Edward VIII abdication crisis: Wikis

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The Instrument of Abdication signed by Edward VIII and his three brothers

In 1936, the desire of King-Emperor Edward VIII to marry Wallis Simpson, a twice-divorced American socialite, caused a constitutional crisis in the British Empire.

The marriage was opposed by the King's governments in the United Kingdom and the autonomous Dominions of the Commonwealth. Religious, legal, political, and moral objections were raised. Mrs Simpson was perceived to be an unsuitable consort because of her two failed marriages, and it was widely assumed by the Establishment that she was driven by love of money or position rather than love for the King. Despite the opposition, Edward declared that he loved Mrs Simpson and intended to marry her whether the governments approved or not.

The widespread unwillingness to accept Mrs Simpson as the King's consort, and the King's refusal to give her up, led to Edward's abdication on 11 December 1936. He remains the only British monarch to have voluntarily renounced the throne since the Anglo-Saxon period. He was succeeded by his brother Albert, who took the regnal name George VI. Edward was given the title His Royal Highness the Duke of Windsor following his abdication, and he married Mrs Simpson the following year. They remained married until his death 35 years later.

Contents

Edward and Mrs Simpson

Edward in 1945

Edward VIII succeeded his father, George V, as King-Emperor of the British Empire on 20 January 1936. He was a bachelor, but for the previous few years he had often been accompanied at private social events by Wallis Simpson, the American wife of British shipping executive Ernest Aldrich Simpson. Mr Simpson was Wallis's second husband; her first marriage, to U.S. Navy pilot Win Spencer, had ended in divorce in 1927. During 1936 Mrs Simpson attended more official functions as the King's guest, and although her name appeared regularly in the Court Circular, the name of her husband was conspicuously absent.[1] In the summer of that year the King eschewed the traditional prolonged stay at Balmoral; instead he and Mrs Simpson holidayed together in the Eastern Mediterranean on board the steam yacht Nahlin. The cruise was widely covered in the American and continental European press, but the British press maintained a self-imposed silence on the King's trip. Nevertheless, expatriate Britons and Canadians, who had access to the foreign reports, were largely scandalised by the coverage.[2]

By October, it was rumoured in high society and abroad that Edward intended to marry Mrs Simpson as soon as she was free to do so.[3] At the end of that month, the crisis came to a head when Mrs Simpson filed for divorce, and the American press announced that marriage between her and the King was imminent.[4]

On 13 November, the King's private secretary, Alec Hardinge, wrote to the King warning him that: "The silence in the British Press on the subject of Your Majesty's friendship with Mrs Simpson is not going to be maintained ... Judging by the letters from British subjects living in foreign countries where the Press has been outspoken, the effect will be calamitous."[5]

Senior British ministers knew that Hardinge had written to the King, and may have helped him to draft the letter.[6] The following Monday, 16 November, the King invited the British Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin, to Buckingham Palace, and informed him that he intended to marry Mrs Simpson. Baldwin informed the King that such a marriage would not be acceptable to the people, stating: "... the Queen becomes the Queen of the country. Therefore in the choice of a Queen the voice of the people must be heard."[7] Baldwin's view was shared by the Australian High Commissioner in London, Stanley Bruce, a former Australian prime minister. On the same day that Hardinge wrote to the King, Bruce met Hardinge and then wrote to Baldwin expressing horror at the idea of a marriage between the King and Mrs Simpson.[8]

Nevertheless, the British Press remained quiet on the subject, until Alfred Blunt, Bishop of Bradford, gave a speech to his Diocesan Conference on 1 December. In it he alluded to the King's need of divine grace saying: "We hope that he is aware of his need. Some of us wish that he gave more positive signs of his awareness."[9] The Press took this for the first public comment by a notable person on the crisis, and it became front page news the following day. When asked about it later, however, the bishop claimed he had not heard of Mrs Simpson at the time he wrote the speech.[10]

Acting on the advice of Edward's staff, Mrs Simpson left Britain for the south of France on 3 December in an attempt to escape intense press attention. Both she and the King were devastated by the separation. At a tearful farewell, the King told her, "I shall never give you up."[11]

Opposition

Opposition to the King and his marriage came from several directions.

