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Edward Jenner

Edward in the prime of his studies
Born 17 May 1749
Berkeley, Gloucestershire
Died 26 January 1823 (aged 73)
Berkeley, Gloucestershire
Residence Berkeley, Gloucestershire
Nationality United Kingdom
Fields Microbiology
Alma mater St George's, University of London
Doctoral advisor John Hunter
Known for smallpox vaccine

Edward Anthony Jenner (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English scientist who studied his natural surroundings in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Jenner is widely credited as the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, and is sometimes referred to as the 'Father of Immunology'. Jenner's discovery 'has saved more lives than the work of any other man'.[1][2][3]

Contents

Early life

Edward Jenner was born on 17 May 1749 (6 May Old Style) in Berkeley. Jenner then trained in Chipping Sodbury, Gloucestershire as an apprentice to Daniel Ludlow, a surgeon, for eight years from the age of 14. In 1770 Jenner went up to surgery and anatomy under the surgeon John Hunter and others at St George's Hospital.

William Osler records that Jenner was a student to whom Hunter repeated William Harvey's advice, very famous in medical circles (and characteristically Enlightenment), "Don't think, try".[4] Jenner therefore was early noticed by men famous for advancing the practice and institutions of surgery. Hunter remained in correspondence with him over natural history and proposed him for the Royal Society. Returning to his native countryside by 1773 he became a successful general practitioner and surgeon, practising in purpose-built premises at Berkeley.

Jenner and others formed a medical society in Rodborough, Gloucestershire, meeting to read papers on medical subjects and dine together. Jenner contributed papers on angina.

Smallpox

In this time smallpox was greatly feared, as one in three of those who contracted the disease died, and those who survived were often badly disfigured. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu discovered the Ottoman Empire concept of variolation during her 1716-1718 stint in Istanbul, and brought the idea back to Britain. Voltaire, a few years later, recorded that 60% of people caught smallpox, with 20% of the population dying of it. In the years following 1770 there were at least six people in England and Germany (Sevel, Jensen, Jesty 1774, Rendell, Plett 1791) who had successfully tested the possibility of using the cowpox vaccine as an immunization for smallpox in humans.[5] For example, Dorset farmer Benjamin Jesty had successfully vaccinated and presumably induced immunity in his wife and two children with cowpox during a smallpox epidemic in 1774, but it was not until Jenner's work some twenty years later that the procedure became widely understood. Indeed it is generally believed that Jenner was unaware of Jesty's success and arrived at his conclusions independently.[citation needed]

Jenner's Initial Theory:
The initial source of infection was a disease of horses, called "the grease", and that this was transferred to cows by farm workers, transformed, and then manifested as cowpox.

Noting the common observation that milkmaids did not generally get smallpox, Jenner theorized that the pus in the blisters which milkmaids received from cowpox (a disease similar to smallpox, but much less virulent) protected the milkmaids from smallpox. He may have had the advantage of hearing stories of Benjamin Jesty and others who deliberately arranged cowpox infection of their families, and then noticed a reduced smallpox risk in those families.

On 14 May 1796, Jenner tested his theory by inoculating James Phipps, a young boy of 8 years, with material from the cowpox blisters of the hand of Sarah Nelmes, a milkmaid who had caught cowpox from a cow called Blossom,[6] whose hide hangs on the wall of the library at St George's medical school (now in Tooting). Blossom's hide commemorates one of the school's most renowned alumni. Phipps was the 17th case described in Jenner's first paper on vaccination.

Jenner inoculated Phipps with cowpox pus in both arms on the same day. The inoculation was accomplished by scraping the pus from Nelmes' blisters onto a piece of wood then transferring this to Phipps' arms. This produced a fever and some uneasiness but no great illness. Later, he injected Phipps with variolous material, which would have been the routine attempt to produce immunity at that time. No disease followed. Jenner reported that later the boy was again challenged with variolous material and again showed no sign of infection.

Known:
Smallpox is more dangerous than variolation and cowpox less dangerous than variolation.
Hypothesis:
Infection with cowpox gives immunity to smallpox.
Test:
If variolation after infection with cowpox fails to produce a smallpox infection, immunity to smallpox has been achieved.
Consequence:
Immunity to smallpox can be induced much more safely than by variolation.

Ronald Hopkins states: "Jenner's unique contribution was not that he inoculated a few persons with cowpox, but that he then proved they were immune to smallpox. Moreover, he demonstrated that the protective cowpox could be effectively inoculated from person to person, not just directly from cattle.[7] In addition he tested his theory on a series of 23 subjects. This aspect of his research method increased the validity of his evidence.

He continued his research and reported it to the Royal Society, who did not publish the initial report. After improvement and further work, he published a report of twenty-three cases. Some of his conclusions were correct, and some erroneous – modern microbiological and microscopic methods would make this easier to repeat. The medical establishment, as cautious then as now, considered his findings for some time before accepting them. Eventually vaccination was accepted, and in 1840 the British government banned variolation – the use of smallpox itself – and provided vaccination – using cowpox – free of charge. (See Vaccination acts)

1802 caricature of Jenner vaccinating patients who feared it would make them sprout cowlike appendages.

