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Edom (Hebrew: אֱדוֹם, Modern Edom Tiberian ʼĔḏôm ; "red") is a name given to Esau in the Hebrew Bible, as well as to the nation descending from him. The nation's name in Assyrian was Udumi; in Syriac, ܐܕܘܡ; in Greek, Ἰδουμαία (Idoumaía); in Latin, Idumæa or Idumea.

The Edomite people were a Semitic-speaking tribal group inhabiting the Negev Desert and the Arabah valley of what is now southern Dead Sea and adjacent Jordan. The region has much reddish sandstone, which may have given rise to the name "Edom". The nation of Edom is known to have existed back to the 8th or 9th century BC, and the Bible dates it back several centuries further. Recent archaeological evidence may indicate an Edomite nation as long ago as the 11th century BC, but the topic is controversial and others argue that the 8th or 9th century dates are correct.[1] The nation ceased to exist as a settled state with the Jewish-Roman Wars.

Contents

The Edomites

The Edomites may have been connected with the Shasu and Shutu, nomadic raiders mentioned in Egyptian sources. Indeed, a letter from an Egyptian scribe at a border fortress in the Wadi Tumilat during the reign of Merneptah reports movement of nomadic "shasu-tribes of Edom" to watering holes in Egyptian territory.[2]

Biblical references

The Bible identifies Esau as the fraternal twin brother of Jacob, the grandson of Abraham. Jacob became the father of the Israelites after God (Genesis 35:10) renamed Jacob "Israel." Thus Esau shared his mother's womb together with the founder of the nation of Israel.[3] See Genesis 25. Although Esau was Isaac's first-born entitled to inherit Isaac's wealth and blessing, Esau sold his birthright to his younger brother Jacob (Israel) for a pot of stew. The descendants of Esau and Israel led divergent paths with Edom settling east of modern day Israel forming tribal chiefs while Jacob traveled west of the Dead Sea and north along the Jordan river in accordance with the lands that were granted to the people of Israel, his inheritance.

The Bible explains the name "Edom" with no mention of red rock. It refers to the Edomites as descendants of Esau, and the Book of Genesis mentions "red" a number of times in describing Esau and explaining his alternate name Edom. "The first one [Esau] came out red [admoni in Hebrew], as hairy as a fur coat. They named him Esau."[4] Years later, "Jacob was once simmering a stew, when Esau came home exhausted from the field. Esau said to Jacob: "Feed me, I pray thee, with that same red pottage; for I am faint: therefore was his name called Edom". (Genesis 25:29-30, KJV) [5] (see also retroactive nomenclature).

Map of the southern Levant, c.830s BC.      Kingdom of Judah      Kingdom of Israel      Philistine city-states      Phoenician states      Kingdom of Ammon      Kingdom of Edom      Kingdom of Aram-Damascus      Aramean tribes      Arubu tribes      Nabatu tribes      Assyrian Empire      Kingdom of Moab

The Edomites' original country, according to the Tanakh, stretched from the Sinai peninsula as far as Kadesh Barnea. Southward it reached as far as Eilat, which was the seaport of Edom.[6] On the north of Edom was the territory of Moab.[7] The boundary between Moab and Edom was the Wadi Zered.[8] The ancient capital of Edom was Bozrah[9] According to Genesis, Esau's descendants settled in this land after displacing the Horites. It was also called the land of Seir; Mount Seir appears to have been strongly identified with them and may have been a cultic site. In the time of Amaziah (838 BC), Selah (Petra) was its principal stronghold;[10] Eilat and Ezion-geber its seaports.[11]

Genesis 36 chronicles Esau's family and the kings of Edom:

These are the kings who ruled in the land of Edom before a king ruled the children of Israel. And Bela ben Beor ruled in Edom, and the name of his city was Dinhabah. And Bela died, and Jobab ben Zerah from Bozrah ruled in his place. And Jobab died, and Husham of the land of Temani ruled in his place. And Husham died, and Hadad ben Bedad, who struck Midian in the field of Moab, ruled in his place, and the name of his city was Avith. And Hadad died, and Samlah of Masrekah ruled in his place. And Samlah died, and Saul of Rehoboth on the river ruled in his place. And Saul died, and Baal-hanan ben Achbor ruled in his place. And Baal-hanan ben Achbor died, and Hadar ruled in his place, and the name of his city was Pau, and his wife's name was Mehetabel bat Matred bat Mezahab. And these are the names of the clans of Esau by their families, by their places, by their names: clan Timnah, clan Alvah, clan Jetheth, clan Aholibamah, clan Elah, clan Pinon, clan Kenaz, clan Teman, clan Mibzar, clan Magdiel, clan Iram.[12]

The Hebrew word translated as "clan" is aluf, also translated as "chief", "general", or "duke", and used in this sense only in connection with Edom and Hori.[13] (Since 1948 it has been used for senior ranks in the Israeli Defense Force).

If the account may be taken at face value, the kingship of Edom was, at least in early times, not hereditary,[14] perhaps elective.[15] First Chronicles mentions both a king and chieftains.[16] When the King of Edom refused to allow the children of Israel[17] to pass through his land on their way to Canaan, they detoured around the country because of his show of force[18] or because God ordered them to do so rather than wage war.[19] The King of Edom did not attack the Israelites, though he prepared to resist aggression.

Nothing further is recorded of the Edomites in the Tanakh until their defeat by King Saul of Israel in the late 1000s BC. Forty years later King David and his general Joab defeated the Edomites in the "valley of salt", (probably near the Dead Sea).[20] An Edomite prince named Hadad escaped and fled to Egypt, and after David's death returned and tried to start a rebellion, but failed and went to Syria.[21] From that time Edom remained a vassal of Israel. David placed over the Edomites Israelite governors or prefects,[22] and this form of government seems to have continued under Solomon. When Israel divided into two kingdoms Edom became a dependency of the Kingdom of Judah. In the time of Jehoshaphat (c. 914 BC) the Tanakh mentions a king of Edom,[23] who was probably an Israelite appointed by the King of Judah. It also states[24] that the inhabitants of Mount Seir invaded Judea in conjunction with Ammon and Moab, and that the invaders turned against one another and were all destroyed. Edom revolted against Jehoram and elected a king of its own.[25] Amaziah attacked and defeated the Edomites, seizing Selah, but the Israelites never subdued Edom completely.[26]