Societal

Edward's desire to modernise the monarchy and make it more accessible, though popular with many people,[12] was feared by the British Establishment.[13] Edward upset the aristocracy by treating their traditions and ceremonies with disdain, and many were offended by his abandonment of accepted social norms and mores.[14]

Religious

Edward was the first British Monarch to propose marrying a divorced woman or marrying after divorce. Although Henry VIII famously separated the Church of England from Rome in order to acquire an annulment of his first marriage, he never divorced; his marriages were annulled.[15] The Church of England did not allow divorced persons to remarry in church while a former spouse was still living. The consensus view held that Edward could not retain the office of Supreme Governor of the Church of England (an ex officio title of the monarch) and marry Wallis Simpson, a divorcée who would soon have two living ex-husbands.[16]

Legal

Wallis's first divorce (in the United States on the grounds of "emotional incompatibility") was not recognised by the Church of England and, if challenged in the English courts, might not have been recognised under English law. At that time the church and English law considered adultery to be the only grounds for divorce. Consequently, under this argument, her second (and third) marriages would have been bigamous and invalid.[17]

Moral

Wallis Simpson in 1936

If the King's advisors had considered Mrs Simpson a suitable consort, they might have made more of an effort to find a legal solution to his problem; instead, his ministers (like his family) found Mrs Simpson's background and behaviour unacceptable for a queen. Poorly supported rumours and innuendo about her circulated in society.[18] The King's mother, the dowager Queen Mary, was even told that Mrs Simpson might have held some sort of sexual control over Edward, as she had released him from an undefined sexual dysfunction through practices learnt in a Chinese brothel.[19] This view was partially shared by Dr. Alan Campbell Don, Chaplain to the Archbishop of Canterbury, who wrote that he suspected the King "is sexually abnormal which may account for the hold Mrs. S. has over him".[20] Even Edward VIII's official biographer, Philip Ziegler, noted that: "There must have been some sort of sadomachistic relationship ... [Edward] relished the contempt and bullying she bestowed on him."[21]

Police detectives following Mrs Simpson reported back that while involved with Edward, Wallis was also involved in another sexual relationship, with a married car mechanic and salesman named Guy Trundle.[22] This may well have been passed on to senior figures in the Establishment, including members of the Royal Family.[23] A third lover has also been suggested, Edward Fitzgerald, Duke of Leinster.[24] Joseph Kennedy, the American ambassador, described her as a "tart", and his wife, Rose Kennedy, refused to dine with her.[25] Edward, however, was either unaware of these allegations, or chose to ignore them.

Wallis was perceived to be pursuing Edward for his money; his equerry wrote that she would eventually leave him after "having secured the cash".[26] The future Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain wrote in his diary that she was "an entirely unscrupulous woman who is not in love with the King but is exploiting him for her own purposes. She has already ruined him in money and jewels ..."[27]

Political

When Edward visited depressed mining villages in Wales his unguarded comment that "something must be done"[28] led to concerns amongst elected politicians that he would interfere in political matters, traditionally avoided by constitutional monarchs. Ramsay MacDonald, Lord President of the Council, wrote of the King's comments: "These escapades should be limited. They are an invasion into the field of politics & should be watched constitutionally."[29] As Prince of Wales, Edward had publicly referred to left-wing politicians as "cranks",[30] and made speeches counter to government policy.[31] During his reign as king, his refusal to accept the advice of ministers continued: he opposed the imposition of sanctions on Italy after its invasion of Ethiopia (then also known as "Abyssinia"), refused to receive the deposed Emperor of Ethiopia, and would not support the League of Nations.[32]

Although Edward's comments had made him popular in Wales,[33] he became extremely unpopular with the public in Scotland following his refusal to open a new wing of Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, claiming he could not do so because he was in mourning for his father. On the day after the opening he was pictured in the newspapers cavorting on holiday: he had turned down the public event in favour of meeting Mrs Simpson.[34]

Members of the British government became further dismayed by the proposed marriage after being told that Wallis Simpson was an agent of Nazi Germany. The Foreign Office obtained leaked dispatches from the German Reich's Ambassador to the United Kingdom, Joachim von Ribbentrop, which revealed his strong view that opposition to the marriage was motivated by the wish "to defeat those Germanophile forces which had been working through Mrs. Simpson".[35] It was rumoured that Wallis had access to confidential government papers sent to Edward, which he notoriously left unguarded at his Fort Belvedere residence.[36] Even as Edward was abdicating, the personal protection officers guarding Wallis in exile in France sent reports to Downing Street claiming that she might "flit to Germany".[37]

