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Edward VI
Formal portrait in the Elizabethan style of Edward in his early teens. He has a long pointed face with fine features, dark eyes and a small full mouth. In this portrait he looks thin and ill.
.Edward VI, by William Scrots, c.^ William Edwards (VI) IMDb Search All .
  • William Edwards (VI) 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: General]

^ WILLIAM III & MARY II, ANNE, GEORGE I, GEORGE II, GEORGE III, GEORGE IV, WILLIAM IV, VICTORIA, EDWARD VII, GEORGE V, EDWARD VIII, GEORGE VI, ELIZABETH II .
  •  ENGLISH KINGS AND QUEENS  27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.eudesign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ See also: Alternate successions of the English crown In fiction Edward IV features as a character in: ▪ The plays Henry VI, Part 2 , Henry VI, Part 3 , and Richard III , by William Shakespeare .
  • Edward IV PLANTAGENET King of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC web.me.com [Source type: Original source]

1550
King of England and Ireland (more ...)
Reign 28 January 1547 – 6 July 1553 (&0000000000000006.0000006 years, &0000000000000159.000000159 days)
Coronation 20 February 1547 (aged 9)
Predecessor Henry VIII
Successor Lady Jane Grey (disputed) or Mary I
Regent Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (1547–1549)
John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland (1549–1553)
House House of Tudor
Father Henry VIII of England
Mother Jane Seymour
Born 12 October 1537(1537-10-12)
Hampton Court Palace, Middlesex, England
Died 6 July 1553 (aged 15)
Greenwich Palace, Kent, England
Burial 8 August 1553
Henry VII Lady Chapel, Westminster Abbey, England
Signature
.Edward VI (12 October 1537–6 July 1553) became King of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547 and was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine.^ Edward became King of England at nine years old, in January, 1547.
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Edward VI. 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Crowned on Sunday Feb 20, 1547.
  • Prints from Barnard's New Complete and Authentic History of England. 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.philaprintshop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edward VI King of England 1537-1553 Call Number: Loading Located: Loading Loading...

[1] .The son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, Edward was the third monarch of the Tudor dynasty and England's first ruler who was raised as a Protestant.^ Edward was the only son of Henry VIII. .

^ Seymour was the eldest son of Sir John Seymour and brother to Jane Seymour , the third wife of Henry VIII .

^ Edward, the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour , was the third monarch of the Tudor dynasty and England's first ruler who was Protestant at the time of his ascension to the throne.
  • Edward VI of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

.During Edward's reign, the realm was governed by a Regency Council, because he never reached maturity.^ Who was the first Protector of the Realm during the reign of Edward Tudor?
  • House of Tudor - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was imprisoned there during Edwards reign.
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During Edward’s reign, the realm was governed by a Regency Council, because he never reached maturity.
  • Edward VI of England, Nobility - News - Evri 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: General]

.The Council was led by his uncle Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, (1547–1549), and then by John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick, (1550–1553), who later became Duke of Northumberland.^ John Dudley, who eventually became Duke of Northumberland, managed to have Somerset removed from power and executed.
  • Kings and Queens of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC lyberty.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward Seymour, duke of SOMERSET , EDWARD SEYMOUR, DUKE OF [Somerset , Edward Seymour, duke of] 1506?-1552, protector of England .
  • Edward VI of England - Factbites 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Duke of Somerset became extremely unpopular, even among his own Council.

.Edward's reign was marked by economic problems, military withdrawal from Scotland and Boulogne-sur-Mer, and social unrest that, in 1549, erupted into riot and rebellion.^ Edward's reign was marked by economic problems, military withdrawal from Scotland and Boulogne, and social unrest that in 1549 erupted into riot and rebellion.
  • Edward VI of England, Nobility - News - Evri 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: General]

^ Edward's reign was marked by economic problems, military withdrawal from Scotland and ...
  • edward ~ By Archmaille Designs ~ Sterling Silver Jewelry Store ~ Handmade Silver Chainmail Jewelry 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.archmailledesigns.com [Source type: General]

^ Greedy courtiers looted the nation, fruitless war with Scotland bankrupted the treasury, and religious changes and economic disruptions caused widespread social unrest.
  • Article: The Boy King: Edward VI and the Protestant Reformation. - History: Review of New Books | HighBeam Research - FREE trial 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

.It also saw the transformation of the Anglican Church into a recognisably Protestant body.^ She re-established the Protestant Anglican Church.
  • Timeline of Queen Elizabeth the First 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also saw the transformation of the Anglican Church into a recognisably Protestant body.
  • Edward VI of England, Nobility - News - Evri 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: General]

^ He also denied the doctrine of transubstantiation (the belief that bread and wine are transformed into the body and blood of Christ during mass).
  • A History of Christianity in England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

.Henry VIII had severed the link between the Church of England and Rome, and during Edward's reign, Protestantism was established for the first time in England, with reforms that included the abolition of clerical celibacy and the Mass, and the imposition of compulsory services in English.^ Edward was the only son of Henry VIII. .

^ Although Henry VIII had broken the link between the English church and Rome, it was during Edward's reign that a form of Protestantism which came to be known as Anglicanism became truly established.
  • Edward VI of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the time Henry VII and Henry VIII had died the church was extremely Catholic.
  • WikiAnswers - How much did henry viii and his son edward vi change the church of england 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Original source]

.The architect of these reforms was Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, whose Book of Common Prayer has proved lasting.^ Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, born.
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Cranmer is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Book of common prayer.
  • SearchWorks (SULAIR) Search Results 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC searchworks.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Edward fell ill in January 1553, and when it was discovered to be terminal, he and his Council drew up a "Devise for the Succession", attempting to prevent the country being returned to Catholicism.^ Edward fell ill in 1552 and died on July 6, 1553.
  • History of Our English Bible 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.fbinstitute.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward wrote his “Devise” for the succession of the Crown.
  • Edward VI (1547-1553): The Boy King 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC monarchs.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edward fell fatally ill at Easter 1483, but lingered on long enough to add some codicils to his will, the most important being his naming of his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester, as Protector after his death.
  • Edward IV PLANTAGENET King of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC web.me.com [Source type: Original source]

.Edward named his cousin Lady Jane Grey as his heir and excluded his half sisters, Mary and Elizabeth.^ Queen Mary pardons Lady Jane Grey.
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jane Grey, Lady b.1537 d.1554 .
  • Family tree of EDWARD (IV, Earl of March and King of England 1461-1470, 1471-1483) 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He persuaded Edward to name the Protestant Jane Grey as his successor ( see his will ).
  • About Edward VI TUDOR (King of England) 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

.However, this was disputed following Edward's death and Jane was only queen for nine days before Edward's half-sister, Mary, was proclaimed Queen.^ Mary, Edward's eldest sister, and devoted Catholic, was proclaimed Queen.
  • Edward VI: The Lost King of England (Paperback) by Chris Skidmore - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]
  • Edward VI: The Lost King of England: Amazon.co.uk: Chris Skidmore: Books 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.amazon.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Edward VI: The Lost King of England: Amazon.co.uk: Chris Skidmore: Books 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.amazon.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Jane survived as queen for only nine days before the Privy Council proclaimed Mary, for whom the people had risen in support in the counties.
  • http://getglue.com/topics/p/edward_vi_of_england 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC getglue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lady Jane is proclaimed the Queen of England.
  • Timeline of Queen Elizabeth the First 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.She proceeded to reverse many of Edward's Protestant reforms, but Elizabeth's religious settlement of 1559 would secure his Protestant legacy.^ Queen Mary then sought to undo many of Edward's Protestant reforms.

^ As queen, Mary proceeded to undo many of Edward's Protestant reforms, but Elizabeth's religious settlement of 1559 was to secure his Protestant legacy."
  • http://getglue.com/topics/p/edward_vi_of_england 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC getglue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edward had two older sisters (the Catholic Mary and the Protestant Elizabeth I, of whom you might have heard).
  • WikiAnswers - What was King Edward VI's religion 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Early life

Birth

.Prince Edward was born on 12 October 1537 at his mother's room inside of Hampton Court Palace, in Middlesex.^ Edward was born at Hampton Court Palace in London Borough of Richmond upon Thames.
  • Edward VI of England - Factbites 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward was born at Hampton Court on Oct.
  • EDWARD VI 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]
  • Search Results 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edward VI was born on October 12, 1537 .
  • Edward VI of England - Factbites 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: Original source]

[2] .He was the son of King Henry VIII by his third wife, Jane Seymour.^ EDWARD VI 1537 53, king of England (1547 53), son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour.
  • Edward VI: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ King Henry was betrothed to Jane Seymour the day after Anne was beheaded.
  • Royal Genealogies Part 20 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC thedon.cac.psu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (Elizabeth's son was Henry VIII of England .
  • Edward IV PLANTAGENET King of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC web.me.com [Source type: Original source]

.Throughout the realm, the people greeted the birth of a male heir, "whom we hungered for so long",[3] with joy and relief.^ Henry VIII died in 1547 , secure in the knowledge that he had left behind the male heir to the throne that he had longed for.
  • Edward VI of England - Factbites 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His appointment of Catholics to high offices and the birth of a male heir caused widespread fear that he would destroy the Church of England and attempt to reimpose Roman Catholicism.

^ The English people seemed distrustful of female rulers, and Henry felt that only a male heir could secure the throne.
  • Henry VIII of England - Celtopedia 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC celtopedia.druidcircle.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII of England at AllExperts 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Te Deums were sung in churches, bonfires lit, and "their was shott at the Tower that night above two thousand gonnes".[4] Jane, appearing to recover quickly from the birth, sent out pre-signed letters announcing the birth of "a Prince, conceived in most lawful matrimony between my Lord the King's Majesty and us". Edward was christened on 15 October, with Princess Mary as godmother and Princess Elizabeth carrying the chrism, or baptismal cloth;[4] and the Garter King of Arms proclaimed him as Duke of Cornwall and Earl of Chester.^ Three, my most gracious lord.
  • Henry VI, part 3, by William Shakespeare (act3) 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • King Henry VI, Part III 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.shakespeare-online.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Third part of King Henry the Sixth, by William Shakespeare 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ And I, my lord, will bear him company.
  • The Third part of King Henry the Sixth, by William Shakespeare 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ And most people were glad to have him as king.” .
  • OTRR Wiki | CertFirstLines / CavalcadeOfKings 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.otrr.org [Source type: General]

[5] .Jane Seymour, however, fell ill on 23 October from presumed postnatal complications, and died the following night.^ His mother Jane Seymour died when he was born.
  • Edward VI – Dictionary definition of Edward VI | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jane Seymour dies .
  • TimeRef - History Timelines - Edward (VI, King of England 1547-1553) 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: General]

^ But, she fell ill and died.
  • Week 6 Tudor England Hand Outs 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: General]

.Henry VIII wrote to Francis I of France that "Divine Providence ...^ A marriage treaty was signed; that provided that Mary would marry either Francis or his second son, Henry, Duke of Orléans.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jane was the daughter of Henry Grey, Marquis of Dorset (later Duke of Suffolk) and Frances Brandon, a neice of Henry VIII. Jane married Guildford Dudley in May of 1553.
  • Find A Grave - Chapel of Saint Peter-ad-Vincula, Tower of London 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.findagrave.com [Source type: General]

^ However, upon the accession of the French King Francis I in 1515, England and France grew antagonistic, and Henry became reconciled with Ferdinand.
  • Henry VIII of England - Celtopedia 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC celtopedia.druidcircle.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII of England at AllExperts 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

hath mingled my joy with bitterness of the death of her who brought me this happiness".[6]

Upbringing and education

Contemporary portraits
Painting of Prince Edward as a baby, depicted with regal splendour and a kingly gesture. He is dressed in red and gold, and a hat with ostrich plume. His face has delicate features, chubby cheeks and a fringe of red-gold hair.
.
Prince Edward in 1539, by Hans Holbein the Younger.^ Edward as a young prince, painted by Hans Holbein .
  • Tudor Monarchs: King Edward VI 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Hans Holbein the Younger (painter) German, 1497/1498 - 1543 Edward VI as a Child , probably 1538 oil on panel Overall: 56.8 x 44 cm (22 3/8 x 17 5/16 in.
  • Edward VI as a Child - Literature 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.nga.gov [Source type: News]

^ Hans Holbein the Younger was dispatched to Cleves to paint a portrait of Anne for the King.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII of England - Celtopedia 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC celtopedia.druidcircle.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII of England at AllExperts 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

He holds a golden rattle that resembles a sceptre; and the Latin inscription urges him to equal or surpass his father.[7]
Painting of Edward at 9 years. <a name=.Both the pose of the prince and his dress imitate portraits of Henry VIII. The child wears a broad-shouldered mantle of dark velvet over his clothes which are ornately embroidered in gold thread.^ Anonymous portrait of Henry VIII c.
  • Henry VIII of England at AllExperts 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Windsor; considers Holbein's authorship of the drawing "manifestly impossible"; notes that the pose of the prince in both works is the same, while the expression and the details of costume and headdress differ.
  • Edward VI (1537–1553), When Duke of Cornwall | Workshop of Hans Holbein the Younger (English, after 1543) | All | European Paintings | Collection Database | Works of Art | The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.metmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Edward VI (1537–1553), When Duke of Cornwall | Workshop of Hans Holbein the Younger (English, after 1543) | All | European Paintings | Collection Database | Works of Art | The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.metmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mary Queen of Scots, the Catholic granddaughter of Henry VIII's sister Margaret and the French Dauphine, posed a threat and she was imprisoned and then executed.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10150 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He wears a prominent cod-piece and carries a dagger. .His short red hair can be seen beneath his cap, contrasting with dark eyes.^ Sunny curls of short golden hair danced in the sunlight, while the eyes were bright, black, and laughing: Aunt Tabitha was beautiful.
  • Mrs. Edward Leigh 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.lehigh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They also made the anne character have blue eyes, and the Catherine character have dark hair.
  • FARK.com: (4468482) On this date 500 years ago Henry VIII was crowned King of England and totally had all the chicks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: General]

He looks well and robust." src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/01/2/9/7/98932212407005364.jpg" width="203" height="271" />
.
Edward as Prince of Wales, 1546 He wears the Prince of Wales's feathers and crown on the pendant jewel.^ Edward was created Prince of Wales in 1454.
  • Richard III Society - The Arrival of Edward IV 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.r3.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It had belonged to the native Prince of North Wales and formed part of the spoils given over to Edward I at the close of the campaign against Llewellyn and the Welsh in 1283.

^ The first Garter service since the reign of George III is held following the investiture of the Prince of Wales (later Edward VIII).
  • College of St George - Windsor Castle - St George's Timeline 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.stgeorges-windsor.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]
.Edward was a healthy baby who suckled strongly from the outset.^ Edward was a healthy baby but he did not inherit his father’s athleticism and robust health.
  • Edward VI (1547-1553): The Boy King 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC monarchs.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first is that Edward was a perfectly healthy teenager who contracted an ailment that ended his life abruptly.
  • A Year with the Tudors: Edward VI | Open Letters Monthly - an Arts and Literature Review 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.openlettersmonthly.com [Source type: General]

.His father was delighted with him; in May 1538, Henry was observed "dallying with him in his arms ...^ Upon the exile of Henry's father in 1398, Richard II took the boy into his own charge and treated him kindly.

^ KING HENRY VI An if he may, then am I lawful king; For Richard, in the view of many lords, Resign'd the crown to Henry the Fourth, Whose heir my father was, and I am his.
  • Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • 3 KING HENRY VI 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.pasadenashakespeare.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Drama: Henry VI, Part 3 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An if he may, then am I lawful king; For Richard, in the view of many lords, Resign’d the crown to Henry the Fourth, Whose heir my father was, and I am his.
  • The Third part of King Henry the Sixth, by William Shakespeare 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

and so holding him in a window to the sight and great comfort of the people".[9] .That September, the Lord Chancellor, Thomas, Lord Audley, reported Edward's rapid growth and vigour;[9] and other accounts describe him as a tall and merry child.^ Other children were brought to play with Edward and shared his formal education with sons of nobles, "appointed to attend upon him" in what was a form of miniature court.
  • Edward VI Historical Profile - The Tudors Wiki 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: General]
  • Edward VI Historical Profile - The Tudors Wiki 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: General]
  • Edward VI Historical Profile - The Tudors Wiki 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: General]

^ The Council consisted of all the executors and assistants, except for Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton (who, whilst serving as Lord Chancellor, had illegally delegated some of his powers to other officials) and Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset.

^ But in spite of Holbein's vivacious portrait of Edward at the age of two (now at Hanover), he was a frail child, and a short life was anticipated for him from his early years.
  • England Under The Tudors: King Edward VI (1537-1553) 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.luminarium.org [Source type: Original source]

.The tradition that Edward VI was a sickly boy has been challenged by some historians.^ Edward VI was an extremely sickly child.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward VI : a new look at the King his Reign...despite his image as a pious sickly child, Edward VI was very much his fathers son.
  • Edward VI: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Note: King Edwards VI Camp Hill School for Boys reserves the right to moderate and/or remove offensive and tasteless entries.
  • Old Edwardians Contacts / Old Edwardians / King Edward VI - Camp Hill School for Boys 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC web.camphillboys.bham.sch.uk [Source type: General]

[10] .At the age of four, he fell ill with a life-threatening "quartan fever",[11] but, despite occasional illnesses and poor eyesight, he enjoyed generally good health until the last six months of his life.^ His first illness, experienced at the age of 4, a "quartan fever" which lasted for months.
  • Edward VI of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His first illness, experienced at the age of 4, was a "quartan fever" which lasted for months.

^ "A king, is as much a king at four as he is at forty years of age" - Stephen Gardiner Male 89 years old United Kingdom Last Login: 4/22/2008 .
  • MySpace - King Edward VI - 89 - Male - UK - myspace.com/kingedwardvi 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]
.Edward was initially placed in the care of Margaret Bryan, "lady mistress" of the prince's household.^ PRINCE EDWARD Let AEsop fable in a winter's night; His currish riddles sort not with this place.
  • Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Drama: Henry VI, Part 3 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward VI is featured in Mark Twain 's novel The Prince and the Pauper , as the young king and a pauper boy accidentally exchange places.

^ The Earl of Warwick submits to Queen Margaret and solicits a pardon on his knees before her, thus allowing the marriage of her son, Prince Edward (The Prince of Wales) with his daughter, Lady Anne Neville to go ahead.
  • TopFoto Gallery - History of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.topfoto.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

She was succeeded by Blanche Herbert, Lady Troy. .Until the age of six, Edward was brought up, as he put it later in his Chronicle, "among the women".[13] The formal royal household established around Edward was, at first, under Sir William Sidney, and later Sir Richard Page, stepfather of Edward Seymour's wife, Anne Stanhope.^ Edward VI was brought up as a Protestant.
  • Week 6 Tudor England Hand Outs 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: General]

^ Edward at the age of six.

^ Edward played with Jane, granddaughter of his chamberlain Sir William Sidney.

.Henry demanded exacting standards of security and cleanliness in his son's household, stressing that Edward was "this whole realm's most precious jewel".[14] Visitors described the prince, who was lavishly provided with toys and comforts, including his own troupe of minstrels, as a contented child.^ Edward son of henry and english jews?
  • WikiAnswers - How much did henry viii and his son edward vi change the church of england 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward VI , son of Henry VIII .

^ Henry's only surviving son, Edward, was not a healthy child.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[15]
.From the age of six, Edward began his formal education under Richard Cox and John Cheke, concentrating, as he recalled himself, on "learning of tongues, of the scripture, of philosophy, and all liberal sciences";[16] He received tuition from Elizabeth's tutor, Roger Ascham and Jean Belmain, learning French, Spanish and Italian.^ He was carefully educated, and had for tutors Sir Anthony Cooke and Sir John Cheke.
  • GENUKI: Kings of England - E(2) 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.genuki.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ An education was started with the most renowned teachers in England, Roger Ascham and John Cheke.

^ Edward at the age of six.

.In addition, he is known to have studied geometry and learned to play musical instruments, including the lute and the virginals.^ Both in Europe and America my parents regularly had people come to the house to play music and they were always welcome to use Dad's instruments.
  • Sasanian Seals from the Collection of the Late Edward Gans at UC Berkeley 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC ecai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other studies included Greek, science and music.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

He collected globes and maps and, according to coinage historian C. E. Challis, developed a grasp of monetary affairs that indicates a high intelligence. .Edward's religious education is assumed to have favoured the reforming agenda.^ The reform movement surged ahead, and it was during Edward's reign that religious reform in England became politicized.
  • Europe in the Age of the Reformation 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Injunctions of Edward VI. and the Homilies of Cranmer were dispatched for the guidance of the Archbishop of Dublin, and of those who, like him, were supposed to favour religious innovations.
  • The Church in Ireland During the Reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI (1509-1553) @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward's education was coloured by the Reformation that had swept through the Netherlands and Germany .

[17] .His religious establishment was probably chosen by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, a leading reformer.^ Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, born.
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Cranmer is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tempering the reforming zeal of Thomas Cranmer , archbishop of Canterbury, the government moved slowly toward Protestantism.
  • Edward VI: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

Both Cox and Cheke were "reformed" Catholics or Erasmians and later became Marian exiles. .By 1549, Edward had written a treatise on the pope as Antichrist and was making informed notes on theological controversies.^ December 2, 1936: The British Cabinet informs Edward that he cannot make Mrs. Simpson his Queen Consort nor can he marry her since it would be against church law.

[18] .Many aspects of Edward's religion were essentially Catholic in his early years, including celebration of the mass and reverence for images and relics of the saints.^ Church images were pulled down, pictures of saints and angels were whitewashed over, and many of the old customs and holy days were suppressed.
  • The Baldwin Project: The Story of England by Samuel B. Harding 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But in spite of Holbein's vivacious portrait of Edward at the age of two (now at Hanover), he was a frail child, and a short life was anticipated for him from his early years.
  • England Under The Tudors: King Edward VI (1537-1553) 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.luminarium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was the temporary restoration of Romanism for some six years, under Mary Tudor, that saved the Catholic Religion in England.
  • Lectures on the First Prayer Book of King Edward VI 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC anglicanhistory.org [Source type: Original source]

[19]
.Both Edward's sisters were attentive to their brother and often visited him - on one occasion, Elizabeth gave him a shirt "of her own working".[20] Edward "took special content" in Mary's company, though he disapproved of her taste for foreign dances; "I love you most", he wrote to her in 1546.[21] In 1543, Henry invited his children to spend Christmas with him, signalling his reconciliation with his daughters, whom he had previously illegitimised and disinherited.^ Elizabeth often made shirts for him and Edward thanked her .

^ Elizabeth's brothers doted on their youngest sister.
  • Book charts the rise of a royal star 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.timescolonist.com [Source type: News]

^ And go we, brothers, to the man that took him, .

.The following spring, he restored them to their place in the succession with a Third Succession Act, which also provided for a regency council during Edward's minority.^ Henry had decreed that during Edwards minority the government was to be run by a council of regency.
  • KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.holylands.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not any longer after having read this book: Edward VI restored to his rightful place in history , 31 July 2008 .
  • Edward VI: The Lost King of England: Amazon.co.uk: Chris Skidmore: Books 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.amazon.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Henry's will designated sixteen executor s to serve on a council of regency until Edward reached the age of eighteen.
  • Henry VIII of England at AllExperts 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

[22] .This unaccustomed family harmony may have owed much to the influence of Henry's new wife Catherine Parr,[23] of whom Edward soon became fond.^ His final wife was Catherine Parr.Henry and Cromwell dissolved the monasteries.
  • MONARCHES OF ENGLAND 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.gallica.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry VIII marries Catherine Parr .
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward VI : a new look at the King his Reign...despite his image as a pious sickly child, Edward VI was very much his fathers son.
  • Edward VI: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

He called her his "most dear mother" and in September 1546, wrote to her: "I received so many benefits from you that my mind can hardly grasp them".[24]
Profile of the prince against a blue background
.
Portrait miniature of Edward by an unknown artist, c.
^ IMAGES Edward VI as prince, detail of a panel painting by an unknown artist, c.
  • Edward VI (king of England and Ireland) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Edward VI (king of England and Ireland) :: Additional Reading -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Credits : Kevin Fleming/Corbis] Nicholas Ridley, detail of a portrait by an unknown artist, 1555; in the National Portrait Gallery, …[Credits : Courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery, London] Elizabeth I of England, panel by an unknown artist, c.
  • Edward VI :: United Kingdom -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ Edward VI See Full Size Caption Edward VI as prince, detail of a panel painting by an unknown artist, c.
  • Edward VI :: United Kingdom -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

1543–46[25]
.Other children were brought to play with Edward, including the granddaughter of Edward's chamberlain, Sir William Sidney, who in adulthood recalled the prince as "a marvellous sweet child, of very mild and generous condition".[26] Edward was educated with sons of nobles, "appointed to attend upon him" in what was a form of miniature court.^ Edward played with Jane, granddaughter of his chamberlain Sir William Sidney.

^ Prince Edward christened at Hampton Court.
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Who is henry the bths son edward?
  • WikiAnswers - How much did henry viii and his son edward vi change the church of england 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Original source]

.Among these, Barnaby Fitzpatrick, son of an Irish peer, became a close and lasting friend.^ WESTMORELAND Plantagenet, of thee and these thy sons, Thy kinsman and thy friends, I'll have more lives Than drops of blood were in my father's veins.
  • Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • 3 KING HENRY VI 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.pasadenashakespeare.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Drama: Henry VI, Part 3 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "These men sithen this last commission seem much altered in disposition towards us, and in all men's opinions we are like this year as the last to be friends.
  • Edward VI - March 1551, 1-15 | British History Online 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Plantagenet, of thee and these thy sons, Thy kinsman and thy friends, I’ll have more lives Than drops of blood were in my father’s veins.
  • The Third part of King Henry the Sixth, by William Shakespeare 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[27] .Edward was more devoted to his schoolwork than his classmates and seems to have outshone them, motivated to do his "duty" and compete with his sister Elizabeth's academic prowess.^ Edward published his second prayer book which was much more Protestant in tone than that of three years earlier.
  • Edward VI of England - Factbites 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward VI of England on GetGlue Edward named his cousin Lady Jane Grey as his heir and excluded his two half sisters, the Catholic Mary and Protestant Elizabeth.
  • http://getglue.com/topics/p/edward_vi_of_england 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC getglue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While it speaks to Edward's youth, education, governing, etc., there is much more text devoted to other key players and the politics of the time.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Edward VI: The Lost King of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Edward VI: The Lost King of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

Edward's surroundings and possessions were regally splendid: his rooms were hung with costly Flemish tapestries, and his clothes, books, and cutlery were encrusted with precious jewels and gold.[28] .Like his father, Edward was fascinated by military arts, and many of his portraits show him wearing a gold dagger with a jewelled hilt, in imitation of Henry.^ Edward had interests in military affairs, jousts, and other such issues that would likely strike the fancy of a teenage boy of his rank and status in the sixteenth century.
  • Edward VI of England - Factbites 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward, son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, became King at the age of nine upon his father's death in January 1547.
  • King Edward VI's Defence of Astronomy 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.cosmicelk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I'd like to see their averages :) Henry reigned for 38 years Edward reigned for 6 years Mary reigned for 5 years (seriously?
  • Tudor History Lovers - [August, 2009] Edward VI The Lost King of England by Chris Skidmore (showing 51-83 of 83) 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] Edward's Chronicle enthusiastically details English military campaigns against Scotland and France, and adventures such as John Dudley's near capture at Musselburgh in 1547.[30]

"The Rough Wooing"

.On 1 July 1543, Henry VIII signed the Treaty of Greenwich with the Scots, sealing the peace with Edward's betrothal to the seven-month-old Mary, Queen of Scots.^ Spain and England sign a peace treaty.

^ Mary Queen of Scots beheaded .
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS 1542-1567 .
  • Isle of Purbeck - Kings & Queens 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.isleofpurbeck.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Scots were in a weak bargaining position after their defeat at Solway Moss the previous November, and Henry, seeking to unite the two realms, stipulated that Mary be handed over to him to be brought up in England.^ Edward VI of England on GetGlue Edward named his cousin Lady Jane Grey as his heir and excluded his two half sisters, the Catholic Mary and Protestant Elizabeth.
  • http://getglue.com/topics/p/edward_vi_of_england 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC getglue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this link was not there he would become Henry I. This set up may not be the case for all countries in the world but apparently is for England/Britain.
  • Can you name the Kings and Queens of England? - sporcle 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.sporcle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry's third wife, Jane Seymour, provided him with the baby he called "this whole realm's most precious jewel", but he did not live to see his son grow up.
  • Book of the week: Edward VI by Chris Skidmore | Books | The Guardian 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[31] .When the Scots repudiated the treaty in December 1543 and renewed their alliance with France, Henry was enraged.^ The Scots instead strengthened their alliance with France, the power that increasingly threatened England's safety.
  • Edward VI Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Edward VI 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John III of Burgundy recognizes Charles VII as king of France in the Treaty of Arras; Ends Burgundy's alliance with England   [ France ] .
  • eHistory.com: Middle Ages: Wars of the Roses: Timeline 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While pretending to act the part of mediator between the rival sovereigns, Henry concluded a secret alliance with the Emperor in 1521, and prepared to make war on France.
  • The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

.In April 1544, he ordered Edward's uncle, Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford, to invade Scotland and "put all to fire and sword, burn Edinburgh town, so razed and defaced when you have sacked and gotten what ye can of it, as there may remain forever a perpetual memory of the vengeance of God lightened upon [them] for their falsehood and disloyalty".[32] Seymour responded with the most savage campaign ever launched by the English against the Scots.^ So there is more to judge Edward upon.
  • Edward VI: The Lost King of England: Amazon.co.uk: Chris Skidmore: Books 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.amazon.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ This perplexed Edward - and it may perplex you.
  • King Edward VI's Defence of Astronomy 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.cosmicelk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Yes, I figured that any description of mine would be repetitive and definitely miss important parts of it, so I decided to just show you all in map form.
  • O Lord, our God, Arise: More Weekly Reports from England - Page 8 - Paradox Interactive Forums 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

[33] The war, which continued into Edward's reign, has become known as "The Rough Wooing".

Accession

A painting
.
Edward VI and the Pope: An Allegory of the Reformation.
^ The reign of Edward VI saw a full out Protestant Reformation.
  • YouTube - Edward VI + religion 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.youtube.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Biographies , Edward VI, King of England (1537-53) , Kings , MacCulloch, Diarmaid , Nonfiction , Protestant Reformation .
  • Edward VI: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Somerset's object was partly to aid the Reformation there, and partly to marry Edward VI. to the young Queen of Scotland.
  • The Baldwin Project: The Story of England by Samuel B. Harding 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.This anonymous work of propaganda depicts the handing over of power from Henry VIII, who lies dying in bed, to Edward VI, seated beneath a cloth of state with a slumping pope at his feet.^ Henry VIII asks Pope for an annulment .
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry VIII died on 28 January 1547, when Edward was only 9.

^ And then, in that very year, Edward VI died.
  • Europe in the Age of the Reformation 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In the top right of the picture is an image of men pulling down and smashing idols.^ Church images were pulled down, pictures of saints and angels were whitewashed over, and many of the old customs and holy days were suppressed.
  • The Baldwin Project: The Story of England by Samuel B. Harding 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.At Edward's side are his uncle the Lord Protector Edward Seymour, and members of the Privy Council.^ Edward Seymour, Edward Tudor's uncle, was the first Protector of the Realm.
  • House of Tudor - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The protector and the privy council were the real rulers during Edward's reign.

^ Edward Seymour named Lord Protector of England.
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

[34]
.Henry VIII died on 28 January 1547, when Edward was only nine.^ Henry VIII died on 28 January 1547, when Edward was only 9.

^ King Henry VIII died in the Palace of Whitehall in 1547 .
  • Henry VIII of England at AllExperts 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward VI of England (January 28, 1547 - July 6, 1553).
  • Jeanne d'Arc - Joan of Arc (1412-1431) 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.jeanne-darc.dk [Source type: Original source]

.Those close to the throne, led by Edward Seymour and William Paget, agreed to delay the announcement of the king's death until arrangements had been made for a smooth succession.^ Following Edwards death, William claimed the English throne.
  • KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.holylands.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the death of Edward VI, the Council in London, and the local authorities in King's Lynn and Berwick-upon-Tweed, proclaimed Lady Jane Grey as queen.
  • England - Catalogs - Kings and Queens - Citizendium 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ But Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, who was the new king's uncle, emerged as Lord Protector.
  • Book of the week: Edward VI by Chris Skidmore | Books | The Guardian 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Seymour and Sir Anthony Browne, the Master of the Horse, rode to collect Edward from Hertford and brought him to Enfield, where Princess Elizabeth was living.^ Henry had made arrangements for a council of regents, but the council immediately appointed Edward's uncle, Edward Seymour, earl of Hertford (later duke of Somerset ), as lord protector.
  • Edward VI: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Edward VI Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Edward VI 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry VIII also appointed Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, to serve as Lord Protector of the Realm and Governor of the King's Person during Edward VI's minority.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Collection of state papers, relating to affairs in the reigns of King Henry VIII. King Edward VI. Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth, from the year 1542 to 1570.

.He and Elizabeth were then told of the death of their father and heard a reading of the will.^ Elizabeth II became queen immediately on the death of her father, King George VI, on Feb.
  • June 2, 1953: Coronation Shown on Global Kluge TV | This Day In Tech | Wired.com 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ Princess Elizabeth, later Elizabeth I of England, was Catherine's ward and immediately after her father's death she began to live with her stepmother in Chelsea.
  • bebo.com - Profile from Henry VIII and Edward VI 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.bebo.com [Source type: General]

^ Death 1513 Father Thomas HOWARD, Duke of Norfolk Mother Elizabeth TILNEY Family 1: Joyce CULPEPER .
  • Royal Genealogies Part 20 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC thedon.cac.psu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[35] .The Lord Chancellor, Thomas Wriothesley, announced Henry's death to parliament on 31 January, and general proclamations of Edward's succession were ordered.^ What did edward change after henry death?
  • WikiAnswers - How much did henry viii and his son edward vi change the church of england 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry chose instead to ally with Thomas Arundel, the former Archbishop of Canterbury, whom had been banished for his part in the Lords Appellant rebellion, a rebellion in which Henry also took part.
  • The Royal Court at the Palace of Westminster - Paradox Interactive Forums 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ The Council consisted of all the executors and assistants, except for Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton (who, whilst serving as Lord Chancellor, had illegally delegated some of his powers to other officials) and Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset.

[36] .The new king was taken to the Tower of London, where he was welcomed with "great shot of ordnance in all places there about, as well out of the Tower as out of the ships".[37] The following day, the nobles of the realm made their obeisance to Edward at the Tower, and Seymour was announced as Protector.^ Edward Seymour, Edward Tudor's uncle, was the first Protector of the Realm.
  • House of Tudor - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first protector was the king's uncle, Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset.

^ The following year Carr and his new wife were convicted of poisoning a prisoner in the Tower of London and sentenced to death, though the King later commuted the sentence to six years and then pardoned them and granted the pair a country estate.
  • James I of England - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[36] .Henry VIII was buried at Windsor on 16 February, in the same tomb as Jane Seymour, as he had wished.^ Jane Seymour buried at Garter Chapel at Windsor.
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The same day Henry marries Jane Seymour.