In the time of Nebuchadnezzar II the Edomites helped plunder Jerusalem and slaughter the Jews.[27] For this reason the Prophets denounced Edom violently.[28]

Although the Idumaeans controlled the lands to the east and south of the Dead Sea, their peoples were held in contempt by the Israelites. Hence the Book of Psalms says "Moab is my washpot: over Edom will I cast out my shoe".[29] According to the Torah,[30] the congregation could not receive descendants of a marriage between an Israelite and an Edomite until the fourth generation. This law was a subject of controversy between Shimon ben Yohai, who said it applied only to male descendants, and other Talmudists, who said female descendants were also excluded.[31]

Archaeology

Archaeological excavations in southern Jordan have uncovered dozens of sites dated to the 7th and 6th centuries BC and attributed to the Edomites. Modern Buseirah is generally identified with biblical Bozrah, probably the Edomite capital. However, most of the Edomite sites are small villages, farms or seminomadic sites. Edomites are usually associated with Edomite pottery, a ware found and manufactured both in southern Jordan and the Negev.

For over a century, archeologists specializing in the Middle East maintained that there was no evidence of an organized state society in Edom earlier than the 800s or 700s BC, and first believed no Edom existed at all. Biblical minimalists touted this fact as one piece of evidence of the Bible's ultimate unreliability as a historical source.[32] Excavations such as the 2004-2004 UCSD dig at Khirbat an-Nahas, part of the Jabal Hamrat Fidan (JHF) Archaeological Project, in Jordan have shed new light on the history of Edom, unearthing artifacts and evidence of settled state society as early as the tenth century BC,[33] Thomas E. Levy, among other scholars, concluded from a survey of the an-Nahas site that Edom was a sophisticated, urbanized society as early as the eleventh century BC, (the date of the first Israelite monarchy, according to the Bible) which even had its own copper works.[34] Newer data pushes back the archaeological chronology some three centuries earlier than the current scholarly consensus.[35] "Now," said Levy, "with data from the first large-scale stratified and systematic excavation of a site in the southern Levant to focus specifically on the role of metallurgy in Edom, we have evidence that complex societies were indeed active in 10th and 9th centuries BC and that brings us back to the debate about the historicity of the Hebrew Bible narratives related to this period."[36] Radiocarbon tests from the site have confirmed that the industrial areas of the site date to the eleventh and tenth centuries BC.[37] However, according to the March Issue of Antiquity in 2006 published by the colleagues of Levy, the datings that Levy has presented is exactly the problem. Levy used the Bayesian radiocarbon tool which differed from the tabulated calibrated radio carbon dates in which they did not specify to have been used to reach these dates. According to the Department of Archeology, "The authors need to be more specific about the archaeological or other data they have used to reach their extremely early BCal dates, before they can make any claims based on these dates.At each step, it seems, the authors are attempting to push the dates as early as possible, on average about a hundred years or so earlier than the calibrated radiocarbon evidence allows for. The irony is that the authors claim that their ‘high-precision radiocarbon dating is liberating us from chronological assumptions based on Biblical research’, but their paper clearly manipulates the dates according to chronological assumptions that are not articulated. This lack of transparency is unacceptable." [2]

Economy

The Kingdom of Edom drew much of its livelihood from the caravan trade between Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, and southern Arabia, along the Incense Route. Astride the King's Highway, the Edomites were one of several states in the region for whom trade was vital due to the scarcity of arable land. It is also said that sea routes traded as far away as India, with ships leaving from the port of Ezion-Geber. Edom's location on the southern highlands left it with only a small strip of land that received sufficient rain for farming.[citation needed]

Edom probably exported salt and balsam (used for perfume and temple incense in the ancient world) from the Dead Sea region.[citation needed]

Post-biblical references

Map showing kingdom of Edom (in red) at its largest extent, c. 600 BC. Areas in dark red show the approximate boundary of classical-age Idumaea.

Edom is mentioned in Assyrian cuneiform inscriptions in the form "Udumi" or "Udumu"; three of its kings are known from the same source: Ḳaus-malaka at the time of Tiglath-pileser III (c. 745 BC), Malik-rammu at the time of Sennacherib (c. 705 BC), and Ḳaus-gabri at the time of Esarhaddon (c. 680 BC). According to the Egyptian inscriptions, the "Aduma" at times extended their possessions to the borders of Egypt.[38] After the conquest of Judah by the Babylonians, the Edomites were allowed to settle in the region of Hebron. They prospered in this new country, called by the Greeks and Romans "Idumaea" or "Idumea", for more than four centuries.[39].Strabo, writing around the time of Christ, held that the Idumaeans, whom he identified as of Nabataean origin, constituted the majority of the population of Western Judea, where they commingled with the Judaeans and adopted their customs [40].

During the revolt of the Maccabees against the Seleucid kingdom, II Maccabees refers to a Seleucid general named Gorgias as "Governor of Idumaea"; whether he was a Greek or a Hellenized Edomite is unknown.[41] Some scholars maintain that the reference to Idumaea in that passage is an error altogether. Judas Maccabeus conquered their territory for a time in around 163 BC.[42] They were again subdued by John Hyrcanus (c. 125 BC), who forced them to observe Jewish rites and laws.[43] They were then incorporated with the Jewish nation.[15] The Pharisees were notably opposed to te annexation of Idumea to the Maccabee state.

The Hasmonean official Antipater the Idumaean was of Edomite origin. He was the progenitor of the Herodian Dynasty that ruled Judea after the Roman conquest. Under Herod the Great Idumaea was ruled for him by a series of governors, among whom were his brother Joseph ben Antipater and his brother-in-law Costobarus.

Immediately before the siege of Jerusalem by Titus, 20,000 Idumaeans, under the leadership of John, Simeon, Phinehas, and Jacob, appeared before Jerusalem to fight in behalf of the Zealots who were besieged in the Temple.[44] See Zealot Temple Siege for more information.

After the Jewish Wars the Idumaean people are no longer mentioned in history, though the geographical region of "Idumea" is still referred to at the time of St. Jerome.[15]

Edomite religion

The nature of Edomite religion is largely unknown. As close relatives of other Levantine Semites, they may have worshipped such gods as El, Baal, Kaus and Asherah.

In Antiquities of the Jews, Book 15, chapter 7, section 9, Josephus notea that Costobarus, appointed by Herod to be governoer of Idumea and Gaza,was descended from the priests of 'the Koze, whom the Idumeans had formerly served as a God."