Files from the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, written after the abdication, reveal a further series of claims. The most damaging allege that in 1936, during her affair with King Edward, she was simultaneously having an affair with Ambassador Ribbentrop. The Bureau's source (Duke Carl Alexander of Württemberg, a distant relative of Queen Mary then living as a monk in the U.S.) not only claimed that Wallis and Ribbentrop had had a relationship, but that Ribbentrop sent her 17 carnations every day, one for each occasion they had slept together. The FBI claims were symptomatic of the extremely damaging gossip circulating about the woman who could become queen.[38]

Nationalistic

Relations between the United Kingdom and the United States were strained during the inter-war years, and the majority of Britons were reluctant to accept an American as queen consort.[39] At the time, many members of the British upper class looked down on Americans with disdain and considered them socially inferior.[40] In contrast, the American public was clearly in favour of the marriage,[41] as was most of the American press.[42]

Options considered

Stanley Baldwin

As a result of these rumours and arguments, the belief strengthened among the British Establishment that Wallis could not become a royal consort. Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin explicitly advised Edward that the people would be opposed to his marrying Mrs Simpson, indicating that if he did, in direct contravention of his ministers' advice, the government would resign en masse. The King responded: "I intend to marry Mrs. Simpson as soon as she is free to marry ... if the Government opposed the marriage, as the Prime Minister had given me reason to believe it would, then I was prepared to go."[43] Under pressure from the King, and "startled"[43] at the suggested abdication, Baldwin agreed to take further soundings and suggest three options to the prime ministers of the five Dominions of which Edward was also King: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, and the Irish Free State. The options were:

  1. Edward and Mrs Simpson marry and she become queen (a royal marriage);
  2. Edward and Mrs Simpson marry, but she not become queen, instead receiving some courtesy title (a morganatic marriage); or
  3. Abdication for Edward and any potential heirs he might father, allowing him to make any marital decisions without further constitutional implications.

The second option had European precedents, including Edward's own great-grandfather, Duke Alexander of Württemberg, but no parallel in British constitutional history. The Commonwealth's prime ministers were consulted, and the majority agreed that there was "no alternative to course (3)".[44] William Lyon Mackenzie King (Prime Minister of Canada), Joseph Lyons (Prime Minister of Australia) and J. B. M. Hertzog (Prime Minister of South Africa) opposed options 1 and 2. Michael Joseph Savage (Prime Minister of New Zealand) rejected option 1 but thought that option 2 "might be possible ... if some solution along these lines were found to be practicable" but "would be guided by the decision of the Home government".[45] Éamon de Valera (Prime Minister of the Irish Free State) claimed to be disinterested while also remarking that, as a Catholic country, the Irish Free State did not recognise divorce. He supposed that if the British people would not accept Mrs Simpson then abdication was the only possible solution.[46] On 24 November, Baldwin consulted the three leading opposition politicians in Britain: Leader of the Opposition Clement Attlee, Liberal leader Sir Archibald Sinclair and Winston Churchill. Sinclair and Attlee agreed that options 1 and 2 were unacceptable and Churchill pledged to support the government.[47]

Churchill did not support the government, however. In July he had advised the King's legal counsel, Walter Monckton, against the divorce but his advice was ignored.[48] As soon as the affair became public knowledge, Churchill started to pressure Baldwin and the King to delay any decisions until parliament and the people had been consulted.[49] In a private letter to Geoffrey Dawson, the editor of The Times newspaper, Churchill suggested that a delay would be beneficial, because given time the King might fall out of love with Mrs Simpson.[50] Baldwin rejected the request for delay, presumably because he preferred to resolve the crisis quickly. Political support for the King was scattered, comprising politicians outside of the mainstream parties such as Churchill, Oswald Mosley and the Communist Party.[51] David Lloyd George also supported the King, although he disliked Mrs Simpson. He was, however, unable to take any active role in the crisis because he was on holiday in Jamaica with his mistress.[52] In early December, rumours circulated that the King's supporters would join together in a "King's Party" led by Churchill. However, there was no concerted effort to form an organised movement, and Churchill had no intention of leading one.[53] Nevertheless, the rumours damaged the King and Churchill severely, as Members of Parliament were horrified at the idea of the King interfering in politics.[54]

