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Eiffel Tower
(Tour Eiffel)
Tour Eiffel Wikimedia Commons.jpg
The Eiffel Tower as seen from the Champ de Mars.

Eiffel Tower
(Tour Eiffel) was the world's tallest building from 1889 to 1930.[I]
General information
Location Paris, France
Coordinates 48°51′30″N 2°17′40″E / 48.8583°N 2.2945°E / 48.8583; 2.2945Coordinates: 48°51′30″N 2°17′40″E / 48.8583°N 2.2945°E / 48.8583; 2.2945
Status Complete
Constructed 1887 – 1889
Opening March 31, 1889
Use Observation tower,
Radio broadcasting tower
Height
Antenna or spire 324.00 m (1,063 ft)
Roof 300.65 m (986 ft)
Top floor 273.00 m (896 ft)
Technical details
Floor count 3
Elevators 7
Companies involved
Architect(s) Stephen Sauvestre
Structural engineer Maurice Koechlin,
Emile Nouguier
Contractor Gustave Eiffel & Cie
Owner France City of Paris, France (100%)
Management Société d’Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel (SETE)
References: [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]

^ Fully habitable, self-supported, from main entrance to highest structural or architectural top; see the list of tallest buildings in the world for other listings.

The Eiffel Tower (French: Tour Eiffel, [tuʁ ɛfɛl]) is a 19th century iron lattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris that has become both a global icon of France and one of the most recognizable structures in the world. The Eiffel Tower, which is the tallest building in Paris,[10] is the single most visited paid monument in the world; millions of people ascend it every year. Named after its designer, engineer Gustave Eiffel, the tower was built as the entrance arch for the 1889 World's Fair.

The tower stands at 324 m (1,063 ft) tall, about the same height as an 81-story building. It was the tallest structure in the world from its completion until 1930, when it was eclipsed by the Chrysler Building in New York City. Not including broadcast antennas, it is the second-tallest structure in France, behind the Millau Viaduct, completed in 2004. And while the Eiffel Tower is an iron structure, and weighs approximately 10,000 tonnes, it actually has a relatively low density, weighing less than a cylinder of air occupying the same dimensions as the tower[11].

The tower has three levels for visitors. Tickets can be purchased to ascend either on stairs or lifts to the first and second levels. The walk to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the walk from the first to the second level. The third and highest level is accessible only by lift. Both the first and second levels feature restaurants.

The tower has become the most prominent symbol of both Paris and France, often in the establishing shot of movies set in the city.

Contents

History

Eiffel Tower under construction in July 1888
Stages of construction of the Eiffel Tower

The structure was built between 1887 and 1889 as the entrance arch for the Exposition Universelle, a World's Fair marking the centennial celebration of the French Revolution. Eiffel originally planned to build the tower in Barcelona, for the Universal Exposition of 1888, but those responsible at the Barcelona city hall thought it was a strange and expensive construction, which did not fit into the design of the city. After the refusal of the Consistory of Barcelona, Eiffel submitted his draft to those responsible for the Universal Exhibition in Paris, where he would build his tower a year later, in 1889. The tower was inaugurated on 31 March 1889, and opened on 6 May. Three hundred workers joined together 18,038 pieces of puddled iron (a very pure form of structural iron), using two and a half million rivets, in a structural design by Maurice Koechlin. The risk of accident was great, for unlike modern skyscrapers the tower is an open frame without any intermediate floors except the two platforms. However, because Eiffel took safety precautions, including the use of movable stagings, guard-rails and screens, only one man died.

Eiffel Tower Construction view:
girders at the first story

The tower was met with much criticism from the public when it was built, with many calling it an eyesore. Newspapers of the day were filled with angry letters from the arts community of Paris. One is quoted extensively in William Watson's US Government Printing Office publication of 1892 Paris Universal Exposition: Civil Engineering, Public Works, and Architecture. “And during twenty years we shall see, stretching over the entire city, still thrilling with the genius of so many centuries, we shall see stretching out like a black blot the odious shadow of the odious column built up of riveted iron plates.”[12] Signers of this letter included Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier, Charles Gounod, Charles Garnier, Jean-Léon Gérôme, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, and Alexandre Dumas.

