Eid-e-Fitr: Wikis

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عيد الفطر
Eid-al-Fitr
(Festival of the Breaking of the Fast)
Also called Eid, "Ramadan Eid", "Smaller Eid"; Idul Fitri, Hari Lebaran (Indonesia); Hari Raya Puasa, Hari Lebaran, Aidilfitri (Malaysia); Nonbu Perunaal (Tamil) Riyoyo, Riyayan, Ngaidul Fitri (Javanese); Boboran Siyam (Sundanese); Rojar Eid (Bangladesh); Ramazan Bayramı (Turkic); Korite (Senegal); Sallah (Hausa); Kochnay Akhtar (کوچنی اختر) (Pashto); Eid-e Sa'eed-e Fitr (The Mirthful Festival of Fitr, Persian);Choti Eid (Urdu);Cheriya Perunnal(Malayalam);Ramazanski Bajram, Eid (Bosnian); Cejna Remezanê (Kurdish)
Observed by Muslims around the world, as well as non-Muslims in Muslim majority areas
Type Islamic
Significance End of Ramadan
Date depends on the moon
2009 date 20 September-21 September
2010 date 10 September
Celebrations festive family meals, gift giving, going to see family and also praying with family
Observances Congregational prayer, giving charity, wearing new clothes, eating sweet foods. Kids usually get gifts or money.
Related to Ramadan, Eid ul-Adha
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Eid al-Fitr[citation needed] (Arabic: عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiṭr‎), often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting. Eid is an Arabic word meaning "festivity", while Fiṭr means "to break fast"; and so the holiday symbolizes the breaking of the fasting period. It is celebrated after the end of the Islamic month of Ramadan, on the first day of Shawwal.

Eid ul-Fitr lasts for three days of celebration and is sometimes also known as the "Smaller Eid" (Arabic: العيد الصغير al-‘īdu ṣ-ṣaghīr‎) as compared to the Eid ul-Adha that lasts three days following the Hajj and is casually referred to as the "Greater Eid" (Arabic: العيد الكبير al-‘īdu l-kabīr‎).

Muslims are commanded by the Quran to complete their fast on the last day of Ramadan and then recite the Takbir all throughout the period of Eid[Qur'an 2:185 (Translated by Shakir)].

Contents

General rituals

Common greetings during this holiday are the Arabic greeting ‘Īd mubārak ("Blessed Eid") or ‘Īd sa‘īd ("Happy Eid"). In addition, many countries have their own greetings based on local language and traditions.

Typically, Muslims wake up early in the morning and have a small breakfast (as a sign of not being on a fast on that day) of preferably the date fruit, before attending a special Eid prayer (salah) that is performed in congregation at mosques or open areas like fields, squares etc. Muslims are encouraged to dress in their best clothes (new if possible) for the occasion. No adhan or iqama is to be pronounced for this Eid prayer, and it consists of only two raka'ahs. The Eid prayer is followed by the khutbah (sermon) and then a supplication (dua') asking for forgiveness, mercy and help for all living beings across the world. The khutbah also instructs Muslims as to the performance of rituals of Eid, such as the zakat.[1] It is then customary to embrace the persons sitting on either side of oneself, whilst greeting them. After the prayers, people also visit their relatives, friends and acquaintances[2] and some people also pay visits to the graveyards (ziyarat al-qubur).

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The takbir and other rituals

Islamic tradition

Eid al-Fitr marks the end of the fasting of Ramadan. This has to do with the communal aspects of the fast, which expresses many of the basic values of the Muslim community. Fasting is believed by some scholars to extol fundamental distinctions, lauding the power of the spiritual realm, while acknowledging the subordination of the physical realm.[2]

Practices by country

United Kingdom

There is a Khutbah (sermon) in which the Imam gives advice to the Muslim community and usually Muslims are encouraged to end any past animosities they may have. He then goes on to the khutbah and then the prayer itself. When the local imam declares Eid Al-Fitr everyone greets and hugs each other. As Eid Al-Fitr is not a recognised public holiday in the United Kingdom, Muslims are obliged to attend the morning prayer. In a large ethnically Muslim area, normally schools and local businesses give exemptions to the Muslim community to take three days off. In the rest of the UK it is not recognised as it is not on a fixed date as it is decided by the sighting of the moon on the night before.