The letters and diaries of working-class people and ex-servicemen generally demonstrate support for the King, while those from the middle and upper classes tend to express indignation and distaste.[55] The Times, The Morning Post, the Daily Herald and newspapers owned by Lord Kemsley, such as The Daily Telegraph, opposed the marriage. On the other hand, the Express and Mail newspapers, owned by Lord Beaverbrook and Lord Rothermere respectively, appeared to support a morganatic marriage.[56] The King estimated that the newspapers in favour had a circulation of 12.5 million, and those against had 8.5 million.[57]

Backed by Churchill and Beaverbrook, Edward proposed to broadcast a speech indicating his desire to remain on the throne or to be recalled to it if forced to abdicate, while marrying Mrs Simpson morganatically. In one section, Edward proposed to say:

Neither Mrs. Simpson nor I have ever sought to insist that she should be queen. All we desired was that our married happiness should carry with it a proper title and dignity for her, befitting my wife. Now that I have at last been able to take you into my confidence, I feel it is best to go away for a while, so that you may reflect calmly and quietly, but without undue delay, on what I have said.[58]

Baldwin and the cabinet blocked the speech, saying that it would shock many people and would be a grave breach of constitutional principles.[59] By modern convention, the sovereign could only act with the advice and counsel of ministers drawn from, or approved by, parliament. In seeking the people's support against the government, Edward was opting to oppose the binding advice of his ministers, and instead act as a private individual. The cabinet felt that in proposing the speech Edward had revealed his disdainful attitude towards constitutional conventions, and threatened the political neutrality of the crown.[60]

On 5 December, having in effect been told that he could not keep the throne and marry Mrs Simpson, and having had his request to broadcast to the Empire to explain "his side of the story" blocked on constitutional grounds,[61] Edward chose the third option.[62]

Legal manoeuvres

Following Mrs Simpson's divorce hearing on 27 October 1936, her solicitor, John Theodore Goddard, became concerned that there would be a "patriotic" citizen's intervention (a legal device to block the divorce), and that such an intervention would be successful.[63] The case was being handled as if it were an undefended divorce brought against Mr Simpson, with Mrs Simpson as the innocent, injured party. The courts could not grant divorce by consent of both parties, or if it was shown that Mrs Simpson "colluded" with her husband by, for example, having an affair or intending to marry another. On Monday 7 December 1936, the King heard that Goddard planned to fly to the south of France to see his client. The King summoned him and expressly forbade him to make the journey, fearing the visit might put doubts in Mrs Simpson's mind. Goddard went straight to Downing Street to see Baldwin, as a result of which he was provided with an aeroplane to take him directly to Cannes.[63]

Upon his arrival, Goddard warned his client that a citizen's intervention, should it arise, was likely to succeed. It was, according to Goddard, his duty to advise her to withdraw her divorce petition.[63] Mrs Simpson refused, but they both telephoned the King to inform him that she was willing to give him up so that he could remain King. It was, however, too late; the King had already made up his mind to go, even if he could not marry Mrs Simpson. Indeed, as the belief that the abdication was inevitable gathered strength, Goddard stated that: "[his] client was ready to do anything to ease the situation but the other end of the wicket [Edward VIII] was determined".[64]

Goddard had a weak heart and had never flown before, so he asked his doctor, William Kirkwood, to accompany him on the trip. As Kirkwood was a resident at a maternity hospital, his presence led to false speculation that Mrs Simpson was pregnant,[65] and even that she was having an abortion. The press excitedly reported that the solicitor had flown to Mrs Simpson accompanied by a gynaecologist and an anaesthetist (who was actually the lawyer's clerk).[66]

Abdication

George VI, formerly Albert, Duke of York

At Fort Belvedere on 10 December, Edward VIII's written abdication notice was witnessed by his three younger brothers: Prince Albert, Duke of York (who succeeded Edward as George VI), Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, and Prince George, Duke of Kent. The following day, it was given legislative form by special Act of Parliament (His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936).[67] Under changes introduced by the Statute of Westminster, a single Crown for the entire empire had been replaced by multiple crowns, one for each Dominion, worn by a single monarch in a Commonwealth of Nations. Edward's abdication required the consent of each Commonwealth state, which was duly given.[68] However, the Government of the Irish Free State, taking the opportunity presented by the crisis and in a major step towards its eventual transition to a republic, passed an amendment to its constitution to remove references to the Crown.[69] The King's abdication was recognised a day later in the External Relations Act of the Irish Free State.[70] It was Edward's Royal Assent to these Acts, rather than his abdication notice, which gave legal effect to the abdication. As Edward VIII had not been crowned, his planned coronation date became that of his brother Albert, now styled George VI, instead.

