heroes, for he has distinguished himself well beyond the singularity of a mountain. From a feat that would have been the crowning achievement of many careers, he has gone on to become a humanitarian, an ambassador and elder statesman, never giving up, never giving in to either despair or complacency, always planning the next goal.
  • Geography was not furthered by the achievement, scientific progress was scarcely hastened, and nothing new was discovered. Yet the names of Hillary and Tenzing went instantly into all languages as the names of heroes, partly because they really were men of heroic mold but chiefly because they represented so compellingly the spirit of their time.
  • The real point of mountain climbing, as of most hard sports, is that it voluntarily tests the human spirit against the fiercest odds, not that it achieves anything more substantial — or even wins the contest, for that matter. For the most part, its heroism is of a subjective kind. It was the fate of Hillary and Tenzing, though, to become very public heroes indeed, and it was a measure of the men that over the years they truly grew into the condition. Perhaps they thought that just being the first to climb a hill was hardly qualification for immortality; perhaps they instinctively realized destiny had another place for them. For they both became, in the course of time, representatives not merely of their particular nations but of half of humanity. Astronauts might justly claim that they were envoys of all humanity; Hillary and Tenzing, in a less spectacular kind, came to stand for the small nations of the world, the young ones, the tucked-away and the up-and-coming.
    • Jan Morris in "Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay" in TIME magazine (14 June 1999)
  • I liked these men very much when I first met them on the mountain nearly a half-century ago, but I came to admire them far more in the years that followed. I thought their brand of heroism — the heroism of example, the heroism of debts repaid and causes sustained — far more inspiring than the gung-ho kind. Did it really mean much to the human race when Everest was conquered for the first time? Only because there became attached to the memory of the exploit, in the years that followed, a reputation for decency, kindness and stylish simplicity. Hillary and Tenzing fixed it when they knocked the bastard off.
    • Jan Morris in "Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay" in TIME magazine (14 June 1999)

External Links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Simple English

Sir Edmund Hillary
Born 20 July 1919(1919-07-20)
Auckland, New Zealand
Died 11 January 2008 (aged 88)
Auckland, New Zealand
Cause of death Myocardial infarction
Spouse Louise Mary Rose (1953-1975)
June Mulgrew, QSM (1989-2008)
Children Peter (1954)
Sarah (1955)
Belinda (1959-1975)
Parents Percival Augustus Hillary
Gertrude Hillary, née Clark
File:Edmund-Hillary.
Sir Edmund Hillary after accompanying first plane to land at the Marble Point ground air strip - Antarctica

Sir Edmund Percival Hillary, (born July 20, 1919, died January 11, 2008) was a New Zealand mountaineer and explorer. Along with Sherpa guide Tenzing Norgay, he was the first successful person to climb Mount Everest on May 29, 1953. Mount Everest is the tallest mountain on earth. During his teenage years, Edmund Hillary had attended Auckland Grammar School.

Sir Edmund Hillary's fame came as a result of being the first New Zealander in the world to conquer Mt. Everest in Nepal. He is on the New Zealand five dollar note. He also climbed ten other mountains after Mount Everest, all of which are also located in the Himalayas.

Contents

Early Life

Hillary was born to Percival Augustus Hillary and Gertrude Hillary, née Clark, in Auckland, New Zealand, on 20 July 1919.[1] His family moved to Tuakau (south of Auckland) in 1920, after his father (who served at Gallipoli) had gotten land there.[2] His grandparents were early settlers in northern Wairoa in the mid 19th century after moving from Yorkshire, England.[3]

Hillary learned at Tuakau Primary School and then Auckland Grammar School.[2] He finished primary school two years early, but he did not do very well at high school.[4] At first, he was smaller than other students there and very shy so he felt safe with his books and often thought of a life filled with adventure. Every day, he rode a train to and from high school, and he often used this time to read. Learning how to box helped him become more confident. At age 16 his interest in climbing started during a school trip to Mount Ruapehu. Although very tall at 6 ft 5 in (195cm), he found that he was stronger than many of his fellow hikers.[5] He learned about mathematics and science at The University of Auckland, and in 1939 he completed his first important climb, which was reaching the top of a mountain called Mount Ollivier.[2] With his brother Rex, Hillary became a beekeeper[1][6] during summertime, which allowed him to do climbing in the winter.[7]

Personal life

Hillary married Louise Mary Rose in 1953, by whom he had a son and two daughters. In 1975, his wife and one of their daughters were killed in a plane crash. Hillary married June Mulgrew in 1989; they remained married until he died.

Death

Hillary died of heart disease in Auckland, at the age of 88.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Christchurch City Libraries, Famous New Zealanders. Retrieved January 23, 2007.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 The early years - Ed Hillary, New Zealand History online - Nga korero aipurangi o Aotearoa, Ministry for Culture and Heritage, Wellington, New Zealand. Updated 2008-01-11. Accessed 2008-01-12.
  3. Tyler, Heather Tyler Authorised Hillary biography reveals private touches. NZ Herald. October 8, 2005.
  4. Simon Robinson, Sir Edmund Hillary: Top of the World, Time Magazine, 2008-01-10. Accessed 2008-01-14.
  5. Timesonline.co.uk dated January 112008, retrieved January 12 2008
  6. Robert Sullivan, Time Magazine, Sir Edmund Hillary—A visit with the world's greatest living adventurer, 12 September, 2003. Retrieved 22 January, 2007.
  7. National Geographic, Everest: 50 Years and Counting. Retrieved 22 January, 2007.

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