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Egypt

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Politics and government of
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A presidential election is expected to be held in Egypt on September 2011;[1][2] it will be the second contested presidential election in Egypt's history. Hosni Mubarak, the incumbent President of Egypt, may not run for this election which opens the door for many names to be suggested to take his place as President of Egypt. Some of those names are Mohamed ElBaradei (the ex-Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the winner of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize), Amr Moussa (the current Secretary-General of the League of Arab States, and former Egyptian Foreign Minister), Ahmed Zewail (Egyptian-American scientist, and the winner of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry), and Gamal Mubarak (the General Secretary of the Policy Committee of the National Democratic Party and the younger of the two sons of Hosni Mubarak), among others. Leading figures in the Muslim Brotherhood (Egyptian biggest opposition group)[citation needed] has refused to go into Egypt's presidential election even if they get the legal requirements [3] and refused women and Copts run for presidency again [4] or support any candidates so far.

Contents

Proposals

Mohamed Hassanein Heikal proposal

Mohamed Hassanein Heikal swept in and made a revolutionary suggestion in the interview: "We must establish a council of experts that we will call the council of the state and the nation's faithful, whose job it will be to formulate a new constitution and prepare the transition period between the current government regime and the new system."

According to his proposal, well-known figures in Egypt will serve on this council, such as Ahmed Zewail, the 1999 Nobel Prize laureate in chemistry; the renowned heart surgeon Magdi Yacoub; Amr Moussa, Secretary-General of the League of Arab States, and former Egyptian Foreign Minister; Minister without portfolio and director of the Egyptian General Intelligence Services Omar Suleiman; and also Mohammed ElBaradei, the ex-director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the 2005 Nobel Prize laureate.

Heikal explains that these personalities, by virtue of their age and status, are not looking for a job and will not aspire to become the next President of Egypt, but they will be assigned the task of preparing Egypt for its transfer to the younger generation. "They are leaders who can take Egypt from the stage of despair it is now in to the stage of hope."

Emad Adeeb proposal

The Egyptian television host and political commentator Emad Adeeb proposed in a phone call with Al-Qahira Al-Youm TV show the making of a constitutional formulation that would allow for a «Safe Exit» for Egyptian Presidents, so that Egypt can have former presidents and not only former dead presidents.

He also proposed to limit staying in presidency to two terms only, whether a single term would be of four years or six years. He further suggested a constitutional amendment in order to allow genuine pluralism and prohibit the consumption of power and separation of powers between various forms of Government.

He added, «If there is any hope that the next line of presidents of Egypt will not belong to the "Solid Foundation" --Represented in the military or intelligence or from The Egyptian Federal Bureau of Investigation-- It has to happen in the presence of President Mubarak». He also said, «If fate decided that institutions of the state should choose a president in the absence of President Mubarak --for any of the constitutional reasons set forth on the absence of the President-- It is certain in my mind that the next President of Egypt will be from the "Solid Foundation"».

He also said in another interview to Al-Shorouk newspaper that the Egyptian citizens and the Egyptian people are with President Mubarak, but not with the president's party, by showing that Mubarak won the the last presidential election by more than the proportion that achieved the National Democratic Party in the last parliamentary election.

Potential candidates

The goverment

Potential candidates for the goverment
Hosni Mubarak - World Economic Forum on the Middle East 2008 edit1.jpg No male portrait.svg Omar Suleiman 070731-D-7203T-010 0WX8I.jpg
Hosni Mubarak Gamal Mubarak Omar Suleiman
The incumbent President of Egypt and the leader of the National Democratic Party The General Secretary of the Policy Committee of the National Democratic Party and the younger of the two sons of Hosni Mubarak The head of the Egyptian General Intelligence Directorate

Member of a political party

Hosni Mubarak

Hosni Mubarak is the main candidate and the number one candidate for the National Democratic Party in the upcoming presidential election.

Gamal Mubarak

Gamal Mubarak did not specify the position so far from the elections, in 2011, leaving the door open to the rumors.

On the other hand, a number of forces, national popular movements and opposition political parties in Egypt are sharply critical of the present regime, accusing it of seeking "to pass Gamal Mubarak President of the Republic" so that he can replace his father. Many of those national movements and opposition parties are highly opposing to a presidential scheme which they describe as "the inheritance scheme", which, if happens, will make Egypt closer to being a Kingdom, rather than a Republic which is what it is intended to be.