Edward's supporters felt that he had "been hounded from the throne by that arch humbug Baldwin",[71] but many members of the Establishment were relieved by Edward's departure. As Edward's own Assistant Private Secretary, Alan Lascelles, had told Baldwin as early as 1927, "I can't help thinking that the best thing that could happen to him, and to the country, would be for him to break his neck."[72]

On the day his reign officially ended, 11 December 1936, Edward made a BBC radio broadcast from Windsor Castle. No longer King, he was introduced by Sir John Reith as "His Royal Highness Prince Edward".[73][74] The official address had been polished by Churchill, and was moderate in tone, speaking about Edward's inability to do his job "as I would have wished" without the support of "the woman I love".[75] Edward's reign had lasted 327 days, the shortest of any British monarch since the disputed reign of Lady Jane Grey over 380 years earlier. The day following the broadcast he left Britain for Austria.

Duke and Duchess of Windsor

Edward's younger brother Albert, who became George VI on Edward's abdication, gave his elder brother the title of Duke of Windsor with the style His Royal Highness on 12 December 1936.[76] On 3 May the following year, Mrs Simpson's divorce was made final. The case was handled quietly, and it barely featured in some newspapers. The Times was especially disingenuous, printing a single sentence[77] below a seemingly unconnected report announcing the Duke's departure from Austria.[78] When the Duke married Mrs Simpson on 3 June 1937 in France she became the Duchess of Windsor, but much to Edward's disgust was not styled Her Royal Highness.[79]

The Duke of Windsor lived in retirement in France for most of the rest of his life. His brother gave him a tax-free allowance, which the Duke supplemented by writing his memoirs and by illegal currency trading.[80] He also profited from the sale of Balmoral Castle and Sandringham House to George VI. Both estates are private property and not part of the Royal Estate, and were therefore inherited and owned by Edward, regardless of the abdication.[81]

During World War II he served as Governor of The Bahamas, where he was plagued by rumours and accusations that he was pro-Nazi. He reportedly told an acquaintance, "After the war is over and Hitler will crush the Americans ... we'll take over ... They [the Commonwealth] don't want me as their king, but I'll soon be back as their leader."[82] He told a journalist that "it would be a tragic thing for the world if Hitler was overthrown".[82] Comments like these reinforced the belief that the Duke and Duchess held Nazi sympathies and that the effect of the abdication crisis of 1936 was to force off the throne a man whose political views could have been a threat to his country, and replace him with a king, George VI, who showed no such sympathies.[83] The Duke explained his views in the New York Daily News of 13 December 1966: "...it was in Britain's interest and in Europe's too, that Germany be encouraged to strike east and smash Communism forever ... I thought the rest of us could be fence-sitters while the Nazis and the Reds slogged it out."[84] However, claims that Edward would have been a threat or that he was removed by a political conspiracy to dethrone him remain speculative, and "persist largely because since 1936 the contemporary public considerations have lost most of their force and so seem, wrongly, to provide insufficient explanation for the King's departure".[85]

See also

In 2005, the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales and Camilla Parker Bowles had similarities to that of Edward and Wallis. Just like Mrs Simpson in 1936, Mrs Parker Bowles was a divorcée whose previous husband was still living.

Edward and Wallis's romance captured the imagination and interest of multiple artists. Cultural depictions of the abdication and its aftermath are extensive, and encompass a variety of media.