^ Henry VIII was buried in St George's Chapel in Windsor Castle, next to his wife Jane Seymour.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Edward VI was crowned at Westminster Abbey four days later on Sunday 20 February, the first coronation in England for almost 40 years.^ Search for images of Edward VI of England .
  • Edward VI of England - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Edward VI of England? What is Edward VI of England? Where is Edward VI of England? Definition of Edward VI of England. Meaning of Edward VI of England. 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: General]

^ Crowned: 1 February 1327 at Westminster Abbey, Middlesex .
  • The Medieval Combat Society History of Edward III 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.themcs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And then, in that very year, Edward VI died.
  • Europe in the Age of the Reformation 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

[38] .The ceremonies were shortened, because of the "tedious length of the same which should weary and be hurtsome peradventure to the King's majesty, being yet of tender age", and also because the Reformation had rendered some of them inappropriate.^ He showed that ordinary life is the most special of things, and should be valued beyond all the hot air that each age claims as being of higher meaning.

^ You fight with everything you've got because there's nothing left; yet at the same time you try to save as many of your countrymen as you can.
  • Kings and Queens of England: RPG Succession Game AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But when a message was sent by the king, enjoining the house to proceed, and offering that the same narratives should be laid before them which had satisfied the peers, they were easily prevailed on to acquiesce.
  • Online Library of Liberty - XXXIV: EDWARD VI - The History of England, vol. 3 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[39] .On the eve of the coronation, Edward progressed on horseback from the Tower to the Palace of Westminster through thronging crowds and pageants, many based on the pageants for a previous boy king, Henry VI.^ KING HENRY VI Woe above woe!
  • Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Drama: Henry VI, Part 3 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • 3 KING HENRY VI, Act II 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.it.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ KING HENRY VI Peace, thou!
  • Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • 3 KING HENRY VI 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.pasadenashakespeare.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Drama: Henry VI, Part 3 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward VI , son of Henry VIII .

[40] .He laughed at a Spanish tightrope walker who "tumbled and played many pretty toys" outside St Paul's Cathedral.^ He held up his coronation procession because he was laughing at a tightrope walker, and soon afterwards, in the schoolroom, he began blaspheming and swearing by "God's blood".
  • Book of the week: Edward VI by Chris Skidmore | Books | The Guardian 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Richard's body was put on public display in the old St Paul's Cathedral , to prove to his supporters that he was dead.

^ The high altar in the Cathedral of St. Paul was pulled down, and a plain Communion table set up in its stead.
  • The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

[41] .At the coronation service, Cranmer affirmed the royal supremacy and called Edward a second Josiah,[42] urging him to continue the reformation of the Church of England, "the tyranny of the Bishops of Rome banished from your subjects, and images removed".[43] After the service, Edward presided at a banquet in Westminster Hall, where, he recalled in his Chronicle, he dined with his crown on his head.^ He purged the Catholic influences from the doctrine of the Church of England and helped prepare a Book of Common Prayer to standardize the service.

^ Edward VI, despite his young age, was quite influencial regarding the continuation of his father's efforts to establish the Anglican Church in defiance of the pope.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Edward VI: The Lost King of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Edward VI: The Lost King of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Remaining the head of the Church, she promised not to "make windows into men's souls," and her Supremacy Bill and the Uniformity Bills of 1559, that made the Church of England law, substituted fines and penalties for disobedience, not the usual burnings and banishment.
  • Narrative History of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.britannia.com [Source type: Original source]

[44]

Somerset's Protectorate

Council of Regency

.Henry VIII's will named sixteen executors, who were to act as Edward's Council until he reached the age of 18. These executors were supplemented by twelve men "of counsail" who would assist the executors when called on.^ These executors were to be supplemented by twelve assistants, who would participate only when the others deemed it fit.

^ His will named sixteen executor s, who were to act as a Council of Regency until Edward VI achieved majority at the age of eighteen (although it was agreed by the Council in 1552 that Edward would reach his majority at 16).
  • Edward VI of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His will named sixteen executors, who were to act as a Council of Regency until Edward VI achieved majority at the age of eighteen (although it was agreed by the Council in 1552 that Edward would reach his majority at 16).
  • Edward VI of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[45] .The final state of Henry VIII's will has been the subject of controversy.^ Henry VIII was the subject of William Shakespeare 's historical play, Henry VIII: All Is True , written once it was safe to do so (once his daughter Elizabeth I had died).
  • Henry VIII of England - Celtopedia 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC celtopedia.druidcircle.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII of England at AllExperts 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry VIII was also the subject of a best-selling fictional autobiography written by Margaret George .
  • Henry VIII of England at AllExperts 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cranmer hesitated on the ground that he had sworn to uphold the will of Henry VIII., but as the situation was a desperate one, he agreed finally to follow the example that had been set (June 1553).
  • The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

.Some historians suggest that those close to the king manipulated either him or the will itself to ensure a shareout of power to their benefit, both material and religious.^ Such scholarly work would earn him the title 'The Scottish Solomon'; unfortunately for the King, historians such as J.P. Kenyon suggest that the title was often used sarcastically.
  • James I of England - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Real power passed to Charles and to the Duke of Buckingham, although James kept enough power to ensure that a new war with Spain did not occur while he was King.
  • James I of England - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the head of a faction is the king, he will be supported by both partisans and those who support him simply because he is the king (and who may immediately change sides after a change of ruler such as those of 1461, 1469 and 1471).
  • Review: Arthurian Myths and Alchemy: The Kingship of Edward IV 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this reading, the composition of the Privy Chamber shifted towards the end of 1546 in favour of the reforming faction.^ Towards the end of the reign, the Great Reform Act was passed, which amongst other things widened the electorate.

[46] In addition, two leading conservative Privy Councillors were removed from the centre of power. .Stephen Gardiner was refused access to Henry during his last months.^ "A king, is as much a king at four as he is at forty years of age" - Stephen Gardiner Male 89 years old United Kingdom Last Login: 4/22/2008 .
  • MySpace - King Edward VI - 89 - Male - UK - myspace.com/kingedwardvi 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the last years of Henry VIII.’s reign St. Leger continued his efforts to reduce the country to subjection not by force but by persuasion.
  • The Church in Ireland During the Reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI (1509-1553) @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

.Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, found himself accused of treason; the day before the king's death his vast estates were seized, making them available for redistribution, and he spent the whole of Edward's reign in the Tower of London.^ Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is executed at the Tower of London for treason.
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Richard, the Duke of York surprised to find Edmund Beaufort, the duke of Somerset by King Henry VI's side after return from Ireland confronts him only to be accused by Somerset of high treason for attempting to usurp the throne.
  • TopFoto Gallery - History of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.topfoto.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ One of Mary's first actions as Queen was to order the release of the Roman Catholic Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk and Stephen Gardiner from imprisonment in the Tower of London.
  • Mary Tudor (I of England) (Pepys' Diary) 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47] .Other historians have argued that Gardiner's exclusion was based on non-religious matters, that Norfolk was not noticeably conservative in religion, that conservatives remained on the Council, and that the radicalism of men such as Sir Anthony Denny, who controlled the dry stamp that replicated the king's signature, is debatable.^ Cranmer obeyed without protest, as did all the others except Gardiner, who questioned the authority of the council to issue such a command at least until the supreme head of the Church should have reached his majority.
  • The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Face to face with such demands, backed as they were by an army of 40,000 men, Norfolk, fearing that resistance was impossible, had recourse to a dishonest strategy.
  • The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Queen Anne intercedes for Sir Simon Burley to Gloucester and Arundel who remained deaf to every entreaty.
  • TopFoto Gallery - History of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.topfoto.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[48] .Whatever the case, Henry's death was followed by a lavish hand-out of lands and honours to the new power group.^ By 1554, Parliament had stated in law that all the confiscated lands were to remain in the hands of their new owners--Henry's real estate scheme had worked.
  • Europe in the Age of the Reformation 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He was committed to the Tower to await the sentence of death which he knew to be inevitable, but, before handing him over to the executioner, Henry insisted that he should perform for him one last service.
  • The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Following the death of Henry I, who reigned 1100-1135, the situation surrounding Jewry in England dramatically changed to their advantage when Stephen was elected as King of England.
  • The Edict of Expulsion of 1290, expelling the Jews from England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.heretical.com [Source type: Original source]

[49] .The will contained an "unfulfilled gifts" clause, added at the last minute, which allowed Henry's executors to freely distribute lands and honours to themselves and the court,[50] particularly to Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, who became the Lord Protector of the Realm, Governor of the King's Person, and the Duke of Somerset.^ Henry VIII also appointed Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, to serve as Lord Protector of the Realm and Governor of the King's Person during Edward VI's minority.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The council immediately appointed the boy king's maternal uncle Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford to serve as Lord Protector of the Realm and Governor of the King's Person during Edward VI's minority.
  • Edward VI of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward Seymour, Edward Tudor's uncle, was the first Protector of the Realm.
  • House of Tudor - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

[49]
 Formal portrait of the Duke of Somerset. He has a long thin face with a goatee beard and moustache of long fine straight reddish hair. His expression is wary. He wears his collar of the Order of the Garter.
Edward VI's uncle, Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, ruled England in the name of his nephew as Lord Protector from 1547 to 1549.
.In fact, Henry VIII's will did not provide for the appointment of a Protector.^ Henry VI did in fact carry out his plan of freeing many prisoners named Henry before being deposed.
  • Kings and Queens of England: RPG Succession Game AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry VIII also appointed Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, to serve as Lord Protector of the Realm and Governor of the King's Person during Edward VI's minority.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Majesty", which Henry VIII first used on a consistent basis, did not become exclusive until the reign of Elizabeth I's successor, James I .
  • Mary Tudor (I of England) (Pepys' Diary) 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It entrusted the government of the realm during his son's minority to a Regency Council that would rule collectively, by majority decision, with "like and equal charge".[51] Nevertheless, a few days after Henry's death, on 4 February, the executors chose to invest almost regal power in Edward Seymour.^ Henry had decreed that during Edwards minority the government was to be run by a council of regency.
  • KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.holylands.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward's entire rule was mediated through a council of regency as he never reached majority.

^ Henry had intended England to be governed by a council of regency.
  • Book of the week: Edward VI by Chris Skidmore | Books | The Guardian 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[52] .Thirteen out of the sixteen (the others being absent) agreed to his appointment as Protector, which they justified as their joint decision "by virtue of the authority" of Henry's will.^ After weeks of not technically being out of contention thanks to their weak division, they can finally start making those vacation plans.

^ Henry VI did in fact carry out his plan of freeing many prisoners named Henry before being deposed.
  • Kings and Queens of England: RPG Succession Game AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They demanded rederess of 146 grievances and an annual parliament with election rather than appointment of members, before agreeing a new subsidy.
  • The Medieval Combat Society History of Edward III 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.themcs.org [Source type: Original source]

[53] .Seymour may have done a deal with some of the executors, who almost all received hand-outs.^ The Council consisted of all the executors and assistants, except for Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton (who, whilst serving as Lord Chancellor, had illegally delegated some of his powers to other officials) and Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset.

^ At fifteen, some of his symptoms of the disease were: eruptions all over his skin, his air fell out, then his nails and afterwards the joints of his toes and fingers.
  • Royal Genealogies Part 20 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC thedon.cac.psu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Council consisted of all the executors and assistants, except for Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton (who, whilst serving as Lord Chancellor , had illegally delegated some of his powers to other officials) and Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset.
  • Edward VI of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

[54] .He is known to have done so with William Paget, private secretary to Henry VIII,[55] and to have secured the support of Sir Anthony Browne of the Privy Chamber.^ Their names were, Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury; lord Wriothesely, chancellor; lord St. John, great master; lord Russel, privy seal; the earl of Hertford, chamberlain; viscount Lisle, admiral; Tonstal, bishop of Durham; Sir Anthony Brown, master of horse; Sir William Paget, secretary of state; Sir Edward North, chancellor of the court of augmentations; Sir Edward Montague, chief justice of the common pleas; judge Bromley, Sir Anthony Denny, and Sir William Herbert, chief gentlemen of the privy chamber; Sir Edward Wotton, treasurer of Calais; Dr. Wotton, dean of Canterbury.
  • Online Library of Liberty - XXXIV: EDWARD VI - The History of England, vol. 3 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry secured his position as King by firm and effective government, soundly supported by good finances and backed by a strong legal system.
  • The History of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.byfaith.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry VIII was the subject of William Shakespeare 's historical play, Henry VIII: All Is True , written once it was safe to do so (once his daughter Elizabeth I had died).
  • Henry VIII of England - Celtopedia 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC celtopedia.druidcircle.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII of England at AllExperts 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

[56]
Seymour's appointment was in keeping with historical precedent,[57] and his eligibility for the role was reinforced by his military successes in Scotland and France. .In March 1547, he secured letters patent from King Edward granting him the almost monarchical right to appoint members to the Privy Council himself and to consult them only when he wished.^ King Edward VI , 1547-1553.
  • Edward VI: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dudley was so successful at this game—a man of great charm and bearing, he genuinely seems to have won Edward's trust—that even the king mistook appearances for reality: in his “speeches” in council, Edward followed scripts prepared by the duke's men, so that Dudley's wishes, said an eyewitness with only slight exaggeration, became Edward's will.
  • Edward VI of England | Oxford Ency of Reformation | MyWire 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.mywire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only son of King Henry VIII (see list of British Monarchs ) Edward VII (born 1841, died 1910) King of England, 1901-10.
  • Edward on BabyNamer 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.babynamer.com [Source type: General]

[58] .In the words of historian G. R. Elton, "from that moment his autocratic system was complete".[59] He proceeded to rule largely by proclamation, calling on the Privy Council to do little more than rubber-stamp his decisions.^ The word wife re-called me to myself, and I thought what a wretch I have been, to even for a moment prove untrue to such a wife as mine.
  • Mrs. Edward Leigh 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.lehigh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ No more than when my daughters call thee mother.

^ Well, Fraser is more of a biographer than a historian.
  • FARK.com: (4468482) On this date 500 years ago Henry VIII was crowned King of England and totally had all the chicks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: General]

[60]
Somerset's takeover of power was smooth and efficient. .The imperial ambassador, Van der Delft, reported that he "governs everything absolutely", with Paget operating as his secretary, though he predicted trouble from John Dudley, Viscount Lisle, who had recently been raised to Earl of Warwick in the share-out of honours.^ Eleanor's other child was Jeanne, circa 1295/96 to 1361, who was unsuccessfully married to John de Warenne, earl of Surrey.
  • King Edward II 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC edwardthesecond.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In October 1549 he was deposed and sent under arrest to the Tower of London by John Dudley, Earl of Warwick .
  • Edward VI of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, led the Council of Regency after the downfall of Somerset The rise of the Earl of Warwick (later Duke of Northumberland) was accompanied by the fall of Catholicism in England.

[61] .In fact, in the early weeks of his Protectorate, Somerset was challenged only by the Chancellor, Thomas Wriothesley, whom the Earldom of Southampton had evidently failed to buy off, and by his own brother.^ The Council consisted of all the executors and assistants, except for Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton (who, whilst serving as Lord Chancellor , had illegally delegated some of his powers to other officials) and Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset.
  • Edward VI of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Council consisted of all the executors and assistants, except for Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton (who, whilst serving as Lord Chancellor, had illegally delegated some of his powers to other officials) and Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset.

^ Seymour, brother of the Protector, Somerset, was the man who had compromised the thirteen-year-old Elizabeth and caused her dangerous embarrassment, while her brother Edward VI was on the throne.
  • This Star of England - Chapter 25 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.sourcetext.com [Source type: Original source]

[62] .Wriothesley, a religious conservative, objected to Somerset's assumption of monarchical power over the Council.^ The Earl of Hertford, created later on Duke of Somerset, became Protector with almost royal powers, and instead of defending the religious settlement the majority of the council set themselves from the very beginning to initiate a more advanced policy.
  • The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

He then found himself abruptly dismissed from the chancellorship on charges of selling off some of his offices to delegates.[63] His removal forestalled the forming of factions within the Council.

Thomas Seymour

.Somerset faced less manageable opposition from his younger brother Thomas Seymour, who has been described as a "worm in the bud".[64] As King Edward's uncle, Thomas Seymour demanded the governorship of the king's person and a greater share of power.^ Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset .
  • bebo.com - Profile from Henry VIII and Edward VI 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.bebo.com [Source type: General]

^ Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (c.
  • bebo.com - Profile from Henry VIII and Edward VI 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.bebo.com [Source type: General]

^ The first protector was the king's uncle, Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset.

[65] .Somerset tried to buy his brother off with a barony, an appointment to the Lord Admiralship, and a seat on the Privy Council—but Thomas was bent on scheming for power.^ The Council consisted of all the executors and assistants, except for Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton (who, whilst serving as Lord Chancellor, had illegally delegated some of his powers to other officials) and Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset.

^ Despite the terms of Henry?s will, real power had gone to just one man—the Protector, Edward?s uncle, the Duke of Somerset, and there were violent struggles for power, headed by the duke?s own brother, Thomas Seymour.

^ The greatest rivalry occurred between Lord Somerset a brother of Jane Seymour and Lord Northumberland, Both of these pretenders to the throne would be beheaded on Tower Hill.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Edward VI: The Lost King of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Edward VI: The Lost King of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.He began smuggling pocket money to King Edward, telling him that Somerset held the purse strings too tight, making him a "beggarly king".[66] He also urged him to throw off the Protector within two years and "bear rule as other kings do"; but Edward, schooled to defer to the Council, failed to co-operate.^ The first protector was the king's uncle, Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset.

^ However, real power went to the Protector, Edward's uncle, the Duke of Somerset.
  • http://www.play.com/Books/Books/4-/3483270/Edward-Vi/Product.html 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.play.com [Source type: General]

^ Within two years a rich, pictorial aspect of medieval Christianity had vanished from the land, as windows were reglazed and church walls whitewashed in lime.
  • Edward VI of England | Oxford Ency of Reformation | MyWire 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.mywire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67] .In April, using Edward's support to circumvent Somerset's opposition, Thomas Seymour secretly married Henry VIII's widow Catherine Parr, whose Protestant household included the 11-year-old Lady Jane Grey and the 13-year-old Princess Elizabeth.^ Lady Jane Grey is tried to for treason.
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The heir in this line was Lady Catherine Grey, Lady Jane Grey's sister.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry married his last wife, the wealthy widow Catherine Parr , in 1543.
  • Henry VIII of England - Celtopedia 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC celtopedia.druidcircle.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII of England at AllExperts 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

[68]
.In summer 1548, a pregnant Catherine Parr discovered Thomas Seymour embracing Princess Elizabeth.^ Catherine Parr secretly married Thomas Seymour.
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Possibly Thomas schemed to marry either Princess Mary or Princess Elizabeth, but whatever the truth, neither panned out.
  • bebo.com - Profile from Henry VIII and Edward VI 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.bebo.com [Source type: General]

^ Under the influence of Catherine Parr and others, Elizabeth was raised a Protestant.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[69] .As a result, Elizabeth was removed from Catherine Parr's household and transferred to Sir Anthony Denny's.^ The sitter wears a widow's outfit, which Catherine Howard never had reason to wear - but Elizabeth did, since her first husband, Sir Anthony, died in 1534.
  • bebo.com - Profile from Henry VIII and Edward VI 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.bebo.com [Source type: General]

^ Henry VIII died in 1547 and was succeeded by Edward VI. Catherine Parr married Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley, Edward VI's uncle, and took Elizabeth into her household.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sir Francis Walsingham discovers plot to assassinate Elizabeth and free Mary Queen of Scots led by Anthony Babbington .
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

.That September, Catherine Parr died in childbirth, and Thomas Seymour promptly resumed his attentions to Elizabeth by letter, planning to marry her.^ Thomas Parr, father of Catherine Parr, dies in London.
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By Catherine Parr (married July 12 1543 ; died September 5 1548 ) .
  • Henry VIII of England at AllExperts 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Catherine Parr secretly married Thomas Seymour.
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

.Elizabeth was receptive, but, like Edward, unready to agree to anything unless permitted by the Council.^ I tended not to go past Katherine and Anne just because I like reading about Mary and Elizabeth, and Edward and Jane Grey never amounted to anything but a side note.
  • FARK.com: (4468482) On this date 500 years ago Henry VIII was crowned King of England and totally had all the chicks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: General]

^ Edward was an intelligent and able boy, keenly Protestant in religion, and inheriting the Tudor temper and love of ostentation; in other words, he was a lot like Elizabeth.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Edward VI: The Lost King of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Edward VI: The Lost King of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[70] .In January 1549, the Council had Thomas Seymour arrested on various charges, including embezzlement at the Bristol mint.^ The council was first led by his uncle, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (1547-49), and then by John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland (1549-1553).

^ Katherine Ashley and Thomas Parry, members of the household of Princess Elizabeth, were arrested and taken to the Tower on suspicion of conspiring to marry the Princess Elizabeth to Thomas Seymour.
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

.King Edward, whom Seymour was accused of planning to marry to Lady Jane Grey, himself testified about the pocket money.^ Lady Jane Grey is tried to for treason.
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ King Edward VI signs a statement naming Lady Jane Grey as his successor.
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry VIII and Jane Seymour married .
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

[71] .Lack of clear evidence for treason ruled out a trial, so Seymour was condemned instead by an Act of Attainder and beheaded on 20 March 1549.[72] The execution of his own brother was the latest of a series of disasters that had marked the Protector's rule.^ Catherine was condemned not by a trial, but by an Act of Attainder passed by Parliament.
  • Henry VIII of England - Celtopedia 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC celtopedia.druidcircle.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII of England at AllExperts 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In a court riven by factionalism, Seymour dominated until he himself was forced out and subsequently executed, by John Dudley (later the Duke of Northumberland).
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Edward VI: The Lost King of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Edward VI: The Lost King of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Somerset was hesitant to sign his brother's death warrant, so Edward very reluctantly gave his consent to the council; Lord Seymour was executed by beheading on 20 March .
  • Edward VI of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

.From this time, Somerset's own position was increasingly under threat.^ The Duke of Somerset was hardly in a position to oppose both France and Scotland, as his own position was insecure.

[73]

War

.Somerset's only undoubted skill was as a soldier, which he had proven on expeditions to Scotland and in the defence of Boulogne-sur-Mer in 1546. From the first, his main interest as Protector was the war against Scotland.^ At first Richard said he only wanted to be made protector of the kingdom because he saw how weak and easily led the King was.
  • The Baldwin Project: Our Island Story by H. E. Marshall 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The office of Protector was first taken from Somerset, and he was then beheaded.
  • The Baldwin Project: Our Island Story by H. E. Marshall 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1653 a Protectorate was established with Oliver Cromwell given the title of Lord Protector of England Scotland and Ireland in the newly formed Commonwealth, becoming the first commoner to rule England.
  • KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.holylands.com [Source type: Original source]

[74] .After a crushing victory at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in September 1547, he set up a network of garrisons in Scotland, stretching as far north as Dundee.^ Following his victory over the Scots at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, his position appeared unassailable.
  • bebo.com - Profile from Henry VIII and Edward VI 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.bebo.com [Source type: General]

^ Britain, France, Italy, the U.S and others set up the North Atlantic Treaty (NATO) for the defence of Europe against Communism.
  • The History of Britain 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.byfaith.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In September 1356 another notable victory for the English took place at the battle of Poitiers where Prince Edward employed similar tactics to those used at Crecy.
  • The Medieval Combat Society History of Edward III 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.themcs.org [Source type: Original source]

[75] .His initial successes, however, were followed by a loss of direction, as his aim of uniting the realms through conquest became increasingly unrealistic.^ However, the lack of an authoritative king, whether through personal incompetence or a disputed succession could cause a lurch into disorder and even civil war.
  • World Timelines - England - AD 1066-1500 Late medieval 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.worldtimelines.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was in this period that Britain came to acquire much of her overseas Empire, despite the loss of the American colonies, largely through foreign conquest in the various wars of the century.

^ However there were quarrels with the Church, which became more powerful following the murder of Thomas Becket.

.The Scots allied with France, who sent reinforcements for the defence of Edinburgh in 1548,[76] while Mary, Queen of Scots, was removed to France, where she was betrothed to the dauphin.^ Young queen of Scots sent into France.
  • Online Library of Liberty - XXXIV: EDWARD VI - The History of England, vol. 3 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Their son, James V, fathered Mary, who became Queen of Scots.

^ In 1548, however, Mary , the young Scottish Queen, was betrothed to the Dauphin Francis , the heir-apparent to the French Throne, thereby strengthening the alliance between France and Scotland.
  • Edward VI of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

[77] .The cost of maintaining the Protector's massive armies and his permanent garrisons in Scotland also placed an unsustainable burden on the royal finances.^ The siege of the last place of Ireland was laid, while the Army of Scotland returned to Wexford to avoid deplete the supplies of the province.
  • Kings and Queens of England: RPG Succession Game AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first symptoms of this misunderstanding appeared when the protector commanded the army in Scotland.
  • Online Library of Liberty - XXXIV: EDWARD VI - The History of England, vol. 3 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One of his best advisor, Warwick, was in charge of the Royal Army in Anglia, but the King prefered to stay in command in the Army of Scotland.
  • Kings and Queens of England: RPG Succession Game AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

[78] .A French attack on Boulogne in August 1549 at last forced Somerset to begin a withdrawal from Scotland.^ English forces fared badly in the conflict, and lost Calais, its last remaining French possession.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That added strength never came from England and subsequent attacks from secondary French armies did force Talbot off the continent.
  • Kings and Queens of England: RPG Succession Game AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He continued wars against the Danes and had a victory at the mouth of the ret in Somerset in 845 and again in 851 when he beat a force of 350 ships' companies who attacked Canterbury.
  • MONARCHES OF ENGLAND 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.gallica.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[79]

Rebellion

.During 1548, England was subject to social unrest.^ Important social changes occurred in England during the era of the Hundred Years' War.

^ A period of social unrest begun earlier intensified during Edward's rule, and conflicts with the French increased.
  • Edward VI of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As in England, the great subject of controversy in Ireland during the early years of Edward’s reign was the Blessed Eucharist.
  • The Church in Ireland During the Reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI (1509-1553) @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

.After April 1549, a series of armed revolts broke out, fuelled by various religious and agrarian grievances.^ The revolt played out with no serious consequences.
  • Europe in the Age of the Reformation 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ War between France and England broke out in 1549 over the possession of Boulogne.
  • Edward VI: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bellingham was recalled to England in 1549, and soon after his departure new disturbances broke out in Ireland.
  • The Church in Ireland During the Reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI (1509-1553) @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

.The two most serious rebellions, which required major military intervention to put down, were in Devon and Cornwall and in Norfolk.^ Samples would be taken from the arch on the Devon side (the Devon Portal) and then along the top of the two spans {see view of the top of the Devon span below) before descending the ladder on the Cornwall Portal.

^ After helping the British East India Company put down the Sepoy Rebellion in India (1857), Parliament deprived the company of its political powers and transferred the government of India to the British crown .
  • England, A History of 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the rebellion was designed to put her on the throne, the Lady Elizabeth was imprisoned in the Tower of London, but was put under house arrest in Woodstock Palace after two months.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.The first, sometimes called the Prayer Book Rebellion, arose mainly from the imposition of church services in English, and the second, led by a tradesman called Robert Kett, mainly from the encroachment of landlords on common grazing ground.^ In 1552 a second prayer book was issued.
  • A History of Christianity in England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Elizabethan Prayer Book is first used.
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Prayer book rebellion .

[80] .A complex aspect of the social unrest was that the protesters believed they were acting legitimately against enclosing landlords with the Protector's support, convinced that the landlords were the lawbreakers.^ The rebels continued their protests against the Act of Uniformity, declaring, " and so we Cornishmen, whereof certain of us understand no English, utterly refuse this new English ".

^ They passed a series of acts called the Clarendon code, a series of laws to persecute non-conformists (Protestants who did not belong to the Church of England).
  • A History of Christianity in England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The war against images was carried on vigorously, though legally only those images that had been abused were forbidden, and even in Bishop Gardiner’s own diocese he was powerless to resist those who knew they could count on the support of the Protector.
  • The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

[81]
.The same justification for outbreaks of unrest was voiced throughout the country, not only in Norfolk and the west.^ Everywhere throughout the country it was the same story.
  • The Church in Ireland During the Reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI (1509-1553) @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After putting down an uprising in the West Country against the new prayer books,another revolt took place in Norfolk against enclosure of the land.
  • MONARCHES OF ENGLAND 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.gallica.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The origin of the popular view of Somerset as sympathetic to the rebel cause lies partly in his series of sometimes liberal, often contradictory, proclamations,[82] and partly in the uncoordinated activities of the commissions he sent out in 1548 and 1549 to investigate grievances about loss of tillage, encroachment of large sheep flocks on common land, and similar issues.^ John Cheleham of London, chaplain, issuing out of his said lands.
  • Inquisitions - Edward VI (part 1 of 3) | British History Online 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.british-history.ac.uk [Source type: News]

^ In like manner the English Communion service (1548) and the First Book of Common Prayer (1549) were made obligatory in those districts where the English language was spoken or understood.
  • The Church in Ireland During the Reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI (1509-1553) @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1549 he set out for Scotland, and apparently landed on the coast of Donegal in the hope of inducing O’Neill and O’Donnell to co-operate with the French and the Scots.
  • The Church in Ireland During the Reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI (1509-1553) @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

[83] .Somerset's commissions were led by an evangelical M.P. called John Hales, whose socially liberal rhetoric linked the issue of enclosure with Reformation theology and the notion of a godly commonwealth.^ The council was first led by his uncle, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (1547-49), and then by John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland (1549-1553).

^ The famous Scotch reformer, John Knox, calls James Melvil, p.
  • Online Library of Liberty - XXXIV: EDWARD VI - The History of England, vol. 3 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, led the Council of Regency after the downfall of Somerset The rise of the Earl of Warwick (later Duke of Northumberland) was accompanied by the fall of Catholicism in England.

[84] Local groups often assumed that the findings of these commissions entitled them to act against offending landlords themselves.[85] King Edward wrote in his Chronicle that the 1549 risings began "because certain commissions were sent down to pluck down enclosures".[86]
.Whatever the popular view of Somerset, the disastrous events of 1549 were taken as evidence of a colossal failure of government, and the Council laid the responsibility at the Protector's door.^ Somerset as Lord Protector, was only supposed to act on the advice of the other executors but was able to gain near complete control of government after obtaining the power to change the composition of the Council at his whim.
  • Edward VI of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Complaints were made to the council; who, influenced by the protector, gladly laid hold of the opportunity to depress Southampton.
  • Online Library of Liberty - XXXIV: EDWARD VI - The History of England, vol. 3 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry had made arrangements for a council of regents, but the council immediately appointed Edward's uncle, Edward Seymour, earl of Hertford (later duke of Somerset ), as lord protector.
  • Edward VI: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

[87] In July 1549, Paget wrote to Somerset: "Every man of the council have misliked your proceedings ... would to .God, that, at the first stir you had followed the matter hotly, and caused justice to be ministered in solemn fashion to the terror of others ...".[88] By that autumn, plans were afoot to eject Somerset as Protector.^ Then it shall be, if you by any means forget the Lord your God, and follow other gods, and serve them and worship them, I testify against you this day that you shall surely perish Deuteronomy 8:11-14,17-19.
  • The History of Britain 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.byfaith.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ And sometimes, no matter how much 'academic' time you put in on a topic, your first exposure stays with you, and lends undue weight.
  • FARK.com: (4468482) On this date 500 years ago Henry VIII was crowned King of England and totally had all the chicks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: General]

^ You fight in justice: then, in God's name, lords, Be valiant and give signal to the fight.
  • Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Drama: Henry VI, Part 3 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

Fall of Somerset

.The sequence of events that led to Somerset's removal from power has often been called a coup d'état.^ James II's religious inclinations and despotism led to his quick removal from power in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
  • Eupedia : England Guide - Brief History of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.eupedia.com [Source type: Original source]

[87] .By 1 October 1549, Somerset had been alerted that his rule faced a serious threat.^ As the Conservatives splintered, they faced a serious threat from popular Labour party leader Tony Blair.
  • England, A History of 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

.He issued a proclamation calling for assistance, took possession of the king's person, and withdrew for safety to the fortified Windsor Castle, where Edward wrote, "Me thinks I am in prison".[89] Meanwhile, a united Council published details of Somerset's government mismanagement.^ Edward I stayed often at the Castle and made Windsor a Free Borough and granted the town its first Charter in 1276.
  • The Kings and Queens of England from 1066 - The Royal Windsor Web Site by Thamesweb 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.thamesweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stow: "This mayor was for displeasure taken, sent to Windsor castle, and the king made wardens of the city, etc."
  • Lord Mayors and Sheriffs of London 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC patp.us [Source type: Original source]

^ But Warwick’s king is Edward’s prisoner: And, gallant Warwick, do but answer this: What is the body when the head is off?
  • The Third part of King Henry the Sixth, by William Shakespeare 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.They made clear that the Protector's power came from them, not from Henry VIII's will.^ Napolean then came to power and was made Emperor.
  • MONARCHES OF ENGLAND 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.gallica.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Wolsey so impresses Henry VIII with his ability that he is made Lord Chancellor.

^ Weakling son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, came to throne at age of nine.
  • The Kings and Queens of England from 1066 - The Royal Windsor Web Site by Thamesweb 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.thamesweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 11 October, the Council had Somerset arrested and brought the king to Richmond.^ In December 1551, the Duke of Somerset was tried for treason on the grounds that he had attempted to imprison a member of the King's Council.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In December of 1551, the Duke of Somerset was tried for treason on the grounds that he had attempted to imprison a member of the King's Council.
  • Edward VI of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Note: Of Henry VIII's reputedly illegitimate children, only the Duke of Richmond and Somerset was formally acknowledged by the King.
  • Henry VIII of England - Celtopedia 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC celtopedia.druidcircle.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Henry VIII of England at AllExperts 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

[87] .Edward summarised the charges against Somerset in his Chronicle: "ambition, vainglory, entering into rash wars in mine youth, negligent looking on Newhaven, enriching himself of my treasure, following his own opinion, and doing all by his own authority, etc."^ Edward will always bear himself as king: Though Fortune's malice overthrow my state, My mind exceeds the compass of her wheel.
  • This Star of England - Chapter 25 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.sourcetext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless, the chronic mismanagement of the English finances forced him into a secret alliance with Louis XIV of France in a war against the Netherlands.
  • KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.holylands.com [Source type: Original source]

^ WARWICK I came from Edward as ambassador, But I return his sworn and mortal foe: Matter of marriage was the charge he gave me, But dreadful war shall answer his demand.
  • Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Drama: Henry VI, Part 3 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

[90] .In February 1550, John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, emerged as the leader of the Council and, in effect, as Somerset's successor.^ The Duke of Somerset became extremely unpopular, and was deposed by John Dudley, Earl of Warwick.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By espousing the cause of the disgruntled peasantry, even after the rebellion of Robert Kett , Somerset aroused the opposition of the gentry and the council, thus affording his rival, John Dudley, earl of Warwick (later duke of Northumberland ), an opportunity to secure his overthrow (1549).
  • Edward VI: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Meanwhile, the Duke of Somerset, who agreed to submit to Lord Warwick, was released from prison and readmitted to the Privy Council.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although Somerset was released from the Tower and restored to the Council, he was executed for felony in January 1552 after scheming to overthrow Dudley's regime.^ The Duke of Somerset was subsequently executed in January 1552.
  • Edward VI of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, the Duke of Somerset, who agreed to submit to Lord Warwick, was released from prison and readmitted to the Privy Council.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However before the act can be passed John Dudley, Earl of Warwick has Edward VI send Somerset to the Tower of London and executed.