Independent

Omar Suleiman

Omar Suleiman is the head of the Egyptian General Intelligence Directorate and plays an important role in the mediation between Palestinian factions after the Fatah–Hamas conflict, as well as coordinating between the Palestinian and the Israelis in the attempts of finding a resolution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.

Many Egyptians believe that the security services (i.e. Egyptian General Intelligence Directorate) and state security are governing the state effectively and guide the presidential decisions.

Omar Suleiman's name has been put forward as a candidate for the presidency by some writers and intellectuals as an alternative to the idea of bequeathing power to Gamal Mubarak.

Opposition

Member of a political party

Potential candidates for the opposition (Members of different political parties)
No male portrait.svg No male portrait.svg No male portrait.svg No male portrait.svg No male portrait.svg
Ayman Nour Sameh Ashour Refaat El-Saeed Mahmoud Abaza Mamdouh Ramzi
The founder and leader of the Egyptian Al-Ghad Party and former candidate in the the 2005 Egyptian presidential elections in which he emerged as runner-up to the winning President Hosni Mubarak A senior vice of the Egyptian Arab Democratic Nasserist Party The President of the Progressive Unionist Party in Egypt and is a current member of the Shura Council The current president of the Egyptian New Wafd Party and is a member of the People's Assembly of Egypt A Coptic lawyer who is a member of the Free Social Constitutional Party in Egypt
Ayman Nour

Ayman Nour is the founder and leader of the Egyptian Al-Ghad Party and former candidate in the the 2005 Egyptian presidential elections in which he emerged as runner-up to the winning President Hosni Mubarak.

Ayman Nour was jailed in 2006 few months after the presidential elections when he was convicted in charges of forgery. He was later removed from the presidency of Al-Ghad Party. In February 2009, he was released from prison under an amnesty due to health reasons. Portions of the Egyptian press alleged that Ayman Nour was released from prison due to Obama demanding his release as a condition to meet with Mubarak[citation needed].

Ayman Nour may not be able to run for the 2011 Egyptian presidential elections because of being an ex-convict and a former prisoner.

Sameh Ashour

Sameh Ashour is a senior vice of the Egyptian Arab Democratic Nasserist Party and is also a member of its supreme body. He used to be a member of the People's Assembly of Egypt between 1995 and 2005.

Refaat El-Saeed

Refaat El-Saeed is the President of the Progressive Unionist Party in Egypt and is a current member of the Shura Council.

Mahmoud Abaza

Mahmoud Abaza is the current president of the Egyptian New Wafd Party and is a member of the People's Assembly of Egypt.

Mamdouh Ramzi

Mamdouh Ramzi is a Coptic lawyer who is a member of the Free Social Constitutional Party in Egypt.

Independent

Potential candidates for the opposition (Independent)
Elbaradei.png Amr Moussa.jpg Zowail.jpg No male portrait.svg No male portrait.svg
Mohamed ElBaradei Amr Moussa Ahmed Zewail Abdullah Al Ashaal Anis Degheidy
The ex-Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the winner of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize The current Secretary-General of the League of Arab States, and former Egyptian Foreign Minister A Egyptian-American scientist, and the winner of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry A former aid to a former Egyptian Foreign Minister and former ambassador A Egyptian politician and a novelist
Mohamed ElBaradei

In November 2009 and amidst the political controversy over the 2011 Egyptian presidency elections and the constitutional impediments placed in the faces of candidates under the amended Article 76 in the 2007 constitution and amidst speculation about the escalation of President Hosni Mubarak's son Gamal Mubarak, Mohamed ElBaradei decided to respond to the continuous pressing from people who asked him to run for the 2011 elections and stated the he might actually run for the upcoming presidential elections in Egypt. However, he has underlined a condition for him to run for the elections, this condition is a "written assurance" about the integrity and freedom of the electoral process from the Egyptian Government. ElBaradei said in a television interview conducted with CNN News, "I will study the possibility of running for presidential candidate in Egypt if there any written guarantees that the electoral process will be free and fair."