Josephus goes on to say that the Jewish leader Hyrcanus had made the Idumeans "receive the Jewish customs and law."

For an archaeological text that may well be Edomite, reflecting on the language, literature, and religion of Edom, see Victor Sasson, "An Edomite Joban Text, with a Biblical Joban Parallel", Zeitschrift fur die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 117 (Berlin 2006), 601-615.

Identification with Rome

Later in Jewish history, the Roman Empire came to be identified with Edom, and specifically the remnants of Amalek and still designate nowadays western countries. This can be seen in rabbinic and Pharasaic writings such as the Mishnah or the Talmud, the Spanish Rabbinic leaders Ramban and Ibn-Ezra, the French Rabbinic scholars Rashi (1040–1105) and Tosphoth, Babylonian Jewish scholars like Sa-adia Gaon and other Jewish exilarchs, the Lithuanian leader Rabbi Elijah of Vilna and Baal-Shem-Tov. They use "Edomite" to refer to Rome, the Byzantine Empire. In parallel, the Islamic world is referred to as "Ishmael

Magdiel

Magdiel was an Edomite province, and possibly the name of an eponymous chieftain (Hebrew: sar‎), mentioned in the Bible ( Genesis 36:31-43).[45] In various midrashim, Magdiel was associated with Rome.[45]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ van der Steen, Eveline; Piotra Bienkowski How Old is the Kingdom of Edom [1]
  2. ^ Redford, Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times, Princeton Univ. Press, 1992. p.228, 318.
  3. ^ J.M. Tebes (2006), "You Shall Not Abhor an Edomite, for He is Your Brother": The Tradition of Esau and the Edomite Genealogies from an Anthropological Perspective, JHS 6/6
  4. ^ Genesis 25:25, material in brackets added.
  5. ^ Genesis 25:29-30, material in brackets added.
  6. ^ Deuteronomy 1:2; Deuteronomy 2:1-8
  7. ^ Judges 11:17-18; II Kings 3:8-9
  8. ^ Deuteronomy 2:13-18
  9. ^ Genesis 36:33; Isaiah 34:6, Isaiah 63:1, et al.
  10. ^ II Kings 14:7
  11. ^ I Kings 9:26
  12. ^ Genesis 36:31-43
  13. ^ Hebrew word #441 in Strong's
  14. ^ Gordon, Bruce R.. "Edom (Idumaea)". Regnal Chronologies. http://ellone-loire.net/obsidian/Holyland.html#Edom. Retrieved 2006-08-04. 
  15. ^ a b c Richard Gottheil, Max Seligsohn (1901-1906). "Edom, Idumaea". The Jewish Encyclopedia. 3. Funk and Wagnalls. pp. 40–41. LCCN:16014703. http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view_page.jsp?artid=45&letter=E&pid=1. Retrieved 2005-07-25. 
  16. ^ I Chronicles 1:43-54
  17. ^ Numbers 20:19, King James Version 1611
  18. ^ Numbers 20:14-21
  19. ^ Deuteronomy 2:4-6
  20. ^ II Samuel 8:13-14; I Kings 9:15-16
  21. ^ II Samuel 9:14-22; Josephus, Jewish Antiquities viii. 7, S 6
  22. ^ II Samuel 8:14
  23. ^ II Kings 3:9-26
  24. ^ II Chronicles 20:10-23
  25. ^ II Kings 8:20-22; II Chronicles 21:8
  26. ^ II Kings 14:7; II Chronicles 25:11-12
  27. ^ Psalms 137:7; Obadiah 1:11-14
  28. ^ Isaiah 34:5-8; Jeremiah 49:7-22; Obadiah passim
  29. ^ Psalms 60:8 & Psalms 108:9
  30. ^ Deuteronomy 23:8-9
  31. ^ Yevamot 76b
  32. ^ Redford 305.
  33. ^ Jagoda, Barry (2005). Controversial Dates Of Biblical Edom Reassessed In Results From New Archeological Research
  34. ^ Levy, Thomas E. and Mohammed Najjar. "Edom and Copper." Biblical Archaeology Review. July/August, 2006. 5.
  35. ^ "High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan.". PNAS. October 27 2008. doi:10.1073/pnas.0804950105. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2008/10/24/0804950105.abstract. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  36. ^ King Solomon's (Copper) Mines? Newswise, Retrieved on October 27, 2008.
  37. ^ See the recent debate in Antiguo Oriente: T.E. Levy/M. Najjar/T. Higham. (2007) 'Iron Age Complex Societies, Radiocarbon Dates and Edom: Working with the Data and Debates', AntOr 5; E. van der Steen/P. Bienkowski. (2006) 'How Old is the Kingdom of Edom? A Review of New Evidence and Recent Discussion', AntOr 4; I. Finkelstein/L. Singer-Avitz. (2008) 'The Pottery of Edom: A Correction', AntOr 6.
  38. ^ Müller, Asien und Europa, p. 135.
  39. ^ Mark 3:8; Ptolemy, "Geography," v. 16
  40. ^ Strabo, Geography Bk.16.2.34
  41. ^ II Maccabees 12:32
  42. ^ Josephus, "Ant." xii. 8, §§ 1, 6
  43. ^ ib. xiii. 9, § 1; xiv. 4, § 4
  44. ^ Josephus, Jewish Wars iv. 4, § 5
  45. ^ a b http://64.233.183.104/search?q=cache:2viXp3a-4GYJ:www.vbm-torah.org/archive/salt-bereishit/08-7vayish.htm+magdiel+sar&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=6

References

External links

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Edom (Hebrew: אֱדוֹם, Modern Edom Tiberian ʼĔḏôm ; "red"; Assyrian: Udumi; Syriac: ܐܕܘܡ; Greek: Ἰδουμαία, Idoumaía; Latin: Idumæa or Idumea) was a 1st millennium BCE Iron Age kingdom of southern Jordan.[1] The region has much reddish sandstone, which may have given rise to the name.

Contents

Historical Edom

[[File:|left|thumb|200px|Map showing kingdom of Edom (in red) at its largest extent, c. 600 BC. Areas in dark red show the approximate boundary of classical-age Idumaea.]]