Jenner's continuing work on vaccination prevented his continuing his ordinary medical practice. He was supported by his colleagues and the King in petitioning Parliament and was granted £10,000 for his work on vaccination. In 1806 he was granted another £20,000 for his continuing work.

In 1803 in London he became involved with the Jennerian Institution, a society concerned with promoting vaccination to eradicate smallpox. In 1808, with government aid, this society became the National Vaccine Establishment. Jenner became a member of the Medical and Chirurgical Society on its foundation in 1805, and subsequently presented to them a number of papers. This is now the Royal Society of Medicine. In 1806, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Returning to London in 1811 he observed a significant number of cases of smallpox after vaccination occurring. He found that in these cases the severity of the illness was notably diminished by the previous vaccination. In 1821 he was appointed Physician Extraordinary to King George IV, a considerable national honour, and was made Mayor of Berkeley and Justice of the Peace. He continued his interests in natural history. In 1823, the last year of his life, he presented his Observations on the Migration of Birds to the Royal Society.

Jenner was found in a state of apoplexy on 25 January 1823, with his right side paralysed. He never fully recovered, and eventually died of an apparent stroke (he had suffered a previous stroke) on 26 January 1823, aged 73. He was survived by one son and one daughter, his elder son having died of tuberculosis at the age of 21.

His original report is in the Royal College of Surgeons (London)

Legacy

In 1979, the World Health Organization declared smallpox an eradicated disease. This was the result of coordinated public health efforts by many people, but vaccination was an essential component. And although it was declared eradicated, some samples still remain in laboratories in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia in the United States, and State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR in Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia.

The importance of his work does not stop there. His vaccine also laid the groundwork for modern-day discoveries in immunology, and the field he began may someday lead to cures for arthritis, AIDS, and many other diseases of the time.[8]

Monuments

Bronze in Kensington Gardens
  • Jenner's house is now a small museum housing among other things the horns of the cow, Blossom. It lies in the Gloucestershire village of Berkeley.
  • Jenner was buried in the chancel of the parish church of Berkeley[citation needed].
  • A statue, by Robert William Sievier, was erected in the nave of Gloucester Cathedral.
  • A statue was erected in Trafalgar Square, later moved to Kensington Gardens.[9]
  • Near the small Gloucestershire village of Uley, Downham Hill is locally known as 'Smallpox Hill', with a possible connection to Jenner's local work with the disease.
  • St George's, University of London has a wing named after him as well as a bust of him.[10]
  • A small grouping of villages in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, United States, were named in honour of Jenner by early 19th century English settlers, including what are now the towns of Jenners, Jenner Township, Jenner Crossroads and Jennerstown, Pennsylvania.
  • There is a section at Gloucestershire Royal Hospital known as the Edward Jenner Ward where blood is taken specifically
  • Also a ward at Northwick Park Hospital is named after him, called Jenner Ward

Publications

  • 1798 An Inquiry Into the Causes and Effects of the Variolæ Vaccinæ
  • 1799 Further Observations on the Variolœ Vaccinœ
  • 1800 A Continuation of Facts and Observations relative to the Variolœ Vaccinœ 40pgs
  • 1801 The Origin of the Vaccine Inoculation 12pgs

See also

References

  1. ^ "Edward Jenner - (1749 – 1823)". Sundaytimes.lk. 2008-06-01. http://sundaytimes.lk/080601/FunDay/famous.html. Retrieved 2009-07-28. 
  2. ^ "History - Edward Jenner (1749 - 1823)". BBC. 2006-11-01. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/jenner_edward.shtml. Retrieved 2009-07-28. 
  3. ^ "Edward Jenner - Smallpox and the Discovery of Vaccination". http://www.dinweb.org/dinweb/DINMuseum/Edward%20Jenner.asp. Retrieved 2009-07-28. 
  4. ^ Loncarek K (April 2009). "Revolution or reformation". Croatian Medical Journal 50 (2): 195–7. doi:10.3325/cmj.2009.50.195. PMID 19399955. 
  5. ^ Plett PC (2006). "Peter Plett and other discoverers of cowpox vaccination before Edward Jenner [Peter Plett and other discoverers of cowpox vaccination before Edward Jenner]" (in German). Sudhoffs Archiv 90 (2): 219–32. PMID 17338405. 
  6. ^ "Edward Jenner & Smallpox". The Edward Jenner Museum. http://www.jennermuseum.com/sv/smallpox2.shtml. Retrieved 2009-07-13. 
  7. ^ Hopkins, Donald R. (2002). The greatest killer: smallpox in history, with a new introduction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-226-35168-1. OCLC 49305765. 
  8. ^ "Dr. edward jenner and the small pox vaccination". Essortment.com. http://www.essortment.com/all/edwardjennersm_rmfk.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-28. 
  9. ^ Royal College of Physicians. "JENNER, Edward (1749-1750)". AIM25 Archives. http://www.aim25.ac.uk/cgi-bin/search2?coll_id=7135&inst_id=8. 
  10. ^ St George's, University of London. "Our History". http://www.stgeorges.nhs.uk/aboutourhistory.asp. 