[91] Edward noted his uncle's death in his Chronicle: "the duke of Somerset had his head cut off upon Tower Hill between eight and nine o'clock in the morning".[92]
Historians contrast the efficiency of Somerset's takeover of power, in which they detect the organising skills of allies such as Paget, the "master of practices", with the subsequent ineptitude of his rule.[93] .By autumn 1549, his costly wars had lost momentum, the crown faced financial ruin, and riots and rebellions had broken out around the country.^ Truces were signed and were frequently broken until open war broke out again in 1355.
  • The Medieval Combat Society History of Edward III 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.themcs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Wesley was banned from public pulpits for his fiery sermons and rode around the country preaching; revivals broke out everywhere.
  • The History of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.byfaith.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In a long and costly series of wars, all French possessions were lost except Calais.
  • MONARCHES OF ENGLAND 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.gallica.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Until recent decades, Somerset's reputation with historians was high, in view of his many proclamations that appeared to back the common people against a rapacious landowning class.^ He is also said to be a cold character, but this is judging from his diary, what many people haven't realised until recently is this was a diary only meant to record from a political point of view and was an exercise set by his tutors and others.

^ After the Norman Conquest of 1066 the upper classes spoke French, while the common people used Anglo-Saxon, or Old English.

^ French, the language of the Norman rulers, became blended with the Anglo-Saxon speech of the common people, enriching the native language with many new words and ideas.
  • England, A History of 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

[94] More recently, however, he has often been portrayed as an arrogant and aloof ruler, lacking in political and administrative skills.[95]

Northumberland's regime

.In contrast, Somerset's successor John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, made Duke of Northumberland in 1550, was once regarded by historians merely as a grasping schemer who cynically elevated and enriched himself at the expense of the crown.^ The Duke of Somerset became extremely unpopular, and was deposed by John Dudley, Earl of Warwick.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Somerset is replaced as Protector by the Duke of Northumberland.

^ He dominated politics until forced out, and eventually executed, by John Dudley, later Duke of Northumberland.
  • Book of the week: Edward VI by Chris Skidmore | Books | The Guardian 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[96] .Since the 1970s, the administrative and economic achievements of his regime have been recognised, and he has been credited with restoring the authority of the royal Council and returning the government to an even keel after the disasters of Somerset's protectorate.^ The Earl of Hertford, created later on Duke of Somerset, became Protector with almost royal powers, and instead of defending the religious settlement the majority of the council set themselves from the very beginning to initiate a more advanced policy.
  • The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Had Somerset prosecuted his advantages, he might have imposed what terms he pleased on the Scottish nation: But he was impatient to return to England, where, he heard, some counsellors, and even his own brother, the admiral, were carrying on cabals against his authority.
  • Online Library of Liberty - XXXIV: EDWARD VI - The History of England, vol. 3 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A strong administrator, he restored stability and the authority of the crown.
  • Who's Who in Medieval England and Wales 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.britainexpress.com [Source type: Original source]

[97]
Miniature portrait of the Earl of Warwick, richly dressed in a slashed doublet with the Order of the Garter on a ribbon round his neck. He is a handsome man with dark eyes and dark goatee beard.
John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, later 1st Duke of Northumberland, led the Privy Council after the downfall of Somerset.
.The Earl of Warwick's rival for leadership of the new regime was Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton, whose conservative supporters had allied with Dudley's followers to create a unanimous Council, which they, and observers such as the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V's ambassador, expected to reverse Somerset's policy of religious reform.^ Thomas Cromwell is created Earl of Essex.
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Boleyn created Earl of Wiltshire.
  • Tudor Chronology 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudors.crispen.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Council consisted of all the executors and assistants, except for Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton (who, whilst serving as Lord Chancellor , had illegally delegated some of his powers to other officials) and Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset.
  • Edward VI of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

[98] .Southampton's faction intended to appoint the Catholic Princess Mary as regent for King Edward.^ Henry VIII also appointed Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, to serve as Lord Protector of the Realm and Governor of the King's Person during Edward VI's minority.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So determined were he and his friends to enforce the new religious service that even the Princess Mary was forbidden to have Mass celebrated in her presence, and her chaplains were prosecuted for disobeying the king’s law.
  • The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Her heart had been broken by the conduct of the king and by separation from her daughter the Princess Mary.
  • The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

[99] .Warwick, on the other hand pinned his hopes on the king's strong Protestantism and, claiming that Edward was old enough to rule in person, moved himself and his people closer to the king, taking control of the Privy Chamber.^ WARWICK Then, for his mind, be Edward England's king: Takes off his crown .
  • Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ From the period when England was not ruled by King or Queen but by the will of the people represented by Parliament under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell.
  • Hammered Coins of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.castlecoins.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While Richard fought to take back Meath and king Henry V was on the Continent, Lord Edward from Wessex raised against the king and built up small army.
  • Kings and Queens of England: RPG Succession Game AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

[100] .Paget, accepting a barony, joined Warwick when he realised that a conservative policy would not bring the Emperor onto the English side over Boulogne.^ Had he done so, and had he been supported by the Emperor and Francis I. there is no doubt that many of the English noblemen would have joined the standard of the invaders, but the hostility between France and the Emperor saved Henry.
  • The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Mr K's granddaughter, Nina Khrushcheva, senior fellow at the World Policy Institute in New York, apparently accepts that Grandpa banged his footwear, and that it would have been in character: .
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | October 12| Khrushchev shoe bang banging photo film watch Aleister Crowley Elizabeth Fry2002 Bali bombing Kuta Maria Lionza Columbus Day 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Said son would have many important policies, but one decision, a very personal one, would shock Europe and change English history forever.
  • O Lord, our God, Arise: More Weekly Reports from England - Page 8 - Paradox Interactive Forums 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

[101] .Southampton prepared a case for executing Somerset, aiming to discredit Warwick through Somerset's statements that he had done all with Warwick's cooperation.^ Enter WARWICK, CLARENCE, OXFORD, SOMERSET, and French soldiers, silent all .
  • Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However before the act can be passed John Dudley, Earl of Warwick has Edward VI send Somerset to the Tower of London and executed.

^ [Enter WARWICK, CLARENCE, OXFORD, SOMERSET, and French soldiers, silent all] WARWICK This is his tent; and see where stand his guard.

.As a counter-move, Warwick convinced parliament to free Somerset, which it did on 14 January 1550. Warwick then had Southampton and his followers purged from the Council after winning the support of Council members in return for titles, and was made Lord President of the Council and great master of the king's household.^ Meanwhile, the Duke of Somerset, who agreed to submit to Lord Warwick, was released from prison and readmitted to the Privy Council.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (The term parliament was gradually coming into use for the Great Council.
  • England, A History of 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1647 Charles reached a secret agreement with the Scots, promising to accept Presbyterianism in return for military support against Parliament.
  • KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.holylands.com [Source type: Original source]

[102] .Although not called a Protector, he was now clearly the head of the government.^ But by this time, although Romano-British culture was thriving in what we now call England, back in its Mediterranean heartland the Empire was already in decline.
  • History of England - Lonely Planet Travel Information 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[103]
.In accordance with his use of the king's personal authority as the source of his own, Warwick encouraged the king to come to Council meetings, which enabled him to cite the king's authority for his decisions.^ In the first of these endeavours he had, so far as we know, little or no resistance: the king, probably chiefly influenced by religious arguments, not only assented to his minister's suggestions, but exercised his personal authority to coerce the council and the lawyers.
  • Will of Edward VI 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC tudorhistory.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the first of these endeavours he had, so far as we know, little or no resistance: the King , probably chiefly influenced by religious arguments, not only assented to his minister's suggestions, but exercised his personal authority to coerce the council and the lawyers.

^ Royal commanders, be in readiness: For with a band of thirty thousand men Comes Warwick, backing of the Duke of York; And in the towns, as they do march along, Proclaims him king, and many fly to him: Darraign your battle, for they are at hand.
  • The Third part of King Henry the Sixth, by William Shakespeare 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[104] .Although Edward was precocious and able to understand much government business, his contributions during Warwick's presidency probably amounted to no more than assent to decisions already taken.^ EDWARD O, speak no more, for I have heard too much.
  • Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Drama: Henry VI, Part 3 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]
  • 3 KING HENRY VI, Act II 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.it.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ [Exit with the body] KING HENRY VI Sad-hearted men, much overgone with care, Here sits a king more woful than you are.
  • 3 KING HENRY VI, Act II 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.it.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ KING HENRY VI Sad-hearted men, much overgone with care, Here sits a king more woful than you are.
  • Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Drama: Henry VI, Part 3 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

.In Dale Hoak's view, "Edward VI's speeches and papers really present the somewhat pathetic figure of an articulate puppet far removed from the realities of government".[105] His greatest influence was in matters of religion, where the Council followed the strongly Protestant policy that Edward favoured.^ We will never know what really happened to Edward V and his brother, but based on the evidence at hand 25 years ago, I presented a paper outlining the possibility that John, Lord Howard was the person behind the murders.
  • FARK.com: (4468482) On this date 500 years ago Henry VIII was crowned King of England and totally had all the chicks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: General]

^ The majority of the Houses are named after Tudor historical figures including Ridley and Edward VI. Queens is named for Edward VIs two sisters, Queen Mary 1 and Queen Elizabeth 1.

^ Following Henry's usurpation the House of Lancaster reign until 1461, when Henry VI was usurped by King Edward IV of York.
  • The Royal Court at the Palace of Westminster - Paradox Interactive Forums 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

[106]
.The Duke of Northumberland's mode of operation was very different from Somerset's.^ Somerset is replaced as Protector by the Duke of Northumberland.

^ The Duke of Northumberland began a campaign to discredit the Duke of Somerset.
  • Edward VI of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The council was first led by his uncle, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (1547-49), and then by John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland .
  • Edward VI of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

.Careful to make sure he always commanded a majority of councillors, he encouraged a working council and used it to legitimate his authority.^ Cranmer obeyed without protest, as did all the others except Gardiner, who questioned the authority of the council to issue such a command at least until the supreme head of the Church should have reached his majority.
  • The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Make sure you always get what you want with an Amazon.co.uk Wish List .
  • Edward VI: The Lost King of England: Amazon.co.uk: Chris Skidmore: Books 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC www.amazon.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Warwick did not make himself Lord Protector, and encouraged Edward VI to declare his majority as soon as he was sixteen.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Lacking Somerset's blood relationship with the king, he added members to the Council from his own faction in order to control it.^ The Duke of Somerset became extremely unpopular, even among his own council.
  • Edward VI of England 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ New laws and statutes were enacted by the king and council according to their own will.
  • The Church in Ireland During the Reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI (1509-1553) @ ELCore.Net 9 February 2010 13:58 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In December 1551, the Duke of Somerset was tried for treason on the grounds that he had attempted to imprison a member of the King's Council.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