History

The name which was translated into "Edom"
in hieroglyphs
M17-A2-D46-Z7-G17:D36-T14-N25

The Edomites may have been connected with the Shasu and Shutu, nomadic raiders mentioned in Egyptian sources. Indeed, a letter from an Egyptian scribe at a border fortress in the Wadi Tumilat during the reign of Merneptah reports movement of nomadic "shasu-tribes of Edom" to watering holes in Egyptian territory.[2] The earliest Iron Age settlements - possibly copper mining camps - date to the 9th century BCE. Settlement intensified by the late 8th century BCE and the main sites so far excavated have been dated between the 8th and 6th centuries BCE. The last unambiguous reference to Edom is an Assyrian inscription of 667 BCE; it has thus been unclear when, how and why Edom ceased to exist as a State.[1]

Edom is mentioned in Assyrian cuneiform inscriptions in the form "Udumi" or "Udumu"; three of its kings are known from the same source: Ḳaus-malaka at the time of Tiglath-pileser III (c. 745 BC), Malik-rammu at the time of Sennacherib (c. 705 BC), and Ḳaus-gabri at the time of Esarhaddon (c. 680 BC). According to the Egyptian inscriptions, the "Aduma" at times extended their possessions to the borders of Egypt.[3] After the conquest of Judah by the Babylonians, Edomites settled in the region of Hebron. They prospered in this new country, called by the Greeks and Romans "Idumaea" or "Idumea", for more than four centuries.[4].Strabo, writing around the time of Christ, held that the Idumaeans, whom he identified as of Nabataean origin, constituted the majority of the population of Western Judea, where they commingled with the Judaeans and adopted their customs [5].

During the revolt of the Maccabees against the Seleucid kingdom (early 2nd century BCE), II Maccabees refers to a Seleucid general named Gorgias as "Governor of Idumaea"; whether he was a Greek or a Hellenized Edomite is unknown. Some scholars maintain that the reference to Idumaea in that passage is an error altogether. Judas Maccabeus conquered their territory for a time in around 163 BC.[6] They were again subdued by John Hyrcanus (c. 125 BC), who forcibly converted them to Judaism[7] and incorporated them into the Jewish nation,[8] despite the opposition of the pharisees. Antipater the Idumaean, the progenitor of the Herodian Dynasty that ruled Judea after the Roman conquest, was of Edomite origin. Under Herod the Great Idumaea was ruled for him by a series of governors, among whom were his brother Joseph ben Antipater and his brother-in-law Costobarus. Immediately before the siege of Jerusalem by Titus, 20,000 Idumaeans, under the leadership of John, Simeon, Phinehas, and Jacob, appeared before Jerusalem to fight in behalf of the Zealots who were besieged in the Temple.[9] See Zealot Temple Siege for more information. After the Jewish Wars the Idumaean people are no longer mentioned in history, though the geographical region of "Idumea" is still referred to at the time of St. Jerome.[8]

Religion

The nature of Edomite religion is largely unknown. As close relatives of other Levantine Semites, they may have worshiped such gods as El, Baal, Kaus and Asherah. The oldest biblical traditions place Yahweh as the deity of southern Edom, and may have originated in Edom/Seir/Teman/Sinai before being adopted in Israel and Judah.[10]

In Antiquities of the Jews, Book 15, chapter 7, section 9, Josephus notes that Costobarus, appointed by Herod to be governor of Idumea and Gaza, was descended from the priests of "the Koze, whom the Idumeans had formerly served as a God."

Judas Maccabeus conquered their territory for a time in around 163 BC. They were again subdued by John Hyrcanus (c. 125 BC), who forcibly converted them to Judaism and incorporated them into the Jewish nation.

For an archaeological text that may well be Edomite, reflecting on the language, literature, and religion of Edom, see Victor Sasson, "An Edomite Joban Text, with a Biblical Joban Parallel", Zeitschrift fur die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 117 (Berlin 2006), 601-615.

Economy

The Kingdom of Edom drew much of its livelihood from the caravan trade between Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, and southern Arabia, along the Incense Route. Astride the King's Highway, the Edomites were one of several states in the region for whom trade was vital due to the scarcity of arable land. It is also said that sea routes traded as far away as India, with ships leaving from the port of Ezion-Geber. Edom's location on the southern highlands left it with only a small strip of land that received sufficient rain for farming.[citation needed] Edom probably exported salt and balsam (used for perfume and temple incense in the ancient world) from the Dead Sea region.[citation needed]

Biblical Edom

File:Kingdoms around Israel 830
The region around 830 BC. Edom is shown in yellow on this map

The Edomites' original country, according to the Tanakh, stretched from the Sinai peninsula as far as Kadesh Barnea. Southward it reached as far as Eilat, which was the seaport of Edom.[11] On the north of Edom was the territory of Moab.[12] The boundary between Moab and Edom was the Wadi Zered.[13] The ancient capital of Edom was Bozrah[14] According to Genesis, Esau's descendants settled in this land after displacing the Horites. It was also called the land of Seir; Mount Seir appears to have been strongly identified with them and may have been a cultic site. In the time of Amaziah (838 BC), Selah (Petra) was its principal stronghold;[15] Eilat and Ezion-geber its seaports.[16]

Genesis 36 lists the kings of Edom:

These are the kings who ruled in the land of Edom before a king ruled the children of Israel. And Bela ben Beor ruled in Edom, and the name of his city was Dinhabah. And Bela died, and Jobab ben Zerah from Bozrah ruled in his place. And Jobab died, and Husham of the land of Temani ruled in his place. And Husham died, and Hadad ben Bedad, who struck Midian in the field of Moab, ruled in his place, and the name of his city was Avith. And Hadad died, and Samlah of Masrekah ruled in his place. And Samlah died, and Saul of Rehoboth on the river ruled in his place. And Saul died, and Baal-hanan ben Achbor ruled in his place. And Baal-hanan ben Achbor died, and Hadar ruled in his place, and the name of his city was Pau, and his wife's name was Mehetabel bat Matred bat Mezahab. And these are the names of the clans of Esau by their families, by their places, by their names: clan Timnah, clan Alvah, clan Jetheth, clan Aholibamah, clan Elah, clan Pinon, clan Kenaz, clan Teman, clan Mibzar, clan Magdiel, clan Iram.[17]

The Hebrew word translated as "clan" is aluf, also translated as "chief", "general", or "duke", and used in this sense only in connection with Edom and Hori.[18] (Since 1948 it has been used for senior ranks in the Israeli Defense Force.)