Further reading

  • Papers at the Royal College of Physicians
  • Baron, John M.D. F.R.S., "The Life of Edward Jenner MD LLD FRS", Henry Colburn, London, 1827.
  • Edward Jenner, the man and his work. BMJ 1949 E Ashworth Underwood
  • Fisher, Richard B., "Edward Jenner 1749-1823," Andre Deutsch, London, 1991.
  • Cartwright K (October 2005). "From Jenner to modern smallpox vaccines". Occupational Medicine 55 (7): 563. doi:10.1093/occmed/kqi163. PMID 16251374. 
  • Riedel S (January 2005). "Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination". Proceedings 18 (1): 21–5. PMID 16200144. 
  • Tan SY (November 2004). "Edward Jenner (1749-1823): conqueror of smallpox". Singapore Medical Journal 45 (11): 507–8. PMID 15510320. http://www.sma.org.sg/smj/4511/4511ms1.pdf. 
  • van Oss CJ (November 2000). "Inoculation against smallpox as the precursor to vaccination". Immunological Investigations 29 (4): 443–6. PMID 11130785. 
  • Gross CP, Sepkowitz KA (1998). "The myth of the medical breakthrough: smallpox, vaccination, and Jenner reconsidered". International Journal of Infectious Diseases 3 (1): 54–60. doi:10.1016/S1201-9712(98)90096-0. PMID 9831677. 
  • Willis NJ (August 1997). "Edward Jenner and the eradication of smallpox". Scottish Medical Journal 42 (4): 118–21. PMID 9507590. 
  • Theves G (1997). "Smallpox: an historical review [Smallpox: an historical review]" (in German). Bulletin De La Société Des Sciences Médicales Du Grand-Duché De Luxembourg 134 (1): 31–51. PMID 9303824. 
  • Kempa ME (December 1996). "Edward Jenner (1749-1823)--benefactor to mankind (100th anniversary of the first vaccination against smallpox) [Edward Jenner (1749-1823)--benefactor to mankind (100th anniversary of the first vaccination against smallpox)]" (in Polish). Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski 1 (6): 433–4. PMID 9273243. 
  • Baxby D (November 1996). "The Jenner bicentenary: the introduction and early distribution of smallpox vaccine". FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 16 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1111/j.1574-695X.1996.tb00105.x. PMID 8954347. 
  • Larner AJ (September 1996). "Smallpox". The New England Journal of Medicine 335 (12): 901; author reply 902. PMID 8778627. 
  • Aly A, Aly S (September 1996). "Smallpox". The New England Journal of Medicine 335 (12): 900–1; author reply 902. doi:10.1056/NEJM199609193351217. PMID 8778626. 
  • Magner J (September 1996). "Smallpox". The New England Journal of Medicine 335 (12): 900. doi:10.1056/NEJM199609193351217. PMID 8778624. 
  • Kumate-Rodríguez J (1996). "Bicentennial of smallpox vaccine: experiences and lessons [Bicentennial of smallpox vaccine: experiences and lessons]" (in Spanish). Salud Pública De México 38 (5): 379–85. PMID 9092091. 
  • Budai J (August 1996). "200th anniversary of the Jenner smallpox vaccine [200th anniversary of the Jenner smallpox vaccine]" (in Hungarian). Orvosi Hetilap 137 (34): 1875–7. PMID 8927342. 
  • Rathbone J (June 1996). "Lady Mary Wortley Montague's contribution to the eradication of smallpox". Lancet 347 (9014): 1566. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)90724-2. PMID 8684145. 
  • Baxby D (June 1996). "The Jenner bicentenary; still uses for smallpox vaccine". Epidemiology and Infection 116 (3): 231–4. doi:10.1017/S0950268800052523. PMID 8666065. 
  • Cook GC (May 1996). "Dr William Woodville (1752-1805) and the St Pancras Smallpox Hospital". Journal of Medical Biography 4 (2): 71–8. PMID 11616267. 
  • Baxby D (1996). "Jenner and the control of smallpox". Transactions of the Medical Society of London 113: 18–22. PMID 10326082. 
  • Dunn PM (January 1996). "Dr Edward Jenner (1749-1823) of Berkeley, and vaccination against smallpox". Archives of Disease in Childhood 74 (1): F77–8. PMID 8653442. PMC 2528332. http://fn.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=8653442. 
  • Meynell E (August 1995). "French reactions to Jenner's discovery of smallpox vaccination: the primary sources". Social History of Medicine 8 (2): 285–303. doi:10.1093/shm/8.2.285. PMID 11639810. 
  • Bloch H (July 1993). "Edward Jenner (1749-1823). The history and effects of smallpox, inoculation, and vaccination". American Journal of Diseases of Children 147 (7): 772–4. PMID 8322750. 
  • Roses DF (October 1992). "From Hunter and the Great Pox to Jenner and smallpox". Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics 175 (4): 365–72. PMID 1411896. 
  • Turk JL, Allen E (April 1990). "The influence of John Hunter's inoculation practice on Edward Jenner's discovery of vaccination against smallpox". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 83 (4): 266–7. PMID 2187990. 
  • Poliakov VE (December 1985). "Edward Jenner and vaccination against smallpox [Edward Jenner and vaccination against smallpox]" (in Russian). Medit͡sinskai͡a Sestra 44 (12): 49–51. PMID 3912642. 
  • Hammarsten JF, Tattersall W, Hammarsten JE (1979). "Who discovered smallpox vaccination? Edward Jenner or Benjamin Jesty?". Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association 90: 44–55. PMID 390826. 
  • Rodrigues BA (1975). "Smallpox eradication in the Americas". Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization 9 (1): 53–68. PMID 167890. 
  • Wynder EL (March 1974). "A corner of history: Jenner and his smallpox vaccine". Preventive Medicine 3 (1): 173–5. doi:10.1016/0091-7435(74)90074-7. PMID 4592685. 
  • Andreae H (June 1973). "Edward Jenner, initiator of cowpox vaccination against human smallpox, died 150 years ago [Edward Jenner, initiator of cowpox vaccination against human smallpox, died 150 years ago]" (in German). Das Offentliche Gesundheitswesen 35 (6): 366–7. PMID 4269783. 
  • Friedrich I (February 1973). "A cure for smallpox. On the 150th anniversary of Edward Jenner's death [A cure for smallpox. On the 150th anniversary of Edward Jenner's death]" (in Hungarian). Orvosi Hetilap 114 (6): 336–8. PMID 4567814. 
  • MacNalty AS (January 1968). "The prevention of smallpox: from Edward Jenner to Monckton Copeman". Medical History 12 (1): 1–18. PMID 4867646. 
  • Udovitskaia EF (November 1966). "Edward Jenner and the history of his scientific achievement. (On the 170th anniversary of the discovery of smallpox vaccination) [Edward Jenner and the history of his scientific achievement. (On the 170th anniversary of the discovery of smallpox vaccination)]" (in Russian). Vrachebnoe Delo 11: 111–5. PMID 4885910. 
  • Voigt K (1964). "THE PHARMACY DISPLAY WINDOW. EDWARD JENNER DISCOVERED SMALLPOX VACCINATION. [The Pharmacy Display Window. Edward Jenner Discovered Smallpox Vaccination]" (in German). Pharmazeutische Praxis 106: 88–9. PMID 14237138. 
  • Ordnance Survey showing reference to Smallpox Hil: http://explore.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/os_routes/show/1539