He also added members of his family to the royal household.[107] He saw that to achieve personal dominance, he needed total procedural control of the Council.[108] In the words of historian John Guy, "Like Somerset, he became quasi-king; the difference was that he managed the bureaucracy on the pretence that Edward had assumed full sovereignty, whereas Somerset had asserted the right to near-sovereignty as Protector".[109]
.Warwick's war policies were more pragmatic than Somerset's, and they have earned him criticism for weakness.^ Diplomacy is even more important during war than peace.
  • Take me back to Constantinople, by Edward Luttwak | Foreign Policy 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.foreignpolicy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Character - or the lack of it - almost always proves more outcome-determinative than policy position papers.
  • -->The Field: Edwards: The Most Damning Excerpt</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://narcosphere.narconews.com/thefield/3720/edwards-most-damning-excerpt">narcosphere.narconews.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="207"><a href="#citable__207"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This could have lead to a Cold War between the Nazis and America; or even more horrendous, if the Nazis developed the Atomic bomb first, they could have bombed America into submission.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The History of Britain</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.byfaith.co.uk/paulhistoryofengland3.htm">www.byfaith.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__136" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="136">In 1550, he signed a peace treaty with France that agreed to withdrawal from Boulogne and recalled all English garrisons from Scotland.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="136"><a href="#citable__136"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He also established peaceful relations with France and with Scotland.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.holylands.com/DASSIER.htm">www.holylands.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="136"><a href="#citable__136"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Spain and England sign a peace treaty.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="136"><a href="#citable__136"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Peace treaty signed at Cambrasis between England and France.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tudor Chronology</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tudors.crispen.org/chronology/index.html">tudors.crispen.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__49" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="49">In 1551 Edward was betrothed to <a href="/Elisabeth_of_Valois" title="Elisabeth of Valois">Elisabeth of Valois</a>, <a href="/Henry_II_of_France" title="Henry II of France">King Henry II</a>'s daughter .</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="49"><a href="#citable__49"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Henry, and call Edward king.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play </c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://shakespeare.mit.edu/3henryvi/full.html">shakespeare.mit.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Henry VI, part 3, by William Shakespeare (act3)</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/s/shakespeare/william/henryvi_3/act3.html">ebooks.adelaide.edu.au</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="49"><a href="#citable__49"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The contemporary French king was Henri II .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.eckerd.edu/%7Eoberhot/eroyal.htm">home.eckerd.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="49"><a href="#citable__49"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The queen: After Edward's death and the nine day reign of Lady Jane Grey, Mary, daughter of Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon came to the throne.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.eckerd.edu/%7Eoberhot/eroyal.htm">home.eckerd.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_109" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-109"><span>[</span>110<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__90" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="90">In practice, he realised that England could no longer support the cost of wars.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="90"><a href="#citable__90"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>England was no longer Saxon!</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MONARCHES OF ENGLAND</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/monarch.htm">www.gallica.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="90"><a href="#citable__90"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Some objected, that this measure was desperate, allowed no resource in case of miscarriage, exposed the Scots to be subjected by foreigners, involved them in perpetual war with England, and left them no expedient, by which they could conciliate the friendship of that powerful nation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Online Library of Liberty - XXXIV: EDWARD VI - The History of England, vol. 3</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://oll.libertyfund.org/?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=790&chapter=67316&layout=html&Itemid=27">oll.libertyfund.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="90"><a href="#citable__90"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The act made the king responsible to Parliament and subject to the laws and provided that henceforth no Roman Catholic could wear England's crown.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England, A History of</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://history-world.org/england.htm">history-world.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_110" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-110"><span>[</span>111<span>]</span></a></sup> At home, he took measures to police local unrest. <a name="citable__102" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="102">To forestall future rebellions, he kept permanent representatives of the crown in the localities, including <a href="/Lord_lieutenant" title="Lord lieutenant" class="mw-redirect">lords lieutenant</a>, who commanded military forces and reported back to central government.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="102"><a href="#citable__102"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"Crown, parliament and locality: government and communication in early Stuart England", Economic History Review , 101 (1986) .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>English Dissenters: Bibliography</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.exlibris.org/nonconform/engdis/bibliography.html">www.exlibris.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="102"><a href="#citable__102"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Obv: EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB, (Edward King of England, Lord of Ireland), central crowned portrait, large face.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.eckerd.edu/%7Eoberhot/eroyal.htm">home.eckerd.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="102"><a href="#citable__102"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Lord North, the man who lost America and one of the worst Prime Ministers in history, is chosen to lead the government.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_111" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-111"><span>[</span>112<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__163" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="163">Warwick also tackled the disastrous state of the kingdom's finances, drawing on the talents of <a href="/Thomas_Smith_(diplomat)" title="Thomas Smith (diplomat)">Thomas Smith</a>, <a href="/William_Cecil,_1st_Baron_Burghley" title="William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley">William Cecil</a>, and <a href="/William_Paulet,_1st_Marquess_of_Winchester" title="William Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester">William Paulet</a>, and on the financial advice of men such as <a href="/Walter_Mildmay" title="Walter Mildmay">Walter Mildmay</a> and <a href="/Thomas_Gresham" title="Thomas Gresham">Thomas Gresham</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="163"><a href="#citable__163"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Thomas Gresham had opened his new institution in London, the Royal Exchange, later to make the City the financial capital of the world.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The History of England</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.byfaith.co.uk/paulhistoryofengland2.htm">www.byfaith.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_112" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-112"><span>[</span>113<span>]</span></a></sup> However, his regime did not take action until after it had succumbed to the temptations of a quick profit by further <a href="/Debasement" title="Debasement">debasing</a> the coinage.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_113" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-113"><span>[</span>114<span>]</span></a></sup> The economic disaster that resulted handed the initiative to the experts, and the <a href="/Debasement" title="Debasement">debasement</a> was reversed. By 1552, confidence in the coinage was restored, prices fell, and trade at last improved. <a name="citable__137" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="137">Though a full economic recovery was not achieved until Elizabeth's reign, its origins lay in the Duke of Northumberland's policies.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="137"><a href="#citable__137"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Poor Laws enacted during Elizabeth's reign remained on the books, although with amendments, until after World War II. .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England, A History of</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://history-world.org/england.htm">history-world.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="137"><a href="#citable__137"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Duke of Northumberland was executed, but the Lady Jane and her father were originally spared.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="137"><a href="#citable__137"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Richard, Duke of Gloucester, was proclaimed King Richard III. The two young boys were murdered by Gloucester and his friends and their bodies lay undiscovered until the reign of Charles II when their remains were transferred to Westminster Abbey.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MONARCHES OF ENGLAND</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/monarch.htm">www.gallica.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_114" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-114"><span>[</span>115<span>]</span></a></sup> The regime also cracked down on widespread embezzlement of government finances, and carried out a thorough review of revenue collection practices, which has been called "one of the more remarkable achievements of Tudor administration".<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_115" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-115"><span>[</span>116<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Reformation">Reformation</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__194" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="194">In the matter of religion, the regime of Northumberland followed the same policy as that of Somerset, supporting an increasingly vigorous programme of reform.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="194"><a href="#citable__194"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>[Exit CLARENCE, and SOMERSET follows] GLOUCESTER [Aside] Not I: My thoughts aim at a further matter; I Stay not for the love of Edward, but the crown.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>3 KING HENRY VI, Act IV</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pasadenashakespeare.com/shakespeare/texts/histories/3kinghenryvi_4.html">www.pasadenashakespeare.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>III King Henry VI - Act IV</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.field-of-themes.com/shakespeare/comtext/histories/henry6p3-4.htm">www.field-of-themes.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_116" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-116"><span>[</span>117<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__274" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="274">Although Edward VI's practical influence on government was limited, his intense Protestantism made a reforming administration obligatory; his succession was managed by the reforming faction, who continued in power throughout his reign.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="274"><a href="#citable__274"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mary also started currency reform to counteract the dramatic devaluation overseen by Thomas Gresham that had characterised the last few years of Henry's reign and the reign of Edward VI. These measures, however, were largely unsuccessful..</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Mary Tudor (I of England) (Pepys' Diary)</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pepysdiary.com/p/10596.php">www.pepysdiary.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="274"><a href="#citable__274"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The movement toward a stronger and more explicitly Protestant position continued throughout Edward's reign, though Edward himself did little more than lend his name and support to the initiatives of others.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Europe in the Age of the Reformation</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.boisestate.edu/courses/reformation/england/reforminengland.shtml">www.boisestate.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="274"><a href="#citable__274"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Another powerful influence on Edward VI was Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__231" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="231">The man Edward trusted most, <a href="/Thomas_Cranmer" title="Thomas Cranmer">Thomas Cranmer</a>, Archbishop of Canterbury, introduced a series of religious reforms that revolutionised the English church from one that—while rejecting papal supremacy, remained essentially Catholic—to one that was institutionally Protestant.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="231"><a href="#citable__231"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Another powerful influence on Edward VI was Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="231"><a href="#citable__231"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Somerset was a devout Protestant as was Archbishop Cranmer.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>A History of Christianity in England</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.localhistories.org/christian.html">www.localhistories.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="231"><a href="#citable__231"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Upon his arrival in London, James was almost immediately faced by religious conflicts in England; he was presented with the Millenary Petition , a document which it is claimed contained one thousand signatures, by Puritan s requesting further Anglican Church reform.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>James I of England - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://encycl.opentopia.com/term/James_I_of_England">encycl.opentopia.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__243" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="243">The confiscation of church property that had begun under Henry VIII resumed under Edward—notably with the dissolution of the <a href="/Chantries" title="Chantries" class="mw-redirect">chantries</a>—to the great monetary advantage of the crown and the new owners of the seized property.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="243"><a href="#citable__243"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Henry VIII was also involved in the construction-from-scratch and improvement of several significant buildings, including Nonsuch Palace , King's College Chapel and Westminster Abbey - the existing buildings improved were often properties confiscated from Wolsey (such as Christ Church, Oxford , Hampton Court Palace and palace of Whitehall ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Henry VIII of England - Celtopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://celtopedia.druidcircle.net/index.php?title=Henry_VIII_of_England">celtopedia.druidcircle.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="243"><a href="#citable__243"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>By 1554, Parliament had stated in law that all the confiscated lands were to remain in the hands of their new owners--Henry's real estate scheme had worked.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Europe in the Age of the Reformation</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.boisestate.edu/courses/reformation/england/reforminengland.shtml">www.boisestate.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="243"><a href="#citable__243"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Henry VIII also appointed Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, to serve as Lord Protector of the Realm and Governor of the King's Person during Edward VI's minority.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_117" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-117"><span>[</span>118<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__171" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="171">Church reform was therefore as much a political as a religious policy under Edward VI.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_118" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-118"><span>[</span>119<span>]</span></a></sup> By the end of his reign, the church had been financially ruined, with much of the property of the bishops transferred into lay hands.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="171"><a href="#citable__171"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For, the Anglican Church was not yet much reformed.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Europe in the Age of the Reformation</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.boisestate.edu/courses/reformation/england/reforminengland.shtml">www.boisestate.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="171"><a href="#citable__171"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>After Edward IV had defeated the Lancastrian Henry VI in battle, the young Henry Tudor was taken into custody by the Earl of Pembroke at his seat, Raglan Castle in Wales.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Lamson Library</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://library.plymouth.edu/browse/?subj=King+of+England%2C">library.plymouth.edu</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="171"><a href="#citable__171"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mary also started currency reform to counteract the dramatic devaluation overseen by Thomas Gresham that had characterised the last few years of Henry's reign and the reign of Edward VI. These measures, however, were largely unsuccessful..</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Mary Tudor (I of England) (Pepys' Diary)</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pepysdiary.com/p/10596.php">www.pepysdiary.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_119" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-119"><span>[</span>120<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__237" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="237">The religious convictions of both Somerset and Northumberland have proved elusive for historians, who are divided on the sincerity of their Protestantism.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="237"><a href="#citable__237"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This was suppressed by the Duke of Northumberland who afterwards fell out with Somerset and had him beheaded in the Tower.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MONARCHES OF ENGLAND</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/monarch.htm">www.gallica.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_120" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-120"><span>[</span>121<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__294" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="294">There is less doubt, however, about the religious devotion—some have called it <a href="/Bigotry" title="Bigotry">bigotry</a><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_121" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-121"><span>[</span>122<span>]</span></a></sup>—of King Edward, who was said to have read twelve chapters of scripture daily and enjoyed sermons, and was commemorated by <a href="/John_Foxe" title="John Foxe">John Foxe</a> as a "godly imp".<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_122" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-122"><span>[</span>123<span>]</span></a></sup> Edward was depicted during his life and afterwards as a new <a href="/Josiah" title="Josiah">Josiah</a>, the biblical king who destroyed the <a href="/Idolatry" title="Idolatry">idols</a> of <a href="/Baal" title="Baal" class="mw-redirect">Baal</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="294"><a href="#citable__294"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However Edward was now a puppet king.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="294"><a href="#citable__294"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Henry, and call Edward king.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Henry VI, part 3, by William Shakespeare (act3)</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/s/shakespeare/william/henryvi_3/act3.html">ebooks.adelaide.edu.au</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Drama: Henry VI, Part 3</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.eserver.org/drama/shakespeare/histories/henry-vi-3.txt">www.eserver.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>The Third part of King Henry the Sixth, by William Shakespeare</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/s/shakespeare/william/henryvi_3/complete.html">ebooks.adelaide.edu.au</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="294"><a href="#citable__294"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He was imprisoned there during Edwards reign.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tudor Chronology</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tudors.crispen.org/chronology/index.html">tudors.crispen.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_123" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-123"><span>[</span>124<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__170" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="170">He could be <a href="/Prig" title="Prig">priggish</a> in his anti-Catholicism and once asked Catherine Parr to persuade Princess Mary "to attend no longer to foreign dances and merriments which do not become a most Christian princes".<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Skidmore_2007_p_3D38_18_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Skidmore_2007_p.3D38-18"><span>[</span>19<span>]</span></a></sup> Edward's biographer Jennifer Loach cautions, however, against accepting too readily the pious image of Edward handed down by the reformers, as in <a href="/John_Foxe" title="John Foxe">John Foxe</a>'s influential <em><a href="/Foxe%27s_Book_of_Martyrs" title="Foxe's Book of Martyrs">Acts and Monuments</a></em>, where a woodcut depicts the young king listening to a sermon by <a href="/Hugh_Latimer" title="Hugh Latimer">Hugh Latimer</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="170"><a href="#citable__170"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>When Edward became king, the reformers had their chance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Europe in the Age of the Reformation</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.boisestate.edu/courses/reformation/england/reforminengland.shtml">www.boisestate.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="170"><a href="#citable__170"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Edward VI was a young and unhealthy king.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.eckerd.edu/%7Eoberhot/eroyal.htm">home.eckerd.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="170"><a href="#citable__170"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mary also started currency reform to counteract the dramatic devaluation overseen by Thomas Gresham that had characterised the last few years of Henry's reign and the reign of Edward VI. These measures, however, were largely unsuccessful..</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Mary Tudor (I of England) (Pepys' Diary)</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pepysdiary.com/p/10596.php">www.pepysdiary.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_124" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-124"><span>[</span>125<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__155" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="155">In the early part of his life, Edward conformed to the prevailing Catholic practices, including attendance at <a href="/Mass_(liturgy)" title="Mass (liturgy)">mass</a>: but he became convinced, under the influence of Cranmer and the reformers among his tutors and courtiers, that "true" religion should be imposed in England.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="155"><a href="#citable__155"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Catholics in Ireland are allowed to practice their religion.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="155"><a href="#citable__155"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He had tuberculosis and probably knew that his life was closing and, under the influence of the Regent (the Duke of Northumberland), removed his two half-sisters Mary and Elizabeth from the succession and willed that the Protestant Lady Jane Grey should succeed him.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>thePeerage.com - Person Page 10150</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.thepeerage.com/p10150.htm">www.thepeerage.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="155"><a href="#citable__155"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This second phase was driven by the vexing question of how far reform should proceed in England.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Europe in the Age of the Reformation</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.boisestate.edu/courses/reformation/england/reforminengland.shtml">www.boisestate.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_125" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-125"><span>[</span>126<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div class="thumb tleft"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt="Portrait of Archbishop Cranmer as an elderly man. He has a long face with a flowing white beard, large nose, dark eyes and and rosy cheeks. He wears clerical robes with a black mantle over full white sleeves and has a doctoral cap on his head" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/08/4/2/2/8752104734051553.png" width="220" height="294" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> <a href="/Thomas_Cranmer" title="Thomas Cranmer">Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury</a>, exerted a powerful influence on Edward's Protestantism.</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__224" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="224">The <a href="/English_Reformation" title="English Reformation">English Reformation</a> advanced under pressure from two directions: from the traditionalists on the one hand and the <a href="/Zealots" title="Zealots" class="mw-redirect">zealots</a> on the other, who led incidents of <a href="/Iconoclasm" title="Iconoclasm">iconoclasm</a> (image-smashing) and complained that reform did not go far enough.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="224"><a href="#citable__224"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Sees of Westminster and London were combined and handed over to Ridley of Rochester, one of Cranmer’s ablest and most advanced lieutenants.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="224"><a href="#citable__224"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For the soldiers who did return from WWI, disillusion led to a questioning of the social order.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>History of England - Lonely Planet Travel Information</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.lonelyplanet.com/england/history">www.lonelyplanet.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="224"><a href="#citable__224"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"From iconoclasm to inconophobia: the cultured impact of the Second English Revolution" (1986), in The Impact of the English Reformation 1500-1640 , Marshall, P. (ed.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>English Dissenters: Bibliography</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.exlibris.org/nonconform/engdis/bibliography.html">www.exlibris.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__270" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="270">Reformed doctrines were made official, such as <a href="/Sola_fide" title="Sola fide">justification by faith alone</a> and <a href="/Eucharist" title="Eucharist">communion</a> for <a href="/Laity" title="Laity">laity</a> as well as clergy in <a href="/Communion_under_both_kinds" title="Communion under both kinds">both kinds</a>, of bread and wine.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="270"><a href="#citable__270"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He also denied the doctrine of transubstantiation (the belief that bread and wine are transformed into the body and blood of Christ during mass).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>A History of Christianity in England</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.localhistories.org/christian.html">www.localhistories.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="270"><a href="#citable__270"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In that role, he at once abolished the Act of Six Articles (Henry VIII's one gesture of reform) and permitted communion in both kinds.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Europe in the Age of the Reformation</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.boisestate.edu/courses/reformation/england/reforminengland.shtml">www.boisestate.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="270"><a href="#citable__270"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The bishops of the old school demanded that measures should be taken to prevent such attacks on the very centre point of Christian worship, while Cranmer and his supporters were determined to insist upon Communion under both kinds.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_126" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-126"><span>[</span>127<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__125" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="125">The Ordinal of 1550 replaced the divine ordination of priests with a government-run appointment system, authorising <a href="/Minister_(Christianity)" title="Minister (Christianity)">ministers</a> to preach the gospel and administer the <a href="/Sacraments" title="Sacraments" class="mw-redirect">sacraments</a> rather than, as before, "to offer sacrifice and celebrate mass both for the living and the dead".<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_127" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-127"><span>[</span>128<span>]</span></a></sup> Cranmer set himself the task of writing a uniform <a href="/Liturgy" title="Liturgy">liturgy</a> in English, detailing all weekly and daily services and religious festivals, to be made compulsory in the first <a href="/Act_of_Uniformity_1549" title="Act of Uniformity 1549">Act of Uniformity of 1549</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="125"><a href="#citable__125"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Mass was celebrated and the Sacraments were administered as before.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Church in Ireland During the Reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI (1509-1553) @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter08.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="125"><a href="#citable__125"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Puritan movement wished to sweep all Roman Catholic rites from the church services and to revert to what was claimed to be primitive usages that laid stress on preaching and prayer rather then ceremonial and sacraments.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="125"><a href="#citable__125"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The first Act of Uniformity (1548), as it is called, displaced the Mass as it had been celebrated for centuries in the English Church, and substituted in its place the new liturgy contained in the Book of Common Prayer .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_E345_128_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-E345-128"><span>[</span>129<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__249" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="249">The <em><a href="/Book_of_Common_Prayer" title="Book of Common Prayer">Book of Common Prayer</a></em> of 1549, intended as a compromise, was attacked by traditionalists for dispensing with many cherished rituals of the liturgy, such as the <a href="/Elevation_(liturgy)" title="Elevation (liturgy)">elevation</a> of the bread and wine,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_129" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-129"><span>[</span>130<span>]</span></a></sup> while some reformers complained about the retention of too many "popish" elements, including vestiges of sacrificial rites at communion.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="249"><a href="#citable__249"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>VI. and the Book of Common Prayer , 43-4.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="249"><a href="#citable__249"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Act of Uniformity 1559 required the use of the Protestant Book of Common Prayer in church services.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="249"><a href="#citable__249"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Though according to some the Book of Common Prayer had been compiled under the guidance of the Holy Ghost, soon it came to be regarded by many as unsatisfactory.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_E345_128_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-E345-128"><span>[</span>129<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__228" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="228">The prayer book was also opposed by many senior Catholic clerics, including <a href="/Stephen_Gardiner" title="Stephen Gardiner">Stephen Gardiner</a>, Bishop of Winchester, and <a href="/Edmund_Bonner" title="Edmund Bonner">Edmund Bonner</a>, Bishop of London, who were both imprisoned in the <a href="/Tower_of_London" title="Tower of London">Tower</a> and, along with others, deprived of their sees.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="228"><a href="#citable__228"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In 1550 and 1551, the most powerful Roman Catholic Bishops, Edmund Bonner (the Bishop of London), Stephen Gardiner (the Bishop of Winchester) and Nicholas Heath (the Bishop of Worcester) included, were deposed.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="228"><a href="#citable__228"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Gardiner of Winchester and Bonner of London were already in prison.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="228"><a href="#citable__228"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Many Christians and Catholics were imprisoned.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The History of England</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.byfaith.co.uk/paulhistoryofengland2.htm">www.byfaith.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Brigden_2000_p_3D193_99_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Brigden_2000_p.3D193-99"><span>[</span>100<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__128" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="128">After 1551, the Reformation advanced further, with the approval and encouragement of Edward, who began to exert more personal influence in his role as <a href="/Supreme_Head" title="Supreme Head">Supreme Head</a> of the church.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="128"><a href="#citable__128"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Some were satisfied with the reforms so far, others wanted to go further, and relations between church and state were getting complicated.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Europe in the Age of the Reformation</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.boisestate.edu/courses/reformation/england/reforminengland.shtml">www.boisestate.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="128"><a href="#citable__128"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Cranmer obeyed without protest, as did all the others except Gardiner, who questioned the authority of the council to issue such a command at least until the supreme head of the Church should have reached his majority.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="128"><a href="#citable__128"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>At first he contented himself with issuing the “bedes” or a form of prayer for the king as supreme head of the church, for Prince Edward, for the Deputy, council, and nobles, and for the faithful departed.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Church in Ireland During the Reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI (1509-1553) @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter08.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_130" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-130"><span>[</span>131<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__222" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="222">The new changes were also a response to criticism from such reformers as <a href="/John_Hooper" title="John Hooper">John Hooper</a>, Bishop of Gloucester, and the Scot <a href="/John_Knox" title="John Knox">John Knox</a>, who was employed as a minister in Newcastle under the Duke of Northumberland and whose preaching at court prompted the king to oppose kneeling at communion.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="222"><a href="#citable__222"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He was deposed after his seizure of John of Gaunt's (the Duke of Lancaster) land was challenged by the Duke's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, who led a resistance army against Richard.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.eckerd.edu/%7Eoberhot/eroyal.htm">home.eckerd.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="222"><a href="#citable__222"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Newcastle, August 8th, 1461 The King was looking to the soldiers training in the field under the Tower of the West, on the top of wich he stood.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Kings and Queens of England: RPG Succession Game AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://forum.paradoxplaza.com/forum/showthread.php?s=&threadid=132926">forum.paradoxplaza.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="222"><a href="#citable__222"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It seems that by a new rubric inserted by Cranmer communicants were enjoined to receive the communion on bended knees, and John Knox, who had arrived lately in England and was high in the favour of the council, objected strongly to such an injunction as flavouring of papistry.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_131" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-131"><span>[</span>132<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__263" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="263">Cranmer was also influenced by the views of the continental reformer <a href="/Martin_Bucer" title="Martin Bucer">Martin Bucer</a>, who died in England in 1551, by <a href="/Pietro_Martire_Vermigli" title="Pietro Martire Vermigli">Peter Martyr</a>, who was teaching at Oxford, and by other foreign theologians.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="263"><a href="#citable__263"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>At the other end, there was a politically powerful group of ardent reformers who felt that the job was still only half done.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Europe in the Age of the Reformation</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.boisestate.edu/courses/reformation/england/reforminengland.shtml">www.boisestate.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="263"><a href="#citable__263"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Thomas died circa 1612 in St.Peter's, Canterbury, Kent, England.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ancestry of Mary Tilden</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ralphinla.rootsweb.ancestry.com/tildenm.htm">ralphinla.rootsweb.ancestry.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="263"><a href="#citable__263"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>By this time, a number of Calvinists had come to England, and their influence was becoming uppermost, certainly more significant than Lutheran reformers.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Europe in the Age of the Reformation</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.boisestate.edu/courses/reformation/england/reforminengland.shtml">www.boisestate.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_132" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-132"><span>[</span>133<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__134" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="134">The progress of the Reformation was further speeded by the appointment of more reformers as bishops.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="134"><a href="#citable__134"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Queen Caroline's influence kept Sir Robert Walpole in power, and her religious tolerance resulted in the appointment of bishops noted more for their learning than for their orthodoxy.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.holylands.com/DASSIER.htm">www.holylands.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="134"><a href="#citable__134"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The more progressive Tories now began a series of reforms that opened a new era.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England, A History of</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://history-world.org/england.htm">history-world.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="134"><a href="#citable__134"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For so far the Reformation had made little or no progress in Ireland, and apparently bishops, clergy and people were still strong on the side of Rome.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Church in Ireland During the Reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI (1509-1553) @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter08.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_133" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-133"><span>[</span>134<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__152" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="152">In the winter of 1551–52, Cranmer rewrote the <em>Book of Common Prayer</em> in less ambiguous reformist terms, revised <a href="/Canon_law" title="Canon law">canon law</a>, and prepared a doctrinal statement, the <a href="/Thirty-nine_Articles" title="Thirty-nine Articles" class="mw-redirect">Forty-two Articles</a>, to clarify the practice of the reformed religion, particularly in the divisive matter of the communion service.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="152"><a href="#citable__152"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>VI. and the Book of Common Prayer , 43-4.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="152"><a href="#citable__152"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Thomas Cranmer introduced the Book of Common Prayer for use in all Church services.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="152"><a href="#citable__152"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Act of Uniformity 1559 required the use of the Protestant Book of Common Prayer in church services.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_134" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-134"><span>[</span>135<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__60" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="60">Cranmer's formulation of the reformed religion, finally divesting the communion service of any notion of the <a href="/Real_presence" title="Real presence" class="mw-redirect">real presence</a> of God in the bread and the wine, effectively abolished the <a href="/Mass_(liturgy)" title="Mass (liturgy)">mass</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="60"><a href="#citable__60"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He also denied the doctrine of transubstantiation (the belief that bread and wine are transformed into the body and blood of Christ during mass).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>A History of Christianity in England</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.localhistories.org/christian.html">www.localhistories.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="60"><a href="#citable__60"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The severe disposition, which naturally attends all reformers, prompted likewise the council to abolish some gay and showy ceremonies, which belonged to the ancient religion.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Online Library of Liberty - XXXIV: EDWARD VI - The History of England, vol. 3</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://oll.libertyfund.org/?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=790&chapter=67316&layout=html&Itemid=27">oll.libertyfund.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="60"><a href="#citable__60"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Early in 1548 a series of questions had been addressed by Cranmer to the bishops regarding the value of the Mass as a religious service apart from the Communion.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_135" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-135"><span>[</span>136<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__265" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="265">According to Elton, the publication of Cranmer's revised prayer book in 1552, supported by a second <a href="/Act_of_Uniformity_1552" title="Act of Uniformity 1552">Act of Uniformity</a>, "marked the arrival of the English Church at protestantism".<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_136" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-136"><span>[</span>137<span>]</span></a></sup> The prayer book of 1552 remains the foundation of the Church of England's services.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="265"><a href="#citable__265"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Act of Uniformity 1559 required the use of the Protestant Book of Common Prayer in church services.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="265"><a href="#citable__265"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In 1552 a second prayer book was issued.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>A History of Christianity in England</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.localhistories.org/christian.html">www.localhistories.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="265"><a href="#citable__265"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Thomas Cranmer introduced the Book of Common Prayer for use in all Church services.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_137" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-137"><span>[</span>138<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__287" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="287">However, Cranmer was unable to implement all these reforms once it became clear in spring 1553 that King Edward, upon whom the whole Reformation in England depended, was dying.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="287"><a href="#citable__287"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However Edward was now a puppet king.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="287"><a href="#citable__287"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>When Edward became king, the reformers had their chance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Europe in the Age of the Reformation</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.boisestate.edu/courses/reformation/england/reforminengland.shtml">www.boisestate.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="287"><a href="#citable__287"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mary also started currency reform to counteract the dramatic devaluation overseen by Thomas Gresham that had characterised the last few years of Henry's reign and the reign of Edward VI. These measures, however, were largely unsuccessful..</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Mary Tudor (I of England) (Pepys' Diary)</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pepysdiary.com/p/10596.php">www.pepysdiary.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_138" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-138"><span>[</span>139<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Succession_crisis">Succession crisis</span></h2> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Device_for_the_succession">Device for the succession</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__234" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="234">In January 1553, Edward VI became ill, and by June, after several improvements and relapses, he was in a hopeless condition.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="234"><a href="#citable__234"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>On the 31st January Edward VI. was proclaimed king, and the triumph of the Lutheran party seemed assured.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="234"><a href="#citable__234"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Lord Protector thus became the real ruler of England; Edward VI was demoted to a ceremonial role.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="234"><a href="#citable__234"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>She was a devout Catholic and she detested the religious changes of Henry VIII and Edward VI. When Edward became king she continued to attend Catholic mass in her own private chapel.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>A History of Christianity in England</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.localhistories.org/christian.html">www.localhistories.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_139" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-139"><span>[</span>140<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__247" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="247">The king's death and the succession of his Catholic sister Mary would jeopardise the English Reformation and Edward's Council and officers had many reasons to fear it.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="247"><a href="#citable__247"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>When Edward became king, the reformers had their chance.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Europe in the Age of the Reformation</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.boisestate.edu/courses/reformation/england/reforminengland.shtml">www.boisestate.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="247"><a href="#citable__247"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mary Queen of Scots, the Catholic granddaughter of Henry VIII's sister Margaret and the French Dauphine, posed a threat and she was imprisoned and then executed.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>thePeerage.com - Person Page 10150</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.thepeerage.com/p10150.htm">www.thepeerage.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="247"><a href="#citable__247"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Edward did not want the crown to go to Mary, who he feared would restore Catholicism and undo his reforms, as well as those of Henry VIII. For this reason, he planned to exclude her from the line of succession.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Mary Tudor (I of England) (Pepys' Diary)</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pepysdiary.com/p/10596.php">www.pepysdiary.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_140" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-140"><span>[</span>141<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__92" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="92">Edward opposed Mary's succession, not only on religious grounds but also on those of legitimacy and male inheritance, which also applied to Elizabeth.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="92"><a href="#citable__92"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In 1553 it was clear to Northumberland that Edward VI. could not long survive, and that with his death and the succession of Mary, his own future and the future of the religious settlement for which he had striven would be gravely imperilled.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="92"><a href="#citable__92"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Act of Succession 1536 declared Henry's children by Queen Jane to be next in the line of succession, and declared both the Lady Mary and the Lady Elizabeth illegitimate, thus excluding them.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="92"><a href="#citable__92"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The first draft of the will excluded Mary, Elizabeth, the Duchess of Suffolk and the Lady Jane from the line of succession on the theory that no woman could rule England.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_141" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-141"><span>[</span>142<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__172" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="172">In February 1553, Mary made an official visit to Edward, welcomed by the Privy Council "as if she had been Queen of England", in the words of the imperial ambassador.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="172"><a href="#citable__172"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The purpose is to make Mary queen of England.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="172"><a href="#citable__172"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Enter KING HENRY VI, QUEEN MARGARET, PRINCE EDWARD, CLIFFORD, and NORTHUMBERLAND, with drum and trumpets QUEEN MARGARET Welcome, my lord, to this brave town of York.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play </c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://shakespeare.mit.edu/3henryvi/full.html">shakespeare.mit.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="172"><a href="#citable__172"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>When Oxford presently warns the Queen, it is in the words of another Edward's wife, another Queen Elizabeth (IV.4.30): .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>This Star of England - Chapter 25</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.sourcetext.com/sourcebook/Star/21-40/ch25.html">www.sourcetext.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_142" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-142"><span>[</span>143<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__14" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="14">Nevertheless, shortly before Edward's death, an attempt was made to subvert the succession.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="14"><a href="#citable__14"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Catherine is made Princess of Wales and lives out the rest of her days in Wales before here death in 1536.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="14"><a href="#citable__14"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Hardicanute's death ended the male line of the Danish royal house and Edward,the son of Ethelred II, was elected King at London before Hardicanute had been buried.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MONARCHES OF ENGLAND</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/monarch.htm">www.gallica.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="14"><a href="#citable__14"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Edward VI's death was kept secret for a couple of days so that preparations could be made for Jane's accession.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div class="thumb tleft"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt=" A letter written in pen and ink, with irregular writing and several alterations" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/1/7/8/1125509569038527.png" width="220" height="167" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <a name="citable__233" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="233"><div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> In his "devise for the succession", Edward passed over his sisters' claims to the throne in favour of <a href="/Lady_Jane_Grey" title="Lady Jane Grey">Lady Jane Grey</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="233"><a href="#citable__233"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Lady Jane Grey is executed for trying to usurp the throne.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="233"><a href="#citable__233"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Lady Jane Grey is tried to for treason.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tudor Chronology</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tudors.crispen.org/chronology/index.html">tudors.crispen.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="233"><a href="#citable__233"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The heir in this line was Lady Catherine Grey, Lady Jane Grey's sister.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> In the fourth line, he altered "L Janes heires masles" to "L Jane and her heires masles".</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__187" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="187">Henry VIII had set a precedent in that a king had nominated and excluded heirs of his own volition, independently of traditional rules of descent.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="187"><a href="#citable__187"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>King Henry VIII, 1509 to 1547 .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Hammered Coins of England </c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.castlecoins.com/html/hammered_coins_of_england_.html">www.castlecoins.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="187"><a href="#citable__187"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Henry VIII also appointed Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, to serve as Lord Protector of the Realm and Governor of the King's Person during Edward VI's minority.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="187"><a href="#citable__187"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>She was the daughter of Henry VIII Tudor , King of England and Catarina de Aragón , Infanta de Aragón .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>thePeerage.com - Person Page 10150</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.thepeerage.com/p10150.htm">www.thepeerage.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_143" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-143"><span>[</span>144<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__65" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="65">With his draft document headed "My devise for the succession", King Edward also undertook to change the succession; he passed over the claims of the princesses Mary and Elizabeth and, at last, settled the Crown on his first cousin once removed, the sixteen-year-old Lady Jane Grey.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="65"><a href="#citable__65"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Lady Jane Grey is tried to for treason.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tudor Chronology</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tudors.crispen.org/chronology/index.html">tudors.crispen.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="65"><a href="#citable__65"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Queen Mary pardons Lady Jane Grey.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tudor Chronology</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tudors.crispen.org/chronology/index.html">tudors.crispen.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="65"><a href="#citable__65"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Edward VI crowned King at Westminster.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tudor Chronology</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tudors.crispen.org/chronology/index.html">tudors.crispen.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_144" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-144"><span>[</span>145<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__78" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="78">On 21 May 1553, in what was a triple marriage ceremony "with a display truly regal",<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_145" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-145"><span>[</span>146<span>]</span></a></sup> Lady Jane married <a href="/Lord_Guilford_Dudley" title="Lord Guilford Dudley">Guildford Dudley</a>, the fourth son of the Duke of Northumberland.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="78"><a href="#citable__78"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>May 21, 1553 .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tudor Chronology</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tudors.crispen.org/chronology/index.html">tudors.crispen.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="78"><a href="#citable__78"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Duke of Northumberland was executed, but the Lady Jane and her father were originally spared.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="78"><a href="#citable__78"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He had tuberculosis and probably knew that his life was closing and, under the influence of the Regent (the Duke of Northumberland), removed his two half-sisters Mary and Elizabeth from the succession and willed that the Protestant Lady Jane Grey should succeed him.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>thePeerage.com - Person Page 10150</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.thepeerage.com/p10150.htm">www.thepeerage.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__57" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="57">Her sister <a href="/Lady_Catherine_Grey" title="Lady Catherine Grey">Katherine</a> wedded the son of the <a href="/William_Herbert,_1st_Earl_of_Pembroke_(1501%E2%80%931570)" title="William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1501–1570)">Earl of Pembroke</a>, and a sister of Guildford was matched with a descendant of the <a href="/Plantagenet" title="Plantagenet" class="mw-redirect">Plantagenets</a>, England's former royal family.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="57"><a href="#citable__57"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Born at Pembroke, Henry was the son of Edmund Tudor and Margaret Beaufort,a descendant of John of Gaunt.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MONARCHES OF ENGLAND</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/monarch.htm">www.gallica.