Notes and sources

  1. ^ Broad, p. 37.
  2. ^ Broad, p. 47.
  3. ^ Beaverbrook, pp. 28–33; Windsor p. 314 and Ziegler, pp. 292–295.
  4. ^ Broad, p. 56 and Williams, p. 85.
  5. ^ Broad, p. 71.
  6. ^ Williams, pp. 93–94.
  7. ^ Broad, p. 75.
  8. ^ Williams, p. 101.
  9. ^ Williams, p. 134.
  10. ^ Williams, p. 146.
  11. ^ Williams, pp. 149–151.
  12. ^ Williams, pp. 8–11.
  13. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p. 136.
  14. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p. 301; Beaverbrook, p. 14 and Williams, pp. 70–71.
  15. ^ Three of Henry's six marriages were annulled, i.e. declared under canon law to be null and void. Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon was annulled on the grounds that the marriage was incestuous (Catherine had been married previously to Henry's elder brother). Henry's marriage to Anne Boleyn was declared invalid after Catherine's death and Anne's conviction for treason. Henry's marriage to Anne of Cleves was not consummated and was annulled six months after the wedding on the pretext that Anne had been promised to another. In contrast, Mrs Simpson's divorces were legal terminations under civil law of legally valid marriages. Whereas a person with an annulment has not been married, a person with a divorce has been married already.
  16. ^ "A Historic Barrier Drops", Time, 20 July 1981, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,954854,00.html, retrieved 9 July 2009  .
  17. ^ Bradford, p. 241.
  18. ^ See, for example, Virginia Woolf's diary quoted in Williams, p. 40.
  19. ^ Ziegler, p. 236.
  20. ^ Howarth, p. 61.
  21. ^ Quoted in Jones, Chris (29 January 2003), Profile: Wallis Simpson, BBC, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/2699035.stm, retrieved 9 July 2009  
  22. ^ Williams, pp. 96–97.
  23. ^ Vickers, p. 163.
  24. ^ Duchess revelations stolen, BBC News, 9 February 2003, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/2737859.stm, retrieved 9 July 2009  .
  25. ^ Vickers, p. 185.
  26. ^ John Aird's diary, quoted in Ziegler, p. 234.
  27. ^ Ziegler, p. 312.
  28. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p. 338.
  29. ^ Ramsay MacDonald's diary, quoted in Williams, p. 60.
  30. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p. 253.
  31. ^ Beaverbrook, p. 20.
  32. ^ Ziegler, pp. 271–272.
  33. ^ See, for example, Williams, p. 59.
  34. ^ Vickers, p. 140 and Ziegler, p. 288.
  35. ^ Howarth, p. 62.
  36. ^ Williams, pp. 196–197 and Ziegler, pp. 273–274.
  37. ^ Bowcott, Owen; Bates, Stephen (30 January 2003), "Fear that Windsors would 'flit' to Germany", The Guardian, http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2003/jan/30/highereducation.past, retrieved 9 July 2009  .
  38. ^ Evans, Rob; Hencke, David (29 June 2002), "Wallis Simpson, the Nazi minister, the telltale monk and an FBI plot'", The Guardian, http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4451107,00.html, retrieved 9 July 2009  .
  39. ^ Pope-Hennessy, James (1959), Queen Mary, London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd, p. 574  .
  40. ^ Williams, pp. 40–41.
  41. ^ Williams, p. 266.
  42. ^ Williams, p. 90 and Ziegler, p. 296.
  43. ^ a b The Duke of Windsor, p. 332.
  44. ^ Éamon de Valera quoted in Bradford, p. 188.
  45. ^ Williams, p. 130.
  46. ^ Williams, pp. 130–131.
  47. ^ Williams, p. 113.
  48. ^ Williams, p. 173 and Ziegler, p. 291.
  49. ^ Williams, pp. 173–176.
  50. ^ Williams, p. 177.
  51. ^ Williams, pp. 179–181.
  52. ^ Williams, pp. 198–199.
  53. ^ Williams, pp. 181–182.
  54. ^ Williams, pp. 199–200.
  55. ^ See, for example, Williams, pp. 138–144.
  56. ^ Beaverbrook, p. 68; Broad, p. 188 and Ziegler, p. 308.
  57. ^ Ziegler, p. 308 and the Duke of Windsor, p. 373.
  58. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p. 361.
  59. ^ Casciani, Dominic (30 January 2003), King's abdication appeal blocked, BBC News, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/2707489.stm, retrieved 9 July 2009  .
  60. ^ Beaverbrook, p. 71 and Williams, p. 156.
  61. ^ The Duke of Windsor, pp. 378–379.