During the morning, men (mainly South Asian) usually wear Thobe, Jubba, Sharwani or Punjabi, and women usually wear shalwar kameez. Men and women go to the mosque for the Eid prayers, after which people greet each other. After this many will go to a local cemetery to pay respect and to remember the deceased. When they return home they will greet family, friends, other Muslims and visit relatives across the city. People cook traditional food for their relatives. Dishes such as Samosas, Simeya, rice and Handesh are particularly popular.

Turkey

Traditional Bayram wishes from the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, stating "Let us love, Let us be loved", in the form of mahya lights stretched across the minarets of the Blue Mosque in Istanbul

In the Republic of Turkey, where Ramadan celebrations are infused with more national traditions, and where country-wide celebrations, are referred to as Bayram. It is customary for people to greet one another with "Bayramınız Kutlu Olsun" or "Bayramınız Mübarek Olsun" ("May Your Bayram Be Holy"). "Mutlu Bayramlar" ("Happy Bayram") is an alternative phrase for celebrating Bayram.

Referred to as both Şeker Bayramı ("Bayram of Sweets") or Ramazan Bayramı ("Ramadan Bayram"), Eid in Turkey is a beloved public holiday, where schools and government offices are generally closed for the entire period of the celebrations.

It is a time for people to attend prayer services, put on their best clothes (referred to as "Bayramlık", often purchased just for the occasion) and to visit all their loved ones (such as friends, relatives and neighbors) and pay their respects to the deceased with organized visits to cemeteries, where large, temporary bazaars of flowers, water (for watering the plants adorning a grave), and prayer books are set up for the three-day occasion. The first day of the Bayram is generally regarded as the most important, with all members of the family waking up early, and the men going to their neighborhood mosque for the special Bayram prayer.

It is regarded as especially important to honor elderly citizens by kissing their right hand and placing it on one's forehead while wishing them Bayram greetings. It is also customary for young children to go around their neighborhood, door to door, and wish everyone a happy Bayram, for which they are awarded candy, chocolates, traditional sweets such as Baklava and Turkish Delight, or a small amount of money at every door, in an almost Halloween-like fashion.

Municipalities all around the country organize fundraising events for the poor, in addition to public shows such as concerts or more traditional forms of entertainment such as the Karagöz and Hacivat shadow-theatre and even performances by the Mehter - the Janissary Band that was founded during the days of the Ottoman Empire.

Helping the less fortunate, ending past animosities and making up, organizing breakfasts and dinners for loved ones and putting together neighborhood celebrations are all part of the joyous occasion, where homes and streets are decorated and lit up for the celebrations, and television and radio channels continuously broadcast a variety of special Bayram programs, which include movie specials, musical programming and celebratory addresses from celebrities and politicians alike

Iran

In the predominantly Shia culture of Iran, Eid is a highly personal event, and celebrations are often more muted. Called Eyde Fetr by most Iranians, charity is important on that day. Visiting the elderly and gathering with families and friends is also very common. Typically, each Muslim family gives food to those in need. Payment of fitra or fetriye is obligatory for each Muslim. Often meat or ghorbani (literally translated as sacrifice, for it is usually a young lamb or calf that is sacrificed for the occasion), which is an expensive food item in Iran, will be given by those in wealthier families to those who have less. The offering of meat is generally a part of the Eid-ul-Azha celebrations and sacrifices (Kurbani) are generally not given during the Eid-ul-fitr celebrations.

Eid prayers

Public Eid prayers are held in every Mosque and in public places. The biggest prayer is held in Mosalla (a spacious place for prayer) where the Supreme Leader leads the prayer.

