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The system of Ancient Egyptian numerals was used in Ancient Egypt until the early first millennium AD. It was a decimal system, often rounded off to the higher power, written in hieroglyphs. The hieratic form of numerals stressed an exact finite series notation, ciphered one to one onto the Egyptian alphabet.The Ancient Egyptian system used bases of ten.
Contents 
The following hieroglyphs were used to denote powers of ten:
Value  1  10  100  1,000  10,000  100,000  1 million, or infinity 


Hieroglyph 





or



Description  Single stroke  Heel bone  Coil of rope  Water
lily (also called Lotus) 
Finger  Tadpole or Frog 
Man with both hands raised 
Multiples of these values were expressed by repeating the symbol as many times as needed. For instance, a stone carving from Karnak shows the number 4622 as

Egyptian hieroglyphs could be written in both directions (and even vertically). This example is written lefttoright and topdown; on the original stone carving, it is righttoleft, and the signs are thus reversed.
Rational numbers could also be expressed, but only as sums of unit fractions, i.e., sums of reciprocals of positive integers, except for 2/3 and 3/4. The hieroglyph indicating a fraction looked like a mouth, which meant "part":

Fractions were written with this fractional solidus, i.e., the numerator 1, and the positive denominator below. Thus, 1/3 was written as:

There were special symbols for 1/2 and for two nonunit fractions, 2/3 (used frequently) and 3/4 (used less frequently):



If the denominator became too large, the "mouth" was just placed over the beginning of the "denominator":

For plus and minus signs, the hieroglyphs

were used: if the feet pointed into the direction of writing, it signified addition, otherwise subtraction. ^{[1 ]}
As with most modernday languages, the ancient Egyptian language could also write out numerals as words phonetically, just like one can write thirty instead of 30 in English. Thirty, for instance, was written as

while the number 30 was

This was, however, uncommon for most numbers other than one and two and the signs were used most of the time.
As most administrative and accounting texts were written on papyrus or ostraca, rather than being carved into hard stone (as were hieroglyphic texts), the vast majority of texts employing the Egyptian numeral system utilize the hieratic script. Instances of numerals written in hieratic can be found as far back as the Early Dynastic Period. The Old Kingdom Abusir papyri are a particularly important corpus of texts that utilize hieratic numerals.
Boyer proved 50 years ago that hieratic script used a different numeral system, using individual signs for the numbers 1 to 9, multiples of 10 from 10 to 90, the hundreds from 100 to 900, and the thousands from 1000 to 9000. A large number like 9999 could thus be written with only four signs—combining the signs for 9000, 900, 90, and 9—as opposed to 36 hieroglyphs. Boyer saw the new hieratic numerals as ciphered, mapping one number onto one Egyptian letter for the first time in human history. Greeks adopted the new system, mapping their counting numbers onto two of their alphabets, the Doric and Ionian.
In the oldest hieratic texts the individual numerals were clearly written in a ciphered relationship to the Egyptian alphabet. But during the Old Kingdom a series of standardized writings had developed for signgroups containing more than one numeral, repeated as Roman numerals practiced. However, repetition of the same numeral for each placevalue was not allowed in the hieratic script. As the hieratic writing system developed over time, these signgroups were further simplified for quick writing; this process continued into Demotic as well.
Two famous mathematical papyri using hieratic script are the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus and the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus.
The following table shows the reconstructed Middle Egyptian forms of the numerals^{[2]} (which are indicated by a preceding asterisk), their transliterated forms in hieroglyphs (indicated between square brackets), and their later Coptic equivalents which give Egyptologists clues as to the vocalism of the original Egyptian numbers. The majuscule letter "A" in some reconstructed forms means that the quality of that vowel remains uncertain:
Egyptian Transliteration  English Translation  Coptic (Sahidic dialect) 

*wiʕyaw [wˁ.w] (masc.) *wiʕīyat [wˁ.t] (fem.) 
one  oua (masc.) ouei (fem.) 
*sínway [sn.wy] (masc.) *síntay [sn.ty] (fem.) 
two  snau (masc.) snte (fem.) 
*ḫámtaw [ḫmt.w] (masc.) *ḫámtat [ḫmt.t] (fem.) 
three  šomnt (masc.) šomte (fem.) 
*yAfdáw [ỉfd.w] ([masc.) *yAfdát [ỉfd.t] (fem.) 
four  ftoou (masc.) ftoe (fem.) 
*dīyaw [dỉ.w] (masc.) *dīyat [dỉ.t] (fem.) 
five  tiou (masc.) tie (fem.) 
*yAssáw [sỉs.w or ỉs.w
(?)] (masc.) *yAssát [sỉs.t or ỉs.t (?)] (fem.) 
six  soou (masc.) soe (fem.) 
*sáfḫaw [sfḫ.w] (masc.) *sáfḫat [sfḫt] (fem.) 
seven  šašf(masc.) šašfe (fem.) 
*ḫAmānaw [ḫmnw] (masc.) *ḫAmānat [ḫmnt] (fem.) 
eight  šmoun (masc.) šmoune (fem.) 
*pAsīḏaw [psḏw] (masc.) *pAsīḏat [psḏt] (fem.) 
nine  psis (masc.) psite (fem.) 
*mūḏaw [mḏw] (masc.) *mūḏat [mḏt] (fem.) 
ten  mēt (masc.) mēte (fem.) 
*ḏubāʕatay [ḏbˁ.ty]  twenty  jōt (masc.) jōti (fem.) 
*máʕbAʔ [mˁbȝ] (masc.) *máʕbAʔat [mˁbȝ.t] (fem.) 
thirty  maab (masc.) maabe (fem.) 
*ḥAmí (?) [ḥm.w] (masc.)  forty  xme 
*díywu [dy.w]  fifty  taeiou 
*yAssáwyu [sỉsy.w or ỉswy.w (?)]  sixty  se 
*safḫáwyu [sfḫy.w] (masc.)  seventy  šfe 
*ḫamanáwyu [ḫmny.w] (masc.)  eighty  xmene 
*pAsiḏawyu [psḏy.w] (masc.)  ninety  pstaiou 
*šáwat [š.t]  one hundred  še 
*šūtay [š.ty]  two hundred  šēt 
*ḫaʔ [ḫȝ]  one thousand  šo 
*ḏubaʕ [ḏbȝ]  ten thousand  tba 
[hfn]  one hundred thousand  
*ḥaḥ [ḥḥ]  one million  xax "many" 