Novelist Guy de Maupassant—who claimed to hate the tower[13]—supposedly ate lunch in the Tower's restaurant every day. When asked why, he answered that it was the one place in Paris where one could not see the structure. Today, the Tower is widely considered to be a striking piece of structural art.

One of the great Hollywood movie clichés is that the view from a Parisian window always includes the tower. In reality, since zoning restrictions limit the height of most buildings in Paris to 7 stories, only a very few of the taller buildings have a clear view of the tower.

Eiffel had a permit for the tower to stand for 20 years, meaning it would have had to be dismantled in 1909, when its ownership would revert to the City of Paris. The City had planned to tear it down (part of the original contest rules for designing a tower was that it could be easily demolished) but as the tower proved valuable for communication purposes, it was allowed to remain after the expiration of the permit. The military used it to dispatch Parisian taxis to the front line during the First Battle of the Marne, and it therefore became a victory statue of that battle.

The co-architects of the Eiffel Tower were Emile Nouguier, Maurice Koechlin and Stephen Sauvestre.[14]

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Timeline of events

Vue Lumière No 992 - Panorama pendant l'ascension de la Tour Eiffel (1898).ogv
Panoramic view during ascension of the Eiffel Tower by the Lumière brothers, 1898
Lightning strikes the Eiffel Tower on June 3, 1902, at 9:20 P.M.
Adolf Hitler with the Eiffel Tower in the background
10 September 1889
Thomas Edison visited the tower. He signed the guestbook with the following message—
To M Eiffel the Engineer the brave builder of so gigantic and original specimen of modern Engineering from one who has the greatest respect and admiration for all Engineers including the Great Engineer the Bon Dieu, Thomas Edison.
1910
Father Theodor Wulf took observations of radiant energy radiating at the top and bottom of the tower, discovering at the top more than was expected, and thereby detecting what are today known as cosmic rays.[15]
4 February 1912
Austrian tailor Franz Reichelt died after jumping 60 metres from the first deck of Eiffel tower with his home-made parachute.
In 1925
The con artist Victor Lustig "sold" the tower for scrap metal on two separate, but related occasions.[16]
1930
The tower lost the title of the world's tallest structure when the Chrysler Building was completed in New York City.
1925 to 1934
Illuminated signs for Citroën adorned three of the tower's four sides, making it the tallest advertising space in the world at the time.
1940-1944
Upon the German occupation of Paris in 1940, the lift cables were cut by the French so that Adolf Hitler would have to climb the steps to the summit. The parts to repair them were allegedly impossible to obtain because of the war. In 1940 German soldiers had to climb to the top to hoist the swastika, but the flag was so large it blew away just a few hours later, and it was replaced by a smaller one. When visiting Paris, Hitler chose to stay on the ground. It was said that Hitler conquered France, but did not conquer the Eiffel Tower. A Frenchman scaled the tower during the German occupation to hang the French flag. In August 1944, when the Allies were nearing Paris, Hitler ordered General Dietrich von Choltitz, the military governor of Paris, to demolish the tower along with the rest of the city. Von Choltitz disobeyed the order - it is rumored that Hitler was later persuaded to leave up the tower, as he could use it to his advantage for radio broadcasts. The lifts of the Tower were working normally within hours of the Liberation of Paris.
3 January 1956
A fire damaged the top of the tower.
1957
The present radio antenna was added to the top.
1980s
An old restaurant and its supporting iron scaffolding midway up the tower was dismantled; it was purchased and reconstructed on St. Charles Avenue in New Orleans, Louisiana, by entrepreneurs John Onorio and Daniel Bonnot, originally as the Tour Eiffel Restaurant, known more recently as the Red Room. The restaurant was re-assembled from 11,000 pieces that crossed the Atlantic in a 40-foot (12 m) cargo container.
31 March 1984
Robert Moriarty flew a Beechcraft Bonanza through the arches of the tower.[17]
1987
A.J. Hackett made one of his first bungee jumps from the top of the Eiffel Tower, using a special cord he had helped develop. Upon reaching the ground, Hackett was immediately arrested by the Paris police.[18]
14 July 1995
Bastille Day, French synthesiser musician Jean Michel Jarre performed Concert For Tolerance at the tower in aid of UNESCO. The free concert was attended by an estimated 1.5 million people, filling the Champ de Mars. The concert featured lighting and projection effects on the tower, and a huge firework display throughout. Exactly three years later, he returned to the same spot for a more dance music orientated show, Electronic Night.
New Year's Eve 1999
The Eiffel Tower played host to Paris' Millennium Celebration. Fireworks exploded from the whole length of the tower in a spectacular display. An exhibition above a cafeteria on the first floor commemorates this event.
2000
Flashing lights and four high-power searchlights were installed on the tower. Since then the light show has become a nightly event. The searchlights on top of the tower make it a beacon in Paris' night sky.
2002
The tower received its 200,000,000th guest of all-time.[19][20]
22 July 2003
At 19:20, a fire occurred at the top of the tower in the broadcasting equipment room. The entire tower was evacuated; the fire was extinguished after 40 minutes, and there were no reports of injuries.
Since 2004, the Eiffel Tower has hosted an ice skating rink on the first floor each winter.[21]
2008
At the start of the French presidency of the European Union in the second half of 2008, the twelve golden stars of the European flag were mounted on the base, and whole tower bathed in blue light. In addition, every hour on the hour, 20,000 flash bulbs give the tower a sparkly appearance.[22]