  62. ^ The Duke of Windsor, pp. 386–387.
  63. ^ a b c Cretney, Stephen (September 2003), "Edward, Mrs. Simpson and the Divorce Law: Stephen Cretney Investigates Whether the Government Colluded in the Suppression of Evidence That Might Have Prevented Wallis Simpson's Divorce and Royal Marriage", History Today 53: 26 ff, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst;jsessionid=FTthsY9h0CTMyyQJFNvB3TTJynjzK5dpvQx7NXpmpK4ZT0YMhGWQ!147595826?a=o&d=5002027369, retrieved 9 July 2009   (Subscription required).
  64. ^ Norton-Taylor, Richard; Evans, Rob (2 March 2000), "Edward and Mrs. Simpson cast in new light", The Guardian, http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2000/mar/02/monarchy.richardnortontaylor, retrieved 9 July 2009  .
  65. ^ "Duchess of Windsor", Time, 21 December 1936, http://aolsvc.timeforkids.kol.aol.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,757202-1,00.html, retrieved 9 July 2009  .
  66. ^ Beaverbrook, p. 81 and Williams, p. 217.
  67. ^ London Gazette: no. 34350, p. 8117, 15 December 1936. Retrieved on 9 July 2009.
  68. ^ Heard, Andrew (1990), Canadian Independence, Simon Fraser University, Canada, http://www.sfu.ca/~aheard/324/Independence.html, retrieved 9 July 2009  .
  69. ^ Constitution (Amendment No. 27) Act, 1936, The Government of Ireland, http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/1936/en/act/pub/0057/index.html, retrieved 9 July 2009  .
  70. ^ Executive Authority (External Relations) Act, 1936, The Government of Ireland, http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/1936/en/act/pub/0058/index.html, retrieved 9 July 2009  .
  71. ^ David Lloyd George quoted in Williams, p. 241.
  72. ^ Lascelles, Sir Alan 'Tommy' (20 November 2006), "Prince Charmless: A damning portrait of Edward VIII", Daily Mail, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-417388/Prince-Charmless-A-damning-portrait-Edward-VIII.html, retrieved 9 July 2009  .
  73. ^ The Duke of Windsor, p. 413 and Ziegler, p. 331.
  74. ^ Stuart, Charles, ed. (1975), The Reith Diaries, London: Collins, pp. 192–193, ISBN 0-00-211174-8  .
  75. ^ The Duke of Windsor, pp. 409–413.
  76. ^ London Gazette: no. 34350, p. 8115, 15 December 1936. Retrieved on 9 July 2009.
  77. ^ "Mrs. Ernest Simpson's Divorce". The Times. Tuesday 4 May 1937. p. 5 col. C.
  78. ^ "The Duke of Windsor: Departure from Austria". The Times. Tuesday 4 May 1937. p. 5 col. C.
  79. ^ Ziegler, p. 529.
  80. ^ Roberts, Andrew (2000), Antonia Fraser, ed., The House of Windsor, London: Cassell and Co, p. 53, ISBN 0-304-35406-6  .
  81. ^ Ziegler, pp. 376–378.
  82. ^ a b Walker, Andrew (29 January 2003), Profile: Edward VIII, BBC News, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/2701965.stm, retrieved 9 July 2009  .
  83. ^ Ziegler, pp. 434 ff.
  84. ^ Quoted in Higham, Charles (2005), Mrs Simpson, Pan Books, pp. 259–260, ISBN 0-330-42678-8  .
  85. ^ Williamson, Philip (2007), Olechnowicz, Andrzej, ed., "The monarchy and public values 1910–1953", The monarchy and the British nation, 1780 to the present (Cambridge University Press): p. 225, ISBN 9780521844611  

References

  • Beaverbrook, Lord; Edited by A. J. P. Taylor (1966), The Abdication of King Edward VIII, London: Hamish Hamilton  .
  • Bradford, Sarah (1989), King George VI, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, ISBN 0-297-79667-4  .
  • Broad, Lewis (1961), The Abdication, London: Frederick Muller Ltd  .
  • Howarth, Patrick (1987), George VI, Hutchinson, OCLC 18715024  .
  • Vickers, Hugo (2006), Elizabeth: The Queen Mother, Arrow Books/Random House, ISBN 978-0-09947-662-7  .
  • Williams, Susan (2003), The People's King: The True Story of the Abdication, London: Penguin Books Ltd, ISBN 0-71399-573-4  .
  • Windsor, HRH The Duke of (1951), A King’s Story, London: Cassell and Co, OCLC 1903717  .
  • Ziegler, Philip (1991), King Edward VIII: The official biography, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, ISBN 0-394-57730-2  .

External links


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