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="57"><a href="#citable__57"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Henry VII (Henry Tudor) (1457-1509), King of England (1485-1509), was the founder of the Tudor dynasty, being the son of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, and Margaret Beaufort.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.holylands.com/DASSIER.htm">www.holylands.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="57"><a href="#citable__57"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>She received the title of "The King's Sister", and was granted Hever Castle , the former residence of Anne Boleyn's family.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Henry VIII of England at AllExperts</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.allexperts.com/e/h/he/henry_viii_of_england.htm">en.allexperts.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_146" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-146"><span>[</span>147<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">In early June, Edward personally supervised the drafting of a clean version of his device by lawyers, to which he lent his signature "in six several places."<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_147" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-147"><span>[</span>148<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__278" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="278">Then, on 15 June, and under the watchful eye of the Duke of Northumberland, he summoned highranking judges and lawyers to his sickbed, commanding them on their allegiance "with sharp words and angry countenance" to prepare his device as <a href="/Letters_patent" title="Letters patent">letters patent</a> and announced that he would have these passed in parliament.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="278"><a href="#citable__278"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>To give effect to these words a search was made for arms in the city, and strangers were commanded to depart from London.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="278"><a href="#citable__278"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In the end, it was passed only on the understanding that it should not take effect for a year, and that in the meantime if an agreement could be arrived at with the Pope, the king might by letters patent repeal it.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="278"><a href="#citable__278"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However, Northumberland feared that the Frances's husband, Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, would claim the Crown as his own.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_148" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-148"><span>[</span>149<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__151" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="151">His next measure was to have leading councillors and lawyers sign a bond in his presence, in which they agreed faithfully to perform Edward's will after his death.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="151"><a href="#citable__151"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>But we both agreed that we were very happy with all three candidates (Edwards was the third) that seemed like they had a decent chance to win the nomination.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>-->The Field: Edwards: The Most Damning Excerpt</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://narcosphere.narconews.com/thefield/3720/edwards-most-damning-excerpt">narcosphere.narconews.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="151"><a href="#citable__151"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They had nine children and their first, Edward, succeeded him as king on Henry's death in 1272.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.eckerd.edu/%7Eoberhot/eroyal.htm">home.eckerd.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="151"><a href="#citable__151"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Finally in June 1553 Edward VI., four weeks before his death, approved them, and commanded that they should be accepted by all his subjects.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_149" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-149"><span>[</span>150<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__262" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="262">Finally, on 21 June, the device was signed by over a hundred notables, including councillors, peers, archbishops, bishops, and sheriffs, many of whom later claimed that they had been bullied into doing so by Northumberland—three earls were helped along with their decisions by a substantial land grant.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="262"><a href="#citable__262"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In the House of Lords there were present two archbishops together with twelve bishops, the Earls of Ormond and Desmond, and a number of viscounts, lords and barons, nearly all of whom belonged to the Anglo-Irish faction.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Church in Ireland During the Reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI (1509-1553) @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter08.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="262"><a href="#citable__262"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A royal commission was issued to the Deputy, the Lord Chancellor, and the Bishop of Meath to grant faculties and dispensations in as ample a manner as the Archbishop of Canterbury.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Church in Ireland During the Reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI (1509-1553) @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter08.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="262"><a href="#citable__262"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Henry also faced insurrections from English barons, including an encounter with the Earl of Northumberland and his son Hotspur at Shrewsbury in 1403 when Hotspur was slain.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MONARCHES OF ENGLAND</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/monarch.htm">www.gallica.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_150" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-150"><span>[</span>151<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__189" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="189">When excusing his part in the business in a plea to Queen Mary a few months later, <a href="/Chief_Justice_of_the_Common_Pleas" title="Chief Justice of the Common Pleas">Chief Justice</a> <a href="/Edward_Montagu_(judge)" title="Edward Montagu (judge)">Edward Montagu</a> recalled that when he and his colleagues had raised legal objections to the device, Northumberland came "into the Council Chamber ...</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="189"><a href="#citable__189"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A few months later I was the happy owner of probably the finest collection of Oriental seals in existence.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Sasanian Seals from the Collection of the Late Edward Gans at UC Berkeley</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ecai.org/sasanianweb/docs/sasanianseals.html">ecai.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="189"><a href="#citable__189"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>But a year later Edward IV came bouncing back; he killed Warwick , captured Margaret, and had Henry snuffed out in the Tower of London .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>History of England - Lonely Planet Travel Information</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.lonelyplanet.com/england/history">www.lonelyplanet.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="189"><a href="#citable__189"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Then Somerset goes to war with Scotland for refusing to honor a treaty of marriage between Edward and Mary the Queen.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> being in a great rage and fury, trembling for anger, and amongst his rageous talk called the said <a name="citable__83" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="83">Sir Edward, 'Traitor', and further said that he would fight in his shirt with any man in that quarrel".<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_151" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-151"><span>[</span>152<span>]</span></a></sup> Later, as Edward personally demanded their obedience, Montagu overheard a bunch of lords standing behind him conclude "if they refused to do that, they were traitors".<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_152" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-152"><span>[</span>153<span>]</span></a></sup> Thomas Cranmer, who was on bad terms with Northumberland and very reluctant to sign the documents, gave in only as Edward said he had expected him above all others to respect his will.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="83"><a href="#citable__83"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Then they refused to give him money.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="83"><a href="#citable__83"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>We will never know what really happened to Edward V and his brother, but based on the evidence at hand 25 years ago, I presented a paper outlining the possibility that John, Lord Howard was the person behind the murders.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>FARK.com: (4468482) On this date 500 years ago Henry VIII was crowned King of England and totally had all the chicks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.fark.com/cgi/comments.pl?IDLink=4468482&startid=52207519">www.fark.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="83"><a href="#citable__83"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Charles had raised money from towns to pay for a navy, had had continued to collect tonnage and poundage illegally, he had imposed medieval methods to get money such as fines upon gentry who refused to fight for him.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_153" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-153"><span>[</span>154<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__149" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="149">It was now common knowledge that Edward was dying and that some scheme to debar Mary was underway.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="149"><a href="#citable__149"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Edward VI dies - accession of Mary I .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tudor Chronology</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tudors.crispen.org/chronology/index.html">tudors.crispen.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="149"><a href="#citable__149"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is now generally acknowledged that Edward died on the 7th July 924 but some historians give the date as 925.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MONARCHES OF ENGLAND</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/monarch.htm">www.gallica.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="149"><a href="#citable__149"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>By early 1553 Edward was dying, and, having been brought up a Protestant, did not wish to be succeeded by his Roman Catholic half-sister, Mary.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__165" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="165">France, which found the prospect of the emperor's cousin on the English throne disagreeable, gave indications of support to Northumberland.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="165"><a href="#citable__165"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Stephen pledged to support Henrys daughter, Matilda (Maud), as successor to the throne but English nobles were reluctant to accept a woman ruler and Stephen was crowned.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.holylands.com/DASSIER.htm">www.holylands.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="165"><a href="#citable__165"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>On his advice, Edward created him Duke of Northumberland and gave honours to his numerous supporters.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="165"><a href="#citable__165"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>That should’ve settled things, but Edward had a cousin in Normandy (the northern part of today’s France ) called William, who thought he should have succeeded to the throne of England.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>History of England - Lonely Planet Travel Information</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.lonelyplanet.com/england/history">www.lonelyplanet.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_154" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-154"><span>[</span>155<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__179" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="179">The foreign diplomats, although certain that the overwhelming majority of the English people backed Mary, were nevertheless confident that Queen Jane would successfully be established:<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_155" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-155"><span>[</span>156<span>]</span></a></sup> "The actual possession of power is a matter of great importance, especially among barbarians like the English", <a href="/Simon_Renard" title="Simon Renard">Simon Renard</a> wrote to <a href="/Charles_V,_Holy_Roman_Emperor" title="Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor">Charles V</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="179"><a href="#citable__179"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In 1588, he lent 31,000 to Queen Elizabeth and raised the necessary funds for her to finance the English fleet which would destroy the Spanish Armada.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ancestors of Robert Erwin William Juch - aqwg29</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://juch.org/myancestors/aqwg29.asp">juch.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="179"><a href="#citable__179"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This foothold would play a major role in later English history.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> O Lord, our God, Arise: More Weekly Reports from England - Page 8 - Paradox Interactive Forums</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://forum.paradoxplaza.com/forum/showthread.php?p=7334215">forum.paradoxplaza.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="179"><a href="#citable__179"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>But that thy face is, vizard-like, unchanging, Made impudent with use of evil deeds, I would assay, proud queen, to make thee blush.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play </c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://shakespeare.mit.edu/3henryvi/full.html">shakespeare.mit.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>3 KING HENRY VI</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pasadenashakespeare.com/shakespeare/texts/histories/3kinghenryvi_1.html">www.pasadenashakespeare.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Drama: Henry VI, Part 3</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.eserver.org/drama/shakespeare/histories/henry-vi-3.txt">www.eserver.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_156" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-156"><span>[</span>157<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt=" A stiff Elizabethan-style three-quarter portrait of Lady Jane Grey wearing elaborate formal dress and holding a prayer book. She is a tall, pale, rather horsey-faced young woman." src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/07/3/9/8/95965672767292924.jpg" width="220" height="284" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> <a href="/Lady_Jane_Grey" title="Lady Jane Grey">Lady Jane Grey</a>, who was proclaimed queen four days after Edward's death</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__85" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="85">Edward had often drafted political documents as exercises; in his last year, he increasingly applied this practice to the real business of government.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="85"><a href="#citable__85"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The government was determined to close 20 or more uneconomical mines and to exercise its constitutional and political authority.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England, A History of</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://history-world.org/england.htm">history-world.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="85"><a href="#citable__85"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Since Edward was only nine years old at the time, he could not exercise actual power.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Henry VIII of England - Celtopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://celtopedia.druidcircle.net/index.php?title=Henry_VIII_of_England">celtopedia.druidcircle.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Henry VIII of England at AllExperts</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.allexperts.com/e/h/he/henry_viii_of_england.htm">en.allexperts.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="85"><a href="#citable__85"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Anne was the last English monarch to exercise the royal veto over legislation, but the rise of parliamentary government was inexorable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.holylands.com/DASSIER.htm">www.holylands.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_157" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-157"><span>[</span>158<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__291" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="291">One such document was the first draft of his "devise for the succession". Edward provided, in case of "lack of issue of my body", for the succession of male heirs only, that is, Jane Grey's mother's, Jane's or her sisters'.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_158" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-158"><span>[</span>159<span>]</span></a></sup> As his death approached and possibly persuaded by Northumberland,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_159" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-159"><span>[</span>160<span>]</span></a></sup> he altered the wording so that Jane and her sisters themselves should be able to succeed.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="291"><a href="#citable__291"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The heir in this line was Lady Catherine Grey, Lady Jane Grey's sister.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="291"><a href="#citable__291"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He had tuberculosis and probably knew that his life was closing and, under the influence of the Regent (the Duke of Northumberland), removed his two half-sisters Mary and Elizabeth from the succession and willed that the Protestant Lady Jane Grey should succeed him.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>thePeerage.com - Person Page 10150</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.thepeerage.com/p10150.htm">www.thepeerage.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="291"><a href="#citable__291"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>On the very day of her execution he issued a license for the king to marry Jane Seymour, one of Anne’s maids of honour, and before the end of the month the marriage was celebrated.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__112" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="112">Yet Edward conceded Jane's right only as an exception to male rule, demanded by reality, an example not to be followed if Jane or her sisters had only daughters.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="112"><a href="#citable__112"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The queen: After Edward's death and the nine day reign of Lady Jane Grey, Mary, daughter of Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon came to the throne.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.eckerd.edu/%7Eoberhot/eroyal.htm">home.eckerd.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="112"><a href="#citable__112"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Son Edward, she is fair and virtuous, Therefore delay not, give thy hand to Warwick; And, with thy hand, thy faith irrevocable, That only Warwick's daughter shall be thine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play </c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://shakespeare.mit.edu/3henryvi/full.html">shakespeare.mit.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="112"><a href="#citable__112"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Jane died immediately after Edward's birth and as he was the only male heir Henry had him transferred to a country estate so that his health should benefit from clean fresh air.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MONARCHES OF ENGLAND</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/monarch.htm">www.gallica.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_160" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-160"><span>[</span>161<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__216" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="216">By the logic of the device, <a href="/Frances_Grey,_Duchess_of_Suffolk" title="Frances Grey, Duchess of Suffolk">Frances Grey, Duchess of Suffolk</a>, Jane's mother and Henry VIII's niece, should have been named as Edward's heir, but she, who had already been passed over in favour of her children in Henry's will, seems to have waived her claim after a visit to Edward.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="216"><a href="#citable__216"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The alternative line descended from Henry VIII's younger sister, Mary Tudor, Duchess of Suffolk.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="216"><a href="#citable__216"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Henry then married Jane Seymour, who died shortly after the birth of the future Edward VI. His next marriage, to Anne of Cleves, ended in divorce.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.holylands.com/DASSIER.htm">www.holylands.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="216"><a href="#citable__216"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Henry VIII also appointed Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, to serve as Lord Protector of the Realm and Governor of the King's Person during Edward VI's minority.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_161" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-161"><span>[</span>162<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__277" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="277">The letters patent of 21 June excluded both the king's half-sisters because of bastardy;<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_162" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-162"><span>[</span>163<span>]</span></a></sup> as both had been declared bastards under Henry VIII, this reason could not only be advanced in Mary's but also in the Protestant Elizabeth's case.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="277"><a href="#citable__277"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Elizabeth I, Mary's half sister, in turn repealed Mary's laws.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England, A History of</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://history-world.org/england.htm">history-world.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="277"><a href="#citable__277"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>King Henry VIII, 1509 to 1547 .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Hammered Coins of England </c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.castlecoins.com/html/hammered_coins_of_england_.html">www.castlecoins.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="277"><a href="#citable__277"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>King Henry be a pupil still Under the surly Gloucester's governance?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>This Star of England - Chapter 25</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.sourcetext.com/sourcebook/Star/21-40/ch25.html">www.sourcetext.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_163" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-163"><span>[</span>164<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__275" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="275">The provisions to alter the succession were in direct violation of Henry VIII's <a href="/Third_Succession_Act" title="Third Succession Act">Third Succession Act</a> of 1543 and the product of hurried and illogical thinking.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="275"><a href="#citable__275"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In that role, he at once abolished the Act of Six Articles (Henry VIII's one gesture of reform) and permitted communion in both kinds.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Europe in the Age of the Reformation</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.boisestate.edu/courses/reformation/england/reforminengland.shtml">www.boisestate.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="275"><a href="#citable__275"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Under Henry VIII's will, third in the succession was Lady Frances Brandon, the daughter of Henry's younger sister Mary.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="275"><a href="#citable__275"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Act of Succession 1536 declared Henry's children by Queen Jane to be next in the line of succession, and declared both the Lady Mary and the Lady Elizabeth illegitimate, thus excluding them.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Henry VIII of England - Celtopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://celtopedia.druidcircle.net/index.php?title=Henry_VIII_of_England">celtopedia.druidcircle.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_164" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-164"><span>[</span>165<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Whether the device was Edward's own idea or the result of manipulation by his advisors has been a matter of debate. <a name="citable__25" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="25">For centuries, the attempt to alter the succession was mostly seen as a one-man-plot by the Duke of Northumberland.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="25"><a href="#citable__25"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He was also duke of Normandy, which set up a complicated relationship with the king of France, one which was not ultimately resolved until after the 100 Years War, ending in the 15th century.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.eckerd.edu/%7Eoberhot/eroyal.htm">home.eckerd.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="25"><a href="#citable__25"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It was also suggested that the Duke of Somerset had plotted to murder the Duke of Northumberland.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_165" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-165"><span>[</span>166<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__267" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="267">More recently, many historians have attributed the inception of the device and the insistence on its implementation to the king's initiative.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="267"><a href="#citable__267"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The proud insulting queen, With Clifford and the haught Northumberland, And of their feather many more proud birds, Have wrought the easy-melting king like wax.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play </c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://shakespeare.mit.edu/3henryvi/full.html">shakespeare.mit.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="267"><a href="#citable__267"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Just as the Bishop’s Book represented a revision of the Ten Articles, so the King’s Book was an extension or completion of the Bishop’s Book , in many respects even more Catholic in its tone than the original.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_166" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-166"><span>[</span>167<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__107" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="107"><a href="/Diarmaid_MacCulloch" title="Diarmaid MacCulloch">Diarmaid MacCulloch</a> has made out Edward's "teenage dreams of founding an evangelical realm of Christ",<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_167" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-167"><span>[</span>168<span>]</span></a></sup> while <a href="/David_Starkey" title="David Starkey">David Starkey</a> has stated that "Edward had a couple of co-operators, but the driving will was his".<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_168" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-168"><span>[</span>169<span>]</span></a></sup> Dale Hoak, on the other hand, has argued: "the scheme to alter the succession originated in Northumberland's camp and not in King Edward's brain".<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_169" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-169"><span>[</span>170<span>]</span></a></sup> <a href="/John_Gates_(courtier)" title="John Gates (courtier)">Sir John Gates</a>, a follower of Northumberland, has been suspected of presenting the drafts of the device to Edward, who then copied them out.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="107"><a href="#citable__107"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>We will never know what really happened to Edward V and his brother, but based on the evidence at hand 25 years ago, I presented a paper outlining the possibility that John, Lord Howard was the person behind the murders.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>FARK.com: (4468482) On this date 500 years ago Henry VIII was crowned King of England and totally had all the chicks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.fark.com/cgi/comments.pl?IDLink=4468482&startid=52207519">www.fark.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="107"><a href="#citable__107"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>By 1554, Parliament had stated in law that all the confiscated lands were to remain in the hands of their new owners--Henry's real estate scheme had worked.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Europe in the Age of the Reformation</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.boisestate.edu/courses/reformation/england/reforminengland.shtml">www.boisestate.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="107"><a href="#citable__107"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Henry VIII also appointed Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, to serve as Lord Protector of the Realm and Governor of the King's Person during Edward VI's minority.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_170" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-170"><span>[</span>171<span>]</span></a></sup> Edward, who was convinced that his word was law,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_171" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-171"><span>[</span>172<span>]</span></a></sup> would have understood and endorsed either scenario: "barring Mary from the successsion was a cause in which the young King believed."<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_172" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-172"><span>[</span>173<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Illness_and_death">Illness and death</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__143" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="143">Edward became ill in January 1553 with a fever and cough that gradually worsened.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="143"><a href="#citable__143"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Submitted January 10, 2010 - 11:27 pm by Angie (not verified) That article on Edwards made me ill.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>-->The Field: Edwards: The Most Damning Excerpt</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://narcosphere.narconews.com/thefield/3720/edwards-most-damning-excerpt">narcosphere.narconews.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The imperial ambassador, Scheyfve, reported that "he suffers a good deal when the fever is upon him, especially from a difficulty in drawing his breath, which is due to the compression of the organs on the right side ... <a name="citable__70" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="70">I opine that this is a visitation and sign from God".<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_173" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-173"><span>[</span>174<span>]</span></a></sup> Edward felt well enough in early April to take the air in the park at Westminster and to move to Greenwich, but by the end of the month he had weakened again.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="70"><a href="#citable__70"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He married early in life, but his wife having died within a few months, he determined to take holy orders.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__24" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="24">By 7 May he was "much amended" and the royal doctors had no doubt of his recovery.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="24"><a href="#citable__24"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Oh Love, I have no doubt that my letters will be intercepted by the King, I have no doubt that you may never receive this.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Kings and Queens of England: RPG Succession Game AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://forum.paradoxplaza.com/forum/showthread.php?s=&threadid=132926">forum.paradoxplaza.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__288" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="288">A few days later the king was watching the ships on the Thames, sitting at his window.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="288"><a href="#citable__288"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A few days later Henry was married to Catharine Howard, a niece of the Duke of Norfolk, the recognised lay head of the conservative party in England.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="288"><a href="#citable__288"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A few months later, the last of the King's cousins was married to a relative of the Archbishop of Cleves.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Kings and Queens of England: RPG Succession Game AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://forum.paradoxplaza.com/forum/showthread.php?s=&threadid=132926">forum.paradoxplaza.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_174" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-174"><span>[</span>175<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__177" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="177">However, he relapsed, and on 11 June Scheyfve, who had an informant in the king's household, reported that "the matter he ejects from his mouth is sometimes coloured a greenish yellow and black, sometimes pink, like the colour of blood".<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_175" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-175"><span>[</span>176<span>]</span></a></sup> Now his doctors believed he was suffering from "a suppurating tumour" of the lung and admitted that Edward's life was beyond recovery.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="177"><a href="#citable__177"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Doctor Sampson, afterwards Bishop of Chichester , and Doctor John Bell , afterwards Bishop of Worcester , led those who pleaded for the King.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Henry VIII of England - Celtopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://celtopedia.druidcircle.net/index.php?title=Henry_VIII_of_England">celtopedia.druidcircle.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="177"><a href="#citable__177"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Although Richard was killed at the Battle of Wakefield in 1460, Henry was deposed in 1461 by the Yorkists, who proclaimed Edward IV as king.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.holylands.com/DASSIER.htm">www.holylands.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="177"><a href="#citable__177"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These eyes, that now are dimm'd with death's black veil, Have been as piercing as the mid-day sun, To search the secret treasons of the world: The wrinkles in my brows, now filled with blood, Were liken'd oft to kingly sepulchres; For who lived king, but I could dig his grave?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play </c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://shakespeare.mit.edu/3henryvi/full.html">shakespeare.mit.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Drama: Henry VI, Part 3</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.eserver.org/drama/shakespeare/histories/henry-vi-3.txt">www.eserver.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_176" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-176"><span>[</span>177<span>]</span></a></sup> Soon, his legs became so swollen that he had to lie on his back, and he lost the strength to resist the disease. To his tutor <a href="/John_Cheke" title="John Cheke">John Cheke</a>, he whispered "I am glad to die".<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_177" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-177"><span>[</span>178<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__223" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="223">Edward made his final appearance in public on 1 July, when he showed himself at his window in Greenwich Palace, horrifying those who saw him by his "thin and wasted" condition.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="223"><a href="#citable__223"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Shortly after, he married Catherine Howard, who was executed in 1542, and finally Catherine Parr, who survived him.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.holylands.com/DASSIER.htm">www.holylands.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="223"><a href="#citable__223"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ignatius himself drew up a set of special instructions for the guidance of those who were selected for this important mission.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Church in Ireland During the Reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI (1509-1553) @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter08.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="223"><a href="#citable__223"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Let's hope that what Rome has generously provided for Anglican clergy will also be made available to those catholic priests who wish to explore different dimensions of their ministry.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ruth Gledhill - Times Online - WBLG: Pope: Married Bishops in all but Name</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://timescolumns.typepad.com/gledhill/2009/11/pope-married-bishops-in-all-but-name.html">timescolumns.typepad.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__251" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="251">During the next two days, large crowds arrived hoping to see the king again, but on the 3rd, they were told that the weather was too chilly for him to appear.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="251"><a href="#citable__251"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The throne passes to his son George II. When told that he was king, George II figured that it was a lie and did nothing until Walpole could convince him.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="251"><a href="#citable__251"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They had nine children and their first, Edward, succeeded him as king on Henry's death in 1272.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.eckerd.edu/%7Eoberhot/eroyal.htm">home.eckerd.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="251"><a href="#citable__251"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The power struggle worsened during the reign of the next king, Charles I, and eventually degenerated into the Civil War of 1644–49.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>History of England - Lonely Planet Travel Information</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.lonelyplanet.com/england/history">www.lonelyplanet.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__145" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="145">Edward died at the age of 15 at <a href="/Greenwich_Palace" title="Greenwich Palace" class="mw-redirect">Greenwich Palace</a> on 6 July 1553. According to <a href="/John_Foxe" title="John Foxe">John Foxe</a>'s legendary account of his death, his last words were: "I am faint; Lord have mercy upon me, and take my spirit".<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_178" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-178"><span>[</span>179<span>]</span></a></sup> He was buried in <a href="/Henry_VII_Lady_Chapel" title="Henry VII Lady Chapel">Henry VII Lady Chapel</a> at <a href="/Westminster_Abbey" title="Westminster Abbey">Westminster Abbey</a> on 8 August 1553, with reformed rites performed by <a href="/Thomas_Cranmer" title="Thomas Cranmer">Thomas Cranmer</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="145"><a href="#citable__145"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Elizabeth, daughter of Henry VII, dies at Eltham Palace, aged three years.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tudor Chronology</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tudors.crispen.org/chronology/index.html">tudors.crispen.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="145"><a href="#citable__145"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>July 6, 1553: Edward VI dies of consumption.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="145"><a href="#citable__145"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Henry died on Wednesday 16th November 1272 and was buried at Westminster Abbey.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MONARCHES OF ENGLAND</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/monarch.htm">www.gallica.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__196" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="196">The procession was led by "a grett company of chylderyn in ther surples" and watched by Londoners "wepyng and lamenting"; the funeral chariot, draped in cloth of gold, was topped by an effigy of Edward, with crown, sceptre, and garter.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="196"><a href="#citable__196"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Edward VII 25 Cents 1906 Large Crown, KM11, MS64 ICCS. Purple and gold toning with iridescent luster.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CoinArchives.com Search Results</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.coinarchives.com/w/results.php?results=100&search=edward+AND+V">www.coinarchives.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="196"><a href="#citable__196"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>One of his most spectacular achievments was the preparations for the "Field of Cloth of Gold", a specacular event which unfortunately Edward did not live to see.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> O Lord, our God, Arise: More Weekly Reports from England - Page 8 - Paradox Interactive Forums</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://forum.paradoxplaza.com/forum/showthread.php?p=7334215">forum.paradoxplaza.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="196"><a href="#citable__196"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The people of London were informed that the Duke of Somerset would destroy their city; Edward was told that the Duke would depose and imprison him and seize his Crown.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_179" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-179"><span>[</span>180<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__82" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="82">At the same time, Queen Mary attended a mass for his soul in the Tower, where Jane Grey was by then a prisoner.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="82"><a href="#citable__82"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Queen Mary pardons Lady Jane Grey.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tudor Chronology</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tudors.crispen.org/chronology/index.html">tudors.crispen.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="82"><a href="#citable__82"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Duke of Suffolk once again proclaimed that his daughter, the Lady Jane Grey, was Queen.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="82"><a href="#citable__82"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Bishop Fisher and Sir Thomas More, who were prisoners in the Tower, were allowed some time to consider their course of conduct.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__3" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="3">The cause of Edward VI's death is not certain.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="3"><a href="#citable__3"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Edward VI's death was kept secret for a couple of days so that preparations could be made for Jane's accession.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="3"><a href="#citable__3"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Seymour, brother of the Protector, Somerset, was the man who had compromised the thirteen-year-old Elizabeth and caused her dangerous embarrassment, while her brother Edward VI was on the throne.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>This Star of England - Chapter 25</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.sourcetext.com/sourcebook/Star/21-40/ch25.html">www.sourcetext.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="3"><a href="#citable__3"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>On the 6th July Edward VI. died at Greenwich, but his death was kept a secret until Northumberland’s plans could be matured.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__282" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="282">As with many royal deaths in the 16th century, rumours of poisoning abounded, but no evidence has been found to support these.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="282"><a href="#citable__282"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>She and many of her principal supporters were arrested and condemned to death (Nov.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="282"><a href="#citable__282"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He supported the sciences, founding Greenwich Observatory and the Royal Society.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MONARCHES OF ENGLAND</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/monarch.htm">www.gallica.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="282"><a href="#citable__282"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Had he done so, and had he been supported by the Emperor and Francis I. there is no doubt that many of the English noblemen would have joined the standard of the invaders, but the hostility between France and the Emperor saved Henry.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_180" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-180"><span>[</span>181<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__206" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="206">The Duke of Northumberland, whose unpopularity was underlined by the events that followed Edward's death, was widely believed to have ordered the imagined poisoning.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="206"><a href="#citable__206"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Edward had his brother the Duke of Clarence charged with treason and after being found guilty he was put to death by being drowned in a butt of Malmesbury wine!</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MONARCHES OF ENGLAND</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/monarch.htm">www.gallica.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="206"><a href="#citable__206"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>On his advice, Edward created him Duke of Northumberland and gave honours to his numerous supporters.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="206"><a href="#citable__206"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>On the 6th July Edward VI. died at Greenwich, but his death was kept a secret until Northumberland’s plans could be matured.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_181" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-181"><span>[</span>182<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__209" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="209">Another theory held that Edward had been poisoned by Catholics seeking to bring Mary to the throne.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="209"><a href="#citable__209"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Next in line for the throne was his older sister Mary, daughter of Catherine of Aragon, and very much Catholic.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="209"><a href="#citable__209"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The queen: After Edward's death and the nine day reign of Lady Jane Grey, Mary, daughter of Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon came to the throne.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.eckerd.edu/%7Eoberhot/eroyal.htm">home.eckerd.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="209"><a href="#citable__209"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In 1470 he teamed up with the energetic Margaret of Anjou to shuttle Edward into exile and bring Henry VI to the throne.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>History of England - Lonely Planet Travel Information</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.lonelyplanet.com/england/history">www.lonelyplanet.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_182" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-182"><span>[</span>183<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__273" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="273">The surgeon who opened Edward's chest after his death found that "the disease whereof his majesty died was the disease of the lungs".<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Sk260_183_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Sk260-183"><span>[</span>184<span>]</span></a></sup> The Venetian ambassador reported that Edward had died of consumption—in other words, <a href="/Tuberculosis" title="Tuberculosis">tuberculosis</a>—a diagnosis accepted by many historians.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="273"><a href="#citable__273"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is now generally acknowledged that Edward died on the 7th July 924 but some historians give the date as 925.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MONARCHES OF ENGLAND</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/monarch.htm">www.gallica.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="273"><a href="#citable__273"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Edward had his brother the Duke of Clarence charged with treason and after being found guilty he was put to death by being drowned in a butt of Malmesbury wine!</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MONARCHES OF ENGLAND</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/monarch.htm">www.gallica.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="273"><a href="#citable__273"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>July 6, 1553: Edward VI dies of consumption.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_184" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-184"><span>[</span>185<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__88" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="88">Skidmore believes that Edward contracted the tuberculosis after a bout of <a href="/Measles" title="Measles">measles</a> and <a href="/Smallpox" title="Smallpox">smallpox</a> in 1552 that suppressed his natural immunity to the disease.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="88"><a href="#citable__88"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>During the winter of 1552-53, Edward VI contracted a cold, which was made more serious as it was compounded by other illnesses.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Sk260_183_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Sk260-183"><span>[</span>184<span>]</span></a></sup> Loach suggests instead that his symptoms were typical of acute <a href="/Bronchopneumonia" title="Bronchopneumonia">bronchopneumonia</a>, leading to a "suppurating pulmonary infection", <a href="/Sepsis" title="Sepsis">septicaemia</a>, and <a href="/Renal_failure" title="Renal failure">kidney failure</a>.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Ldeath_185_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ldeath-185"><span>[</span>186<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Queen_Jane_and_Queen_Mary">Queen Jane and Queen Mary</span></h3> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt="A formal seated portrait in the Spanish style of Mary I. She has a sallow fleshy face with reddish-brown hair and light eyes. Her mouth is firmly set and her eyes wary. She wears a dress of fine dark brown fur over a brocade underskirt heavily patterened in the florentine style. Her cap is bordered with jewels and pearls. Much of her jewellery is grey pearls. She holds a pair of kid gloves and a rose." src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/06/2/4/2/8390134972622523.jpg" width="220" height="291" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> <a href="/Mary_I_of_England" title="Mary I of England">Mary I</a>, by <a href="/Antonis_Mor" title="Antonis Mor">Antonis Mor</a>, 1554</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__130" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="130">Princess Mary, who had last seen Edward in February, was kept informed about the state of her brother's health by Northumberland and through her contacts with the imperial ambassadors; these also made her aware of some "mighty plot" to deprive her of the succession.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="130"><a href="#citable__130"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Post [To WARWICK] My lord ambassador, these letters are for you, Sent from your brother, Marquess Montague: .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Drama: Henry VI, Part 3</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.eserver.org/drama/shakespeare/histories/henry-vi-3.txt">www.eserver.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="130"><a href="#citable__130"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Bonner made some opposition to these measures; but soon after retracted and acquiesced.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Online Library of Liberty - XXXIV: EDWARD VI - The History of England, vol. 3</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://oll.libertyfund.org/?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=790&chapter=67316&layout=html&Itemid=27">oll.libertyfund.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="130"><a href="#citable__130"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Through the winter preparations were made, contact was established with a local Powhatan chief, and on 9 February 1505, 100 men officially created the colony of Norfolk at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> O Lord, our God, Arise: More Weekly Reports from England - Page 8 - Paradox Interactive Forums</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://forum.paradoxplaza.com/forum/showthread.php?p=7334215">forum.paradoxplaza.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_186" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-186"><span>[</span>187<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__193" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="193">Charles V advised her to accept the throne even if it were offered to her on condition she made no change in religion.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="193"><a href="#citable__193"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The accession of Edward VI. made no notable change in Irish affairs.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Church in Ireland During the Reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI (1509-1553) @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter08.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="193"><a href="#citable__193"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Even Reginald Pole, the king’s own cousin, who had been educated at Henry’s expense, and for whom the Archbishopric of York had been kept vacant, refused the tempting offers that were made to him on condition that he would espouse the cause of separation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__290" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="290">Two days before Edward's death, she was summoned to court.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="290"><a href="#citable__290"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>She was arrested on a charge of misconduct with her brother and other gentlemen of the court, was tried before a body of the peers, and was put to death at Tyburn (17th May, 1536).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="290"><a href="#citable__290"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Hardicanute's death ended the male line of the Danish royal house and Edward,the son of Ethelred II, was elected King at London before Hardicanute had been buried.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MONARCHES OF ENGLAND</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/monarch.htm">www.gallica.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="290"><a href="#citable__290"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The queen: After Edward's death and the nine day reign of Lady Jane Grey, Mary, daughter of Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon came to the throne.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.eckerd.edu/%7Eoberhot/eroyal.htm">home.eckerd.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Instead, she left <a href="/Hunsdon_House" title="Hunsdon House">Hunsdon House</a>, near London, and sped to her estate at <a href="/Kenninghall" title="Kenninghall">Kenninghall</a> in Norfolk, fearing a trap.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_187" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-187"><span>[</span>188<span>]</span></a></sup> Northumberland sent ships to the Norfolk coast to prevent her escape or the arrival of reinforcements from the continent. <a name="citable__68" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="68">He delayed the announcement of the king's death while he gathered his forces, and Jane Grey, who may not have been told of Edward's device until this moment, was taken to the Tower on 10 July.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="68"><a href="#citable__68"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>On 19 July, Mary rode triumphantly into London, and Jane was forced to give up the Crown.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="68"><a href="#citable__68"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Henry then married Jane Seymour, who died shortly after the birth of the future Edward VI. His next marriage, to Anne of Cleves, ended in divorce.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.holylands.com/DASSIER.htm">www.holylands.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="68"><a href="#citable__68"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The throne passes to his son George II. When told that he was king, George II figured that it was a lie and did nothing until Walpole could convince him.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_188" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-188"><span>[</span>189<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__200" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="200">Later that day, she was proclaimed queen in the streets of London, to murmurings of discontent.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="200"><a href="#citable__200"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Four days later Lady Jane Grey arrived in London, and the proclamation of her accession to the throne was received with ominous silence in the streets of the capital.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__33" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="33">Northumberland now pressed Jane to make his son Guildford Dudley king, which, according to her own account, she refused to do.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="33"><a href="#citable__33"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The king: Edward, son of Henry and Jane Seymour, was born in 1537 at Hampton Court, upriver on the Thames from London.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.eckerd.edu/%7Eoberhot/eroyal.htm">home.eckerd.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="33"><a href="#citable__33"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He therefore chose to try to rule through the Duchess of Suffolk's daughter, the Lady Jane Grey and Jane was married off to Northumberland's younger son, Guilford Dudley.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="33"><a href="#citable__33"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Then, Warwick, thus: our sister shall be Edward’s; And now forthwith shall articles be drawn Touching the jointure that your king must make, Which with her dowry shall be counterpoised.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Third part of King Henry the Sixth, by William Shakespeare</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/s/shakespeare/william/henryvi_3/complete.html">ebooks.adelaide.edu.au</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__9" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="9">The Privy Council received a message from Mary asserting her "right and title" to the throne and commanding that the Council proclaim her queen, as she had already proclaimed herself.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="9"><a href="#citable__9"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mary proclaimed Queen .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tudor Chronology</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tudors.crispen.org/chronology/index.html">tudors.crispen.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="9"><a href="#citable__9"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Jane succeeded Edward VI but Mary, Henry VIII's daughter,had powerful friends who were much too strong for Jane and she was arrested 9 days after being proclaimed Queen.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MONARCHES OF ENGLAND</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/monarch.htm">www.gallica.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="9"><a href="#citable__9"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>YORK The queen this day here holds her parliament, But little thinks we shall be of her council: By words or blows here let us win our right.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play </c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://shakespeare.mit.edu/3henryvi/full.html">shakespeare.mit.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>3 KING HENRY VI</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pasadenashakespeare.com/shakespeare/texts/histories/3kinghenryvi_1.html">www.pasadenashakespeare.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Drama: Henry VI, Part 3</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.eserver.org/drama/shakespeare/histories/henry-vi-3.txt">www.eserver.