Engraved names

Gustave Eiffel engraved on the tower seventy-two names of French scientists, engineers and other notable people. This engraving was painted over at the beginning of the twentieth century but restored in 1986–1987 by the Société Nouvelle d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel, a company contracted to operate business related to the Tower.

Design of the tower

The third floor of the Eiffel Tower, at night, seen from Trocadéro

Material

The metal structure of the Eiffel Tower weighs 7,300 tonnes while the entire structure including non-metal components is approximately 10,000 tonnes. Depending on the ambient temperature, the top of the tower may shift away from the sun by up to 18 cm (7.1 in) because of thermal expansion of the metal on the side facing the sun. As demonstration of the economy of design, if the 7300 tonnes of the metal structure were melted down it would fill the 125 metre square base to a depth of only 6 cm (2.36 in), assuming a density of the metal to be 7.8 tonnes per cubic metre. The tower has a mass less than the mass of the air contained in a cylinder of the same dimensions,[23] that is 324 metres high and 88.3 metres in radius. The weight of the tower is 10,100 tonnes compared to 10,265 tonnes of air.

Wind considerations

At the time the tower was built many people were shocked by its daring shape. Eiffel was criticised for the design and accused of trying to create something artistic, or inartistic according to the viewer, without regard to engineering. Eiffel and his engineers, however, as renowned bridge builders, understood the importance of wind forces and knew that if they were going to build the tallest structure in the world they had to be certain it would withstand the wind. In an interview reported in the newspaper Le Temps, Eiffel said:

Now to what phenomenon did I give primary concern in designing the Tower? It was wind resistance. Well then! I hold that the curvature of the monument's four outer edges, which is as mathematical calculation dictated it should be [...] will give a great impression of strength and beauty, for it will reveal to the eyes of the observer the boldness of the design as a whole.[24]

The shape of the tower was therefore determined by mathematical calculation involving wind resistance. Several theories of this mathematical calculation have been proposed over the years, the most recent is a nonlinear integral differential equation based on counterbalancing the wind pressure on any point on the tower with the tension between the construction elements at that point. That shape is exponential. A careful plot of the tower curvature however, reveals two different exponentials, the lower section having a stronger resistance to wind forces.[25][26] The tower sways 6–7 cm (2–3 in) in the wind.[27]

Maintenance

Maintenance of the tower includes applying 50 to 60 tonnes of paint every seven years to protect it from rust.