If the account may be taken at face value, the kingship of Edom was, at least in early times, not hereditary,[19] perhaps elective.[8] First Chronicles mentions both a king and chieftains.[20] When the King of Edom refused to allow the children of Israel[21] to pass through his land on their way to Canaan, they detoured around the country because of his show of force[22] or because God ordered them to do so rather than wage war.[23] The King of Edom did not attack the Israelites, though he prepared to resist aggression.

Nothing further is recorded of the Edomites in the Tanakh until their defeat by King Saul of Israel in the late 11th century BC. Forty years later King David and his general Joab defeated the Edomites in the "valley of salt", (probably near the Dead Sea).[24] An Edomite prince named Hadad escaped and fled to Egypt, and after David's death returned and tried to start a rebellion, but failed and went to Syria.[25] From that time Edom remained a vassal of Israel. David placed over the Edomites Israelite governors or prefects,[26] and this form of government seems to have continued under Solomon. When Israel divided into two kingdoms Edom became a dependency of the Kingdom of Judah. In the time of Jehoshaphat (c. 914 BC) the Tanakh mentions a king of Edom,[27] who was probably an Israelite appointed by the King of Judah. It also states[28] that the inhabitants of Mount Seir invaded Judea in conjunction with Ammon and Moab, and that the invaders turned against one another and were all destroyed. Edom revolted against Jehoram and elected a king of its own.[29] Amaziah attacked and defeated the Edomites, seizing Selah, but the Israelites never subdued Edom completely.[30]

In the time of Nebuchadnezzar II the Edomites helped plunder Jerusalem and slaughter the Jews.[31] For this reason the Prophets denounced Edom violently.[32]

Although the Idumaeans controlled the lands to the east and south of the Dead Sea, their peoples were held in contempt by the Israelites. Hence the Book of Psalms says "Moab is my washpot: over Edom will I cast out my shoe".[33] According to the Torah,[34] the congregation could not receive descendants of a marriage between an Israelite and an Edomite until the fourth generation. This law was a subject of controversy between Shimon ben Yohai, who said it applied only to male descendants, and other Talmudists, who said female descendants were also excluded.[35]

Rabbinic and Pharasaic writings such as the Mishnah or the Talmud, the Spanish Rabbinic leaders Ramban and Ibn-Ezra, the French Rabbinic scholars Rashi (1040–1105) and Tosphoth, Babylonian Jewish scholars like Sa-adia Gaon and other Jewish exilarchs, the Lithuanian leader Rabbi Elijah of Vilna and Baal-Shem-Tov use "Edomite" to refer to Rome, the Byzantine Empire. In parallel, the Islamic world is referred to as "Ishmael".

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Piotr Bienkowski, "New Evidence on Edom in the Neo-Babylonian and Persian Periods", in John Andrew Dearman, Matt Patrick Graham, (eds), "The land that I will show you: essays on the history and archaeology of the Ancient Near East in honour of J. Maxwell Miller" (Sheffield Academic Press, 2001), pp.2198ff
  2. ^ Redford, Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times, Princeton Univ. Press, 1992. p.228, 318.
  3. ^ Müller, Asien und Europa, p. 135.
  4. ^ Ptolemy, "Geography," v. 16
  5. ^ Strabo, Geography Bk.16.2.34
  6. ^ Josephus, "Ant." xii. 8, §§ 1, 6
  7. ^ ib. xiii. 9, § 1; xiv. 4, § 4
  8. ^ a b c Richard Gottheil, Max Seligsohn (1901-1906). "Edom, Idumaea". The Jewish Encyclopedia. 3. Funk and Wagnalls. pp. 40–41. LCCN:16014703. http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view_page.jsp?artid=45&letter=E&pid=1. Retrieved 2005-07-25. 
  9. ^ Josephus, Jewish Wars iv. 4, § 5
  10. ^ Mark S. Smith, "The origins of biblical monotheism", (Oxford University Press, 2001) pp.140-145
  11. ^ Deuteronomy 1:2; Deuteronomy 2:1-8
  12. ^ Judges 11:17-18; II Kings 3:8-9
  13. ^ Deuteronomy 2:13-18
  14. ^ Genesis 36:33; Isaiah 34:6, Isaiah 63:1, et al.
  15. ^ II Kings 14:7
  16. ^ I Kings 9:26
  17. ^ Genesis 36:31-43
  18. ^ Hebrew word #441 in Strong's
  19. ^ Gordon, Bruce R.. "Edom (Idumaea)". Regnal Chronologies. http://ellone-loire.net/obsidian/Holyland.html#Edom. Retrieved 2006-08-04. 
  20. ^ I Chronicles 1:43-54
  21. ^ Numbers 20:19, King James Version 1611
  22. ^ Numbers 20:14-21
  23. ^ Deuteronomy 2:4-6
  24. ^ II Samuel 8:13-14; I Kings 9:15-16
  25. ^ II Samuel 9:14-22; Josephus, Jewish Antiquities viii. 7, S 6
  26. ^ II Samuel 8:14
  27. ^ II Kings 3:9-26
  28. ^ II Chronicles 20:10-23
  29. ^ II Kings 8:20-22; II Chronicles 21:8
  30. ^ II Kings 14:7; II Chronicles 25:11-12
  31. ^ Psalms 137:7; Obadiah 1:11-14
  32. ^ Isaiah 34:5-8; Jeremiah 49:7-22; Obadiah passim; for a possible treaty violation, see Jason C. Dykehouse, "An Historical Reconstruction of Edomite Treaty Betrayal in the Sixth Century B.C.E. Based on Biblical, Epigraphic, and Archaeological Data" (Ph.D. diss., Baylor University, 2008).
  33. ^ Psalms 60:8 & Psalms 108:9
  34. ^ Deuteronomy 23:8-9
  35. ^ Yevamot 76b

References

External links

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

EDOM, the district situated to the south of Palestine, between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of `Akaba (Aelanitic Gulf), the inhabitants of which were regarded by the Israelites as a "brother" people (see EsAU). On the E. it touched Moab, the tribes of the great desert and the northern part of Arabia; on the W. its boundaries were determined by the Sinaitic peninsula, Egypt and Israel. Both Kadesh and Mt. Hor (perhaps Jebel Madera) are represented as lying on its border (Num. xx.