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_189" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-189"><span>[</span>190<span>]</span></a></sup> The Council replied that Jane was queen by Edward's authority and that Mary, by contrast, was illegitimate and supported only by "a few lewd, base people".<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_190" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-190"><span>[</span>191<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__48" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="48">Northumberland soon realised that he had miscalculated drastically, not least in failing to secure Mary's person before Edward's death.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="48"><a href="#citable__48"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In 1553 it was clear to Northumberland that Edward VI. could not long survive, and that with his death and the succession of Mary, his own future and the future of the religious settlement for which he had striven would be gravely imperilled.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="48"><a href="#citable__48"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The queen: After Edward's death and the nine day reign of Lady Jane Grey, Mary, daughter of Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon came to the throne.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.eckerd.edu/%7Eoberhot/eroyal.htm">home.eckerd.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="48"><a href="#citable__48"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The death of Prince Edward in the battle of Tewkesbury, however, sealed Henrys fate, and he was murdered in the Tower of London soon afterwards.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.holylands.com/DASSIER.htm">www.holylands.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_191" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-191"><span>[</span>192<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__146" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="146">Although many of those who rallied to Mary were conservatives hoping for the defeat of Protestantism, her supporters also included many legitimists, for whom her lawful claim to the throne overrode religious considerations.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="146"><a href="#citable__146"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Although a German, who could speak little English, he succeeded to the throne as a result of the Act of Settlement which excluded Catholics from ascending to the monarchy.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.holylands.com/DASSIER.htm">www.holylands.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="146"><a href="#citable__146"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Among those who support the bill, 84% disapprove of his handling of the issue, and in addition 52% of the people who don't support the bill also disapprove of Lieberman's actions.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Daily Dish | By Andrew Sullivan</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://andrewsullivan.theatlantic.com/the_daily_dish/2010/week1/index.html">andrewsullivan.theatlantic.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="146"><a href="#citable__146"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These laws were speedily repealed when Mary, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, ascended the throne.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England, A History of</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://history-world.org/england.htm">history-world.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_192" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-192"><span>[</span>193<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__280" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="280">Northumberland was obliged to relinquish control of a nervous Council in London and launch an unplanned pursuit of Mary into <a href="/East_Anglia" title="East Anglia">East Anglia</a>, from where news was arriving of her growing support, which included a number of nobles and gentlemen and "innumerable companies of the common people".<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_193" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-193"><span>[</span>194<span>]</span></a></sup> In this precarious situation, Northumberland sent a secret mission to France to secure a pledge of French support.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="280"><a href="#citable__280"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>On 19 July, Mary rode triumphantly into London, and Jane was forced to give up the Crown.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="280"><a href="#citable__280"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>France declared war, and Britain promptly joined the coalition of European monarchs against the new French republic.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England, A History of</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://history-world.org/england.htm">history-world.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="280"><a href="#citable__280"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The former Mad King is being imprisoned in the Tower of London, the nobles support you, the nation is at peace.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Kings and Queens of England: RPG Succession Game AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://forum.paradoxplaza.com/forum/showthread.php?s=&threadid=132926">forum.paradoxplaza.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_194" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-194"><span>[</span>195<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__109" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="109">Next, the duke marched out of London with three thousand men, reaching <a href="/Cambridge" title="Cambridge">Cambridge</a> on 14 July; meanwhile, Mary rallied her forces at <a href="/Framlingham_Castle" title="Framlingham Castle">Framlingham Castle</a> in Suffolk, gathering an army of nearly twenty thousand by 19 July.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="109"><a href="#citable__109"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>On 19 July, Mary rode triumphantly into London, and Jane was forced to give up the Crown.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="109"><a href="#citable__109"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Royal commanders, be in readiness: For with a band of thirty thousand men Comes Warwick, backing of the Duke of York; And in the towns, as they do march along, Proclaims him king, and many fly to him: Darraign your battle, for they are at hand.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Third part of King Henry the Sixth, by William Shakespeare</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/s/shakespeare/william/henryvi_3/complete.html">ebooks.adelaide.edu.au</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="109"><a href="#citable__109"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Messenger The queen with all the northern earls and lords Intend here to besiege you in your castle: She is hard by with twenty thousand men; And therefore fortify your hold, my lord.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>3 KING HENRY VI</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.pasadenashakespeare.com/shakespeare/texts/histories/3kinghenryvi_1.html">www.pasadenashakespeare.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Drama: Henry VI, Part 3</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.eserver.org/drama/shakespeare/histories/henry-vi-3.txt">www.eserver.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_195" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-195"><span>[</span>196<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__192" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="192">It now dawned on the Privy Council that it had made a terrible mistake.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="192"><a href="#citable__192"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Appointed Grand Almoner in 1509, he was now in the Privy Council and thus had the king's ear in more than one way.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> O Lord, our God, Arise: More Weekly Reports from England - Page 8 - Paradox Interactive Forums</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://forum.paradoxplaza.com/forum/showthread.php?p=7334215">forum.paradoxplaza.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="192"><a href="#citable__192"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Then James made a law that let him put Catholics into the Privy Council, army, and in Oxford.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__44" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="44">When news reached the councillors in the Tower that even the Norfolk fleet had declared for Mary, they abandoned Northumberland and offered a reward for his arrest.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="44"><a href="#citable__44"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I got the news from Baldwin that they had bought the whole collection, except for fifteen pieces which were portrait seals and which reached too high a price.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Sasanian Seals from the Collection of the Late Edward Gans at UC Berkeley</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ecai.org/sasanianweb/docs/sasanianseals.html">ecai.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="44"><a href="#citable__44"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk is imprisoned in the Tower for attempting to marry Mary, Queen of Scots.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tudor Chronology</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tudors.crispen.org/chronology/index.html">tudors.crispen.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="44"><a href="#citable__44"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A second War now started, the Royalists, Scots, Welsh and the Fleet rose up but they were very quickly defeated by Cromwell's new Model Army.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MONARCHES OF ENGLAND</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/monarch.htm">www.gallica.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_196" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-196"><span>[</span>197<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__100" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="100">On 19 July, the Council completed its turnabout by publicly proclaiming Mary as queen; and Jane's nine-day reign came to an end.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="100"><a href="#citable__100"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mary proclaimed Queen .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tudor Chronology</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tudors.crispen.org/chronology/index.html">tudors.crispen.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="100"><a href="#citable__100"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>On 19 July, Mary rode triumphantly into London, and Jane was forced to give up the Crown.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="100"><a href="#citable__100"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Queen Mary pardons Lady Jane Grey.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tudor Chronology</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tudors.crispen.org/chronology/index.html">tudors.crispen.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The proclamation triggered wild rejoicing throughout London.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_197" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-197"><span>[</span>198<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__72" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="72">Stranded in Cambridge, Northumberland had no alternative, as a member of the Council, but to proclaim Mary himself.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="72"><a href="#citable__72"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Primate appealed to the terms of the oath of loyalty to the Pope taken by both himself and his opponents at their consecration, but Staples had no difficulty in proclaiming that he refused to consider himself bound by this oath.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Church in Ireland During the Reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI (1509-1553) @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter08.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_198" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-198"><span>[</span>199<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__91" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="91"><a href="/William_Paget,_1st_Baron_Paget" title="William Paget, 1st Baron Paget">William Paget</a> and the <a href="/Henry_FitzAlan,_19th_Earl_of_Arundel" title="Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel">Earl of Arundel</a> rode to Framlingham to beg Mary's pardon, and Arundel arrested Northumberland on 24 July.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="91"><a href="#citable__91"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>On 19 July, Mary rode triumphantly into London, and Jane was forced to give up the Crown.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="91"><a href="#citable__91"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>She flees to England and is arrested by Elizabeth I. 1569: The Earls of Northumberland and Westmorland start the Northern Rebellion aiming to restore Catholicism and place Mary on the throne of England.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Northumberland was beheaded on 22 August, shortly after renouncing Protestantism.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_199" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-199"><span>[</span>200<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__35" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="35">His recantation dismayed his daughter-in-law, Jane, who followed him to the scaffold on 12 February 1554, after her father's involvement in <a href="/Wyatt%27s_rebellion" title="Wyatt's rebellion">Wyatt's rebellion</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="35"><a href="#citable__35"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Jane succeeded Edward VI but Mary, Henry VIII's daughter,had powerful friends who were much too strong for Jane and she was arrested 9 days after being proclaimed Queen.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MONARCHES OF ENGLAND</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/monarch.htm">www.gallica.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="35"><a href="#citable__35"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In 1554, when Mary faced Wyatt's Rebellion, the Duke of Suffolk once again attempted to put his daughter on the Throne.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="35"><a href="#citable__35"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>January 1554: Kent rises in rebellion led by Sir Thomas Wyatt.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_200" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-200"><span>[</span>201<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Protestant_legacy">Protestant legacy</span></h2> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:252px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/1/4/2/7277273706016189.png" width="250" height="185" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <a name="citable__71" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="71"><div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> A contemporary woodcut of Hugh Latimer preaching to King Edward and a crowd of courtiers from a pulpit in the privy garden at the <a href="/Palace_of_Whitehall" title="Palace of Whitehall">Palace of Whitehall</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="71"><a href="#citable__71"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The king: Edward was born in the Palace of Westminster in 1239 and became king in 1272.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.eckerd.edu/%7Eoberhot/eroyal.htm">home.eckerd.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="71"><a href="#citable__71"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Contemporary French coins: Hugh Capet and Robert II. The king: He was son of Edgar (king) and Elfrida.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.eckerd.edu/%7Eoberhot/eroyal.htm">home.eckerd.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Published in <a href="/John_Foxe" title="John Foxe">John Foxe</a>'s <em>Acts and Monuments</em> in 1563.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_201" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-201"><span>[</span>202<span>]</span></a></sup></div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__101" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="101">Although Edward reigned for only six years and died at the age of fifteen, his reign made a lasting contribution to the <a href="/English_Reformation" title="English Reformation">English Reformation</a> and the structure of the <a href="/Church_of_England" title="Church of England">Church of England</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="101"><a href="#citable__101"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>She died after a five year reign in 1558.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.eckerd.edu/%7Eoberhot/eroyal.htm">home.eckerd.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="101"><a href="#citable__101"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Milton, A., Catholic and Reformed: Roman and Protestant Churches in English Protestant Thought, 1600-1640 (1996) .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>English Dissenters: Bibliography</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.exlibris.org/nonconform/engdis/bibliography.html">www.exlibris.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="101"><a href="#citable__101"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Henry started his reign at the age of 9 months, the youngest of any English Monarch.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>MONARCHES OF ENGLAND</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/monarch.htm">www.gallica.co.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_202" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-202"><span>[</span>203<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__4" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="4">The last decade of Henry VIII's reign had seen a partial stalling of the Reformation, a drifting back to more conservative values.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="4"><a href="#citable__4"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Henry VIII and the Reformation in England (1993) .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>English Dissenters: Bibliography</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.exlibris.org/nonconform/engdis/bibliography.html">www.exlibris.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="4"><a href="#citable__4"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The contest between Cranmer, backed by the Lutheran party in the council, and Gardiner, the Duke of Norfolk, and the conservatives was sharp though by no means decisive.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="4"><a href="#citable__4"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The queen: After Edward's death and the nine day reign of Lady Jane Grey, Mary, daughter of Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon came to the throne.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.eckerd.edu/%7Eoberhot/eroyal.htm">home.eckerd.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_203" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-203"><span>[</span>204<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__115" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="115">By contrast, Edward's reign saw radical progress in the Reformation.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="115"><a href="#citable__115"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"Reform and the "Commonwealth-men" of Edward VI's reign", in The English Commonwealth, 1547-1640 , Clark, P. et al.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>English Dissenters: Bibliography</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.exlibris.org/nonconform/engdis/bibliography.html">www.exlibris.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__79" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="79">In those six years, the Church transferred from an essentially Roman Catholic liturgy and structure to one that is usually identified as Protestant.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="79"><a href="#citable__79"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Milton, A., Catholic and Reformed: Roman and Protestant Churches in English Protestant Thought, 1600-1640 (1996) .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>English Dissenters: Bibliography</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.exlibris.org/nonconform/engdis/bibliography.html">www.exlibris.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="79"><a href="#citable__79"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Although her father was a Roman Catholic, she was reared a Protestant at the insistence of her uncle, King Charles II. In 1683 Anne was married to Prince George of Denmark.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.holylands.com/DASSIER.htm">www.holylands.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="79"><a href="#citable__79"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Forfeiture of a year’s revenue together with imprisonment for six months was the penalty to be inflicted on any clergyman who refused to follow the new liturgy.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_MacPr_204_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MacPr-204"><span>[</span>205<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__195" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="195">In particular, the introduction of the Book of Common Prayer, the Ordinal of 1550, and Cranmer's <a href="/Thirty-nine_Articles" title="Thirty-nine Articles" class="mw-redirect">Forty-two Articles</a> formed the basis for English Church practices that continue to this day.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="195"><a href="#citable__195"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>VI. and the Book of Common Prayer , 43-4.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="195"><a href="#citable__195"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Thomas Cranmer introduced the Book of Common Prayer for use in all Church services.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="195"><a href="#citable__195"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The Act of Uniformity 1559 required the use of the Protestant Book of Common Prayer in church services.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_205" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-205"><span>[</span>206<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__19" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="19">Edward himself fully approved these changes, and though they were the work of reformers such as Thomas Cranmer, <a href="/Hugh_Latimer" title="Hugh Latimer">Hugh Latimer</a>, and <a href="/Nicholas_Ridley_(martyr)" title="Nicholas Ridley (martyr)">Nicholas Ridley</a>, backed by Edward's determinedly evangelical Council, the fact of the king's religion was a catalyst in the acceleration of the Reformation during his reign.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="19"><a href="#citable__19"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He was imprisoned there during Edwards reign.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tudor Chronology</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tudors.crispen.org/chronology/index.html">tudors.crispen.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="19"><a href="#citable__19"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>They forbade the Catholics to hold Mass and required Thomas Cranmer's English Prayer Book to be read instead of the Latin Mass.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England, A History of</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://history-world.org/england.htm">history-world.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="19"><a href="#citable__19"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The king, though nominally supporting the bishops, was not sorry that such works should be spread amongst the people, as a warning to the Pope of the consequences of a refusal to comply with the royal wishes.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_206" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-206"><span>[</span>207<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__8" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="8">Queen Mary's attempts to undo the reforming work of her brother's reign faced major obstacles.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="8"><a href="#citable__8"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The queen: After Edward's death and the nine day reign of Lady Jane Grey, Mary, daughter of Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon came to the throne.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.eckerd.edu/%7Eoberhot/eroyal.htm">home.eckerd.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="8"><a href="#citable__8"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In 1554, when Mary faced Wyatt's Rebellion, the Duke of Suffolk once again attempted to put his daughter on the Throne.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="8"><a href="#citable__8"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk is imprisoned in the Tower for attempting to marry Mary, Queen of Scots.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tudor Chronology</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tudors.crispen.org/chronology/index.html">tudors.crispen.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__121" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="121">Despite her belief in the papal supremacy, she ruled constitutionally as the <a href="/Supreme_Head" title="Supreme Head">Supreme Head</a> of the English Church, a contradiction under which she bridled.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="121"><a href="#citable__121"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>At first he contented himself with issuing the “bedes” or a form of prayer for the king as supreme head of the church, for Prince Edward, for the Deputy, council, and nobles, and for the faithful departed.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Church in Ireland During the Reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI (1509-1553) @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter08.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="121"><a href="#citable__121"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Fisher declared that he could not acknowledge the king as supreme head of the Church.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="121"><a href="#citable__121"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>If he did not succeed in reaching the papal throne, a dignity to which he was induced to aspire by the promise of Charles V., his position as legate made him at least virtual head of the English Church.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_207" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-207"><span>[</span>208<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__131" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="131">She found herself entirely unable to restore the vast number of ecclesiastical properties handed over or sold to private landowners.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="131"><a href="#citable__131"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Warwick insisted on the new bishops handing over large portions of episcopal estates to be conferred on his favourites, and royal commissions were issued to take inventories of ecclesiastical property.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_208" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-208"><span>[</span>209<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__174" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="174">Although she burned a number of leading Protestant churchmen, many reformers either went into exile or remained subversively active in England during her reign, producing a torrent of reforming propaganda that she was unable to stem.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="174"><a href="#citable__174"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>During the period of 1272 to 1284, he conquered Wales and incorporated it into England.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.holylands.com/DASSIER.htm">www.holylands.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="174"><a href="#citable__174"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Henry VIII is a major figure in English history, not so much for his having had six wives, but rather for the fact that during his reign Henry presided over the beginnings of the English Renaissance and the English Reformation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.holylands.com/DASSIER.htm">www.holylands.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="174"><a href="#citable__174"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>During their reign they accepted a Bill of Rights curbing royal power and restricting succession of the throne to Protestants.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.holylands.com/DASSIER.htm">www.holylands.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_209" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-209"><span>[</span>210<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__266" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="266">Nevertheless, Protestantism was not yet "printed in the stomachs" of the English people,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_210" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-210"><span>[</span>211<span>]</span></a></sup> and had Mary lived longer, her Catholic reconstruction might have succeeded, leaving Edward's reign, rather than hers, as a historical aberration.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="266"><a href="#citable__266"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Although a German, who could speak little English, he succeeded to the throne as a result of the Act of Settlement which excluded Catholics from ascending to the monarchy.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.holylands.com/DASSIER.htm">www.holylands.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="266"><a href="#citable__266"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Henry VIII is a major figure in English history, not so much for his having had six wives, but rather for the fact that during his reign Henry presided over the beginnings of the English Renaissance and the English Reformation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.holylands.com/DASSIER.htm">www.holylands.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="266"><a href="#citable__266"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>To both parties it was evident that at best Edward VI. could be but a tool in the hands of his advisers, and that whichever section could capture the king and the machinery of government might hope to mould the religious beliefs of the English people.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Religious Changes Under Henry VIII and Edward VI @ ELCore.Net</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://catholicity.elcore.net/MacCaffrey/HCCRFR2_Chapter02.html">catholicity.elcore.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_211" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-211"><span>[</span>212<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__139" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="139">On Mary's death in 1558, the English Reformation resumed its course, and most of the reforms instituted during Edward's reign were reinstated in the <a href="/Elizabethan_Religious_Settlement" title="Elizabethan Religious Settlement">Elizabethan Religious Settlement</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="139"><a href="#citable__139"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>She reigned during a period of great religious turmoil in English history.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="139"><a href="#citable__139"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He was imprisoned there during Edwards reign.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tudor Chronology</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tudors.crispen.org/chronology/index.html">tudors.crispen.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="139"><a href="#citable__139"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>During Edwards IIIs reign, the Black Death brought heavy mortality to his country.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND by J</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.holylands.com/DASSIER.htm">www.holylands.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__34" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="34">Queen Elizabeth replaced Mary's councillors and bishops with ex-Edwardians, such as <a href="/William_Cecil,_1st_Baron_Burghley" title="William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley">William Cecil</a>, Northumberland's former secretary, and <a href="/Richard_Cox_(bishop)" title="Richard Cox (bishop)">Richard Cox</a>, Edward's old tutor, who preached an anti-Catholic sermon at the opening of parliament in 1558.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_212" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-212"><span>[</span>213<span>]</span></a></sup> Parliament passed an <a href="/Act_of_Uniformity_1559" title="Act of Uniformity 1559" class="mw-redirect">Act of Uniformity</a> the following spring that restored, with modifications, Cranmer's prayer book of 1552;<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_213" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-213"><span>[</span>214<span>]</span></a></sup> and the <a href="/Thirty-nine_Articles" title="Thirty-nine Articles" class="mw-redirect">Thirty-nine Articles</a> of 1563 were largely based on Cranmer's Forty-two Articles.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="34"><a href="#citable__34"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Parliament passes a more radical Book of Common Prayer in the Second Act of Uniformity .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tudor Chronology</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tudors.crispen.org/chronology/index.html">tudors.crispen.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="34"><a href="#citable__34"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Parliament passes the India Act.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Timelines</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.raptureready.com/time/gb2.html">www.raptureready.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="34"><a href="#citable__34"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Queen Elizabeth I, 1558 to 1603 .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Hammered Coins of England </c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.castlecoins.com/html/hammered_coins_of_england_.html">www.castlecoins.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__74" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="74">The theological developments of Edward's reign provided a vital source of reference for Elizabeth's religious policies, though the internationalism of the Edwardian Reformation was never revived.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="74"><a href="#citable__74"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Henry VII (1485-1509) 1.1 Policies as king 1.2 Later years 2 Henry VIII (1509-1547) 2.1 Early reign 2.2 The King's Great Matter 2.3 Religious upheaval 2.4 Later years 2.5 Death and succession 3 Edward VI (1547-1553) 3.1 Under Somerset 3.2 Under Warwick 3.3 Death and the succession 4 Mary I (1553-1558) 4.1 Early life 4.2 Reign 4.3 Death 5 Elizabeth I (1558-1603) 5.1 Early life 5.2 Early reign 5.3 Plots and rebellions 5.4 Death and succession 6 References .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="74"><a href="#citable__74"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Sometimes referred to as The Virgin Queen (since she never married), Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth I was the fifth and final monarch of the Tudor dynasty.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="74"><a href="#citable__74"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Elizabeth's reign is referred to as the Elizabethan era or the Golden Age and was marked by increases in English power and influence worldwide.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Tudors - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Wikijunior:Kings_and_Queens_of_England/The_Tudors">en.wikibooks.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_214" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-214"><span>[</span>215<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Ancestry">Ancestry</span></h2> <table class="navbox collapsible collapsed" style="width:100%;"> <tr> <th style="width:100%;"><span style="font-size:110%;">Ancestors of Edward VI of England</span></th> </tr> <tr> <td> <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="0" style="font-size: 90%; line-height: 110%;"> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="62" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="62"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="62"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="30" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="30"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="30"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="14" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="14"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="14"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #9fe;">16. <a href="/Owen_Tudor" title="Owen Tudor">Owen Tudor</a></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-top: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="2" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #bfc;">8. <a href="/Edmund_Tudor,_1st_Earl_of_Richmond" title="Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond">Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond</a></td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="3"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-top: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="6" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-bottom: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #9fe;">17. <a href="/Catherine_of_Valois" title="Catherine of Valois">Catherine of Valois</a></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="2" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #ffc;">4. <a href="/Henry_VII_of_England" title="Henry VII of England">Henry VII of England</a></td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-top: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="14" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="14"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="14"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #9fe;">18. <a href="/John_Beaufort,_1st_Duke_of_Somerset" title="John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset">John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset</a></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-top: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="2" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-bottom: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #bfc;">9. <a href="/Lady_Margaret_Beaufort" title="Lady Margaret Beaufort">Margaret Beaufort</a></td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="3"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="6" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-bottom: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #9fe;">19. <a href="/Margaret_Beauchamp_of_Bletso" title="Margaret Beauchamp of Bletso">Margaret Beauchamp of Bletso</a></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="2" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #fb9;">2. <a href="/Henry_VIII_of_England" title="Henry VIII of England">Henry VIII of England</a></td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="9"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-top: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="30" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="30"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="30"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="14" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="14"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="14"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #9fe;">20. <a href="/Richard_Plantagenet,_3rd_Duke_of_York" title="Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York">Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York</a></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-top: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #bfc;">10. <a href="/Edward_IV_of_England" title="Edward IV of England">Edward IV of England</a></td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="3"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-top: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="6" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-bottom: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #9fe;">21. <a href="/Cecily_Neville" title="Cecily Neville" class="mw-redirect">Cecily Neville</a></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="2" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-bottom: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #ffc;">5. <a href="/Elizabeth_of_York" title="Elizabeth of York">Elizabeth of York</a></td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="14" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="14"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="14"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #9fe;">22. <a href="/Richard_Woodville,_1st_Earl_Rivers" title="Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers">Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers</a></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-top: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="2" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-bottom: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #bfc;">11. <a href="/Elizabeth_Woodville" title="Elizabeth Woodville">Elizabeth Woodville</a></td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="3"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="6" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-bottom: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #9fe;">23. <a href="/Jacquetta_of_Luxembourg" title="Jacquetta of Luxembourg">Jacquetta of Luxembourg</a></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="2" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #fcc;">1. <strong>Edward VI of England</strong></td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="12"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="62" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="62"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="62"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="30" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="30"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="30"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="14" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="14"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="14"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #9fe;">24. John Seymour</td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-top: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="2" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #bfc;">12. John Seymour</td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="3"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-top: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="6" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-bottom: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #9fe;">25. Elizabeth Coker</td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="2" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #ffc;">6. <a href="/John_Seymour_(Tudor)" title="John Seymour (Tudor)" class="mw-redirect">John Seymour</a></td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-top: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="14" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="14"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="14"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #9fe;">26. George Darell</td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-top: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="2" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-bottom: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #bfc;">13. Elizabeth Darrell</td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="3"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="6" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-bottom: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #9fe;">27. Margaret Stourton</td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="2" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-bottom: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #fb9;">3. <a href="/Jane_Seymour" title="Jane Seymour">Jane Seymour</a></td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="9"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="30" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="30"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="30"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="14" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="14"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="14"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #9fe;">28. Philip Wentworth</td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-top: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="2" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #bfc;">14. Henry Wentworth</td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="3"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-top: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="6" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-bottom: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #9fe;">29. Mary Clifford</td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="2" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-bottom: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #ffc;">7. <a href="/Margery_Wentworth" title="Margery Wentworth">Margery Wentworth</a></td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="14" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="14"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="14"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #9fe;">30. <a href="/John_Say" title="John Say">John Say</a></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-top: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="2" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-bottom: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #bfc;">15. Ann Say</td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="3"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="6" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" style="border-left: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td style="border-left: 1px solid black; border-bottom: 1px solid black;"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2" colspan="4" style="border:1px solid black;padding:0 0.2em;padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;;background-color: #9fe;">31. Elizabeth Cheney</td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td rowspan="2" style=""> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> <td rowspan="2"> <div style="width: 0.5em; height: 0.5em;"><span style="font: 1px/1px serif;"> </span></div> </td> </tr> <tr align="center"> <td></td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Practical_legacy">Practical legacy</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__230" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="230">Edward VI founded three charitable institutions, including <a href="/Christ%27s_Hospital" title="Christ's Hospital">Christ's Hospital</a>, a school, which he founded 10 days before he died.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="230"><a href="#citable__230"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I requested a furlough, and I could spend three days, including the 27th of August, my twenty eighth birthday, at home in Berlin together with my beloved wife.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Sasanian Seals from the Collection of the Late Edward Gans at UC Berkeley</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ecai.org/sasanianweb/docs/sasanianseals.html">ecai.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="230"><a href="#citable__230"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Hundreds of charity schools, Sunday schools, and hospitals were founded, all at private expense.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England, A History of</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://history-world.org/england.htm">history-world.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="230"><a href="#citable__230"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Henry VIII's only son, Edward VI, was ten years old when he came to the throne (1547), and he died at the age of 16.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>England, A History of</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://history-world.org/england.htm">history-world.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_See_also">See also</span></h2> <ul> <li><a href="/Cultural_depictions_of_Edward_VI_of_England" title="Cultural depictions of Edward VI of England">Cultural depictions of Edward VI of England</a></li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Notes">Notes</span></h2> <div class="references-small references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width:30em; column-width:30em;"> <ol class="references"> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_0"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-0">^</a></strong> Henry VIII had replaced the style "Lord of Ireland" with "King of Ireland" in 1541; Edward also maintained the <a href="/English_claim_to_the_French_throne" title="English claim to the French throne" class="mw-redirect">English claim to the French throne</a> but did not rule <a href="/France" title="France">France</a>. See <a href="#CITEREFScarisbrick1971">Scarisbrick 1971</a>, pp. 548–49, and <a href="#CITEREFLydon1998">Lydon 1998</a>, p. 119.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_1"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-1">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 4</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_2"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></strong> <a href="/Hugh_Latimer" title="Hugh Latimer">Hugh Latimer</a>, bishop of Worcester, quoted by <a href="#CITEREFErickson1978">Erickson 1978</a>, p. 181</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_Lbapt_3">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Lbapt_3-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Lbapt_3-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 5–6</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_4"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFErickson_1978">Erickson 1978</a>, p. 182</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_5"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, p. 20</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_6"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-6">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFFoister2006">Foister 2006</a>, p. 100</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_7"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFStrong1969">Strong 1969</a>, p. 92; <a href="#CITEREFHearn1995">Hearn 1995</a>, p. 50.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_Loach_1999_p_3D8_8">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Loach_1999_p.3D8_8-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Loach_1999_p.3D8_8-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 8</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_9"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 372; <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 161; <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, p. 21</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_10"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-10">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, p. 27. A fever recurring about every four days, today usually associated with <a href="/Malaria" title="Malaria">malaria</a>.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_11"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, pp. 33, 177, 223–34, 260. Edward was also ill in 1550 and "of the measles and the smallpox" in 1552.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_12"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, p. 22; <a href="#CITEREFJordan1968">Jordan 1968</a>, pp. 37–38</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_13"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-13">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, p. 23; <a href="#CITEREFJordan1968">Jordan 1968</a>, pp. 38–39</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_14"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 9–11</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_15"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-15">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 11–12; <a href="#CITEREFJordan1968">Jordan 1968</a>, p. 42. For example, he read biblical texts, <a href="/Distichs_of_Cato" title="Distichs of Cato">Cato</a>, <a href="/Aesop%27s_Fables" title="Aesop's Fables">Aesop's Fables</a>, and <a href="/Joan_Llu%C3%ADs_Vives" title="Joan Lluís Vives" class="mw-redirect">Vives</a>'s <em>Satellitium Vivis</em>, which were written for his sister, Mary.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_16"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-16">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFJordan1968">Jordan 1968</a>, p. 40; <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, p. 8</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_17"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-17">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 13–16; <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, pp. 26–30</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_Skidmore_2007_p_3D38_18">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Skidmore_2007_p.3D38_18-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Skidmore_2007_p.3D38_18-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, p. 38</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_19"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-19">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, p. 26</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_20"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-20">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, pp. 38–37; <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 16</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_21"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-21">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFMackie1952">Mackie 1952</a>, pp. 413–14; <a href="#CITEREFGuy1988">Guy 1988</a>, p. 196. Mary and Elizabeth remained technically illegitimate, only succeeding to the crown, due to Henry's nomination. They could lose their rights, for example by marrying without the consent of the Privy Council: <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, pp. 142–143; <a href="#CITEREFLoades1996">Loades 1996</a>, p. 231.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_22"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-22">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFStarkey2004">Starkey 2004</a>, p. 720</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_23"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-23">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, p. 34</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_24"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-24">^</a></strong> This miniature, formerly attributed to <a href="/Hans_Holbein_the_Younger" title="Hans Holbein the Younger">Hans Holbein the Younger</a> and one of several versions derived from the same pattern, is now thought likely to be by a follower of <a href="/William_Scrots" title="William Scrots">William Scrots</a>. The background inscription gives Edward's age as six, but this has been doubted after x-rays of the underpainting. See <a href="#CITEREFStrong1969">Strong 1969</a>, pp. 92–93, and <a href="#CITEREFRowlands1985">Rowlands 1985</a>, pp. 235–36.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_25"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-25">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, pp. 28–29</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_26"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-26">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFJordan1968">Jordan 1968</a>, p. 44</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_27"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-27">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, pp. 35–36</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_28"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-28">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, p. 36; <a href="#CITEREFStrong1969">Strong 1969</a>, p. 92. Such portraits were modelled on <a href="/Hans_Holbein_the_Younger" title="Hans Holbein the Younger">Holbein</a>'s depiction of <a href="/Henry_VIII" title="Henry VIII" class="mw-redirect">Henry VIII</a> for a wall-painting at <a href="/Palace_of_Whitehall" title="Palace of Whitehall">Whitehall</a> in 1537, in which Henry confronts the viewer, wearing a dagger. See Remigius van Leemput's 1667 copy of the mural, which was destroyed in a fire in 1698.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_29"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-29">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 53–54</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_30"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-30">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, p. 30</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_31"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-31">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFWormald2001">Wormald 2001</a>, p. 58</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_32"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-32">^</a></strong> "His detailed reports to his master are a hideous record of fire and bloodshed, chronicled in the most factual and laconic manner." <a href="#CITEREFWormald2001">Wormald 2001</a>, p. 59</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_33"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-33">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFAston1993">Aston 1993</a>; <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 187; <a href="#CITEREFHearn1995">Hearn 1995</a>, pp. 75–76</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_34"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-34">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFJordan1968">Jordan 1968</a>, pp. 51–52; <a href="#CITEREFLoades2004">Loades 2004</a>, p. 28</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_Lsu_35">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Lsu_35-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Lsu_35-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 29</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_36"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-36">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFJordan1968">Jordan 1968</a>, p. 52</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_37"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-37">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 30–38</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_38"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-38">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFJordan1968">Jordan 1968</a>, pp. 65–66; <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 35–37</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_39"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-39">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 33</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_40"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-40">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, p. 59</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_41"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-41">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, p. 61; <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, p. 62</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_42"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-42">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFJordan1968">Jordan 1968</a>, p. 67</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_43"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-43">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFJordan1968">Jordan 1968</a>, pp. 65–69; <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 29–38</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_44"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-44">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 17–18; <a href="#CITEREFJordan1968">Jordan 1968</a>, p. 56</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_45"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-45">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFStarkey2002">Starkey 2002</a>, pp. 130–145</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_46"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-46">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFStarkey2002">Starkey 2002</a>, pp. 130–145; <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, pp. 330–31</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_47"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-47">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 19–25. In addressing these views, Loach cites, among others: G. Redworth, <em>In Defence of the Church Catholic: the Life of Stephen Gardiner</em> (Oxford, 1990), 231–37; Susan Brigden, "Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, and the Conjoured League", <em>Historical Journal</em>, xxxvii (1994), 507–37; and Eric Ives, "Henry VIII's Will: A Forensic Conundrum", <em>Historical Journal</em> (1992), 792–99.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_Loach_1999_pp_3D19_E2_80_9325_48">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Loach_1999_pp.3D19.E2.80.9325_48-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Loach_1999_pp.3D19.E2.80.9325_48-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 19–25</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_49"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-49">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFStarkey2002">Starkey 2002</a>, p. 142; <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 332. <a href="/David_Starkey" title="David Starkey">David Starkey</a> describes this distribution of benefits as typical of "the shameless back-scratching of the alliance"; <a href="/Geoffrey_Elton" title="Geoffrey Elton">G. R. Elton</a> calls the changes to the will "convenient".</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_50"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-50">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFStarkey2002">Starkey 2002</a>, pp. 138–39; <a href="#CITEREFAlford2002">Alford 2002</a>, p. 69. The existence of a council of executors alongside the Privy Council was rationalised in March when the two became one, incorporating the executors and most of their appointed assistants and adding <a href="/Thomas_Seymour,_1st_Baron_Seymour_of_Sudeley" title="Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley">Thomas Seymour</a>, who had protested at his exclusion from power.