South Asia

In Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Nepal, the night before Eid is called Chand Raat, which means, night of the moon. People often visit bazaars and shopping malls, with their families and children, for last minute Eid shopping. Women, especially young girls, often paint each others' hands with traditional "henna" and wear colourful bangles.

During Eid, the traditional greeting is Eid Mubarak, and frequently also includes a formal embrace. Gifts are frequently given—new clothes are traditional—and it is also common for children to be given small sums of money (Eidi) by their elders.It is common for children to "salam" parents and adult relatives, they usually get money from the adult relative, if the family is middle class or wealthy.

After the Eid prayers, it is common for families to visit graveyards and pray for the salvation of departed family members.

Special celebratory dishes in Pakistan, Afghanistan, India, Bangladesh, and Fiji include sivayyan, a dish of fine, toasted sweet vermicelli noodles with milk & dried fruit.[3] In Bangladesh, the dish is called shemai.

Some people also avail themselves of this opportunity to distribute Zakat, the Islamic obligatory alms tax on one's wealth, to the needy.

In India the some popular places where Muslims congregate to celebrate Eid at this time are the Jama Masjid in New Delhi, in Kolkata there is a prayer held on the Red Road. People can be spotted in thousands, there is a lot of excitement in the celebration of this festival. Eid is a public holiday and is celebrated all over India. Even non-Muslims visit their Muslim friends on this occasion, to convey their good wishes.

Unlike rest of the Muslim world, South Asians celebrate Eid-ul-fitr for three days.

Southeast Asia

Eid Ul-Fitr meal, Malaysia

Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei

Indonesia as of 2008, was the nation with the largest Muslim population, and correspondingly the largest in the South East Asian region. Eid is known as the Indonesianised Idul Fitri and Eid-al-Ad'ha as Idul Adha. It is a legally gazetted official Government annual holiday, with the exact date determined by local lunar observance. Generally speaking, it "moves back" 11 days of the Gregorian calendar per year. For example, Idul Fitri and Lebaran occurred on September 21 and 22 of 2009, and is anticipated to fall on 10–11 September 2010, with possible variance of two to three days either side.

Additionally, in Indonesia Idul Fitri has a pan-national legally mandated salary increase for all employees, known as THR: Tunjangan Hari Raya as mandated by Departemen Pengawasan Dinas Tenaga Kerja dan Sosial (Department of Labour, Employment and Society). The relevant law states THR (In Jakarta province) must be Rp 1 million or not less than one month's full salary paid in advance of Idul Fitri, in addition to normal salary. Thus, Idul Fitri is also a "paid holiday". Breaching or withholding THR is a very serious labour law infraction and punished severely, regardless of employer status or position.

In Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei, Eid is more commonly known as Hari Raya Aidilfitri, Hari Raya Idul Fitri or Hari Raya Puasa. Hari Raya literally means 'Celebration Day'.

It is the biggest holiday in Indonesia and one of the biggest in Malaysia. Shopping malls and bazaars are filled with people days ahead of Idul Fiti, causing a distinctive festive atmosphere throughout the country and traffic mayhem. Many banks, government and private offices are closed for the duration of the Idul festivities, known collectively as the Lebaran.

Additionally, the wealthier classes often "escape" to local hotels, or commonly Singapore and Australia to avoid not having escape not having domestic servants, drivers or sometimes, security personnel. Singaporean, Malaysia and Indonesian hotels have been particularly successful marketing lucrative Lebaran or Idul Fitri "escape package".

One of the largest temporary huamn migrations globally, is the prevailing custom of the Lebaran where workers, particularly unskilled migrants labourers such as maids and construction labourers return to one's home town or city and ask forgiveness from ones' parents, in-laws and elders. This is known as mudik, pulang kampung or in Malaysian balik kampung.