External links

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

EDWARD JENNER (1749-1823), English physician and discoverer of vaccination, was born at Berkeley, Gloucestershire, on the 17th of May 1749. His father, the Rev. Stephen Jenner, rector of Rockhampton and vicar of Berkeley, came of a family that had been long established in that county, and was possessed of considerable landed property; he died when Edward was only six years old, but his eldest son, the Rev. Stephen Jenner, brought his brother up with paternal care and tenderness. Edward received his early education at Wotton-under-Edge and Cirencester, where he already showed a strong taste for natural history. The medical profession having been selected for him, he began his studies under Daniel Ludlow, a surgeon of Sodbury near Bristol; but in his twenty-first year he proceeded to London, where he became a favourite pupil of John Hunter, in whose house he resided for two years. During this period he was employed by Sir Joseph Banks to arrange and prepare the valuable zoological specimens which he had brought back from Captain Cook's first voyage in 1771. He must have acquitted himself satisfactorily in this task, since he was offered the post of naturalist in the second expedition, but declined it as well as other advantageous offers, preferring rather to practise his profession in his native place, and near his eldest brother, to whom he was much attached. He was the principal founder of a local medical society, to which he contributed several papers of marked ability, in one of which he apparently anticipated later discoveries concerning rheumatic inflammations of the heart. He maintained a correspondence with John Hunter, under whose direction he investigated various points in biology, particularly the hibernation of hedgehogs and habits of the cuckoo; his paper on the latter subject was laid by Hunter before the Royal Society, and appeared in the Phil. Trans. for 1788. He also devoted considerable attention to the varied geological character of the district in which he lived, and constructed the first balloon seen in those parts. He was a great favourite in general society, from his agreeable and instructive conversation, and the many accomplishments he possessed. Thus he was a fair musician, both as a part singer and as a performer on the violin and flute, and a very successful writer, after the fashion of that time, of fugitive pieces of verse. In 1788 he married Catherine Kingscote, and in 1792 he obtained the degree of doctor of medicine from St Andrews.