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_51"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-51">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, p. 7; <a href="#CITEREFAlford2002">Alford 2002</a>, p. 65</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_52"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-52">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFStarkey2002">Starkey 2002</a>, pp. 138–39; <a href="#CITEREFAlford2002">Alford 2002</a>, p. 67</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_53"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-53">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 26–27; <a href="#CITEREFElton1962">Elton 1962</a>, p. 203</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_54"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-54">^</a></strong> In 1549, Paget was to remind Seymour: "Remember what you promised me in the gallery at Westminster before the breath was out of the body of the king that dead is. Remember what you promised immediately after, devising with me concerning the place which you now occupy ... and that was to follow mine advice in all your proceedings more than any other man's". Quoted in <a href="#CITEREFGuy1988">Guy 1988</a>, p. 211</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_55"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-55">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFAlford2002">Alford 2002</a>, pp. 67–68</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_56"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-56">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFAlford2002">Alford 2002</a>, pp. 49–50, 91–92; <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 333. Uncles of the king had been made Protector in 1422 and 1483 during the minorities of <a href="/Henry_VI_of_England" title="Henry VI of England">Henry VI</a> and <a href="/Edward_V_of_England" title="Edward V of England">Edward V</a> (though not also Governor of the King's Person, as Seymour's brother <a href="/Thomas_Seymour,_1st_Baron_Seymour_of_Sudeley" title="Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley">Thomas</a>, who coveted the role for himself, pointed out).</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_57"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-57">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFAlford2002">Alford 2002</a>, p. 70 ; <a href="#CITEREFJordan1968">Jordan 1968</a>, pp. 73–75. In 1549, William Paget described him as king in all but name.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_58"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-58">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, pp. 334, 338</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_59"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-59">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFAlford2002">Alford 2002</a>, p. 66</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_60"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-60">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFJordan1968">Jordan 1968</a>, pp. 69, 76–77; <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore_2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, pp. 63–65</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_61"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-61">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 333</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_62"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-62">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoades2004">Loades 2004</a>, pp. 33–34; <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 333</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_63"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-63">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoades2004">Loades 2004</a>, p. 34</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_64"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-64">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, pp. 333, 346.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_65"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-65">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoades204">Loades 204</a>, p. 36</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_66"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-66">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoades2004">Loades 2004</a>, pp. 36–37; <a href="#CITEREFBrigden2000">Brigden 2000</a>, p. 182</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_67"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-67">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFErickson1978">Erickson 1978</a>, p. 234</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_68"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-68">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFSomerset1997">Somerset 1997</a>, p. 23</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_69"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-69">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoades2004">Loades 2004</a>, pp. 37–38</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_70"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-70">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoades2004">Loades 2004</a>, pp. 40–41; <a href="#CITEREFAlford2002">Alford 2002</a>, pp. 96–97</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_71"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-71">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFAlford2002">Alford 2002</a>, pp. 91–97</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_72"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-72">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, pp. 346–47</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_73"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-73">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFBrigden2000">Brigden 2000</a>, p. 183; <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, p. 42</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_74"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-74">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFMackie1952">Mackie 1952</a>, p. 484</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_75"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-75">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFMackie1952">Mackie 1952</a>, p. 485</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_76"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-76">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFWormald2001">Wormald 2001</a>, p. 62; <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 52–53. The dauphin was the future <a href="/Francis_II_of_France" title="Francis II of France">Francis II of France</a>, son of <a href="/Henry_II_of_France" title="Henry II of France">Henry II of France</a>.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_Bwar_77"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-Bwar_77-0">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFBrigden2000">Brigden 2000</a>, p. 183</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_78"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-78">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, pp. 340–41</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_79"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-79">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 70–83</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_80"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-80">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, pp. 347–350; <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 66–67, 86. For example, in Hereford, a man was recorded as saying that "by the king's proclamation all enclosures were to be broken up".</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_81"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-81">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 60–61, 66–68, 89; <a href="#CITEREFElton1962">Elton 1962</a>, p. 207. Some proclamations expressed sympathy for the victims of enclosure and announced action; some condemned the destruction of enclosures and associated riots; another announced pardons for those who had destroyed enclosures by mistake ("of folly and of mistaking") after misunderstanding the meaning of proclamations, so long as they were sorry.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_82"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-82">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 61–66.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_83"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-83">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, pp. 49–51; <a href="#CITEREFDickens1967">Dickens 1967</a>, p. 310</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_84"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-84">^</a></strong> "Their aim was not to bring down government, but to help it correct the faults of local magistrates and identify the ways in which England could be reformed." <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, p. 126</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_85"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-85">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 85</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_E350_86">^ <a href="#cite_ref-E350_86-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-E350_86-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-E350_86-2"><sup><em><strong>c</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 350</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_87"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-87">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 87</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_88"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-88">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFBrigden2000">Brigden 2000</a>, p. 192</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_89"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-89">^</a></strong> Quoted in <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 91. By "Newhaven" is meant <a href="/Ambleteuse" title="Ambleteuse">Ambleteuse</a>, near Boulogne.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_90"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-90">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFGuy1988">Guy 1988</a>, pp. 212–15; <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 101–102</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_91"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-91">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 102</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_92"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-92">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, p. 104; <a href="#CITEREFDickens1967">Dickens 1967</a>, p. 279</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_93"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-93">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 333<em>n</em>; <a href="#CITEREFAlford2002">Alford 2002</a>, p. 65. <a href="/A._F._Pollard" title="A. F. Pollard" class="mw-redirect">A. F. Pollard</a> took this line in the early 20th century, echoed later by Edward VI's 1960s biographer W. K. Jordan. A more critical approach was initiated by M. L. Bush and Dale Hoak in the 1970s.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_94"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-94">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, pp. 334–350</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_95"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-95">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFHoak1980">Hoak 1980</a>, pp. 31–32; <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, p. 42</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_96"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-96">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFAlford2002">Alford 2002</a>, p. 25; <a href="#CITEREFHoak1980">Hoak 1980</a>, pp. 42, 51</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_97"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-97">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 92</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_98"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-98">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 351; <a href="#CITEREFHoak1980">Hoak 1980</a>, p. 47</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_Brigden_2000_p_3D193_99">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Brigden_2000_p.3D193_99-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Brigden_2000_p.3D193_99-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#CITEREFBrigden2000">Brigden 2000</a>, p. 193</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_100"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-100">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 351</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_101"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-101">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFGuy1988">Guy 1988</a>, p. 213; <a href="#CITEREFHoak1980">Hoak 1980</a>, pp. 38–39. Hoak explains that the office of Lord President gave its holder the right to create and dismiss councillors, as well as to call and dissolve Council meetings.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_102"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-102">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, pp. 350–352</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_103"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-103">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 354; <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 100; <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, p. 246. Loach, followed by Skidmore, contends that Edward did not attend the Privy Council itself but a special committee created for him.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_104"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-104">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFHoak1980">Hoak 1980</a>, p. 43</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_105"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-105">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, pp. 354, 371</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_106"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-106">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 94.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_107"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-107">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFHoak1980">Hoak 1980</a>, pp. 36–37</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_108"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-108">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFGuy1988">Guy 1988</a>, p. 215</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_109"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-109">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFGuy1988">Guy 1988</a>, pp. 218–19; <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 108. Edward sent Elisabeth a "fair diamond" from Catherine Parr's collection.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_110"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-110">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 113; <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, p. 55</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_111"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-111">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 355; <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 105</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_112"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-112">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 355</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_113"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-113">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 110; <a href="#CITEREFHoak1980">Hoak 1980</a>, p. 41</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_114"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-114">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 356</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_115"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-115">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, pp. 357–58</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_116"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-116">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, p. 56</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_117"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-117">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFDickens1967">Dickens 1967</a>, pp. 287–93</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_118"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-118">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1962">Elton 1962</a>, pp. 204–205; <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, p. 8</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_119"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-119">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1962">Elton 1962</a>, p. 210</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_120"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-120">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFHaigh1993">Haigh 1993</a>, pp. 169–171; <a href="#CITEREFElton1962">Elton 1962</a>, p. 210; <a href="#CITEREFGuy1988">Guy 1988</a>, p. 219; <a href="#CITEREFLoades2004">Loades 2004</a>, p. 135; <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, pp. 286–87.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_121"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-121">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFMackie1952">Mackie 1952</a>, p. 524; <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 354</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_122"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-122">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFBrigden2000">Brigden 2000</a>, p. 180; <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, p. 6</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_123"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-123">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, p. 14</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_124"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-124">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 180–81; <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, pp. 21–29. Loach points out, following Jordan, that Edward's <em>Chronicle</em> records nothing of his religious views and mentions no sermons; MacCulloch counters that Edward's notebook of sermons, which was once archived and documented, has since been lost.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_125"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-125">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFBrigden2000">Brigden 2000</a>, pp. 180–81</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_126"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-126">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFBrigden2000">Brigden 2000</a>, pp. 188–89</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_127"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-127">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFMackie1952">Mackie 1952</a>, p. 517; <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 360; <a href="#CITEREFHaigh1993">Haigh 1993</a>, p. 168</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_E345_128">^ <a href="#cite_ref-E345_128-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-E345_128-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 345</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_129"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-129">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFBrigden2000">Brigden 2000</a>, p. 190; <a href="#CITEREFHaigh1993">Haigh 1993</a>, p. 174; <a href="#CITEREFDickens1967">Dickens 1967</a>, p. 305. One of the grievances of the western <a href="/Prayer_Book_Rebellion" title="Prayer Book Rebellion">prayer-book rebels</a> in 1549 was that the new service seemed "like a Christmas game".</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_130"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-130">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFBrigden2000">Brigden 2000</a>, p. 195</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_131"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-131">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, pp. 361, 365</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_132"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-132">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, pp. 361–62; <a href="#CITEREFHaigh1993">Haigh 1993</a>, pp. 179–80; <a href="#CITEREFDickens1967">Dickens 1967</a>, pp. 318–25, 40–42</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_133"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-133">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFHaigh1993">Haigh 1993</a>, p. 178. Notable among the new bishops were <a href="/John_Ponet" title="John Ponet">John Ponet</a>, who succeeded Gardiner at Winchester, <a href="/Myles_Coverdale" title="Myles Coverdale">Myles Coverdale</a> at Exeter, and John Hooper at Gloucester.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_134"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-134">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFDickens1967">Dickens 1967</a>, pp. 340–49</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_135"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-135">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFBrigden2000">Brigden 2000</a>, pp. 196–97; <a href="#CITEREFElton1962">Elton 1962</a>, p. 212</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_136"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-136">^</a></strong> " The Prayer Book of 1552, the Ordinal of 1550, which it took over, the act of uniformity which made the Prayer Book the only legal form of worship, and the Forty-two Articles binding upon all Englishmen, clerical and lay—these between them comprehended the protestant Reformation in England." <a href="#CITEREFElton1962">Elton 1962</a>, p. 212</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_137"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-137">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 365</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_138"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-138">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 366. Edward approved the Forty-two Articles in June 1553, too late for them to be introduced—they later became the basis of <a href="/Elizabeth_I_of_England" title="Elizabeth I of England">Elizabeth I</a>'s <a href="/Thirty-nine_Articles" title="Thirty-nine Articles" class="mw-redirect">Thirty-nine Articles</a> of 1563. Cranmer's revision of canon law, <em>Reformatio Legum Ecclesiasticarum</em>, was never authorised by king or parliament.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_139"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-139">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoades1996">Loades 1996</a>, pp. 238, 239; <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, pp. 145, 314</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_140"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-140">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFStarkey2001">Starkey 2001</a>, pp. 111–112</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_141"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-141">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFStarkey2001">Starkey 2001</a>, pp. 112–113; <a href="#CITEREFLoades1996">Loades 1996</a>, p. 232</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_142"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-142">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, p. 94</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_143"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-143">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, pp. 142–144</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_144"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-144">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, pp. 8–9</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_145"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-145">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFStarkey2001">Starkey 2001</a>, p. 114</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_146"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-146">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoades1996">Loades 1996</a>, pp. 238–239</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_147"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-147">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, pp. 145, 314</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_148"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-148">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, p. 148; <a href="#CITEREFLoades1996">Loades 1996</a>, p. 241</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_149"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-149">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, pp. 160–161</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_150"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-150">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 165; <a href="#CITEREFHoak1980">Hoak 1980</a>, p. 49; <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, p. 161</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_151"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-151">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, pp. 105, 147; <a href="#CITEREFLoades1996">Loades 1996</a>, p. 241</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_152"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-152">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, p. 160</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_153"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-153">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, p. 162</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_154"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-154">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoades1996">Loades 1996</a>, pp. 254–255</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_155"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-155">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoades1996">Loades 1996</a>, pp. 256–257</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_156"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-156">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoades1996">Loades 1996</a>, p. 257</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_157"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-157">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, pp. 134–136; <a href="#CITEREFLoades1996">Loades 1996</a>, p. 235</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_158"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-158">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, pp. 137, 139–140. In case there were no male heirs at the time of his death, England should have no king, but Jane's mother, <a href="/Frances_Grey,_Duchess_of_Suffolk" title="Frances Grey, Duchess of Suffolk">Frances Grey, Duchess of Suffolk</a> should act as regent until the birth of a royal male. Edward made detailed provisions for a minority rule, stipulated at what age the male rulers were to take power, and left open the possibility of his having children. This first draft has been dated between early 1553 and May 1553. <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, pp. 137–139; <a href="#CITEREFAlford2002">Alford 2002</a>, pp. 172–173; <a href="#CITEREFLoades1996">Loades 1996</a>, p. 231.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_159"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-159">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoades1996">Loades 1996</a>, p. 240</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_160"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-160">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, pp. 147, 150</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_161"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-161">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, pp. 157, 35</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_162"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-162">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, p. 167</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_163"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-163">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoades1996">Loades 1996</a>, p. 232; <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 373<em>n</em>16</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_164"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-164">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFJordan1970">Jordan 1970</a>, p. 515; <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 163</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_165"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-165">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, p. 128</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_166"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-166">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFJordan1970">Jordan 1970</a>, p. 513–517; <a href="#CITEREFLoades1996">Loades 1996</a>, pp. 239–241; <a href="#CITEREFStarkey2001">Starkey 2001</a>, pp. 112–114; <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, pp. 39–41; <a href="#CITEREFAlford2002">Alford 2002</a>, pp. 171–174; <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2009">Skidmore 2009</a>, pp. 247–249; <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, pp. 8–9, 145–149</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_167"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-167">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, p. 41</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_168"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-168">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFStarkey2001">Starkey 2001</a>, p. 112</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_169"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-169">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFHoak1980">Hoak 1980</a>, p. 48</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_170"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-170">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFGuy1988">Guy 1988</a>, p. 226; <a href="#CITEREFHoak1980">Hoak 1980</a>, p. 48–49. When Northumberland and Gates made their farewells before their executions, the duke said to him: "you and your counsel was a great occasion hereof" – "your and your authority was the only original cause of all together", was Gates' answer: <a href="#CITEREFIves2009">Ives 2009</a>, p. 150.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_171"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-171">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFMackie1952">Mackie 1952</a>, p. 524</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_172"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-172">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFHoak1980">Hoak 1980</a>, p. 49.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_173"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-173">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, pp. 244–45</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_174"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-174">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoades1996">Loades 1996</a>, p. 238</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_175"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-175">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 159</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_176"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-176">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 160; <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, p. 254</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_177"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-177">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, p. 254</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_178"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-178">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, p. 258; <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 167. See Foxe's <em>Acts and monuments,</em> VI, 352.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_179"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-179">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 167–69</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_180"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-180">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 160; <a href="#CITEREFJordan1970">Jordan 1970</a>, p. 520<em>n</em>1</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_181"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-181">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFDickens1967">Dickens 1967</a>, p. 352</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_182"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-182">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, pp. 258–59</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_Sk260_183">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Sk260_183-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Sk260_183-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, p. 260</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_184"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-184">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 161</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_Ldeath_185"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-Ldeath_185-0">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, pp. 159–62</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_186"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-186">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoades1996">Loades 1996</a>, pp. 239–240, 237</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_187"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-187">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFErickson1978">Erickson 1978</a>, p. 289</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_188"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-188">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFJordan1970">Jordan 1970</a>, p. 521</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_189"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-189">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFErickson1978">Erickson 1978</a>, pp. 290–91; <a href="#CITEREFTittler1991">Tittler 1991</a>, p. 8</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_190"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-190">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFJordan1970">Jordan 1970</a>, p. 522</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_191"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-191">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 375; <a href="#CITEREFDickens1967">Dickens 1967</a>, p. 353</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_192"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-192">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFJordan1970">Jordan 1970</a>, p. 524; <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, p. 375</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_193"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-193">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFErickson1978">Erickson 1978</a>, p. 291</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_194"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-194">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoades1996">Loades 1996</a>, pp. 262–263</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_195"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-195">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFTittler1991">Tittler 1991</a>, p. 10; <a href="#CITEREFErickson1978">Erickson 1978</a>, pp. 292–93</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_196"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-196">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFErickson1978">Erickson 1978</a>, p. 294; <a href="#CITEREFJordan1970">Jordan 1970</a>, p. 527</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_197"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-197">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFJordan1970">Jordan 1970</a>, pp. 529–30</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_198"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-198">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoades2004">Loades 2004</a>, p. 134</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_199"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-199">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoades2004">Loades 2004</a>, pp. 134–35</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_200"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-200">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFTittler1991">Tittler 1991</a>, p. 11; <a href="#CITEREFErickson1978">Erickson 1978</a>, pp. 357–58</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_201"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-201">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, pp. 21–25, 107</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_202"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-202">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, p. 12</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_203"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-203">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFScarisbrick1971">Scarisbrick 1971</a>, pp. 545–47</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_MacPr_204"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-MacPr_204-0">^</a></strong> The article follows the majority of historians in using the term "Protestant" for the Church of England as it stood by the end of Edward's reign. However, a minority prefer the terms "evangelical" or "new". In this view, as expressed by Diarmaid MacCulloch, it is "premature to use the label 'Protestant' for the English movement of reform in the reigns of Henry and Edward, even though its priorities were intimately related to what was happening in central Europe. A description more true to the period would be 'evangelical', a word which was indeed used at the time in various cognates". <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, p. 2</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_205"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-205">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1962">Elton 1962</a>, p. 212; <a href="#CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore 2007</a>, pp. 8–9</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_206"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-206">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, p. 8</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_207"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-207">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, pp. 378, 383</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_208"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-208">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFElton1962">Elton 1962</a>, pp. 216–219</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_209"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-209">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFHaigh1993">Haigh 1993</a>, p. 223; <a href="#CITEREFElton1977">Elton 1977</a>, pp. 382–83</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_210"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-210">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 182; <a href="#CITEREFHaigh1993">Haigh 1993</a>, p. 175</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_211"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-211">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFHaigh1993">Haigh 1993</a>, p. 235</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_212"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-212">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFHaigh1993">Haigh 1993</a>, p. 238</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_213"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-213">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFSomerset1997">Somerset 1997</a>, p. 101</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_214"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-214">^</a></strong> <a href="#CITEREFLoach1999">Loach 1999</a>, p. 182; <a href="#CITEREFMacCulloch2002">MacCulloch 2002</a>, p. 79</li> </ol> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Bibliography">Bibliography</span></h2> <a name="citable__2" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="2"><div class="references-small" style="-moz-column-width:60em; -webkit-column-width:60em; column-width:60em;margin-left:1.5em;"> <ul> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFAlford2002">Alford, Stephen (2002), <em>Kingship and Politics in the Reign of Edward VI</em>, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0521039711</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Kingship+and+Politics+in+the+Reign+of+Edward+VI&rft.aulast=Alford&rft.aufirst=Stephen&rft.au=Alford%2C%26%2332%3BStephen&rft.date=2002&rft.place=Cambridge&rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&rft.isbn=0521039711&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFAston1993">Aston, Margaret (1993), <em>The King's Bedpost: Reformation and Iconography in a Tudor Group Portrait</em>, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 052148457X</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+King%27s+Bedpost%3A+Reformation+and+Iconography+in+a+Tudor+Group+Portrait&rft.aulast=Aston&rft.aufirst=Margaret&rft.au=Aston%2C%26%2332%3BMargaret&rft.date=1993&rft.place=Cambridge&rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&rft.isbn=052148457X&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFBrigden2000">Brigden, Susan (2000), <em>New Worlds, Lost Worlds: The Rule of the Tudors, 1485–1603</em>, London: Allen Lane/Penguin, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0713990678</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=New+Worlds%2C+Lost+Worlds%3A+The+Rule+of+the+Tudors%2C+1485%E2%80%931603&rft.aulast=Brigden&rft.aufirst=Susan&rft.au=Brigden%2C%26%2332%3BSusan&rft.date=2000&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Allen+Lane%2FPenguin&rft.isbn=0713990678&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFDavis2002">Davis, Catharine (2002), <em>A Religion of the Word: The Defence of the Reformation in the Reign of Edward VI</em>, Manchester: Manchester University Press, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 9780719057304</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=A+Religion+of+the+Word%3A+The+Defence+of+the+Reformation+in+the+Reign+of+Edward+VI&rft.aulast=Davis&rft.aufirst=Catharine&rft.au=Davis%2C%26%2332%3BCatharine&rft.date=2002&rft.place=Manchester&rft.pub=Manchester+University+Press&rft.isbn=9780719057304&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFDickens1967">Dickens, A. G. (1967), <em>The English Reformation</em>, London: Fontana, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0006861156</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+English+Reformation&rft.aulast=Dickens&rft.aufirst=A.+G.&rft.au=Dickens%2C%26%2332%3BA.+G.&rft.date=1967&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Fontana&rft.isbn=0006861156&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFElton1962">Elton, G. R. (1962), <em>England Under the Tudors</em>, London: Methuen, <a href="/Online_Computer_Library_Center" title="Online Computer Library Center">OCLC</a> <a href="http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/154186398" class="external text" rel="nofollow">154186398</a></span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=England+Under+the+Tudors&rft.aulast=Elton&rft.aufirst=G.+R.&rft.au=Elton%2C%26%2332%3BG.+R.&rft.date=1962&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Methuen&rft_id=info:oclcnum/154186398&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFElton1977">Elton, G. R. (1977), <em>Reform and Reformation</em>, London: Edward Arnold, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0713159537</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Reform+and+Reformation&rft.aulast=Elton&rft.aufirst=G.+R.&rft.au=Elton%2C%26%2332%3BG.+R.&rft.date=1977&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Edward+Arnold&rft.isbn=0713159537&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFErickson1978">Erickson, Carolly (1978), <em>Bloody Mary</em>, New York: Doubleday, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0385116632</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Bloody+Mary&rft.aulast=Erickson&rft.aufirst=Carolly&rft.au=Erickson%2C%26%2332%3BCarolly&rft.date=1978&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Doubleday&rft.isbn=0385116632&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFFoister2006">Foister, Susan (2006), <em>Holbein in England</em>, London: Tate Publishing, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 1854376454</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Holbein+in+England&rft.aulast=Foister&rft.aufirst=Susan&rft.au=Foister%2C%26%2332%3BSusan&rft.date=2006&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Tate+Publishing&rft.isbn=1854376454&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFGuy1988"><a href="/John_Guy_(historian)" title="John Guy (historian)">Guy, John</a> (1988), <em>Tudor England</em>, Oxford: Oxford University Press, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0192852132</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Tudor+England&rft.aulast=Guy&rft.aufirst=John&rft.au=Guy%2C%26%2332%3BJohn&rft.date=1988&rft.place=Oxford&rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&rft.isbn=0192852132&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFHaigh1993">Haigh, Christopher (1993), <em>English Reformations: Religion, Politics and Society Under the Tudors</em>, Oxford: Oxford University Press, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 9780198221623</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=English+Reformations%3A+Religion%2C+Politics+and+Society+Under+the+Tudors&rft.aulast=Haigh&rft.aufirst=Christopher&rft.au=Haigh%2C%26%2332%3BChristopher&rft.date=1993&rft.place=Oxford&rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&rft.isbn=9780198221623&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFHearn1995">Hearn, Karen (1995), <em>Dynasties: Painting in Tudor and Jacobean England 1530–1630</em>, New York: Rizzoli, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 084781940X</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Dynasties%3A+Painting+in+Tudor+and+Jacobean+England+1530%E2%80%931630&rft.aulast=Hearn&rft.aufirst=Karen&rft.au=Hearn%2C%26%2332%3BKaren&rft.date=1995&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Rizzoli&rft.isbn=084781940X&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFHoak1980">Hoak, Dale (1980), "Rehabilitating the Duke of Northumberland: Politics and Political Control, 1549–53", in Loach, Jennifer; Tittler, Robert, <em>The Mid-Tudor Polity c.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="2"><a href="#citable__2"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Enter KING EDWARD IV, GLOUCESTER, CLARENCE, and soldiers; with QUEEN MARGARET, OXFORD, and SOMERSET, prisoners] .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Drama: Henry VI, Part 3</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.eserver.org/drama/shakespeare/histories/henry-vi-3.txt">www.eserver.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="2"><a href="#citable__2"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Draw near, Queen Margaret, and be a witness That Bona shall be wife to the English king.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play </c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://shakespeare.mit.edu/3henryvi/full.html">shakespeare.mit.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Drama: Henry VI, Part 3</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.eserver.org/drama/shakespeare/histories/henry-vi-3.txt">www.eserver.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="2"><a href="#citable__2"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>KING HENRY VI KING EDWARD IV Seize on the shame-faced Henry, bear him hence; And once again proclaim us King of England.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Drama: Henry VI, Part 3</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.eserver.org/drama/shakespeare/histories/henry-vi-3.txt">www.eserver.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__13" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="13">1540–1560</em>, London: Macmillan, pp. 29–51, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0333245288</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.btitle=Rehabilitating+the+Duke+of+Northumberland%3A+Politics+and+Political+Control%2C+1549%E2%80%9353&rft.atitle=The+Mid-Tudor+Polity+c.+1540%E2%80%931560&rft.aulast=Hoak&rft.aufirst=Dale&rft.au=Hoak%2C%26%2332%3BDale&rft.date=1980&rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B29%E2%80%9351&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Macmillan&rft.isbn=0333245288&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFIves2009"><a href="/Eric_Ives" title="Eric Ives">Ives, Eric</a> (2009), <em>Lady Jane Grey.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="13"><a href="#citable__13"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>[Enter KING EDWARD IV, GLOUCESTER, CLARENCE, and LADY GREY] .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Drama: Henry VI, Part 3</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.eserver.org/drama/shakespeare/histories/henry-vi-3.txt">www.eserver.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="13"><a href="#citable__13"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>LADY GREY afterwards Queen to Edward IV. (QUEEN ELIZABETH:) .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Drama: Henry VI, Part 3</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.eserver.org/drama/shakespeare/histories/henry-vi-3.txt">www.eserver.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> A Tudor Mystery</em>, Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 9781405194136</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Lady+Jane+Grey.+A+Tudor+Mystery&rft.aulast=Ives&rft.aufirst=Eric&rft.au=Ives%2C%26%2332%3BEric&rft.date=2009&rft.place=Chichester%2C+West+Sussex&rft.pub=Wiley-Blackwell&rft.isbn=9781405194136&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFJordan1970">Jordan, W. K. (1970), <em>Edward VI: The Threshold of Power. <a name="citable__202" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="202">The Dominance of the Duke of Northumberland</em>, London: George Allen & Unwin, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0049420836</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Edward+VI%3A+The+Threshold+of+Power.+The+Dominance+of+the+Duke+of+Northumberland&rft.aulast=Jordan&rft.aufirst=W.+K.&rft.au=Jordan%2C%26%2332%3BW.+K.&rft.date=1970&rft.place=London&rft.pub=George+Allen+%26+Unwin&rft.isbn=0049420836&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFJordan1968">Jordan, W. K. (1968), <em>Edward VI: The Young King.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="202"><a href="#citable__202"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>KING HENRY VI So would you be again to Henry, If he were seated as King Edward is.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play </c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://shakespeare.mit.edu/3henryvi/full.html">shakespeare.mit.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Drama: Henry VI, Part 3</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.eserver.org/drama/shakespeare/histories/henry-vi-3.txt">www.eserver.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="202"><a href="#citable__202"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Enter KING HENRY VI, QUEEN MARGARET, PRINCE EDWARD, CLIFFORD, and NORTHUMBERLAND, with drum and trumpets QUEEN MARGARET Welcome, my lord, to this brave town of York.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play </c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://shakespeare.mit.edu/3henryvi/full.html">shakespeare.mit.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="202"><a href="#citable__202"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>KING HENRY VI Edward Plantagenet, arise a knight; And learn this lesson, draw thy sword in right.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play </c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://shakespeare.mit.edu/3henryvi/full.html">shakespeare.mit.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Drama: Henry VI, Part 3</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.eserver.org/drama/shakespeare/histories/henry-vi-3.txt">www.eserver.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The Protectorship of the Duke of Somerset</em>, London: George Allen & Unwin, <a href="/Online_Computer_Library_Center" title="Online Computer Library Center">OCLC</a> <a href="http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/40403" class="external text" rel="nofollow">40403</a></span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Edward+VI%3A+The+Young+King.+The+Protectorship+of+the+Duke+of+Somerset&rft.aulast=Jordan&rft.aufirst=W.+K.&rft.au=Jordan%2C%26%2332%3BW.+K.&rft.date=1968&rft.place=London&rft.pub=George+Allen+%26+Unwin&rft_id=info:oclcnum/40403&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFLoach1999">Loach, Jennifer (1999), Bernard, George; Williams, Penry, eds., <em>Edward VI</em>, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0300079923</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Edward+VI&rft.aulast=Loach&rft.aufirst=Jennifer&rft.au=Loach%2C%26%2332%3BJennifer&rft.date=1999&rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft.isbn=0300079923&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFLoades2004">Loades, David (2004), <em>Intrigue and Treason: The Tudor Court, 1547–1558</em>, London: Pearson Longman, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0582772265</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Intrigue+and+Treason%3A+The+Tudor+Court%2C+1547%E2%80%931558&rft.aulast=Loades&rft.aufirst=David&rft.au=Loades%2C%26%2332%3BDavid&rft.date=2004&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Pearson+Longman&rft.isbn=0582772265&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFLoades1996">Loades, David (1996), <em>John Dudley Duke of Northumberland 1504–1553</em>, Oxford: Clarendon Press, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0198201931</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=John+Dudley+Duke+of+Northumberland+1504%E2%80%931553&rft.aulast=Loades&rft.aufirst=David&rft.au=Loades%2C%26%2332%3BDavid&rft.date=1996&rft.place=Oxford&rft.pub=Clarendon+Press&rft.isbn=0198201931&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFLydon1998">Lydon, James (1998), <em>The Making of Ireland: A History</em>, London: Routledge, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 9780415013475</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Making+of+Ireland%3A+A+History&rft.aulast=Lydon&rft.aufirst=James&rft.au=Lydon%2C%26%2332%3BJames&rft.date=1998&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Routledge&rft.isbn=9780415013475&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFMacCulloch2002"><a href="/Diarmaid_MacCulloch" title="Diarmaid MacCulloch">MacCulloch, Diarmaid</a> (2002), <em>The Boy King: Edward VI and the Protestant Reformation</em>, Berkeley: University of California Press, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0520234022</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Boy+King%3A+Edward+VI+and+the+Protestant+Reformation&rft.aulast=MacCulloch&rft.aufirst=Diarmaid&rft.au=MacCulloch%2C%26%2332%3BDiarmaid&rft.date=2002&rft.place=Berkeley&rft.pub=University+of+California+Press&rft.isbn=0520234022&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFMacCulloch1996">MacCulloch, Diarmaid (1996), <em>Thomas Cranmer</em>, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0300074484</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Thomas+Cranmer&rft.aulast=MacCulloch&rft.aufirst=Diarmaid&rft.au=MacCulloch%2C%26%2332%3BDiarmaid&rft.date=1996&rft.place=New+Haven%2C+CT&rft.pub=Yale+University+Press&rft.isbn=0300074484&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFMackie1952"><a href="/J._D._Mackie" title="J. D. Mackie">Mackie, J. D.</a> (1952), <em>The Earlier Tudors, 1485–1558</em>, Oxford: Clarendon Press, <a href="/Online_Computer_Library_Center" title="Online Computer Library Center">OCLC</a> <a href="http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/186603282" class="external text" rel="nofollow">186603282</a></span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Earlier+Tudors%2C+1485%E2%80%931558&rft.aulast=Mackie&rft.aufirst=J.+D.&rft.au=Mackie%2C%26%2332%3BJ.+D.&rft.date=1952&rft.place=Oxford&rft.pub=Clarendon+Press&rft_id=info:oclcnum/186603282&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFRichardson2007">Richardson, R. E. (2007), <em>Mistress Blanche, Queen Elizabeth I's Confidante</em>, Logaston Press, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 9781904396864</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Mistress+Blanche%2C+Queen+Elizabeth+I%27s+Confidante&rft.aulast=Richardson&rft.aufirst=R.+E.&rft.au=Richardson%2C%26%2332%3BR.+E.&rft.date=2007&rft.pub=Logaston+Press&rft.isbn=9781904396864&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFRowlands1985">Rowlands, John (1985), <em>Holbein: The Paintings of Hans Holbein the Younger</em>, Boston: David R. Godine, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0879235780</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Holbein%3A+The+Paintings+of+Hans+Holbein+the+Younger&rft.aulast=Rowlands&rft.aufirst=John&rft.au=Rowlands%2C%26%2332%3BJohn&rft.date=1985&rft.place=Boston&rft.pub=David+R.+Godine&rft.isbn=0879235780&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFScarisbrick1971">Scarisbrick, J. J. (1971), <em>Henry VIII</em>, London: Penguin, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 014021318X</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Henry+VIII&rft.aulast=Scarisbrick&rft.aufirst=J.+J.&rft.au=Scarisbrick%2C%26%2332%3BJ.+J.&rft.date=1971&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Penguin&rft.isbn=014021318X&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFSkidmore2007">Skidmore, Chris (2007), <em>Edward VI: The Lost King of England</em>, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 9780297846499</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Edward+VI%3A+The+Lost+King+of+England&rft.aulast=Skidmore&rft.aufirst=Chris&rft.au=Skidmore%2C%26%2332%3BChris&rft.date=2007&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Weidenfeld+%26+Nicolson&rft.isbn=9780297846499&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFSkidmore2009">Skidmore, Chris (2009), <em>Edward VI: The Lost King of England</em>, New York: St. Martin's Griffin, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 9780312538934</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Edward+VI%3A+The+Lost+King+of+England&rft.aulast=Skidmore&rft.aufirst=Chris&rft.au=Skidmore%2C%26%2332%3BChris&rft.date=2009&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=St.+Martin%27s+Griffin&rft.isbn=9780312538934&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFSomerset1997">Somerset, Anne (1997), <em>Elizabeth I</em>, London: Phoenix, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 1842126245</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Elizabeth+I&rft.aulast=Somerset&rft.aufirst=Anne&rft.au=Somerset%2C%26%2332%3BAnne&rft.date=1997&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Phoenix&rft.isbn=1842126245&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFStarkey2001">Starkey, David (2001), <em>Elizabeth. Apprenticeship</em>, London: Vintage, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0099286572</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Elizabeth.+Apprenticeship&rft.aulast=Starkey&rft.aufirst=David&rft.au=Starkey%2C%26%2332%3BDavid&rft.date=2001&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Vintage&rft.isbn=0099286572&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFStarkey2004"><a href="/David_Starkey" title="David Starkey">Starkey, David</a> (2004), <em>Six Wives: The Queens of Henry VIII</em>, London: Vintage, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0099437244</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Six+Wives%3A+The+Queens+of+Henry+VIII&rft.aulast=Starkey&rft.aufirst=David&rft.au=Starkey%2C%26%2332%3BDavid&rft.date=2004&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Vintage&rft.isbn=0099437244&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFStarkey2002">Starkey, David (2002), <em>The Reign of Henry VIII</em>, London: Vintage, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0099445107</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Reign+of+Henry+VIII&rft.aulast=Starkey&rft.aufirst=David&rft.au=Starkey%2C%26%2332%3BDavid&rft.date=2002&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Vintage&rft.isbn=0099445107&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFStrong1969"><a href="/Roy_Strong" title="Roy Strong">Strong, Roy</a> (1969), <em>Tudor and Jacobean Portraits</em>, London: HMSO, <a href="/Online_Computer_Library_Center" title="Online Computer Library Center">OCLC</a> <a href="http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/71370718" class="external text" rel="nofollow">71370718</a></span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Tudor+and+Jacobean+Portraits&rft.aulast=Strong&rft.aufirst=Roy&rft.au=Strong%2C%26%2332%3BRoy&rft.date=1969&rft.place=London&rft.pub=HMSO&rft_id=info:oclcnum/71370718&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFTittler1991">Tittler, Robert (1991), <em>The Reign of Mary I</em>, London: Longman, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0582061075</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Reign+of+Mary+I&rft.aulast=Tittler&rft.aufirst=Robert&rft.au=Tittler%2C%26%2332%3BRobert&rft.date=1991&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Longman&rft.isbn=0582061075&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFWormald2001">Wormald, Jenny (2001), <em>Mary, Queen of Scots: Politics, Passion and a Kingdom Lost</em>, London: Tauris Parke, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 1860645887</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Mary%2C+Queen+of+Scots%3A+Politics%2C+Passion+and+a+Kingdom+Lost&rft.aulast=Wormald&rft.aufirst=Jenny&rft.au=Wormald%2C%26%2332%3BJenny&rft.date=2001&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Tauris+Parke&rft.isbn=1860645887&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> </ul> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Further_reading">Further reading</span></h2> <a name="citable__268" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="268"><div class="references-small" style="margin-left:1.5em;"> <ul> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFBush1975">Bush, M. L. (1975), <em>The Government Policy of Protector Somerset</em>, London: Edward Arnold, <a href="/Online_Computer_Library_Center" title="Online Computer Library Center">OCLC</a> <a href="http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/60005549" class="external text" rel="nofollow">60005549</a></span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Government+Policy+of+Protector+Somerset&rft.aulast=Bush&rft.aufirst=M.+L.&rft.au=Bush%2C%26%2332%3BM.+L.&rft.date=1975&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Edward+Arnold&rft_id=info:oclcnum/60005549&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFHoak1976">Hoak, Dale (1976), <em>The King's Council in the Reign of Edward VI</em>, New York: Cambridge University Press, <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0521208661</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+King%27s+Council+in+the+Reign+of+Edward+VI&rft.aulast=Hoak&rft.aufirst=Dale&rft.au=Hoak%2C%26%2332%3BDale&rft.date=1976&rft.place=New+York&rft.pub=Cambridge+University+Press&rft.isbn=0521208661&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFJordan1966">Jordan, W. K., ed.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="268"><a href="#citable__268"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>KING HENRY VI So would you be again to Henry, If he were seated as King Edward is.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play </c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://shakespeare.mit.edu/3henryvi/full.html">shakespeare.mit.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li><li> <em><c_title>Drama: Henry VI, Part 3</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.eserver.org/drama/shakespeare/histories/henry-vi-3.txt">www.eserver.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="268"><a href="#citable__268"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Enter King Henry VI, Queen Margaret, Prince Edward, Clifford, and Northumberland, with drum and trumpets .