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Tahtib (تحطيب)
Also known as Egyptian Stick Fighting
Focus Weapons
Country of origin  Egypt
Olympic sport no

Tahtib (Egyptian Arabic: تحطيب taḥṭīb) is a martial art that originated in Egypt. It relies primarily on the use of a wooden stick for striking, defensive or dodging techniques.



The complete Arabic name of Tahtib is "Fann el Nazaha Wal Tahtib" which means "the Art (Fann) of Uprightness and Honesty (Nazaha) through the use of stick". The term "Tahtib" derives from "Hatab" which means "Woodcutter" ; "Hatab" refers to the doer while "Tahtib" refers to the Art or the Way similar to the use of "Karate" rather than "Karate-Do" or "Aiki" rather than "Aikido".


The origins of Tahtib seem to go back to the 2nd millennium BC, some of Tahtib gestures are engraved in the walls of three tombs among the 39 rock-cut tombs of the archaeological site of Beni Hasan, in the eastern bank of the Nile, near the city of Minya. The necropolis comprises tombs of officials (nomarchs) of the XI and XII dynasties of ancient Egypt.

Ancient Egyptians performed stick fencing or stick fighting as a form of entertainment.[1] This type of fencing was probably based on actual fighting systems used in combat with a shield and a sword - which then evolved into a system with its own rules and methods. The fighting stick does not appear to have been used as a, rather it was used primarily as a training tool and/or for sport.[2] There were advantages of teaching stick fighting, along with other combat sports such as a wrestling, the main advantage being that the Egyptian army could be kept trained and ready for war. In many respects it resembles the sport of single stick.

Some assumptions have to be made in order to understand the stick fighting technique of the ancient Egyptians; Their rules were probably simple and few, and there are two schools of thought on the main objective: the contest was one of either endurance or skill. There is stronger evidence, however, that the game was one of skill and that striking the head was a primary goal.

The art of stick fighting in Egypt around the twenty-first dynasty might have been similar to kenjutsu of Japan where a wooden bokken is used. A curved stick resembling the rungu of eastern Africa without the knobbed end was used in conjunction with a shield. Shabbako Sabtah, Shebitku Sabbtecha, and Tantamun Taiharcha reputedly saved Jeruselem and Egypt more than once from the attacks of Sanachareb, and later, Esshardon of Assyria using this system of combat.

Sabbekka and other wrestling or grappling systems also used daggers, but in practice used small sticks to limit serious harm to practitioners.


Stick fencing continues to be practiced by Egyptians, particularly during festivals and the month of Ramadan. Stick fighting and stick dancing is performed during marriage ceremonies. It is called tahteeb or tahtib and still practiced in upper Egypt. The basics of Tahtib are very similar to those demonstrated by African martial arts experts. The hanging guard and the overhead exhanges predominate these matches, with much feinting and other stylistic elements that involve energy sensitivity and a counter-for-counter flow. The fight is accompanied by drummers, and is an event with its own ceremony and rules of conduct.

Stick fighting has also been used to settle disputes between members of rival families, mostly in the Egyptian countryside.

The stick

The stick itself is about four feet in length and is called an Asa, Asaya or Assaya, or Nabboot. It is often flailed in large figure-8 patterns across the body with such speed and violence that the displacement of air is loudly discernible. There is another form practiced from horseback known as “Horse Stepping” which uses a stick that is nearly 12 feet (3.7 m) long.


The stick is regarded as a symbol of masculinity, i.e. a phallus. Although the dance form originally started as male-only, there are women who perform dressed as men and dance with other women. Another female version of stick dancing has been developed with a flirtatious and generally less aggressive style, and incorporated into cabaret or "belly dance." The stick used for this type of dancing is generally thinner, more lightweight and hooked at one end like a cane, and generally embellished with metallic-coloured foil or sequins. The costume worn is usually folkloric: a simple Baladi dress, although Ra's el Assaya (Dance of the Stick) is often performed as part of the popularized cabaret dance set. Performance styles include balancing the cane on head, hip or shoulder.


The music used in Tahtib features the tahvol (bass drum) and mizmar (shrill pipe). The tahvol is a double-sided drum worn with a shoulder strap so it hangs sideways in front of the drummer and is played with two sticks. The right hand uses a heavier stick with a hooked head to beat out the "dooms" which drive the heartbeat of the rhythm, while the left hand uses a light twig as a switch to produce rapid-fire staccato "taks". (Doom = the deep sound from striking the center of the drum with the right hand or with a knobbed stick; Tak = the higher sound from striking the edge of the drum with the left hand or with a light switch).

See also


  1. ^ Brewer, Douglas J. (2007). Egypt and the Egyptians (2nd ed. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521851505.   p. 120
  2. ^ Shaw, Ian (1999). Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Oxford: Shire Publications. ISBN 0747801428.  , ch, 5
  • Poliakoff, Michael B. (August 1987). Combat Sports in the Ancient World: Competition, Violence, and Culture. Sport and history series. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 228. ISBN 0300037686.  
  • Riddle, Jonathan. Ancient Egyptian Stick Fighting Analysis and Reconstruction of the Sport. Tumwater: Journal of Combative Sport. ISSN 1492-1650.  

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