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Edward of Portugal: Wikis


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King of Portugal and the Algarve; Lord of Ceuta
15th century painting of Edward
Reign 14 August 1433—9 September 1438
Predecessor John I
Successor Afonso V
Spouse Eleanor of Aragon
Afonso V of Portugal
Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu
Eleanor, Holy Roman Empress
Infanta Catherine
Joan, Queen of Castile
Father John I of Portugal
Mother Philippa of Lancaster
Born 31 October 1391(1391-10-31)
Viseu, Kingdom of Portugal
Died 9 September 1438 (aged 46)
Tomar, Kingdom of Portugal
Burial Imperfect Chapels, Monastery of Batalha, Batalha, District of Leiria, Portugal

Edward, Portuguese: Duarte (Portuguese pronunciation: [duˈaɾt(ɨ)]; 31 October 1391 in Viseu – 9 September 1438 in Tomar), called the Philosopher or the Eloquent, was the eleventh King of Portugal and the Algarve and second Lord of Ceuta from 1433 until his death. He was the son of John I of Portugal and his wife, Philippa of Lancaster, a daughter of John of Gaunt. His was named in honor of his great-grandfather, King Edward III of England.

As an infante, Duarte always followed his father, King João I, in the affairs of the kingdom. He was knighted in 1415, after the Portuguese capture of the city of Ceuta in North Africa, across from Gibraltar. He became king in 1433 when his father died of the plague and he soon showed interest in internal consensus. During his short reign of five years, Duarte called the Cortes (the national assembly) no less than five times to discuss internal affairs and politics. He also followed the politics of his father concerning the maritime exploration of Africa. He encouraged and financed his famous brother, Henry the Navigator who founded a "school" of maritime navigation at Sagres and who initiated many expeditions. Among these, that of Gil Eanes in 1434 first rounded Cape Bojador on the northwestern coast of Africa, leading the way for further exploration southward along the African coast.

The colony at Ceuta rapidly became a drain on the Portuguese treasury and it was realised that without the city of Tangier, possession of Ceuta was worthless. When Ceuta was lost to the Portuguese, the camel caravans that were part of the overland trade routes began to use Tangier as their new destination. This deprived Ceuta of the materials and goods that made it an attractive market and a vibrant trading locale, and it became an isolated community.

In 1437, his brothers, Henry (Henrique) and Fernando, persuaded Duarte to launch an attack on Morocco in order to get a better African base for future Atlantic exploration. The expedition was not unanimously supported: Infante Pedro, Duke of Coimbra and Infante João were both against the initiative; they preferred to avoid conflict with the king of Morocco. They proved to be right. The resulting attack on Tangier was successful, but at a great cost of men. Duarte's youngest brother, Fernando, the Saint Prince was captured, kept as a hostage, and he died later in captivity in Fez. Duarte died soon after the Tangier attack of the plague, like his father and mother (and her mother) before him.

Another less political side of Duarte's personality is related to culture. A reflective and scholarly infante, he wrote the treatises O Leal Conselheiro (The Loyal Counsellor) and Livro Da Ensinanca De Bem Cavalgar Toda Sela (The Art of Riding on Every Saddle) as well as several poems. He was in the process of revising the Portuguese law code when he died.


Duarte's ancestors in three generations
Duarte of Portugal Father:
John I of Portugal
Father's father:
Peter I of Portugal
Father's father's father:
Afonso IV of Portugal
Father's father's mother:
Beatrice of Castile
Father's mother:
Teresa Lourenço
Father's mother's father:
Lourenço Martins
Father's mother's mother:
Sancha Martins
Philippa of Lancaster
Mother's father:
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
Mother's father's father:
Edward III of England
Mother's father's mother:
Philippa of Hainault
Mother's mother:
Blanche of Lancaster
Mother's mother's father:
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster
Mother's mother's mother:
Isabel de Beaumont

Marriages and descendants

Duarte married Eleanor of Aragon, a daughter of Ferdinand I of Aragon and Leonor Urraca of Castile, in 1428.

Name Birth Death Notes
By Eleanor of Aragon (Queen of Portugal) (c. 1402-19 February 1445); married on 22 September 1428)
Infante João (John) October 1429 b. 14 August 1433 Crown Prince of Portugal (1429-1433).
Infanta Filipa (Philippa) 27 November 1430 24 March 1439  
Prince Afonso 15 January 1432 28 August 1481 Who succeeded him as Afonso V, 12th King of Portugal.
Infanta Maria 7 December 1432 8 December 1432  
Prince Fernando (Ferdinand) 17 November 1433 18 September 1470 Duke of Viseu. He was declared heir to his brother Afonso V for two brief periods, and therefore used the style of Prince instead of Infante. He was the father of future king Manuel I.
Infanta Leonor (Eleanor) 18 September 1434 3 September 1467 Holy Roman Empress by marriage to Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor.
Infante Duarte (Edward) 12 July 1435 12 July 1435  
Infanta Catarina (Catherine) 26 November 1436 17 June 1463  
Infanta Joana (Joan) 20 March 1439 13 June 1475 Queen of Castile by marriage to King Henry IV of Castile.
By Joana Manuel de Vilhena (c. 1395-?)
João Manuel c. 1416 1476 Natural son. Bishop of Guarda. Ancestor of the Marquis of Tancos/Counts of Atalaia.
Edward of Portugal
Cadet branch of the House of Burgundy
Born: 31 October 1391 Died: 9 September 1438
Regnal titles
Preceded by
John I
King of Portugal and the Algarves
1433 – 1438
Succeeded by
Afonso V


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