16, 22), and the modern Wadi el-Fikreh, in which the "Scorpion pass" was probably situated (Judg. i. 36; Num. xxxiv. 4), may have marked its limits from Jebel Madera north-west towards the southern extremity of the Dead Sea. Kadesh (`Ain Kadis), however, lies about 50 m. south of Beersheba (the southern end of Israel as opposed to Dan in the north), and the precise borders must always have been determined by political conditions: by the relations between Edom and its neighbours, Judah, the Philistine states, Moab, and the restless desert tribes with which Edom was always very closely allied. The northern part of Edom became known by a separate name as Gebalene (Gebal in Ps. lxxxiii. 7), the modern Jibal, "mountain country." Seir or M t. Seir, a synonym for Edom, not to be confused with the Judaean locality (Josh. xv. 10), has been identified with the modern es-Sarah, the hilly region to the south of Petra; though its use probably varied in ancient times as much as that of Edom certainly did. Mt. Halal, apparently one of its offshoots (Josh. xi.

17, xii. 7), is of uncertain identification, nor can the exact position of Paran (probably desert of et-Tih) or Zin (Sin) be precisely determined. The chief Edomite cities extended from north to south on or adjoining an important trade-route (see below); they include Bozrah (Buseire), Shobek, Petra (the capital), and Ma`an; farther to the south lay the important seaports Ezion-Geber (mod. `Ain elGhudyan, now 15 m. north of the head of the Aelanitic Gulf) and Elath (whence the gulf derives its name). Petra is usually identified with the biblical Sela, unless this latter is to be placed at the south end of the Dead Sea (Judg. i. 36). The sites of Teman and Dedan, which also were closely associated with Edom (Jer. xlix. 7 seq.; Ez. xxv. 13), are uncertain. No doubt, as a general rule, the relations between Edomites and the "sons of the east" (Ezek. xxv. 10; Job i. 3) and the "kingdoms of Hazor" (nomad states; Jer. xlix. 28, 30, 33) varied considerably throughout the period of O.T. history.

The land of Edom is unfruitful and forbidding, with the notable exception of fertile districts immediately south of the Dead Sea and along its eastern border. It was traversed by an important trade-route from Elath (the junction for routes to Egypt and Arabia) which ran northwards by Mean and Moab; but cross-routes turned from Ma`an and Petra to Gaza or up the Ghor (south end of Dead Sea) to Hebron and Jerusalem.' Thus Edom formed a prominent centre for traffic from Arabia and its seats of culture to Egypt, the Philistine towns, Palestine and the Syrian states, and it enjoyed a commercial importance which made it a significant factor in Palestinian history.

The earliest history of Edom is that of the "sand-dwellers," "archers" or Shasu (perhaps "marauders"), whose conflicts with ancient Egypt are not infrequently mentioned. The first clear reference is in the eighth year of Mineptah II. (close of 13th century B.C.), when a tribe of Shasu from Aduma received permission to enter Egypt and feed their flocks.' A little more than a century later Rameses III. claims to have overthrown the Saaru among the tribes of the Shasu, and the identification of this name with Seir is usually recognized, although it is naturally uncertain whether the Edomites of Old Testament tradition are meant. According to the latter, the Edomites were a new race who drove out the Horites from Mt. Seir. The designation suggests that these were "cave-dwellers," but although many caves and hollows have been found about Petra (and also in Palestine), this tradition probably "serves only to express the idea entertained by later generations concerning their predecessors" (Noldeke).

Not only is Edom as a nation recognized as older than Israel, but a list of eight kings, who reigned before the Israelite monarchy, is preserved in Gen. xxxvi.

The first Bela, son of Beor, is often identified with Balaam, but the traditions of the Exodus are not precise enough to warrant the assumption that the seer was the king of a hostile land in Num. xx. 14 sqq., which in Deut. ii. 1-8 appears to have been peaceful; see Balaam; Exodus. In Husham, the third king, several scholars (Gratz, Klostermann, Marquart, &c.) have recognized the true adversary of Othniel (q.v.; Judg. iii.). The defeat of Midian in the land of Moab by his successor Hadad has been associated with the Midianite invasion in the time of Gideon (q.v.; Judg. vi. sqq.). The sixth is Shaul, whose name happens to be identical with Saul, king of Israel, whilst the last Hadad (so I Chron. i. 50) of Pau (or Peor in Moab, so the Septuagint) should belong to the time of David. The list, whatever its value, together with the other evidence in Gen. xxxvi., implies that the Edomites consisted of a number of local groups with chieftains, with a monarchy which, however, was not hereditary but due to the supremacy of stronger leaders. The tradition thus finds an analogy in the Israelite "judges" before the time of Saul and David.

Saul, the first king of Israel, conquered Edom (1 Sam. xiv. 47).3 Of the conquest of Edom by David, the first king of the united Judah and Israel, several details are given (2 Sam. viii. 13 seq.; Kings xi. 14 sqq.; 1 Chron. xviii. 11 seq.; cf. Ps. lx. title and ver. 8 seq.), although the account of the slaughter is certainly exaggerated. The scene was the valley of Salt, probably to the south of the Dead Sea. Of the escape of the Edomite prince Hadad, and of his residence in Egypt, a twofold account is 1 See further, E. Robinson, Biblical Researches, vol. ii.; E. Hull, Mt. Seir; E. H. Palmer, Desert of the Exodus; Baedeker's Palestine and Syria; C. W. Wilson, "Quart. Stat." (Pal. Explor. Fund), 1899, p. 307, and G. A. Smith, Ency. Bib. col. 5162 seq.

In the old story of Sinuhit (ascribed to the 12th dyn.) the hero visits the land of Kedem, which, it was suggested, lay to the south-east or south of the Dead Sea; see, however, now A. H. Gardiner, Sitz.- Ber. of the Berlin Academy, 1907, pp. 142 sqq. The suggestion that the city Udumu, in the land of Gar, mentioned in the 15th century (Amarna Tablets, ed. Winckler, No. 237), is Edom, Gar being the Eg. Kharu (Palestine) and the O.T. Horites (see above), is extremely hazardous. That the name Aduma (above) refers to Etham (so Naville, &c.) is improbable.