Meanwhile the discovery that is associated with his name had been slowly maturing in his mind. When only an apprentice at Sodbury, his attention had been directed to the relations between cow-pox and small-pox in connexion with a popular belief which he found current in Gloucestershire, as to the antagonism between these two diseases. During his stay in London he appears to have mentioned the thing repeatedly to Hunter, who, being engrossed by other important pursuits, was not so strongly persuaded as Jenner was of its possible importance, yet spoke of it to his friends and in his lectures. After he began practice in Berkeley, Jenner was always accustomed to inquire what his professional brethren thought of it; but he found that, when medical men had noticed the popular report at all, they supposed it to be based on imperfect induction. His first careful investigation of the subject dated from about 1775, and five years elapsed before he had succeeded in clearing away the most perplexing difficulties by which it was surrounded. He first satisfied himself that two different forms of disease had been hitherto confounded under the term cow-pox, only one of which protected against small-pox, and that many of the cases of failure were to be thus accounted for; and his next step was to ascertain that the true cow-pox itself only protects when communicated at a particular stage of the disease. At the same time he came to the conclusion that "the grease" of horses is the same disease as cow-pox and small-pox, each being modified by the organism in which it was developed. For many years, cow-pox being scarce in his county, he had no opportunity of inoculating the disease, and so putting his discovery to the test, but he did all he could in the way of collecting information and communicating what he had ascertained. Thus in 1788 he carried a drawing of the cow-pox, as seen on the hands of a milkmaid, to London, and showed it to Sir E. Home and others, who agreed that it was "an interesting and curious subject." At length, on the 14th of May 1796, he was able to inoculate James Phipps, a boy about eight years old, with matter from cow-pox vesicles on the hand of Sarah Nelmes. On the 1st of the following July the boy was carefully inoculated with variolous matter, but (as Jenner had predicted) no small-pox followed. The discovery was now complete, but Jenner was unable to repeat his experiment until 1798, owing to the disappearance of cow-pox from the dairies. He then repeated his inoculations with the utmost care, and prepared a pamphlet (Inquiry into the Cause and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae) which should announce his discovery to the world. Before publishing it, however, he thought it well to visit London, so as to demonstrate the truth of his assertions to his friends; but he remained in London nearly three months, without being able to find any person who would submit to be vaccinated. Soon after he had returned home, however, Henry Cline, surgeon of St Thomas's Hospital, inoculated some vaccine matter obtained from him over the diseased hip-joint of a child, thinking the counter-irritation might be useful, and found the patient afterwards incapable of acquiring small-pox. In the autumn of the same year, Jenner met with the first opposition to vaccination; and this was the more formidable because it proceded from J. Ingenhousz, a celebrated physician and man of science. But meanwhile Cline's advocacy of vaccination brought it much more decidedly before the medical profession, of whom the majority were prudent enough to suspend their judgment until they had more ample information. But besides these there were two noisy and troublesome factions, one of which opposed vaccination as a useless and dangerous practice, while the other endangered its success much more by rash and selfseeking advocacy. At the head of the latter was George Pearson, who in November 1798 published a pamphlet speculating upon the subject, before even seeing a case of cow-pox, and afterwards endeavoured, by lecturing on the subject and supplying the virus, to put himself forward as the chief agent in the cause. The matter which he distributed, which had been derived from cows that were found to be infected in London, was found frequently to produce, not the slight disease described by Jenner, but more or less severe eruptions resembling small-pox. Jenner concluded at once that this was due to an accidental contamination of the vaccine with variolous matter, and a visit to London in the spring of 1799 convinced him that this was the case. In the course of this year the practice of vaccination spread over England, being urged principally by non-professional persons of position; and towards its close attempts were made to found institutions for gratuitous vaccination and for supplying lymph to all who might apply for it. Pearson proposed to establish one of these in London, without Jenner's knowledge, in which he offered him the post of honorary corresponding physician! On learning of this scheme to supplant him, and to carry on an institution for public vaccination on principles which he knew to be partly erroneous, Jenner once more visited London early in 1800, when he had influence enough to secure the abandonment of the project. He was afterwards presented to the king, the queen and the prince of Wales, whose encouragement materially aided the spread of vaccination in England. Meanwhile it had made rapid progress in the United States, where it was introduced by Benjamin Waterhouse, then professor of physic at Harvard, and on the continent of Europe, where it was at first diffused by De Carro of Vienna. In consequence of the war between England and France, the discovery was later in reaching Paris; but, its importance once realized, it spread rapidly over France, Spain and Italy.

A few of the incidents connected with its extension may be mentioned. Perhaps the most striking is the expedition which was sent out by the court of Spain in 1803, for the purpose of diffusing cow-pox through all the Spanish possessions in the Old and New Worlds, and which returned in three years, having circumnavigated the globe, and succeeded beyond its utmost expectations. Clergymen in Geneva and Holland urged vaccination upon their parishioners from the pulpit; in Sicily, South America and Naples religious processions were formed for the purpose of receiving it; the anniversary of Jenner's birthday, or of the successful vaccination of James Phipps, was for many years celebrated as a feast in Germany; and the empress of Russia caused the first child operated upon to receive the name of Vaccinov, and to be educated at the public expense. About the close of the year 1801 Jenner's friends in Gloucestershire presented him with a small service of plate as a testimonial of the esteem in which they held his discovery. This was intended merely as a preliminary to the presenting of a petition to parliament for a grant. The petition was presented in 1802, and was referred to a committee, of which the investigations resulted in a report in favour of the grant, and ultimately in a vote of £10,000.

