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Edward Martyn (30 January 1859 – 5 December 1923) was an Irish political and cultural activist, playwright, and last of the senior branch of the "wealthy Catholic" Martyn family of Tullira, one of the Tribes of Galway.[1] He was of Tullira Castle, Ardrahan, County Galway.

He was a friend of William Butler Yeats, Lady Gregory, with whom he founded the Irish Literary Theatre. A "pillar of the Celtic Renaissance," in 1899 Martyn and Yeats co-founded, The Abbey which became a famous national theater.[1] Martyn, who was gay, was outed by his cousin and friend George Moore (1852-1933), a "prolific novelist, critic, and polemicist," in the three-volume Hail and Farewell (published between 1911 and 1914).[1] Their relationship was often antagonistic.

He was the first President of Sinn Féin (1904-1908), the republican movement's political party , which he co-founded with Arthur Griffith.[1] Violently opposed to British rule in Ireland, he was the centre of a court case in 1905 as the result of an off-the cuff remark in which he stated that "All Irishmen who join the English army ought to be flogged". He died in 1923, unmarried, and after donating his body to science, was buried at his own request in a pauper's grave. He was related to the Hungarian artist and sculptor, Ferenc Martyn.

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