3 That the Edomites preserved this tradition of Saul's sovereignty and (from their standpoint) enrolled him among their kings (Gen. xxxvi. 37) cannot of course be proved. The account of the ferocious slaughter of the priests of Nob at Saul's command by Doeg the Edomite is a secondary tradition and probably of late origin (1 Sam. xxi. 1-9, xxii. 6-23); cf. the hostility of Edom in exilic and postexilic times (p. 878, col. 1).

preserved.' After the death of David he returned to Edom; if, as the narrative implies, he became a troublesome adversary to Solomon, nothing is known of his achievements, and if the royal trading-journeys from Ezion-geber were maintained, Edom could have done little. However, in the first half of the 9th century Edom was under the rule of Jehoshaphat of Judah, and this king together with Israel held Ezion-geber (r Kings xxii. 47 sqq.; 2 Chron. xx. 35 sqq.). But some catastrophe befell the fleet, and shortly afterwards Jehoshaphat's son Jehoram had to face a revolt in which Edom and the men of Libnah (the Philistines) were concerned. It was about this period that Israel had conquered Moab, thrusting it farther south towards Edom, and the subsequent success of Moab in throwing off the yoke, and the unsuccessful attempt of Jehoram of Israel to regain the position, may show that Edom was also in alliance with Moab.' In the time of Adad-nirari of Assyria (812-783 B.C.) Edom is mentioned as an independent tributary with Beth-Omri (Israel) and Palashtu (Philistia); the absence of Judah is perplexing. Amaziah of Judah had gained a signal victory over Edom in the valley of Salt (2 Kings xiv. 7), but after his defeat by Jehoash of Israel there is a gap and the situation is obscure. Consequently it is uncertain whether Edom was the vassal of the next great Israelite king Jeroboam II., or whether the Assyrian evidence for its independent position belongs to this later time. However, Uzziah, a contemporary of Jeroboam II., and one of the most successful of Judaean kings, overcame Edom and its natural allies (2 Chron. xxvi. 6 sqq.), and at this stage Edomite history becomes more prominent. It joined the great coalition in which Philistia and Israel were leagued against Assyria, and drove out the Judaeans who had been in possession of Elath. 3 On the events that followed see Ahaz; Hezekiah; Philistines. The Assyrian inscriptions name as tributary kings of Edom, Kausmelek (time of Tiglath-Pileser IV.), Malik (?)-ram (701 B.C.), and Kaus-gabri (7th century). In the middle of the 7th century both Edom and Moab suffered from the restlessness of the desert tribes, and after another period of obscurity, they joined in the attempt made by Zedekiah of Judah to revolt against Nebuchadrezzar (Jer. xxvii. 3). In the last years before the fall of Jerusalem many of the Jews found a refuge in Edom (Jer. xl. I I), although other traditions throw another light upon the attitude of Edom during these disasters.

That Edomites burned the temple after the destruction of Jerusalem (1 Esd. iv. 45, cf. v. 50) is on a line with the repeated denunciation of their "unbrotherly" conduct in later writings. Certainly the weak state of Palestine invited attacks from the outlying tribes, but the tone of certain late writings implies a preliminary period of, at least, neutrality (cf. Deut. ii. 4 sqq., xxiii. 7 seq.; the omission of Edom in xxiii. 3; Neh. xiii. 1; and in Ezra ix. I - contrast i Esd. viii. 69). Subsequently Edom is execrated for revengeful attacks upon the Jews, and its speedy destruction is foretold; but the passages appear to be much later than the disaster of 587 B.C., and may even imply conditions after the restoration (Ob. 10 sqq.; Ezek. xxv. 12-14; Jer. xlix. 7; Ps. cxxxvii. 7; Lam. iv. 21 seq., v. 2 sqq.). But at length the day of reckoning came (cf. Is. xxxiv. 5; lxiii. 1-6), and the fate of Edom is still fresh in the mind of Malachi (i. 1-5).

The problem is complicated by the possibility that during the ages over which the references can range many changes of fortune could have occurred. The pressure of the Nabataeans forced Edom to leave its former seats and advance into the south of Judah with Hebron as the capital. This had been fully accomplished by 31 2 B.C., but the date of the first occupation cannot be ascertained from the literary evidence alone. Thus the district 1 I Kings l.c., see the Septuagint and, especially, H. Winckler, Alttest. Untersuch., pp. r-15; C. F. Burney, Kings, pp. 158 sqq.; J. Skinner, Kings, pp. 443 sqq.; Ed. Meyer, Israeliten, pp. 358 sqq.

3 011 2 Kings iii. see Jehoram; Jehoshaphat; Moab; and for the biblical traditions relating to this period see Kings (Book) and JEws: History. The chronicler's account of Judaean successes (2 Chron. xvii. 10 seq.; xx.) and reverses (xxi. 16, xxii. i) may rest originally upon the source from which i Kings xxii. 47 seq.; 2 Kings viii. 20, 22, have been abbreviated. It is hardly probable that there was enmity between Edom and Moab as 2 Kings iii. now implies, although hostile relations at other periods are likely (cf. Am. ii. 1); for Edom in Moabite territory see above on Gen. xxxvi. and "Quart. Stat." (Pal. Explor. Fund), 1902, pp. IO sqq.

3 2 Kings xvi. 6; on the text see the commentaries.

in question is Jewish in the time of Nehemiah (Neh. xi. 25-30), but it is uncertain whether the Edomite occupation was earlier (a fusion being assumed) or later, or whether the passage may be untrustworthy. Henceforth, the new home of the Edomites is consequently known as Idumaea. See, for further history, Herod; Jews.4 Although but little is known of the inhabitants of Edom, their close relationship to Judah and their kinship with the surrounding tribes invest them with particular interest. The ties which united Lot (the "father" of Ammon and Moab), Ishmael, Midian and Edom (Esau) with the southern tribes Judah and Simeon, as manifested in the genealogical lists, are intelligible enough on geographical grounds alone, and the significance of this for the history of Judah and Palestine cannot be ignored. The traditions recording the separation of Lot from Abraham, of Hagar and Ishmael from Isaac, and of Esau from Jacob, although at present arranged in a descending scheme of family relationship, are the result of systematic grouping and cannot express any chronological order of events (see Genesis). Many motives have worked to bring these legends into their present form, and while they depict the character of Israel's wilder neighbours, they represent the recurrent alternating periods of hostility and fellowship between it and Edom which mark the history. Esau (Edom) although the older, loses his superiority, and if the oracles declare that the elder shall serve the younger (Jacob, i.e. Israel), the final independence of Esau (Gen. xxv. 23, xxvii. 39 seq.), as foretold, obviously alludes to some successful Edomite revolt. As an enemy, Edom in alliance with the tribes along the trade-routes (Philistines, Moabites, &c.) was responsible for many injuries, and in frequent forays carried away Judaeans as slaves for Gaza and Tyre (Am. i. 6 seq., 9). As an ally or vassal, it was in touch with the wealth of Arabia (Ezek. xxvii. 16, read "Edom" for "Aram"), and Judah and Israel as well as Gaza and Damascus enjoyed the fruits of its commerce. In view of the evidence for the advanced culture of early Arabia, the question of Edom is extremely suggestive, and although speculation at this stage would be premature, it is interesting to observe that Edomite and allied tribes were famed for their wisdom,' and that apart from the possibility of Arabian influence upon Israelite culture, the influence of Midian and related tribes is certain from the traditions of Moses and of his work (see Jethro; Kenites; Moses), and the Edomite district was a traditional home of Yahweh himself (Deut. xxxiii. 2; Judg. v. 4; Hab. iii. 3); see Hebrew Religion. It should be added, however, that the Edomite names and other evidence point to the cult of other gods, viz. Baal, Hadad, Malik (cf. MoLOCx), Kaus, or Kus, and Kozeh (Jos. Ant. xv. 7, 9), who was probably a sky or lightning deity.