The night before Idul Fitri is filled with the sounds of many muezzin singing the takbir held in the mosques or mushollahs. In many parts of Indonesia as well as Malaysia, especially in rural areas, pelita or panjut or lampu colok (as known by Malay-Singaporeans) (oil lamps, similar to tiki torches) are lit up and placed outside and around the house. Special dishes like ketupat, dodol, lemang (a type of glutinous rice cake cooked in bamboo) and other Indo-Malay (and in the case of Malaysia, also Nyonya) delicacies are served during this day.

The lively or alternatively very emotional devotional music and sung Quranic verse associated with this period is known as Kaisidah or more correctly, Qasida. It is commonly performed by famous musicians, some of whom may be international stars and is televised nation-wide.

It is common to greet people with "Selamat Idul Fitri" or "Salam Aidilfitri" (in Malaysia) which means "Happy Eid". Muslims also greet one another with "mohon maaf lahir dan batin" in Indonesia and "maaf zahir dan batin" in Malaysia, which means "Forgive my physical and emotional (wrongdoings)", because Idul Fitri is not only for celebrations but a time for atonement: to ask for forgiveness for sins which they may have committed but was cleansed as a result of the fasting in the Muslim month of Ramadan.

It is customary for Muslim-Indonesians and Muslim-Malaysians to wear a traditional cultural costume on Idul Fitri. The Indonesian male costume is known as baju koko: a collarless long or short-sleeve shirt with traditional embroidered designs with a "kilt" sarung of songket, ikat or similar woven, plaid-cloth or alternatively either modern business-suit trousers or more traditional loose-fitting trousers of similar colour to the shirt, and either a peci hat or regional cultural head wear and songkok. Malaysian variant is known as the baju Melayu, shirt worn with a sarong known as kain samping and a headwear known as songkok.

Female costume is known as kebaya krudung. It consists of, normally, a loose-fitting blouse (which may be enhanced with brocade and embroidery), a long skirt both of which may be batik, or the sarung skirt made of batik, ikat or songket and either the jilbab (hijab) or its variant the stiffened krudung.Malaysian costume is referred to as baju kurung and baju kebaya. It is a common practice however for the Muslim-Malaysians in Singapore to refer to the baju kurung in reference to the type of outfit, worn by men. It should be noted this term is not used in Indonesia, as it is an example of humourous poor translation between Malaysian and Indonesian, as kurung means a cage, parentheses, or a sack, depending on the context.

For non-Austronesian Muslims, or even non-Muslims they may don costumes of their respective culture and tradition, or wear "Islamic" clothes to show respect to their relatives' or friends' differing religious beliefs for the occasion. This is particularly common in Indonesia, where many families have close friends or relatives of differing faiths, namely Catholic, some Protestant and Muslim.

Once the prayer is completed, it is common for Muslims in both Indonesia and Malaysia to visit the graves of loved ones. During this visit, they clean the grave, recite Ya-Seen, a chapter (surah) from the Quran and also perform the tahlil ceremony. All these are done to ask God to forgive the dead and also those who are living for all their sins.

The Javanese majority of Indonesia are known for their Kejawen traditions of washing the headstone using scented water from the traditional terracotta water-jug, the kendi, and sprinkling hyacinth and jasmine over the graves.

In Indonesia there is a special ritual called halal bi-halal. During this, Muslim-Indonesians visit their elders, in the family, the neighborhood, or their work, and show respect to them. They will also seek reconciliation (if needed), and preserve or restore harmonious relations.[4]

The rest of the day is spent visiting relatives or serving visitors. Idul Fitri is a very joyous day for children as the adults give them money. They also celebrate by lighting traditional bamboo "cannon" fire-crackers known as meriam bambu Ramadhan, using kerosene in large hollow bamboo tubes or Chinese imported crackers. The traditional bamboo cannon, meriam bambu are notoriously loud and can be very dangerous to operator, bystander and even nearby buildings. These are usually bamboo tubes 5–10 cm in diameter and 4-7 metres long, filled with either: water and several hundred grams of calcium carbide, or heated kerosene, then ignited by match. Celebrating with firecrackers in the early morning during Ramadan is now banned in many areas- though many rascals evade the law and disturb the neighbourhood. kerons In Malaysia, children will be given token sums of money, also known as "duit raya," from their parents or elders.[5][6]