Towards the end of 1802 steps were taken to form a society for the proper spread of vaccination in London, and the Royal Jennerian Society was finally established, Jenner returning to town to preside at the first meeting. This institution began very prosperously, more than twelve thousand persons having been inoculated in the first eighteen months, and with such effect that the deaths from small-pox, which for the latter half of the 18th century had averaged 2018 annually, fell in 1804 to 622. Unfortunately the chief resident inoculator soon set himself up as an authority opposed to Jenner, and this led to such dissensions as caused the society to die out in 1808.

Jenner was led, by the language of the chancellor of the exchequer when his grant was proposed, to attempt practice in London, but after a year's trial he returned to Berkeley. His grant was not paid until 1804, and then, after the deduction of about £l000 for fees, it did little more than pay the expenses attendant upon his discovery. For he was so thoroughly known everywhere as the discoverer of vaccination that, as he himself said, he was "the vaccine clerk of the whole world." At the same time he continued to vaccinate gratuitously all the poor who applied to him on certain days, so that he sometimes had as many as three hundred persons waiting at his door. Meanwhile honours began to shower upon him from abroad: he was elected a member of almost all the chief scientific societies on the continent of Europe, the first being that of Göttingen, where he was proposed by J. F. Blumenbach. But perhaps the most flattering proof of his influence was derived from France. On one occasion, when he was endeavouring to obtain the release of some of the unfortunate Englishmen who had been detained in France on the sudden termination of the Peace of Amiens, Napoleon was about to reject the petition, when Josephine uttered the name of Jenner. The emperor paused and exclaimed: "Ah, we can refuse nothing to that name." Somewhat later he did the same service to Englishmen confined in Mexico and in Austria; and during the latter part of the great war persons before leaving England would sometimes obtain certificates signed by him which served as passports. In his own country his merits were less recognized. His applications on behalf of French prisoners in England were less successful; he never shared in any of the patronage at the disposal of the government, and was even unable to obtain a living for his nephew George.

In 1806 Lord Henry Petty (afterwards the marquess of Lansdowne) became chancellor of the exchequer, and was so convinced of the inadequacy of the former parliamentary grant that he proposed an address to the Crown, praying that the college of physicians should be directed to report upon the success of vaccination. Their report being strongly in its favour, the then chancellor of the exchequer (Spencer Perceval) proposed that a sum of £10,000 without any deductions should be paid to Jenner. The anti-vaccinationists found but one advocate in the House of Commons; and finally the sum was raised to £20,000. Jenner, however, at the same time had the mortification of learning that government did not intend to take any steps towards checking small-pox inoculation, which so persistently kept up that disease. About the same time a subscription for his benefit was begun in India, where his discovery had been gratefully received, but the full amount of this (£7383) only reached him in 1812.

The Royal Jennerian Society having failed, the national vaccine establishment was founded, for the extension of vaccination, in 1808. Jenner spent five months in London for the purpose of organizing it, but was then obliged, by the dangerous illness of one of his sons, to return to Berkeley. He had been appointed director of the institution; but he had no sooner left London than Sir Lucas Pepys, president of the college of physicians, neglected his recommendations, and formed the board out of the officials of that college and the college of surgeons. Jenner at once resigned his post as director, though he continued to give the benefit of his advice whenever it was needed, and this resignation was a bitter mortification to him. In 1810 his eldest son died, and Jenner's grief at his loss, and his incessant labours, materially affected his health. In 1813 the university of Oxford conferred on him the degree of M.D. It was believed that this would lead to his election into the college of physicians, but that learned body decided that he could not be admitted until he had undergone an examination in classics. This Jenner at once refused; to brush up his classics would, he said, "be irksome beyond measure. I would not do it for a diadem. That indeed would be a bauble; I would not do it for John Hunter's museum." He visited London for the last time in 1814, when he was presented to the Allied Sovereigns and to most of the principal personages who accompanied them. In the next year his wife's death was the signal for him to retire from public life: he never left Berkeley again, except for a day or two, as long as he lived. He found sufficient occupation for the remainder of his life in collecting further evidence on some points connected with his great discovery, and in his engagements as a physician, a naturalist and a magistrate. In 1818 a severe epidemic of small-pox prevailed, and fresh doubts were thrown on the efficacy of vaccination, in part apparently owing to the bad quality of the vaccine lymph employed. This caused Jenner much annoyance, which was relieved by an able defence of the practice, written by Sir Gilbert Blane. But this led him, in 1821, to send a circular letter to most of the medical men in the kingdom inquiring into the effect of other skin diseases in modifying the progress of cow-pox. A year later he published his last work, On the Influence of Artificial Eruptions in Certain Diseases; and in 1823 he presented his last paper - "On the Migration of Birds" - to the Royal Society. On the 24th of January 1823 he retired to rest apparently as well as usual, and next morning rose and came down to his library, where he was found insensible on the floor, in a state of apoplexy, and with the right side paralysed. He never rallied, and died on the following morning.

A public subscription was set on foot, shortly after his death, by the medical men of his county, for the purpose of erecting some memorial in his honour, and with much difficulty a sufficient sum was raised to enable a statue to be placed in Gloucester Cathedral. In 1850 another attempt was made to set up a monument to him; this appears to have failed, but at length, in 1858, a statue of him was erected by public subscription in London.