Aesthetic considerations

In order to maintain a uniform appearance to an observer on the ground, three separate colors of paint are used on the tower, with the darkest on the bottom and the lightest at the top. On occasion the colour of the paint is changed; the tower is currently painted a shade of brownish-grey.[28] On the first floor there are interactive consoles hosting a poll for the colour to use for a future session of painting.

The only non-structural elements are the four decorative grillwork arches, added in Stephen Sauvestre's sketches, which served to reassure visitors that the structure was safe, and to frame views of other nearby architecture.[29][30][31]

Tourism

The Eiffel Tower from the neighborhood

Popularity

More than 200,000,000 people have visited the tower since its construction in 1889,[32] including 6,719,200 in 2006,[27] making it the most visited paid monument in the world.[33][34]

Passenger lifts

Ground to the second level

The Eiffel Tower, October 2007

The original lifts to the first and second floors were provided by two companies. Both companies had to overcome many technical obstacles as neither company (or indeed any company) had experience with installing lifts climbing to such heights with large loads. The slanting tracks with changing angles further complicated the problems. The East and West lifts were supplied by the French company Roux Combaluzier Lepape, using hydraulically powered chains and rollers. Contemporary engravings of the lift cars show that the passengers were seated at this time but it is not clear whether this was conceptual. It would be unnecessary to seat passengers for a journey time of around a couple of minutes. The North and South lifts were provided by the American Otis company using car designs similar to the original installation but using an improved hydraulic and cable scheme. The French lifts had a very poor performance and were replaced with the current installations in 1897 (West Pillar) and 1899 (East Pillar) by Fives-Lille using an improved hydraulic and rope scheme. Both of the original installations operated broadly on the principle of the Fives-Lille lifts.[35][36]

The Fives-Lille lifts from ground level to the first and second levels are operated by cables and pulleys driven by massive water-powered pistons. The hydraulic scheme was somewhat unusual for the time in that it included three large counterweights of 200 tonnes each sitting on top of hydraulic rams which doubled up as accumulators for the water. As the lifts ascend the inclined arc of the pillars, the angle of ascent changes. The two lift cabs are kept more or less level and indeed are level at the landings. The cab floors do take on a slight angle at times between landings.

The Eiffel Tower illuminated in blue to celebrate the French presidency of the EU (July 2008)

The principle behind the lifts is similar to the operation of a block and tackle but in reverse. Two large hydraulic rams (over 1 metre diameter) with a 16 metre travel are mounted horizontally in the base of the pillar which pushes a carriage (the French word for it translates as chariot and this term will be used henceforth to distinguish it from the lift carriage) with 16 large triple sheaves mounted on it. There are 14 similar sheaves mounted staticly. Six wire ropes are rove back and forth between the sheaves such that each rope passes between the 2 sets of sheaves 7 times. The ropes then leave the final sheaves on the chariot and passes up through a series of guiding sheaves to above the second floor and then via a pair of triple sheaves back down to the lift carriage again passing guiding sheaves.

This arrangement means that the lift carriage complete with its cars and passengers travels 8 times the distance that the rams move the chariot which is the 128 metres from the ground to the second floor. The force exerted by the rams also has to be 8 times the total weight of the lift carriage, cars and passengers plus extra to cater for various losses such as friction. The hydraulic fluid was water, normally stored in the 3 accumulators complete with counterbalance weights. To make the lift ascend, water was pumped using an electrically driven pump from the accumulators to the two rams. Since the counterbalance weights provided much of the pressure required, the pump only had to provide the extra effort. For the descent, it was only necessary to allow the water to flow back to the accumulators using a control valve. The lifts were operated by an operator perched precariously underneath the lift cars. His position (with a dummy operator) can still be seen on the lifts today.