Myanmar/Burma

In Myanmar (ASEAN nations officially refer to Myanmar/Burma exclusively as Myanmar), Eid ul-Fitr lasts for only one day of celebration for the Myanmarese Muslims. We call this day as Eid Nei’ (Nei’=day) or Eid Ka Lay (Ka Lay=small) or Shai Mai Eid (because Shai Mai or sayviah/ sweet vermicelli served with fried cashews, coconut shreds, raisins with milk is the main Myanmarese Muslim traditional food cooked during the Myanmarese Muslim Eids).

Although it is not a gazetted public holiday in Myanmar, most employers have an understanding on the Myanmarese Muslims and usually even willing to give an unrecorded holiday to the Muslim staff. And they even used to take time off during the office hour to visit their Muslim staff usually also accompanied by other non-Muslim staff under them.
As there is no single Islamic authority in Myanmar to give a decision, it is sometimes difficult to get an agreement about the sighting of the moon for the Eid or the start of Ramadan. So even in a small town or a village, Eid could be celebrated on different days. So it is difficult for the successive governments to declare a holiday on Eid ul-Fitr.
But the Eid al-Adha "Festival of Sacrifice" or "Greater Eid" is a gazetted public Holiday. Myanmarese Muslims could celebrate as this annually falls on the 10th day of the month of Dhul Hijja (ذو الحجة) of the lunar Islamic calendar. The festivities last for one day only in Myanmar. It is easy for the Myanmar governments to declare a holiday because sighting of the moon is ten day's earlier and the Eid al-Adha could be celebrate for three days. Usually they fixed the date following the Saudi authorities as Haj is more important for all of us.
Myanmarese Muslims are used to recite the Takbir during the prayers at Mosques, not loudly, all throughout the three day’s period of Eid.
Myanmarese Muslims are from Hanafi sect of Sunni Muslims. So the perform EidSalaah as Wajib (necessary and therefore to deliberately miss them is a sin) Namaz (Salaah) two rakat with six extra Takbirs only.
During Eid, the traditional greeting is giving Salaam only or sometimes saying Eid Mubarak. We say Assalamualaikum from the mouth and put our right hand on the forehead as if giving a salute, but usually there is no shaking hands and rarely only includes a formal embrace. Gifts or foods are frequently given to the elder relatives and even non-Muslim bosses and authorities, new clothes are traditionally meant for the family members and the workers or staff only but Myanmarese Muslims elders used to give Eidi to all the children.

Children used to get more from their parents, quite a lot from the wealthy near relatives and friends but at least a token sum of small amount of money even from the strangers especially if they go around the neighborhood in groups purposely just to collect Eidi.
It is common for children and young people to go around giving “salaam” to parents, elder relatives and other elders in the neighborhood. During the Eid Myanmarese Muslims used to ask forgiveness from elders and try to forgive and forget the misunderstandings amongst each other. Asking for forgiveness is usually done to the parents and elders.

The following cuisine Myanmarese Muslims usually cook for the Eid:

  1. Myanmarese Muslims bake the Sa-Nwin-Ma-Kin or Burmese Semolina Cake [1] or Semolina Pudding or (Kuih) Sooji, using Sooji (Semolina), eggs, cream of wheat (Semolina), coconut cream, sugar, raisins and milk. It is topped with sesame seeds and baked with the charcoal slow fire above and below to made them like brownie golden cakes.[2]
  2. This is also made as a delicacies called Halwa(In Myanmar this is referred to a loose form,something like smashed potato)without baking into a hard or firmer cake.
  3. Danbauk [dan pauʔ]) Htamin or Myanmaresee Biryani [3] Myanmarese-style biryani with either chicken or mutton served with mango pickle, fresh mint and green chili. It is also a Myanmarese Muslims favorite food cooked during Eid. Popular ingredients are cashew nuts, yogurt, raisins and peas, chicken, cloves, cinnamon, saffron and bay leaf. In Myanmarese biryani, the chicken is cooked with the rice.[7] Biryani is also eaten with a salad of sliced onions and cucumber.
  4. Htawbat htamin, rice made with butter and mostly eaten with chicken curry.
  5. Mohinga
  6. Lahpet
  7. Various types of Khow suey, Myanmarese Khow Suey - Indian Style [4], are famous.
  8. Panthay khao swè [panθei kʰauʔ swɛ]), halal noodles with chicken and spices, often served by Chinese Muslims
  9. Ohn-no khao swè [ounnouʔ kʰauʔswɛ]), curried chicken and wheat noodles in a coconut milk broth similar to Malaysian laksa and Chiang Mai's khao soi
  10. Seejet khao swè [sʰi tʃʰɛʔ kʰauʔ swɛ]), wheat noodles with duck or pork, fried garlic oil, soy sauce and chopped spring onions
  11. Jin thohk [dʒin θouʔ]), ginger salad with sesame seeds
  12. Jarzan hin, [dʒazan hin]) glass noodle soup with chicken, wood-ear mushrooms, dried flowers, onions, boiled egg, garnished with coriander, thin-sliced onions, crushed dried chilli and a dash of lime (Mandalay).
  13. Jauk-kyaw [tʃaoʔtʃau]), agar jelly usually set in two layers with coconut milk.
  14. Montletsaung [moun̰leʔsʰaun]), tapioca balls, glutinous rice, grated coconut and toasted sesame with jiggery syrup in coconut milk
  15. Samusa [sʰa mu sʰa̰]), Myanmarese-style samosa with mutton and onions served with fresh mint, green chilli, onions and lime
  16. Samusa thohk ‌ [sʰa mu sʰa̰ θouʔ]), samosa salad with onions, cabbage, fresh mint, potato curry, masala, chili powder, salt and lime.
  17. Shai Mai or Sa Wai or sayviah/ sweet vermicelli served with fried cashews, coconut shreds, raisins with milk is the main Myanmarese Muslim traditional food cooked during the Myanmarese Muslim Eids)

Sometimes Myanmarese Muslims pray or perform Eid salah (we called Eid Namaz)at Eidgah or Idgah at the open spaces outside or in the cities. Usually Myanmarese Muslim women are not allowed to pray together at the Masjids or Eidgah.

Traditionally, Myanmarese Muslims women are also not allowed to enter the graveyards.
Myanmarese Muslims are usually forbidden by the religious authorities from decorating their homes with the lights, lamps or colourful electric bulbs. Both the children and the adults are also advised by the religious elders not to celebrate with the fireworks and firecrackers. Wishing friends and relatives with the Eid cards or sending Eid cards through internet is just a newly acquired culture for the Myanmarese Muslims.

Philippines

The Philippines, with a majority Christian population, has recognized Eid ul-Fitr as a regular holiday by virtue of Republic Act No. 9177 and signed on November 13, 2002. The law was enacted in deference to the Muslim-Filipino community and to promote peace among major religions in the Philippines. The first public holiday was set on December 6, 2002.

China

In China, out of 56 officially recognized ethnic groups, Eid ul-Fitr is celebrated by 10 ethnic groups that practice Islam, totaling 18 million according to official statistics. It is also a public holiday in China in certain regions, including two province prefecture level regions, Ningxia and Xinjiang. All residents in these areas are entitled of either a one-day or three-day holiday. Whereas outside the Muslim regions, only Muslims have a one-day holiday. In Xinjiang particularly, Eid ul-Fitr is even celebrated by Han Chinese population during which holiday supply such as mutton and beef is distributed to households as part of welfare scheme by government agencies, public and private institutions or businesses.