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Third part of King Henry the Sixth, by William Shakespeare</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/s/shakespeare/william/henryvi_3/complete.html">ebooks.adelaide.edu.au</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="268"><a href="#citable__268"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Enter KING HENRY VI, QUEEN MARGARET, PRINCE EDWARD, CLIFFORD, and NORTHUMBERLAND, with drum and trumpets QUEEN MARGARET Welcome, my lord, to this brave town of York.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Henry VI, part 3: Entire Play </c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://shakespeare.mit.edu/3henryvi/full.html">shakespeare.mit.edu</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> (1966), <em>The Chronicle and Political Papers of Edward VI</em>, Ithaca, NY: Folger Shakespeare Library/Cornell University Press, <a href="/Online_Computer_Library_Center" title="Online Computer Library Center">OCLC</a> <a href="http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/398375" class="external text" rel="nofollow">398375</a></span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Chronicle+and+Political+Papers+of+Edward+VI&rft.date=1966&rft.place=Ithaca%2C+NY&rft.pub=Folger+Shakespeare+Library%2FCornell+University+Press&rft_id=info:oclcnum/398375&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFPollard1900">Pollard, A. F. (1900), <em>England Under Protector Somerset</em>, London: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner, <a href="/Online_Computer_Library_Center" title="Online Computer Library Center">OCLC</a> <a href="http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/4244810" class="external text" rel="nofollow">4244810</a></span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=England+Under+Protector+Somerset&rft.aulast=Pollard&rft.aufirst=A.+F.&rft.au=Pollard%2C%26%2332%3BA.+F.&rft.date=1900&rft.place=London&rft.pub=K.+Paul%2C+Trench%2C+Tr%C3%BCbner&rft_id=info:oclcnum/4244810&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>.</li> </ul> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_External_links">External links</span></h2> <ul> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFTytler1839"><a href="/Patrick_Fraser_Tytler" title="Patrick Fraser Tytler">Tytler, Patrick Fraser</a> (1839), <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=414JAAAAIAAJ" class="external text" rel="nofollow"><em>England under the Reigns of Edward VI and Mary</em></a>, <strong>I</strong>, London: Richard Bentley<span class="printonly">, <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=414JAAAAIAAJ" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://books.google.com/books?id=414JAAAAIAAJ</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">, retrieved 2008-08-17</span></span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=England+under+the+Reigns+of+Edward+VI+and+Mary&rft.aulast=Tytler&rft.aufirst=Patrick+Fraser&rft.au=Tytler%2C%26%2332%3BPatrick+Fraser&rft.date=1839&rft.volume=I&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Richard+Bentley&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D414JAAAAIAAJ&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li><span class="citation" id="wikipedia_CITEREFTytler1839"><a href="/Patrick_Fraser_Tytler" title="Patrick Fraser Tytler">Tytler, Patrick Fraser</a> (1839), <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=tl4JAAAAIAAJ" class="external text" rel="nofollow"><em>England under the Reigns of Edward VI and Mary</em></a>, <strong>II</strong>, London: Richard Bentley<span class="printonly">, <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=tl4JAAAAIAAJ" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://books.google.com/books?id=tl4JAAAAIAAJ</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">, retrieved 2008-08-17</span></span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=England+under+the+Reigns+of+Edward+VI+and+Mary&rft.aulast=Tytler&rft.aufirst=Patrick+Fraser&rft.au=Tytler%2C%26%2332%3BPatrick+Fraser&rft.date=1839&rft.volume=II&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Richard+Bentley&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3Dtl4JAAAAIAAJ&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Edward_VI_of_England"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> </ul> <table class="wikitable succession-box" style="margin:0.5em auto; font-size:95%;clear:both;"> <tr> <td colspan="3" style="background: #FFD700; text-align:center;"> <div>Edward VI of England</div> <div><strong><a href="/House_of_Tudor" title="House of Tudor" class="mw-redirect">House of Tudor</a></strong></div> <span style="white-space:nowrap; font-size:90%; margin:2em"><strong>Born:</strong> 12 October 1537</span> <span style="white-space:nowrap; font-size:90%; margin:2em"><strong>Died:</strong> 6 July 1553</span></td> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="3" style="background: #ACE777;">Regnal titles</th> </tr> <tr style="text-align:center;"> <td width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1">Preceded by<br /> <strong><a href="/Henry_VIII_of_England" title="Henry VIII of England">Henry VIII</a></strong></td> <td width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"><strong><a href="/List_of_English_monarchs" title="List of English monarchs">King of England</a><br /> <a href="/King_of_Ireland" title="King of Ireland" class="mw-redirect">King of Ireland</a></strong><br /> 28 January 1547 – 6 July 1553</td> <td width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1">Succeeded by<br /> <strong><a href="/Lady_Jane_Grey" title="Lady Jane Grey">Jane</a></strong> <em>or</em><strong><br /> <a href="/Mary_I_of_England" title="Mary I of England">Mary I</a></strong></td> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="3" style="background: #65BCFF"><a href="/List_of_English_monarchs" title="List of English monarchs">English royalty</a></th> </tr> <tr style="text-align:center;"> <td width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1">Preceded by<br /> <strong><a href="/Elizabeth_I_of_England" title="Elizabeth I of England">Lady Elizabeth Tudor</a></strong></td> <td width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"><strong><a href="/List_of_heirs_to_the_English_and_British_thrones" title="List of heirs to the English and British thrones" class="mw-redirect">Heir to the English Throne</a></strong><br /> <em>as <a href="/Heir_apparent" title="Heir apparent">heir apparent</a></em><strong><br /> </strong>12 October 1537 – 28 January 1547</td> <td width="30%" align="center" rowspan="2">Succeeded by<br /> <strong><a href="/Mary_I_of_England" title="Mary I of England">Lady Mary Tudor</a></strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"><strong>New title</strong><br /> <div style="font-size:90%">New Kingdom</div> </td> <td width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"><strong><a href="/List_of_heirs_to_the_English_and_British_thrones" title="List of heirs to the English and British thrones" class="mw-redirect">Heir to the Irish Throne</a></strong><br /> <em>as <a href="/Heir_apparent" title="Heir apparent">heir apparent</a></em><strong><br /> </strong>1541 – 28 January 1547</td> </tr> <tr> <th colspan="3" style="background: #ACE777;"><a href="/Peerage_of_England" title="Peerage of England">Peerage of England</a></th> </tr> <tr> <td width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"><strong>Vacant</strong> <div style="font-size:90%">Title last held by</div> <strong><a href="/Henry_VIII_of_England" title="Henry VIII of England">Henry, Prince of Wales</a><br /> <small><em>later became King Henry VIII</em></small></strong></td> <td width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"><strong><a href="/Prince_of_Wales" title="Prince of Wales">Prince of Wales</a></strong><br /> 1537–1547</td> <td width="30%" align="center" rowspan="2"><strong>Vacant</strong> <div style="font-size:90%">Title next held by</div> <strong><a href="/Henry_Frederick,_Prince_of_Wales" title="Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales">Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales</a></strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"><strong>Vacant</strong> <div style="font-size:90%">Title last held by</div> <strong><a href="/Henry,_Duke_of_Cornwall" title="Henry, Duke of Cornwall">Henry Tudor, Duke of Cornwall</a></strong></td> <td width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"><strong><a href="/Duke_of_Cornwall" title="Duke of Cornwall">Duke of Cornwall</a></strong><br /> 1537–1547</td> </tr> </table> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%;;"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";background:#1921a0; color:#DFB53B;" colspan="3" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;">Part of a series on the <a href="/Anglican_Communion" title="Anglican Communion"><font color="#DFB53B">Anglican Communion</font></a></span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background:#1921a0; color:#DFB53B;;">Organisation</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Archbishop_of_Canterbury" title="Archbishop of Canterbury">Archbishop of Canterbury</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Rowan_Williams" title="Rowan Williams">Rowan Williams</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Anglican_Communion_Primates%27_Meeting" title="Anglican Communion Primates' Meeting">Primates' Meeting</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Lambeth_Conferences" title="Lambeth Conferences">Lambeth Conferences</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Anglican_Consultative_Council" title="Anglican Consultative Council">Anglican Consultative Council</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Bishop" title="Bishop">Bishops</a>, <a href="/Diocese" title="Diocese">Dioceses</a>, and <a href="/Episcopal_polity" title="Episcopal polity">Episcopal polity</a></div> </td> <td style="width:0%;padding:0px 0px 0px 2px;" rowspan="9"><img alt="Canterbury Cathedral" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/07/3/1/1/40498911278580742.jpg" width="75" height="100" /></td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background:#1921a0; color:#DFB53B;;">Background</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Christianity" title="Christianity">Christianity</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Christian_Church" title="Christian Church">Christian Church</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Anglicanism" title="Anglicanism">Anglicanism</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/History_of_the_Anglican_Communion" title="History of the Anglican Communion">History</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Jesus" title="Jesus">Jesus</a> <a href="/Christ" title="Christ">Christ</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/St_Paul" title="St Paul" class="mw-redirect">St Paul</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Catholic" title="Catholic">Catholicity</a> and <a href="/Catholicism" title="Catholicism">Catholicism</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Apostolic_Succession" title="Apostolic Succession" class="mw-redirect">Apostolic Succession</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Anglican_ministry" title="Anglican ministry">Ministry</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Ecumenical_council" title="Ecumenical council">Ecumenical councils</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Augustine_of_Canterbury" title="Augustine of Canterbury">Augustine of Canterbury</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Bede" title="Bede">Bede</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Architecture_of_the_medieval_cathedrals_of_England" title="Architecture of the medieval cathedrals of England">Medieval Architecture</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Henry_VIII_of_England" title="Henry VIII of England">Henry VIII</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/English_Reformation" title="English Reformation">Reformation</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Thomas_Cranmer" title="Thomas Cranmer">Thomas Cranmer</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Dissolution_of_the_Monasteries" title="Dissolution of the Monasteries" class="mw-redirect">Dissolution of the Monasteries</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Church_of_England" title="Church of England">Church of England</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <strong class="selflink">Edward VI</strong><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Elizabeth_I_of_England" title="Elizabeth I of England">Elizabeth I</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Matthew_Parker" title="Matthew Parker">Matthew Parker</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Richard_Hooker" title="Richard Hooker">Richard Hooker</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/James_I_of_England" title="James I of England">James I</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <em><a href="/Authorized_King_James_Version" title="Authorized King James Version">Authorized Version</a></em><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Charles_I_of_England" title="Charles I of England">Charles I</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/William_Laud" title="William Laud">William Laud</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Nonjuring_schism" title="Nonjuring schism">Nonjuring schism</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Ordination_of_women" title="Ordination of women">Ordination of women</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Homosexuality_and_Anglicanism" title="Homosexuality and Anglicanism">Homosexuality</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Windsor_Report" title="Windsor Report">Windsor Report</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background:#1921a0; color:#DFB53B;;">Theology</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Trinity" title="Trinity">Trinity</a> (<a href="/God_the_Father" title="God the Father">Father</a>, <a href="/Christian_views_of_Jesus" title="Christian views of Jesus" class="mw-redirect">Son</a>, <a href="/Holy_Spirit" title="Holy Spirit">Holy Spirit</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Christian_theology" title="Christian theology">Theology</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Anglican_doctrine" title="Anglican doctrine">Doctrine</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <em><a href="/Thirty-Nine_Articles" title="Thirty-Nine Articles">Thirty-Nine Articles</a></em><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Caroline_Divines" title="Caroline Divines">Caroline Divines</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Oxford_Movement" title="Oxford Movement">Oxford Movement</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Chicago-Lambeth_Quadrilateral" title="Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral">Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Anglican_sacraments" title="Anglican sacraments">Sacraments</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Anglican_Marian_theology" title="Anglican Marian theology">Mary</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Saints_in_Anglicanism" title="Saints in Anglicanism">Saints</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background:#1921a0; color:#DFB53B;;">Liturgy and Worship</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Book_of_Common_Prayer" title="Book of Common Prayer">Book of Common Prayer</a><em><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Morning_Prayer_(Anglican)" title="Morning Prayer (Anglican)">Morning</a> and <a href="/Evening_Prayer_(Anglican)" title="Evening Prayer (Anglican)">Evening Prayer</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Anglican_Eucharistic_theology" title="Anglican Eucharistic theology">Eucharist</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/List_of_Anglican_Church_calendars" title="List of Anglican Church calendars">Liturgical Year</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Biblical_canon" title="Biblical canon">Biblical Canon</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span></em> <a href="/The_Books_of_Homilies" title="The Books of Homilies">Books of Homilies</a><em><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/High_Church" title="High Church" class="mw-redirect">High Church</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Low_Church" title="Low Church" class="mw-redirect">Low Church</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Broad_church" title="Broad church">Broad Church</a></em></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background:#1921a0; color:#DFB53B;;">Miscellaneous Topics</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Anglican_Communion_and_ecumenism" title="Anglican Communion and ecumenism">Ecumenism</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Anglican_religious_order" title="Anglican religious order">Monasticism</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sermon" title="Sermon">Preaching</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Prayer_in_Christianity" title="Prayer in Christianity">Prayer</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Anglican_church_music" title="Anglican church music">Music</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Christian_liturgy" title="Christian liturgy">Liturgy</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Christian_symbolism" title="Christian symbolism">Symbols</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Christian_art" title="Christian art">Art</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-abovebelow" style=";background:#1921a0;" colspan="3"><img alt="Anglican rose.PNG" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/08/1/7/4/43110441866230121.png" width="25" height="24" /> <strong><a href="/Portal:Anglicanism" title="Portal:Anglicanism"><font color="#DFB53B">Anglicanism Portal</font></a></strong></td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";width:100%;"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";color:black; background-color:white;" colspan="2" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;"><span style="vertical-align:1px;"><strong><a href="/List_of_English_monarchs" title="List of English monarchs"><font color="black">English monarchs</font></a></strong></span></span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding:0.35em 1.0em; line-height:1.1em;background:white;color:black;border: 1px solid #007BA7;;"> <center><a href="/History_of_Anglo-Saxon_England" title="History of Anglo-Saxon England">Kingdom of the<br /> English</a><br /> <small>886–1066</small></center> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;padding:0.35em 0; line-height:1.5em;background:white;color:black;;;padding:0.35em 0; line-height:1.5em;background:white;color:black;border-top: 1px solid #007BA7;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div class="floatright"><img alt="Wyvern of Wessex.png" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/06/2/2/2/2710818625672302.png" width="75" height="50" class="thumbborder" /></div> <a href="/Alfred_the_Great" title="Alfred the Great">Alfred the Great</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Edward_the_Elder" title="Edward the Elder">Edward the Elder</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <em><a href="/%C3%86lfweard_of_Wessex" title="Ælfweard of Wessex">Ælfweard</a></em><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Athelstan_of_England" title="Athelstan of England">Athelstan the Glorious</a><sup>1</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Edmund_I_of_England" title="Edmund I of England">Edmund the Magnificent</a><sup>1</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Eadred_of_England" title="Eadred of England">Eadred</a><sup>1</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Eadwig_of_England" title="Eadwig of England">Eadwig the Fair</a><sup>1</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Edgar_the_Peaceful" title="Edgar the Peaceful">Edgar the Peaceable</a><sup>1</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Edward_the_Martyr" title="Edward the Martyr">Edward the Martyr</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/%C3%86thelred_the_Unready" title="Æthelred the Unready">Æthelred the Unready</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sweyn_Forkbeard" title="Sweyn Forkbeard">Sweyn Forkbeard</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Edmund_Ironside" title="Edmund Ironside">Edmund Ironside</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Cnut_the_Great" title="Cnut the Great">Cnut</a><sup>1</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Harold_Harefoot" title="Harold Harefoot">Harold Harefoot</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Harthacnut" title="Harthacnut">Harthacnut</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Edward_the_Confessor" title="Edward the Confessor">Edward the Confessor</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Harold_Godwinson" title="Harold Godwinson">Harold Godwinson</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <em><a href="/Edgar_the_%C3%86theling" title="Edgar the Ætheling">Edgar the Ætheling</a></em></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding:0.35em 1.0em; line-height:1.1em;background:white;color:black;border: 1px solid #007BA7;;"> <center><a href="/Kingdom_of_England" title="Kingdom of England">Kingdom of<br /> England</a><br /> <small>1066–1649</small></center> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;padding:0.35em 0; line-height:1.5em;background:white;color:black;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div class="floatright"><img alt="Flag of England.svg" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/01/3/1/5/73294331360754905.png" width="75" height="45" class="thumbborder" /></div> <a href="/William_the_Conqueror" title="William the Conqueror">William I</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/William_II_of_England" title="William II of England">William II</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Henry_I_of_England" title="Henry I of England">Henry I</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Stephen_of_England" title="Stephen of England">Stephen</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <em><a href="/Empress_Matilda" title="Empress Matilda">Matilda</a></em><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Henry_II_of_England" title="Henry II of England">Henry II</a><sup>2</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <em><a href="/Henry_the_Young_King" title="Henry the Young King">Henry the Young King</a></em><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Richard_I_of_England" title="Richard I of England">Richard I</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/John_of_England" title="John of England">John</a><sup>2</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Henry_III_of_England" title="Henry III of England">Henry III</a><sup>2</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Edward_I_of_England" title="Edward I of England">Edward I</a><sup>2</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Edward_II_of_England" title="Edward II of England">Edward II</a><sup>2</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Edward_III_of_England" title="Edward III of England">Edward III</a><sup>2</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Richard_II_of_England" title="Richard II of England">Richard II</a><sup>2</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Henry_IV_of_England" title="Henry IV of England">Henry IV</a><sup>2</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Henry_V_of_England" title="Henry V of England">Henry V</a><sup>2</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Henry_VI_of_England" title="Henry VI of England">Henry VI</a><sup>2</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Edward_IV_of_England" title="Edward IV of England">Edward IV</a><sup>2</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Edward_V_of_England" title="Edward V of England">Edward V</a><sup>2</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Richard_III_of_England" title="Richard III of England">Richard III</a><sup>2</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Henry_VII_of_England" title="Henry VII of England">Henry VII</a><sup>2</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Henry_VIII_of_England" title="Henry VIII of England">Henry VIII</a><sup>2</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <strong class="selflink">Edward VI</strong><sup>2</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <em><a href="/Lady_Jane_Grey" title="Lady Jane Grey">Jane</a></em><sup>2</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Mary_I_of_England" title="Mary I of England">Mary I</a><sup>2</sup> <small>with</small> <em><a href="/Philip_II_of_Spain" title="Philip II of Spain">Philip</a></em><sup>2</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Elizabeth_I_of_England" title="Elizabeth I of England">Elizabeth I</a><sup>2</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/James_I_of_England" title="James I of England">James I</a><sup>3</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Charles_I_of_England" title="Charles I of England">Charles I</a><sup>3</sup></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding:0.35em 1.0em; line-height:1.1em;background:white;color:black;border: 1px solid #007BA7;;"> <center><a href="/The_Protectorate" title="The Protectorate">Commonwealth of<br /> England, Scotland and Ireland</a><br /> <small>1653–1659</small></center> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;padding:0.35em 0; line-height:1.5em;background:white;color:black;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div class="floatright"><img alt="Flag of the Commonwealth (1658-1660).svg" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/07/2/5/6/07327593879930647.png" width="75" height="45" class="thumbborder" /></div> <br /> <a href="/Oliver_Cromwell" title="Oliver Cromwell">Oliver Cromwell</a><sup>4</sup><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Richard_Cromwell" title="Richard Cromwell">Richard Cromwell</a><sup>4</sup></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding:0.35em 1.0em; line-height:1.1em;background:white;color:black;border: 1px solid #007BA7;;"> <center><a href="/Kingdom_of_England" title="Kingdom of England">Kingdom of<br /> England</a><br /> <small>1660–1707</small></center> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;padding:0.35em 0; line-height:1.5em;background:white;color:black;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div class="floatright"><img alt="Flag of England.svg" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/01/3/1/5/73294331360754905.png" width="75" height="45" class="thumbborder" /></div> <br /> <a href="/Charles_II_of_England" title="Charles II of England">Charles II</a><sup>3</sup> <span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/James_II_of_England" title="James II of England">James II</a><sup>3</sup> <span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/William_III_of_England" title="William III of England">William III</a> and <a href="/Mary_II_of_England" title="Mary II of England">Mary II</a><sup>3</sup> <span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Anne_of_Great_Britain" title="Anne of Great Britain">Anne</a><sup>3</sup></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-abovebelow" style=";" colspan="2"><sup>1</sup>Overlord of <a href="/Great_Britain" title="Great Britain">Britain</a>. <sup>2</sup>Also ruler of <a href="/Kingdom_of_Ireland" title="Kingdom of Ireland">Ireland</a>. <sup>3</sup>Also ruler of <a href="/Scotland" title="Scotland">Scotland</a>. <sup>4</sup><a href="/Lord_Protector" title="Lord Protector">Lord Protector</a>.<br /> Debatable or disputed rulers are in <em>italics</em>.</td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";" colspan="3" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/Prince_of_Wales" title="Prince of Wales">Princes of Wales</a></span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" style="width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><strong><a href="/Charles,_Prince_of_Wales" title="Charles, Prince of Wales">HRH The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales</a></strong> <em>(1958–Present)</em><br /> <a href="/Edward_II_of_England" title="Edward II of England">Edward II</a> <em>(1301–1307)</em> <strong>·</strong> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Edward,_the_Black_Prince" title="Edward, the Black Prince">Edward, the Black Prince</a> <em>(1343–1376)</em> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Richard_II_of_England" title="Richard II of England">Richard II</a> <em>(1376–1377)</em> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Henry_V_of_England" title="Henry V of England">Henry V</a> <em>(1399–1413)</em><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Edward_of_Westminster,_Prince_of_Wales" title="Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales">Edward of Westminster</a> <em>(1454–1471)</em> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Edward_V_of_England" title="Edward V of England">Edward V</a> <em>(1471–1483)</em> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Edward_of_Middleham,_Prince_of_Wales" title="Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales">Edward of Middleham</a> <em>(1483–1484)</em><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Arthur,_Prince_of_Wales" title="Arthur, Prince of Wales">Arthur Tudor</a> <em>(1489–1502)</em> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Henry_VIII_of_England" title="Henry VIII of England">Henry VIII</a> <em>(1504–1509)</em> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><strong class="selflink">Edward VI</strong> <em>(1537–1547)</em> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Henry_Frederick,_Prince_of_Wales" title="Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales">Henry Frederick Stuart</a> <em>(1610–1612)</em> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Charles_I_of_England" title="Charles I of England">Charles I</a> <em>(1616–1625)</em> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Charles_II_of_England" title="Charles II of England">Charles II</a> <em>(1641–1649)</em> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/James_Francis_Edward_Stuart" title="James Francis Edward Stuart">James Francis Edward Stuart</a> <em>(1688)</em> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/George_II_of_Great_Britain" title="George II of Great Britain">George II</a> <em>(1714–1727)</em> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Frederick,_Prince_of_Wales" title="Frederick, Prince of Wales">Prince Frederick</a> <em>(1729–1751)</em> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/George_III_of_the_United_Kingdom" title="George III of the United Kingdom">George III</a> <em>(1751–1760)</em> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/George_IV_of_the_United_Kingdom" title="George IV of the United Kingdom">George IV</a> <em>(1762–1820)</em> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Edward_VII_of_the_United_Kingdom" title="Edward VII of the United Kingdom">Edward VII</a> <em>(1841–1901)</em> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/George_V_of_the_United_Kingdom" title="George V of the United Kingdom">George V</a> <em>(1901–1910)</em> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Edward_VIII_of_the_United_Kingdom" title="Edward VIII of the United Kingdom">Edward VIII</a> <em>(1910–1936)</em></span></div> </div> </div> </td> <td style="width:0%;padding:0px 0px 0px 2px;" rowspan="1"> <div class="floatright"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/08/1/5/0/46475722716591135.png" width="75" height="84" /></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";" colspan="3" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/Duke_of_Cornwall" title="Duke of Cornwall">Dukes of Cornwall</a></span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" style="width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span style="white-space:nowrap"><strong><a href="/Charles,_Prince_of_Wales" title="Charles, Prince of Wales">HRH The Prince Charles, Duke of Cornwall</a></strong> <em>(1952–present)</em><br /> <a href="/Edward,_the_Black_Prince" title="Edward, the Black Prince">Edward, the Black Prince</a> <em>(1337–1376) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Richard_II_of_England" title="Richard II of England">Richard II</a> <em>(1376–1377) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Henry_V_of_England" title="Henry V of England">Henry V</a> <em>(1399–1413) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Henry_VI_of_England" title="Henry VI of England">Henry VI</a> <em>(1421–1422) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Edward_of_Westminster,_Prince_of_Wales" title="Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales">Edward of Westminster</a> <em>(1453–1471) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Edward_V_of_England" title="Edward V of England">Edward V</a> <em>(1470–1483) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Edward_of_Middleham,_Prince_of_Wales" title="Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales">Edward of Middleham</a> <em>(1483–1484) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Arthur,_Prince_of_Wales" title="Arthur, Prince of Wales">Arthur Tudor</a> <em>(1486–1502) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Henry_VIII_of_England" title="Henry VIII of England">Henry VIII</a> <em>(1502–1509) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Henry,_Duke_of_Cornwall" title="Henry, Duke of Cornwall">Henry Tudor</a> <em>(1511) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Henry,_Duke_of_Cornwall" title="Henry, Duke of Cornwall">Henry Tudor</a> <em>(1514) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><strong class="selflink">Edward VI</strong> <em>(1537–1547) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Henry_Frederick,_Prince_of_Wales" title="Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales">Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales</a> <em>(1603–1612) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Charles_I_of_England" title="Charles I of England">Charles I</a> <em>(1612–1625) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Charles_II_of_England" title="Charles II of England">Charles II</a> <em>(1630–1649) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/James_Francis_Edward_Stuart" title="James Francis Edward Stuart">Prince James Stuart</a> "The Old Pretender" <em>(1688–1689) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/George_II_of_Great_Britain" title="George II of Great Britain">George II</a> <em>(1714–1727) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Frederick,_Prince_of_Wales" title="Frederick, Prince of Wales">Prince Frederick</a> <em>(1727–1751) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/George_IV_of_the_United_Kingdom" title="George IV of the United Kingdom">George IV</a> <em>(1762–1820) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Edward_VII_of_the_United_Kingdom" title="Edward VII of the United Kingdom">Edward VII</a> <em>(1841–1901) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/George_V_of_the_United_Kingdom" title="George V of the United Kingdom">George V</a> <em>(1901–1910) <strong>·</strong></em></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Edward_VIII_of_the_United_Kingdom" title="Edward VIII of the United Kingdom">Edward VIII</a> <em>(1910–1936)</em></span></div> </div> </div> </td> <td style="width:0%;padding:0px 0px 0px 2px;" rowspan="1"> <div class="floatright"><img alt="Flag of the Duke of Cornwall.svg" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/01/4/2/7/53364933141544198.png" width="75" height="45" /></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <div style="right:10px; display:none;" class="metadata topicon" id="wikipedia_featured_star"><img alt="This is a featured article. Click here for more information." src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/07/1/3/6/85159353311044092.png" width="14" height="14" /></div> <table id="wikipedia_persondata" class="persondata" style="border:1px solid #aaa; display:none; speak:none;"> <tr> <th colspan="2">Persondata</th> </tr> <tr> <td class="persondata-label" style="color:#aaa;">NAME</td> <td>Edward VI of England</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="persondata-label" style="color:#aaa;">ALTERNATIVE NAMES</td> <td>Edward I of Ireland</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="persondata-label" style="color:#aaa;">SHORT DESCRIPTION</td> <td>Tudor king</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="persondata-label" style="color:#aaa;">DATE OF BIRTH</td> <td>12 October 1537</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="persondata-label" style="color:#aaa;">PLACE OF BIRTH</td> <td><a href="/Hampton_Court_Palace" title="Hampton Court Palace">Hampton Court Palace</a>, <a href="/Richmond_upon_Thames" title="Richmond upon Thames" class="mw-redirect">Richmond upon Thames</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="persondata-label" style="color:#aaa;">DATE OF DEATH</td> <td>6 July 1553</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="persondata-label" style="color:#aaa;">PLACE OF DEATH</td> <td><a href="/Palace_of_Placentia" title="Palace of Placentia">Palace of Placentia</a>, <a href="/Greenwich,_London" title="Greenwich, London" class="mw-redirect">Greenwich, London</a></td> </tr> </table> <div id='catlinks' class='catlinks'> <div id="wikipedia_mw_normal_catlinks">Categories: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:English_monarchs" title="Category:English monarchs">English monarchs</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:English_people_of_Welsh_descent" title="Category:English people of Welsh descent">English people of Welsh descent</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Henry_VIII%27s_children" title="Category:Henry VIII's children">Henry VIII's children</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Pretenders_to_the_throne_of_the_kingdom_of_France_(Plantagenet)" title="Category:Pretenders to the throne of the kingdom of France (Plantagenet)">Pretenders to the throne of the kingdom of France (Plantagenet)</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Founders_of_English_schools_and_colleges" title="Category:Founders of English schools and colleges">Founders of English schools and colleges</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Princes_of_Wales" title="Category:Princes of Wales">Princes of Wales</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:People_from_Richmond,_London" title="Category:People from Richmond, London">People from Richmond, London</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Burials_at_Westminster_Abbey" title="Category:Burials at Westminster Abbey">Burials at Westminster Abbey</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Rulers_who_died_as_children" title="Category:Rulers who died as children">Rulers who died as children</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Modern_child_rulers" title="Category:Modern child rulers">Modern child rulers</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Dukes_of_Cornwall" title="Category:Dukes of Cornwall">Dukes of Cornwall</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Christ%27s_Hospital" title="Category:Christ's Hospital">Christ's Hospital</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:1537_births" title="Category:1537 births">1537 births</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:1553_deaths" title="Category:1553 deaths">1553 deaths</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Protestant_monarchs" title="Category:Protestant monarchs">Protestant monarchs</a></span></div> <div id="wikipedia_mw_hidden_catlinks" class="mw-hidden-cats-hidden">Hidden categories: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Featured_articles" title="Category:Featured articles">Featured articles</a></span></div> </div> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div class="section" id="wikiquote"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="wikiquote">Quotes</a> </h1> <div style="float:right"> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of January 14, 2010</span> <br> </div> <div class="fragment"> <div id="citable_wikis_fragments"> <div id="wikiquote_bodyContent"> <h3 id="wikiquote_siteSub">From Wikiquote</h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__283" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="283"><strong><a href="/Edward_VI_of_England#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Edward VI of England">Edward VI</a></strong> (<span class="mw-formatted-date" title="1537-10-12"><a href="/1537" title="1537">1537</a>-<a href="/October_12" title="October 12">10-12</a></span> — <span class="mw-formatted-date" title="1553-07-06"><a href="/1553" title="1553">1553</a>-<a href="/July_6" title="July 6">07-06</a></span>) succeeded <a href="/Henry_VIII_of_England" title="Henry VIII of England">Henry VIII</a> as King of England and Ireland.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="283"><a href="#citable__283"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>How long was Edward VI King of England for?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>WikiAnswers - When was Edward VI king of England</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://wiki.answers.com/Q/When_was_Edward_VI_king_of_England">wiki.answers.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="283"><a href="#citable__283"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Edward VI Edward VI (1537-1553) was king of England and Ireland from 1547 to 1553.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Article: Edward VI: a new look at the King & his Reign. - History Review | HighBeam Research - FREE trial</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-58458578.html">www.highbeam.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="283"><a href="#citable__283"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Starkey, David subjects: Edward VI, King of England, 1537-1553.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Edward and Mary : the unknown Tudors. Edward VI : the boy king. :: University of Huddersfield Library Catalogue</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://library.hud.ac.uk/catlink/bib/411892">library.hud.ac.uk</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikiquote_Unsourced">Unsourced</span></h2> <a name="citable__212" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="212"><ul> <li>I say this with certain intention, I <em>will</em> see my laws strictly obeyed, and those who break them will be watched and denounced.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="212"><a href="#citable__212"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I say this with certain intention, I will see my laws strictly obeyed, and those who break them will be watched and denounced.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Edward VI of England - Wikiquote</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Edward_VI_of_England">en.wikiquote.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="212"><a href="#citable__212"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Truly, sister, I will see my laws strictly obeyed, and those who break them shall be watched and denounced.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Edward & Mary</c_title></em> <c_date>27 January 2010 23:49 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://home.earthlink.net/~elisale/edward.html">home.earthlink.net</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="212"><a href="#citable__212"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Lords, knights, and gentlemen, what I should say My tears gainsay; for every word I speak, Ye see, I drink the water of mine eyes.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Third part of King Henry the Sixth, by William Shakespeare</c_title></em> <c_date>9 February 2010 13:58 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/s/shakespeare/william/henryvi_3/complete.html">ebooks.adelaide.edu.au</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <ul> <li>To his half-sister <a href="/Mary_I_of_England" title="Mary I of England">Mary I of England</a>, who was ignoring his anti-Catholic laws.</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikiquote_External_links">External links</span></h2> <div class="noprint" style="clear: right; border: solid #aaa 1px; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; font-size: 90%; background: #f9f9f9; width: 250px; padding: 4px; spacing: 0px; text-align: left; float: right;"> <div style="float: left;"> <div class="floatnone"><img alt="Wikipedia" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/08/1/2/4/0315652806810763.png" width="50" height="57" /></div> </div> <div style="margin-left: 60px;"><a href="/Wikipedia" title="Wikipedia">Wikipedia</a> has an article about: <div style="margin-left: 10px;"><em><strong><a href="/Edward_VI_of_England#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="wikipedia:Edward VI of England">Edward VI of England</a></strong></em></div> </div> </div> <div id='catlinks' class='catlinks'> <div id="wikiquote_mw_normal_catlinks">Categories: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Political_figure_stubs" title="Category:Political figure stubs">Political figure stubs</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Heads_of_state" title="Category:Heads of state">Heads of state</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:English_monarchs" title="Category:English monarchs">English monarchs</a></span></div> </div> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div class="section" id="simple_wikipedia"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="simple_wikipedia">Simple English</a> </h1> <div style="float:right"> </div> <div class="fragment"> <div id="simple_wikipedia_fragments"> <table class="infobox vcard" style="font-size: 90%; text-align: left; width: 22.5em;"> <tr> <th colspan="2" style="background: #BBAADD; color: #000066; font-size: 120%; text-align: center;" class="fn"> Edward VI </th></tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" style="text-align: center;"> <i>King of England and Ireland</i> <small><i>(more...)</i></small> </td></tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" style="text-align: center;"> <span class="photo"><a href="/index.php?title=Special:Upload&wpDestFile=Edward_VI_Scrots" class="new" title="File:Edward VI Scrots">File:Edward VI Scrots</a></span> </td></tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" style="text-align: center;"> <i>Edward VI, by William Scrots, c. 1550</i> </td></tr> <tr> <th style="vertical-align: top;"> Reign </th><td> 28 January 1547 – 6 July 1553 </td></tr> <tr> <th style="vertical-align: top;"> Coronation </th><td> 20 February 1547 </td></tr> <tr> <th style="vertical-align: top;"> Predecessor </th><td> <a href="/Henry_VIII_of_England" title="Henry VIII of England">Henry VIII</a> </td></tr> <tr> <th style="vertical-align: top;"> Regent </th><td> <a href="/Edward_Seymour,_1st_Duke_of_Somerset" title="Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset">Lord Somerset</a> (1547–1549)<br />Lord Northumberland (1549–1553) </td></tr> <tr> <th style="vertical-align: top;"> Successor </th><td> <a href="/Lady_Jane_Grey" title="Lady Jane Grey">Lady Jane Grey</a> <i>or</i> <a href="/Mary_I_of_England" title="Mary I of England">Mary I</a> </td></tr> <tr> <th style="vertical-align: top;"> Royal house </th><td> <a href="/House_of_Tudor" title="House of Tudor" class="mw-redirect">House of Tudor</a> </td></tr> <tr> <th style="vertical-align: top;"> Father </th><td> <a href="/Henry_VIII_of_England" title="Henry VIII of England">Henry VIII</a> </td></tr> <tr> <th style="vertical-align: top;"> Mother </th><td> <a href="/Jane_Seymour" title="Jane Seymour">Jane Seymour</a> </td></tr> <tr> <th style="vertical-align: top;"> Born </th><td> 12 October 1537<span style="display:none">(<span class="bday">1537-10-12</span>)</span><br /><a href="/Hampton_Court_Palace" title="Hampton Court Palace">Hampton Court Palace</a>, near London </td></tr> <tr> <th style="vertical-align: top;"> Died </th><td> 6 July 1553 (aged 15)<br /><a href="/Palace_of_Placentia" title="Palace of Placentia">Palace of Placentia</a>, Greenwich, near London </td></tr> <tr> <th style="vertical-align: top;"> Burial </th><td> 9 August 1553<br /><a href="/Henry_VII_Lady_Chapel" title="Henry VII Lady Chapel">Henry VII Lady Chapel</a>, <a href="/Westminster_Abbey" title="Westminster Abbey">Westminster Abbey</a> </td></tr> </table><div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:182px;"><a href="/index.php?title=Special:Upload&wpDestFile=Edward_VI," class="new" title="File:Edward VI,">File:Edward VI,</a> <div class="thumbcaption">Edward VI of England, at the age of six</div></div></div> <p><b>Edward VI of England</b> (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was <a href="/List_of_English_monarchs" title="List of English monarchs">King of England</a> and King of <a href="/Ireland" title="Ireland">Ireland</a> from 28 January 1547 until his death. He was the son of <a href="/Henry_VIII_of_England" title="Henry VIII of England">Henry VIII of England</a> and <a href="/Jane_Seymour" title="Jane Seymour">Jane Seymour</a>, mostly known as the good king, one of few, compared with his sisters who became queens after his death. </p><p>His mother (Jane Seymour) died 12 days after his birth. He became king at the age of 9 when his father, Henry VIII, after suffering for long time, died of many different ailments. He was a young King, known but not too well in history. He died when he was 15 and a half years old. His successor was his cousin <a href="/Lady_Jane_Grey" title="Lady Jane Grey">Lady Jane Grey</a>. He became king because at the time many people thought that men were better rulers. Though his half-sister Elizabeth was 13 at the time and his other half sister, Mary (To be later known as Bloody Mary) was 31, Edward was the heir because he was Henry VIII 's first son. </p><p>In the fictional story <i><a href="/The_Prince_and_the_Pauper" title="The Prince and the Pauper">The Prince and the Pauper</a></i> by <a href="/Mark_Twain" title="Mark Twain">Mark Twain</a>, Edward VI is one of the main characters (the 'prince'). Zoro's Guy Williams played leading role in the movie. Later on, Mickey Mouse & Pluto played leading roles in the cartoon. </p> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"><tr><td style="padding:2px;"><table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"><tr><th style=";" colspan="2" class="navbox-title"><div style="float:left; width:6em;text-align:left;"><div class="noprint plainlinks navbar" style="background:none; padding:0; font-weight:normal;;;border:none;; font-size:xx-small;">[[Template:FULLPAGENAME: English Monarchs|<span title="View this template" style=";;border:none;">v</span>]] <span style="font-size:80%;">•</span> [[{{TALKPAGENAME:Template:FULLPAGENAME: English Monarchs}}|<span title="Discuss this template" style=";;border:none;">d</span>]] <span style="font-size:80%;">•</span> [{{fullurl:Template:FULLPAGENAME: English Monarchs|action=edit}}<span title="Edit this template" style=";;border:none;;">e</span>]</div></div><span class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/English_monarchs" title="English monarchs" class="mw-redirect">English monarchs</a></span></th></tr><tr style="height:2px;"><td></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <a href="/Alfred_the_Great" title="Alfred the Great">Alfred</a> • <a href="/Edward_the_Elder" title="Edward the Elder">Edward the Elder</a> • Ælfweard • <a href="/Athelstan" title="Athelstan">Athelstan</a> • <a href="/Edmund_I_of_England" title="Edmund I of England">Edmund I</a> • <a href="/Edred_of_England" title="Edred of England">Edred</a> • <a href="/Edwy_of_England" title="Edwy of England">Edwy</a> • <a href="/Edgar_of_England" title="Edgar of England">Edgar I</a> • <a href="/Edward_the_Martyr" title="Edward the Martyr">Edward the Martyr</a> • <a href="/Ethelred_the_Unready" title="Ethelred the Unready">Ethelred</a> • <a href="/Sweyn_I_of_Denmark" title="Sweyn I of Denmark">Sweyn I</a> • <a href="/Edmund_II_of_England" title="Edmund II of England">Edmund II</a> • <a href="/Canute_the_Great" title="Canute the Great">Canute</a> • <a href="/Harold_Harefoot" title="Harold Harefoot">Harold I</a> • <a href="/Harthacanute" title="Harthacanute">Harthacanute</a> • <a href="/Edward_the_Confessor" title="Edward the Confessor">Edward the Confessor</a> • <a href="/Harold_Godwinson" title="Harold Godwinson">Harold II</a> • <a href="/Edgar_Atheling" title="Edgar Atheling">Edgar II</a> • <a href="/William_I_of_England" title="William I of England">William I</a> • <a href="/William_II_of_England" title="William II of England">William II</a> • <a href="/Henry_I_of_England" title="Henry I of England">Henry I</a> • <a href="/Stephen_of_England" title="Stephen of England">Stephen</a> • <a href="/Empress_Matilda" title="Empress Matilda">Matilda</a> • <a href="/Henry_II_of_England" title="Henry II of England">Henry II</a> • <a href="/Richard_I_of_England" title="Richard I of England">Richard I</a> • <a href="/John_of_England" title="John of England">John</a> • <a href="/Henry_III_of_England" title="Henry III of England">Henry III</a> • <a href="/Edward_I_of_England" title="Edward I of England">Edward I</a> • <a href="/Edward_II_of_England" title="Edward II of England">Edward II</a> • <a href="/Edward_III_of_England" title="Edward III of England">Edward III</a> • <a href="/Richard_II_of_England" title="Richard II of England">Richard II</a> • <a href="/Henry_IV_of_England" title="Henry IV of England">Henry IV</a> • <a href="/Henry_V_of_England" title="Henry V of England">Henry V</a> • <a href="/Henry_VI_of_England" title="Henry VI of England">Henry VI</a> • <a href="/Edward_IV_of_England" title="Edward IV of England">Edward IV</a> • <a href="/Edward_V_of_England" title="Edward V of England">Edward V</a> • <a href="/Richard_III_of_England" title="Richard III of England">Richard III</a> • <a href="/Henry_VII_of_England" title="Henry VII of England">Henry VII</a> • <a href="/Henry_VIII_of_England" title="Henry VIII of England">Henry VIII</a> • <strong class="selflink">Edward VI</strong> • <a href="/Lady_Jane_Grey" title="Lady Jane Grey">Lady Jane Grey</a> • <a href="/Mary_I_of_England" title="Mary I of England">Mary I</a> • <a href="/Elizabeth_I_of_England" title="Elizabeth I of England">Elizabeth I</a></sup> • <a href="/James_I_of_England" title="James I of England">James I</a> • <a href="/Charles_I_of_England" title="Charles I of England">Charles I</a> • <a href="/English_Interregnum" title="English Interregnum"><i>Interregnum</i></a> • <a href="/Charles_II_of_England" title="Charles II of England">Charles II</a> • <a href="/James_II_of_England" title="James II of England">James II</a> • <a href="/William_III_of_England" title="William III of England">William III</a> and <a href="/Mary_II_of_England" title="Mary II of England">Mary II</a> (as co-monarchs <i>William & Mary</i>) • William III (own reign) • <a href="/Anne_of_Great_Britain" title="Anne of Great Britain">Anne</a></div></td></tr></table></td></tr></table> <p><span id="interwiki-en-fa"></span> <span id="interwiki-sv-fa"></span> </p> <div class="printfooter"> Retrieved from "<a href="http://yak.rapint.com/wiki/Edward_VI_of_England">http://yak.rapint.com/wiki/Edward_VI_of_England</a>"</div> <div class="contents"> <div id='catlinks' class='catlinks'><div id="mw-normal-catlinks"><a href="/Special:Categories" title="Special:Categories">Categories</a>: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Kings_and_Queens_of_England" title="Category:Kings and Queens of England">Kings and Queens of England</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:1537_births" title="Category:1537 births">1537 births</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:1553_deaths" title="Category:1553 deaths">1553 deaths</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:House_of_Tudor" title="Category:House of Tudor">House of Tudor</a></span></div></div> <div class="bottom"></div> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> </div> <div id="core_panel_main" > <div class="section" id="citable_sentences"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="citable_sentences">Citable sentences</a> </h1> <div style="float:right"> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of December 30, 2010</span> <br> </div> <div class="fragment"> <div id="citable_fragments"> <div id="citableSentencesList"> <p> Here are sentences from other pages on Edward VI of England, which are similar to those in the above article. <div id="citable__sentence_list"> </div> </p> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div id="external_links_revision_history_tooltip"> </div> <script> $(document).ready(function() { $("#external_links_revision_history_fragments a[title]").tooltip({tip: '#external_links_revision_history_tooltip', effect: 'toggle', position: 'bottom right', offset: [-1,2], lazy: true, delay: 100}); $("#external_links_revision_history_fragments img[title]").tooltip({tip: '#external_links_revision_history_tooltip', position: 'bottom right', offset: [-1,0], lazy: true, effect: 'toggle'}); }); </script> <div class="section" id="related_links"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="related_links">Related links</a> </h1> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of November 16, 2009</span> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>99%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.archsoc.com/games/Mary.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD><B>Edward</B> will live long, and complete the Protestant reforms his own mother, Jane Seymour, had dreamt of;</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD><B>Edward</B> and his good relatives, the Seymours, see a clearer path.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>This is a new time: <B>Edward</B> and the Seymours shall make a kingdom where all subjects may voice their grievances.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.archsoc.com/games/Mary.html>http://www.archsoc.com/games/Mary.html</A>">Stevens, Garry. (2004). "Bloody Mary: Further Intrigue in the Tudor Court".</a> - Bloody Mary: Further Intrigue in the Tudor Court | Garry's Games</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>92%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.leonibus.com" title="a novel about the final days of <B>Edward</B> <B>VI</B>'s reign.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.leonibus.com>http://www.leonibus.com</A>">Site of author C.W. Gortner, author of "The Secret Lion"</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>65%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/tudor_6.htm" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD><B>Edward</B> <B>VI</B>, the only legitimate son of Henry <B>VI</B>II by his third wife, Jane Seymour, was born at Hampton Court Palace, after a difficult and protracted labour, on 12th October, 1537.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>The future <B>Edward</B> <B>VI</B> was a precocious and highly intelligent child, he was sparely built, but in most of his sur<B>vi</B><B>vi</B>ng portraits adopts the stance of his formidable father.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD><B>Edward</B> became King of <B>England</B> at nine years old, in January, 1547.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/tudor_6.htm>http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/tudor_6.htm</A>">Illustrated history of Edward VI.</a> - English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Edward VI.</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>62%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.royalty.nu/Europe/England/Tudor/EdwardVI.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD><B>Edward</B> <B>VI</B>, son of Henry <B>VI</B>II, was a boy king in a court where treachery was rife.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Throughout his short reign, King <B>Edward</B> <B>VI</B> kept a detailed diary recounting events in his kingdom.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>The membership, business and procedure of the privy council during the minority of Henry <B>VI</B>II's son, King <B>Edward</B> <B>VI</B>.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.royalty.nu/Europe/England/Tudor/EdwardVI.html>http://www.royalty.nu/Europe/England/Tudor/EdwardVI.html</A>">"King Edward VI", Royalty.nu, The Royal Tudor Dynasty</a> - Royalty.nu - The Royal Tudor Dynasty - King Edward VI</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>62%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon42.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD><B>Edward</B> <B>VI</B>, son of Henry <B>VI</B>II and Jane Seymour, was born in 1537.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Henry <B>VI</B>II, in his last days, sought to eliminate this potential problem by decreeing that a Council of Regency would govern until the child came of age, but <B>Edward</B> Seymour (<B>Edward</B> <B>VI</B>'s uncle) gained the upper hand.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Henrician treason and heresy laws were repealed, transforming <B>England</B> into a haven for continental heretics.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon42.html>http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon42.html</A>">"Edward VI (1547-1553 AD)", Britannia.com</a> - Britannia: Monarchs of Britain</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://books.guardian.co.uk/review/story/0,,1988892,00.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Hilary Mantel enjoys Chris Skidmore's scholarly account of the brief life of <B>Edward</B> <B>VI</B></TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Book of the week: <B>Edward</B> <B>VI</B> by Chris Skidmore This article was first published on guardian.co.uk at 23.48 GMT on Saturday 13 January 2007.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Between them, like a trick of the light, slides the spindly form of <B>Edward</B>, king at nine, dead at 16.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://books.guardian.co.uk/review/story/0,,1988892,00.html>http://books.guardian.co.uk/review/story/0,,1988892,00.html</A>">Reviewed</a> - Book of the week: Edward VI by Chris Skidmore | Books | The Guardian</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://tudorhistory.org/edward/index.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>His uncle, <B>Edward</B> Seymour became Lord Protector, and through <B>Edward</B>, sought to control <B>England</B>.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Protestants in <B>England</B> were happy for the young king's ascension to the throne, but feared what might happen if the boy died.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>It was common knowledge that Mary, Henry's eldest daughter and heir after <B>Edward</B> (according to Henry <B>VI</B>II's will), would return the country to Roman Catholicism.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://tudorhistory.org/edward/index.html>http://tudorhistory.org/edward/index.html</A>">Eakins, L. E. (2004). "Edward VI".</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=1970" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD><B>Edward</B> was a sickly child, which prompted Henry to remarry three more times in hopes of more heirs.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>There were no more children, and all of Henry's hopes were pinned on the frail <B>Edward</B>.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Despite his weakness, <B>Edward</B> was very well educated and was a bright student.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=1970>http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=1970</A>">Edward VI at Find-A-Grave</a> - King Edward VI (1537 - 1553) - Find A Grave Memorial</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div class="section" id="related_topics"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="related_topics">Related topics</a> </h1> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of August 19, 2010</span> <ul> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Henry_VIII_of_England">Henry VIII of England</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Elizabeth_I_of_England">Elizabeth I of England</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Charles_I_of_England">Charles I of England</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/James_I_of_England">James I of England</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Mary_I_of_England">Mary I of England</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Thomas_Cranmer">Thomas Cranmer</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Charles_II_of_England">Charles II of England</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/English_Reformation">English Reformation</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Richard_II_of_England">Richard II of England</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Henry_VI_of_England">Henry VI of England</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/edward_VI_of_england">edward VI of england</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Edward_VI">Edward VI</a> </li> </span> </ul> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div></div> </div> <br/><br/><br/> <script type="text/javascript" language="javascript"><!-- function checkEmail(myForm) { if (/^\w+([\.-]?\w+)*@\w+([\.-]?\w+)*(\.\w{2,3})+$/.test(myForm.str_email.value)){ return (true); } alert("Invalid E-mail Address! 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