A view from above

The Fives-Lille lifts were completely upgraded in 1986 to meet modern safety requirements and to make the lifts easier to operate. A new computer controlled system was installed which completely automated the operation. One of the three counterbalances was taken out of use, and the cars were replaced with a more modern and lighter structure. Most importantly, the main driving force was removed from the original water pump such that the water hydraulic system provided only a counterbalancing function. The main driving force was transferred to a 320 kW electrically driven oil hydraulic pump which drives a pair of hydraulic motors on the chariot itself thus providing the motive power. The new lift cars complete with their carriage and a full 92 passenger load weigh 22 tonnes.

Due to elasticity in the ropes and the time taken to get the cars level with the landings, each lift in normal service takes an average of 8 minutes and 50 seconds to do the round trip spending an average of 1 minute and 15 seconds at each floor. The average journey time between floors is just 1 minute.

The original Otis lifts in the North and South pillars in their turn proved inferior to the new (in 1899) French lifts and were scrapped from the south pillar in 1900 and from the north pillar in 1913 after failed attempts to re-power them with an electric motor. The north and south pillars were to remain without lifts until 1965 when increasing visitor numbers persuaded the operators to install a relatively standard and modern rope hoisted system in the north pillar using a rope hauled counterbalance weight, but hoisted by a block and tackle system to reduce its travel to one third of the lift travel. The counterbalance is clearly visible within the structure of the North pillar. This latter lift was upgraded in 1995 with new cars and computer controls.

The South tower acquired a completely new fairly standard electrically driven lift in 1983 to serve the Jules Verne restaurant. This was also supplied by Otis.

A further 4 tonne service lift was added to the south pillar in 1989 by Otis to relieve the main lifts when moving relatively small loads or even just maintenance personnel.

The east and west hydraulic (water) lift works are on display and, at least in theory, are open to the public in a small museum located in base of the East and West tower, which is somewhat hidden from public view. Because the massive mechanism requires frequent lubrication and attention, public access is often restricted. However, when open, the wait times are much less than the other, more popular, attractions. The rope mechanism of the North tower is visible to visitors as they exit from the lift.

Second to the third level

The original spiral stairs to the third floor which were only 80 centimetres wide. Note also the small service lift in the background.

The original lift from the second to the third floor were also of a water powered hydraulic design supplied by Léon Edoux. Instead of using a separate counterbalance, the two lift cars counterbalanced each other. A pair of 81 metre long hydraulic rams were mounted on the second level reaching nearly half way up to the third level. A lift car was mounted on top of the rams. Ropes ran from the top of this car up to a sheave on the third level and back down to a second car. The result of this arrangement was that each car only travelled half the distance between the second and third levels and passengers were required to change lifts halfway walking between the cars along a narrow gangway with a very impressive and relatively unobstructed downward view. The 10 tonne cars held 65 passengers each or up to 4 tonnes.

One interesting feature of the original installation was that the hoisting rope ran through guides to retain it on windy days to prevent it flapping and becoming damaged. The guides were mechanically moved out of the way of the ascending car by the movement of the car itself. In spite of some antifreeze being added to the water that operated this system, it nevertheless had to close to the public from November to March each year.

The original Hydraulic pump for the Edoux lifts

The original lifts complete with their hydraulic mechanism were completely scrapped in 1982 after 97 years of service. They were replaced with two pairs of relatively standard rope hoisted cars which were able to operate all the year round. The cars operate in pairs with one providing the counterbalance for the other. Neither car can move unless both sets of doors are closed and both operators have given a start command. The commands from the cars to the hoisting mechanism are by radio obviating the necessity of a control cable. The replacement installation also has the advantage that the ascent can be made without changing cars and has reduced the ascent time from 8 minutes (including change) to 1 minute and 40 seconds. This installation also has guides for the hoisting ropes but they are electrically operated. The guide once it has moved out of the way as the car ascends automatically reverses when the car has passed to prevent the mechanism becoming snagged on the car on the downward journey in the event it has failed to completely clear the car. Unfortunately these lifts do not have the capacity to move as many people as the 3 public lower lifts and long queues to ascend to the third level are common. Most of the intermediate level structure present on the tower today was installed when the lifts were replaced and allows maintenance workers to take the lift half way.