In the Yunnan province, Muslims are spread throughout the region. On Eid ul-Fitr, however, they travel to Sayyid 'Ajjal's grave, after their communal prayers. First there are readings from the Quran, then the tomb is cleaned (reminiscent of the historic annual Chinese Qingming festival in which people go their ancestors' graves, sweep and clean the area and then make food offerings).

Finally the accomplishments of the Sayyid 'Ajall are told. In conclusion, a special service is held to honor the hundreds of thousands of Muslims killed during the Qing dynasty, and the hundreds killed during the Cultural Revolution.[8]

Africa

They celebrate Eid in many countries in Africa.

Tunisia

Tunisia sees three to four days of celebration, with preparations starting several days earlier. Special biscuits are made to give to friends and relatives on the day. we can mention "Baklawa" and several kinds of "kaak". Men will go to the mosque early in the morning, while the women either go with them or prepare their children with new outfits and toys to celebrate as well as a big family lunch generally in parents house. During the daylight hours, there is dancing and music. There are feasts going all day long, and many gifts are a large part of tradition. Also, food is the center of this holiday, so this is one of the hightlights of the evening.

South Africa

In Cape Town, hundreds of people gather at Green Point for the sighting of the moon on the last day of Ramadan each year. The gathering brings together people from all walks of life, and everyone comes with something to share with others at the time of breaking the fast. The Magrib prayer is then conducted and the sighting of the moon is announced thereafter.

The Day of Eid ul-Fitr is celebrated by first attending the Mosque for Eid prayer. This is followed by visiting neighbours and family. Children receive presents and money from elder members of the family, relatives and neighbours. Most people wear new clothes with bright colours, while biscuits, cakes, samoosas, pies and tarts are presented to visitors as treats. Lunch is usually served in large family groups.

Nigeria

Nigeria is a secular environment. Therefore, as Muslims celebrate the festival, Christians also participate. the Eid is popularly known as "Small Sallah" and people generally greet each other with "Barka Da Sallah" which means greetings on sallah in Hausa language. People Celebrate by observing the Eid prayer at designated praying grounds and then retire home to eat meals prepared by the women. The Federal holiday is typically 2 days in Nigeria. Nigerians travel to their respective hometowns irrespective of their religions during this Sallah especially if the holiday is continuous with a weekend.

In the Gregorian calendar

Although Eid ul-Fitr is always on the same day of the Islamic calendar, the date on the Gregorian calendar falls approximately 11 days earlier each successive year, since the Islamic calendar is lunar and the Gregorian calendar is solar. Eid may also vary from country to country depending on whether the moon has been sighted or not. Republic of Turkey is the only muslim country that uses the Gregorian calendar. The future dates for the US are estimated at:

Eid ul-Fitr begins the night before each of the below dates, at sunset.

  • 2009: 21 September
  • 2010: 10 September
  • 2011: 31 August
  • 2012: 19 August
  • 2013: 8 August
  • 2014: 29 July
  • 2015: 19 July

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Gaffney, Patrick D. "Khutba." Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. p. 394.
  2. ^ a b Wiegers, Gerard. "Ritual". Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world, p. 600
  3. ^ Food Events - Eid Celebrations. BBC Food Online. Accessed 2 November 2005.
  4. ^ van Doorn-Harder, Nelly. "Southeast Asian culture and Islam". Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world. p. 649
  5. ^ "Hari Raya Puasa". Retrieved Nov. 2, 2005.
  6. ^ Yusof, Mimi Syed & Hafeez, Shahrul (Oct. 30, 2005). "When Raya was a bewildering experience". New Straits Times, p. 8.
  7. ^ SF Gate: Multimedia (image)
  8. ^ Armijo, Jacqueline M. "East Asian culture and Islam." Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world, p. 191

References

External links


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