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Edward Braddock
January 1695 – 13 July 1755
Braddock.gif
General Edward Braddock
Place of death Great Meadows, United States
Allegiance Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg Kingdom of Great Britain
Service/branch Flag of the British Army.svg British Army
Rank General
Commands held North America

General Edward Braddock (January 1695 – 13 July 1755) was a British soldier and commander-in-chief for North America during the actions at the start of the French and Indian War (1754–1763). He is generally best remembered for his command of a disastrous expedition against the French-occupied Ohio Country in 1755, in which he lost his life.

Contents

Early life

Braddock was born in Perthshire, Scotland circa 1695. Braddock was commissioned into the Coldstream Guards in 1710.[1]

Netherlands Campaign

In 1747 as a Lieutenant-colonel he served under the Prince of Orange in Holland during the Siege of Bergen op Zoom.

In 1753 he was given the colonelcy of the 14th (Buckinghamshire) Prince of Wales Own Regiment of foot (now known as the West Yorkshire Regiment),[1] and in 1754 he became a major-general.[1]

North America

Appointed shortly afterwards to command against the French in America, he landed in Virginia on 20 February 1755[1] with two regiments of British regulars.[1] He met with several of the colonial governors at the Congress of Alexandria on 14 April and was persuaded to undertake vigorous actions against the French.[1] A general from Massachusetts would attack at Fort Niagara, General Johnson at Crown Point, Colonel Monckton at Fort Beausejour on the Bay of Fundy. He would lead an Expedition against Fort Duquesne at the Forks of the Ohio.

After some months of preparation, in which he was hampered by administrative confusion and want of resources, the Braddock expedition took the field with a picked column, in which George Washington served as a volunteer officer.[2] The column crossed the Monongahela River on 9 July 1755, and almost immediately afterwards encountered an Indian and French force.[1] Braddock's troops were completely surprised and routed, and Braddock, rallying his men time after time, fell at last, mortally wounded by a shot through the chest.[1]

Braddock was borne off the field by Washington and another officer, and died on 13 July 1755, just four days after the battle. Before he died Braddock left Washington his ceremonial sash that he wore with his battle uniform. Reportedly, Washington never went anywhere without this sash for the rest of his life, be it as the Commander of the Colonial Army or with his presidential duties.

General Braddock's burial near Great Meadows, Pennsylvania

He was buried just west of Great Meadows, where the remnants of the column halted on its retreat to reorganize.[1] Braddock was buried in the middle of the road and wagons were rolled over top of the grave site to prevent his body from being discovered and desecrated.[2] George Washington presided at the burial service,[2] as the chaplain had been severely wounded.

Legacy

The grave of General Edward Braddock.
  • Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography (1791) includes an account of helping General Braddock garner supplies and carriages for the general's troops. He also describes a conversation with Braddock in which he explicitly warned the General that his plan to march troops to the fort through a narrow valley would be dangerous because of the possibility of an ambush.
  • In 1804, human remains believed to be Braddock's were found buried in the roadway about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) west of Great Meadows by a crew of road workers. The remains were exhumed and reburied. A marble monument was erected over the new grave site in 1913 by the Coldstream Guards. The grave site is considered to be British territory.
  • General Braddock is the namesake of Braddock, Pennsylvania; Braddock Hills, Pennsylvania; North Braddock, Pennsylvania and Braddock Heights, Maryland.

See also

Sources

  • explorepahistory.com
  • Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America: 1754-1766 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000).
  • Paul Kopperman, Braddock at the Monongahela (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1977).
  • Lee McCardell, Ill-Starred General: Braddock of the Coldstream Guards (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1958).
  • Louis M. Waddell and Bruce D. Bomberger, The French and Indian War in Pennsylvania:Fortification and Struggle During the War for Empire (Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1996).
Military offices
Preceded by
New Post
Commander-in-Chief, North America
1755
Succeeded by
William Shirley
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

EDWARD BRADDOCK (16 95 ? - 1 755), [British general, was born in Perthshire, Scotland, about 1695. He was the son of Major-General Edward Braddock (d. 1725), and joined the Coldstream Guards in 1710. In 1747 as a lieutenant-colonel he served under the prince of Orange in Holland during the siege of Bergen-op-Zoom. In 1753 he was given the colonelcy of the 14th foot, and in 1754 he became a major-general. Being appointed shortly afterwards to command against the French in America, he landed in Virginia in February 1755. After some months of preparation, in which he was hampered by administrative confusion and want of resources, he took the field with a picked column, in which George Washington served as a volunteer officer, intended to attack Fort Duquesne (Pittsburg, Pa.). The column crossed the Monongahela river on the 9th of July and almost immediately afterwards fell into an ambuscade of French and Indians. The troops were completely surprised and routed, and Braddock, rallying his men time after time, fell at last mortally wounded. He was carried off the field with difficulty, and died on the 13th. He was buried at Great Meadows, where the remnant of the column halted on its retreat to reorganize. (See SEVEN YEARS' WAR.)


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