ElBaradei's declaration has elicited mixed reactions in the Egyptian political world, where some considered it an embarrassing message to the regime from a "heavy weight" international figure in an attempt to push the regime to review the process of devolution of power in Egypt; while others saw in this declaration that the United Nations nuclear watchdog shows promise in exerting real efforts that attempt to open new horizons for the "strangulated" Egyptian political life.

ElBaradei said in a statement sent from his office in Vienna to Al-Shorouk newspaper that "He did not announce willingness or unwillingness to participate in the upcoming presidential election... and that he will clear his position on the presidency after November"[5]. His office manager added:

Dr. ElBaradei is the Director General of International Atomic Energy Agency until the end of November. Therefore, he is currently devoted to his work and to address the important issues and topics that need to be addressed by the IAEA. So he did not take any decision regarding his future which will be decided in light of developments of the next phase.

The Egyptian New Wafd Party and other opposition political forces have announced that they are ready to support ElBaradei if he decided to run for the 2011 presidential elections. However, Mohamed ElBaradei stated that if he decides to run for the 2011 elections, he prefers to run as an Independent Candidate, rather than running as a candidate of any of the political parties in Egypt[6].

ElBaradei did not make any clear statements regarding his intentions to run for the office, however he has demanded that certain conditions have to be met to ensure fair elections accompanied by changes to the constitution that will allow more freedom for independent candidates before he would actually consider running for presidency. Several opposition groups and parties have endorsed him, considering him a neutral figure who could transition the country to greater democracy.

On 24th February 2010, ElBaradei met with several opposition leaders and notable intellects at his home in Cairo. The meeting was concluded with an announcement for the formation of a new non-party-political movement called "National Association for Change". The movement aims for general reforms in the political scene and mainly burke the Constitutional article#76 which places restrictions on true free presidential elections especially when it comes to independent candidates. Worth mentioning is that the banned political group the Muslim Brotherhood were represented by one of their key figures who attended the meeting however their stand in accepting a non-member of their group as a candidate is yet unclear. It is also unknown whether Amr Moussa the head of the Arab League who met with Elbaradei a day eariler will be part of the new movement.[7]

Amr Moussa

When asked about the rumors that he might run for the 2011 presidential elections in Egypt, [[Amr Moussa] refused to rule out the possibility of running for the office, leaving the door open to expectations. He argued that, "It's the right of every citizen that has the capacity and efficiency to aspire to any political office that would allow him to contribute to the service of his nation"[8]. He further stated to the press that the qualities required to be in the President of Egypt also apply to Gamal Mubarak, arguing that the citizenship, rights and obligations which apply to himself can also be applied to Gamal Mubarak[9]. He also expressed appreciation for "the confidence expressed by many people when they talk about his candidacy for the Egyptian presidency, and expressed that the message reached him."[10].

Ahmed Zewail

When asked about his political ambitions and the current rumors that he might run for the 2011 presidential elections in Egypt, Ahmed Zewail Said: "I am a frank man. I have no political ambitions, as I have repeatedly stressed that I only want to serve Egypt in the field of science, and to die as a scientist."[11]

Abdullah Al Ashaal

Abdullah Al Ashaal is a former aid to a former Egyptian Foreign Minister and former ambassador. He announced that in the case of a change of article 76 of the constitution will run as an independent in the upcoming presidential election and if the article 76 does not change he will join and run as a member a political party. He added that The NDP has lost its credibility due to the spread of corruption and the party's failure of The NDP to offer something to the average citizen [12].

Anis Degheidy

Abdullah Al Ashaal is a Egyptian politician and a novelist who announced that he might run[13].

Criticism of the 2011 Presidential Election Arrangements

Election monitoring

The upcoming presidential elections in 2011 were decided not to be under any national court supervision or international supervision. The General Secretary of the Policy Committee in the National Democratic Party Gamal Mubarak said in a press conference that, "This issue is governed by the law and the constitution which made it possible for civil society organizations to monitor the elections"[14]. The Secretary of Education in the NDP, Mohamed Kamal, said that the party welcomes the supervision of national organizations, but refuses international monitoring. He also added that the abolition of judicial supervision of elections does not affect the integrity of the elections.

"Most of the world has no judicial supervision on elections, however, those elections are fair and impartial".[14]
معظم دول العالم لا يوجد فيها إشراف قضائي على الانتخابات ومع ذلك تكون نزيهة وحيادية.[14]

See also

References

External links

External links relating to the nomination of ElBaradei


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