Jenner's life was written by the intimate friend of his later years, Dr John Baron of Gloucester (2 vols., 1827, 1838). See also Vaccination.


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Edward Jenner 
Birth May 17, 1749 in Berkeley, Gloucestershire "Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England"
Death: January 26, 1823 in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire "Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, England"
Father: Stephen Jenner (1702-1754)
Mother: Sarah Head (c1708-1754)
Wife: Catherine Fitzharding Kingscote (c1759-1815)
Wedding: March 1, 1788 in Kingscote, Gloucestershire "Kingscote, Gloucestershire, England"
Sex:
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Template:Infobox Scientist

Edward Jenner, FRS, (17th May 1749 – 26th January 1823) was an English scientist who studied his natural surroundings in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England. He is often credited as the first doctor to introduce and study the smallpox vaccine.

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Early life

Edward Jenner was born on the 17th May 1749 (6th May Old Style). Jenner then trained in Chipping Sodbury, Gloucestershire as an apprentice to John Ludlow, a surgeon, for eight years from the age of 14. In 1770 Jenner went up to surgery and anatomy under the surgeon John Hunter and others at St George's, University of London. Hunter was a noted experimentalist, and later a fellow of the Royal Society.

William Osler records that Jenner was a student to whom Hunter repeated William Harvey's advice, very famous in medical circles (and characteristically Enlightenment), "Don't think, try". Jenner therefore was early noticed by men famous for advancing the practice and institutions of surgery. Hunter remained in correspondence with him over natural history and proposed him for the Royal Society. Returning to his native countryside by 1773 he became a successful general practitioner and surgeon, practising in purpose-built premises at Berkeley.

Jenner and others formed a medical society in Rodborough, Gloucestershire, meeting to read papers on medical subjects and dine together. Jenner contributed papers on angina pectoris, ophthalmia and valvular disease of the heart and commented on cowpox. He also belonged to a similar society which met in Alveston, near Bristol.[1]

He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1788, following a careful study combining observation, experiment and dissection into a description of the previously misunderstood life of the cuckoo in the nest.

File:Cuculus canorus.jpg
Common Cuckoo

Jenner's description of the newly-hatched cuckoo pushing its host's eggs and fledglings from the nest was confirmed in the 20th century[2] when photography became feasible. Having observed the behavior, he demonstrated an anatomical adaptation for it—the baby cuckoo has a depression in its back which is not present after 12 days of life, in which it cups eggs and other chicks to push them out of the nest. It had been assumed that the adult bird did this but the adult does not remain in the area for sufficiently long. His findings were published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1787.

In 1792, he obtained his M.D. from the University of St Andrews.

Smallpox

Around this time smallpox was greatly feared, as one in three of those who contracted the disease died, and those who survived were often badly disfigured. Voltaire, a few years later, recorded that 60% of people caught smallpox, with 20% of the population dying of it. In the years following 1770 there were at least six people in England and Germany (Sevel, Jensen, Jesty 1774, Rendell, Plett 1791) who had successfully tested the possibility of using the cowpox vaccine as an immunisation for smallpox in humans. [3] For example, Dorset farmer, Benjamin Jesty, had successfully induced immunity in his wife and two children with cowpox during a smallpox epidemic in 1774, but it was not until Jenner's work some twenty years later that the procedure became widely understood. Indeed it is generally believed that Jenner was unaware of Jesty's success and arrived at his conclusions independently.

Jenner's Initial Theory In fact he thought the initial source of infection was a disease of horses, called "the grease", and that this was transferred to cows by farmworkers, transformed, and then manifested as cowpox. From that point on he was correct, the complication probably arose from coincidence.

Noting the common observation that milkmaids did not generally get smallpox, Jenner theorized that the pus in the blisters which milkmaids received from cowpox (a disease similar to smallpox, but much less virulent) protected the milkmaids from smallpox. He may have had the advantage of hearing stories of Benjamin Jesty and others who deliberately arranged cowpox infection of their families, and then noticed a reduced smallpox risk in those families.

On 14 May 1796, Jenner tested his theory by inoculating James Phipps (1788-1853), a boy aged 8, with material from the cowpox blisters of the hand of Sarah Nelmes, a milkmaid who had caught cowpox from a cow called Blossom[4]. Blossom's hide now hangs on the wall of the library at St George's medical school (now in Tooting), commemorating one of the school's most renowned alumni. Phipps was the 17th case described in Jenner's first paper on vaccination.

Jenner inoculated Phipps with cowpox pus in both arms on the same day. The inoculation was accomplished by scraping the pus from Nelmes' blisters onto a piece of wood then transferring this to Phipps' arms. This produced a fever and some uneasiness but no great illness. Later, he injected Phipps with variolous material, which would have been the routine attempt to produce immunity at that time. No disease followed. Jenner reported that later the boy was again challenged with variolacious material and again showed no sign of infection.