The names Esau and Edom are possibly old divine names; see ESAU and Ency. Bib. s.v. " Obed-edom" (the name appears to mean "servant of Edom"). For Kaus, see Baethgen, Beitr. z. semit. Religionsgeschichte, p. I I seq.; G. A. Cooke, N. Sem. Inscr. p. 234 Ency. Bib. col. 2682, n. 2 and 2688 (s.v. "Kushaiah"); and Zimmern, Keilinschr. u. d. alte Test.', pp. 472 seq. On the question of early Arabian civilization see YEMEN. That the name Mizraim (Misraim), "Egypt," was extended eastwards of the Delta is in itself probable, but it is still uncertain whether the term (also Ass. Musri) was applied to Edom. The evidence (which is of mixed value) makes the view a plausible one, but the theory has often been exaggerated (see MIzRAIM). For Edom see, generally, Buhl, Gesch. d. Edomiter (1893); Noldeke's article in Ency. Bib.; W. Libbey and F. E. Hoskins, The Jordan Valley and Petra (1905); the conjectural sketch by I. Levy in Rev. d'e'tudes juives (Jan. 1906). For the history and culture of the latest period, see J. P. Peters and Thiersch, Painted Tombs in the Necropolis of Marissa (1905), ch. i. (S. A. C.)


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Edom

Plural
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Edom

  1. (Biblical) The name given to Esau in the Hebrew Bible.
  2. The nation that purportedly traced their ancestry to Esau.

Synonyms

Derived terms

Anagrams


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

(See also Esau, also named Edom, i.e. Red)

Idumea (Isa 34:5, 6; Ezek 35:15). "The field of Edom" (Gen 32:3), "the land of Edom" (Gen 36:16), was mountainous (Obad 1:8, 9, 19, 21). It was called the land, or "the mountain of Seir," the rough hills on the east side of the Arabah. It extended from the head of the Gulf of Akabah, the Elanitic gulf, to the foot of the Dead Sea (1 Kg 9:26), and contained, among other cities, the rock-hewn Sela (q.v.), generally known by the Greek name Petra (2Kg 14:7). It is a wild and rugged region, traversed by fruitful valleys. Its old capital was Bozrah (Isa 63:1). The early inhabitants of the land were Horites. They were destroyed by the Edomites (Deut 2:12), between whom and the kings of Israel and Judah there was frequent war (2Kg 8:20; 2Chr 28:17).

At the time of the Exodus they churlishly refused permission to the Israelites to pass through their land (Num 20:14-21), and ever afterwards maintained an attitude of hostility toward them. They were conquered by David (2 Sam 8:14; comp. 1 Kg 9:26), and afterwards by Amaziah (2Chr 25:11, 12). But they regained again their independence, and in later years, during the decline of the Jewish kingdom (2Kg 16:6; R.V. marg., "Edomites"), made war against Israel. They took part with the Chaldeans when Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem, and afterwards they invaded and held possession of the south of Palestine as far as Hebron. At length, however, Edom fell under the growing Chaldean power (Jer 27:3, 6).

There are many prophecies concerning Edom (Isa 34:5, 6; Jer 49:7-18; Ezek 25:13; 35:1-15; Joel 3:19; Amos 1:11; Obad.; Mal 1:3, 4) which have been remarkably fulfilled. The present desolate condition of that land is a standing testimony to the inspiration of these prophecies. After an existence as a people for above seventeen hundred years, they have utterly disappeared, and their language even is forgotten for ever. In Petra, "where kings kept their court, and where nobles assembled, there no man dwells; it is given by lot to birds, and beasts, and reptiles."

The Edomites were Semites, closely related in blood and in language to the Israelites. They dispossessed the Horites of Mount Seir; though it is clear, from Gen. 36, that they afterwards intermarried with the conquered population. Edomite tribes settled also in the south of Judah, like the Kenizzites (Gen 36:11), to whom Caleb and Othniel belonged (Josh 15:17). The southern part of Edom was known as Teman.

This article needs to be merged with Idumea.
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

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Simple English

[[File:|left|thumb|200px|Map showing kingdom of Edom (in red) when it was largest, at about 600 BC. Areas in dark red show the estimated boundary of classical Idumaea.]] Edom (Hebrew: אֱדוֹם, Standard Edom Tiberian ʼĔḏôm ; "red") is a name given to Esau, the brother of Jacob, in the Hebrew Bible. It also means the nation that came from him. The nation's name in Assyrian was Udumi. In Syriac it was ܐܕܘܡ. In Greek, it was Ἰδουμαία (Idoumaía). In Latin, it was Idumæa or Idumea.

The Edomite people were a Semitic-speaking tribal people. They lived in the Negev Desert and the Arabah valley. The Arabah valley is now the south of Dead Sea and next to the Jordan. The area has much red sandstone. This may have made the name "Edom". The nation of Edom is known to have existed back to the 8th or 9th century BC. The Bible dates it back several centuries further. Recent archaeological proof may show an Edomite nation as long ago as the 11th century BC. However, people are not completely sure. Others argue that the 8th or 9th century dates are right.[1] The nation stopped being a settled state after the Jewish-Roman Wars.

References

  1. van der Steen, Eveline; Piotra Bienkowski How Old is the Kingdom of Edom [1]


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