Known: that smallpox was more dangerous than variolation and cowpox less dangerous than variolation. The hypothesis tested: That infection with cowpox would give immunity to smallpox. The test: If variolation failed to produce an infection, Phipps was shown to be immune to smallpox. The consequence: Immunity to smallpox could be induced much more safely.

He continued his research and reported it to the Royal Society, who did not publish the initial report. After improvement and further work, he published a report of twenty-three cases. Some of his conclusions were correct, and some erroneous—modern microbiological and microscopic methods would make this easier to repeat. The medical establishment, as cautious then as now, considered his findings for some time before accepting them. Eventually vaccination was accepted, and in 1840 the British government banned variolation- the use of the smallpox itself- and provided vaccination- using cowpox- free of charge. (See Vaccination acts)

File:The cow pock.jpg
1802 caricature of Jenner vaccinating patients who feared it would make them sprout cowlike appendages.

Jenner's continuing work on vaccination prevented his continuing his ordinary medical practice. He was supported by his colleagues and the King in petitioning Parliament and was granted £10,000 for his work on vaccination. In 1806 he was granted another £20,000 for his continuing work.

In 1803 in London he became involved with the Jennerian Institution, a society concerned with promoting vaccination to eradicate smallpox. In 1808, with government aid, this society became the National Vaccine Establishment. Jenner became a member of the Medical and Chirurgical Society on its foundation in 1805, and subsequently presented to them a number of papers. This is now the Royal Society of Medicine.

Returning to London in 1811 he observed a significant number of cases of smallpox after vaccination occurring. He found that in these cases the severity of the illness was notably diminished by the previous vaccination. In 1821 he was appointed Physician Extraordinary to King George IV, a considerable national honour, and was made Mayor of Berkeley and Justice of the Peace. He continued his interests in natural history. In 1823, the last year of his life, he presented his Observations on the Migration of Birds to the Royal Society.

Apoplexy and death

Jenner was found in a state of apoplexy on 25 January 1823, with his right side paralysed. He never fully recovered, and eventually died of an apparent stroke (he had suffered a previous stroke) on 26 January 1823, aged 73. He was survived by one son and one daughter, his elder son having died of tuberculosis at the age of 21.

Children


Offspring of  Edward Jenner and Catherine Fitzharding Kingscote (c1759-1815)
Name Birth Death
Edward Robert Jenner (1789-1810)
Robert FitzHarding Jenner (1792-1854)
Catherine Jenner (1794-1833) February 6, 1794 in Berkeley, Gloucestershire "Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England" August 5, 1833 in Birmingham, England "Birmingham, England"
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Legacy

In 1980, the World Health Organization declared smallpox an eradicated disease. This was the result of coordinated public health efforts by many people, but vaccination was an essential component. And although it was declared eradicated, some samples still remain in laboratories in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia in the United States, and State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR in Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia.

Monuments

File:Jenner-statue-by-lachlan-mvc-006f.jpg
Bronze in Kensington Gardens
  • Jenner's house is now a small museum housing among other things the horns of the cow, Blossom. It lies in the Gloucestershire village of Berkeley.
  • Jenner was buried in the chancel of the parish church of Berkeley.
  • A statue, by Robert William Sievier, was erected in the nave of Gloucester Cathedral.
  • A statue was erected in Trafalgar Square, later moved to Kensington Gardens.[1]
  • Near the small Gloucestershire village of Uley, Downham Hill is locally known as 'Smallpox Hill', with a possible connection to Jenner's local work with the disease.
  • St George's, University of London has a wing named after him as well as a bust of him.[5]
  • A small grouping of villages in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, United States, were named in honour of Jenner by early 19th century English settlers, including what are now the towns of Jenners, Jenner Township, Jenner Crossroads and Jennerstown, Pennsylvania.
  • There is a section at Gloucestershire Royal Hospital known as the Edward Jenner Ward where blood is taken specifically

Publications

  • 1798 An Inquiry Into the Causes and Effects of the Variolæ Vaccinæ
  • 1799 Further Observations on the Variolœ Vaccinœ
  • 1800 A Continuation of Facts and Observations relative to the Variolœ Vaccinœ 40pgs
  • 1801 The Origin of the Vaccine Inoculation 12pgs

See also

  • Vaccine
  • Vaccination
  • Inoculation
  • History of science

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Royal College of Physicians. {{subst:ucfirst:{{subst:lc:JENNER}}}}, Edward (1749-1750). AIM25 Archives.
  2. ^ The Jenner Museum. Edward Jenner and the Cuckoo.
  3. ^ Plett PC (2006)."[Peter Plett and other discoverers of cowpox vaccination before Edward Jenner]" (in German). Sudhoffs Arch 90 (2): 219–32.
  4. ^ , http://www.jennermuseum.com/sv/smallpox2.shtml Edward Jenner Museum]
  5. ^ St George's, University of London. Our History.

References

External links

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This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Edward Jenner. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.

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This article uses material from the "Edward Jenner (1749-1823)" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

File:Edward
Edward Jenner

Edward Anthony Jenner (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English scientist know for creating the vaccine for smallpox.[1]

References


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