The replacement of these lifts allowed the restructuring of the criss-cross beams in upper part of the tower and further allowed the installation of two emergency staircases. These replaced the dangerous winding stairs that were installed when the tower was constructed.

Restaurants

The entrance to Altitude 95.

The tower has two restaurants: Altitude 95, on the first floor 311 ft (95 m) above sea level; and the Jules Verne, an expensive gastronomical restaurant on the second floor, with a private lift. This restaurant has one star in the Michelin Red Guide. In January 2007, the multi-Michelin star chef Alain Ducasse was brought in to run Jules Verne.[37]

Attempted Relocation

Replica at Tianducheng, Hangzhou, China.
Replica at Kings Island near Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
Replica of Eiffel Tower on factory building at Satteldorf near Crailsheim, Germany
Replica in Parizh village, Russia
The Eiffel Tower shape telecommunications tower in Da Lat, Vietnam

According to interviews given in the early 1980s Montreal Mayor Jean Drapeau negotiated a secret agreement with French President Charles DeGaulle for the tower to be dismantled and temporarily relocated to Montreal to serve as a landmark and tourist attraction during Expo 67. The plan was allegedly vetoed by the company which operated the tower out of fear that the French government could refuse permission for the tower to be restored to its original location.[38]

Reproductions

As one of the most iconic images in the world, the Eiffel Tower has been the inspiration for dozens of duplicate and similar towers around the world.

  • The Eiffel Tower was the inspiration for the Blackpool Tower in Blackpool, England. After visiting the Great Paris Exhibition in 1889, the towns mayor John Bickerstaffe commissioned the building of the tower, which has a very similar design and was completed 1894. The main differences are that the Blackpool Tower is approximately half the height of the Eiffel Tower and is not freestanding, the base being contained within buildings which house the Tower Circus. Both the Eiffel Tower and Blackpool Tower feature on the list of the World Federation of Great Towers.

Other Eiffel-inspired towers, in order of decreasing height:

Communications

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the tower has been used for radio transmission. Until the 1950s, an occasionally modified set of antenna wires ran from the summit to anchors on the Avenue de Suffren and Champ de Mars. They were connected to long-wave transmitters in small bunkers; in 1909, a permanent underground radio centre was built near the south pillar and still exists today.[citation needed] On 20 November 1913, the Paris Observatory, using the Eiffel Tower as an antenna, exchanged sustained wireless signals with the United States Naval Observatory which used an antenna in Arlington, Virginia. The object of the transmissions was to measure the difference in longitude between Paris and Washington, D.C.[48] Today, both radio and televisioni stations broadcast their signals from the top of the Eiffel.

FM-radio

Programme Frequency ERP
France Inter 87.8 MHz 10 kW
RFI Paris 89.0 MHz 10 kW
TSF Jazz 89.9 MHz 6 kW
Nostalgie 90.4 MHz 10 kW
Chante France 90.9 MHz 4 kW

Television

Programme Channel-Number Frequency ERP
Canal+ 6 182,25 MHz 100 kW
France 2 22 479,25 MHz 500 kW
TF1 25 503,25 MHz 500 kW
France 3 28 527,25 MHz 500 kW
France 5 30 543,25 MHz 100 kW
M6 33 567,25 MHz 100 kW

Image copyright claims

Panoramic view from underneath the Eiffel Tower.

The tower and its representations have long been in the public domain; however, a French court ruled, in March 1992, that the night-time light display is protected under copyright, except in a panoramic view. SNTE (Société nouvelle d'exploitation de la tour Eiffel) installed a special lighting display on the tower in 1989, for the tower's 100th anniversary. Court of Cassation, France's judicial court of last resort, decided that the display was an "original visual creation" protected by copyright.[49] Since then, the SNTE considers any night-time image of the lighting display under copyright. As a result, it is no longer legal to publish contemporary photographs of the tower at night without permission in France and some other countries.[50][51]

The Eiffel Tower and the Seine at night

The imposition of copyright has been controversial. The Director of Documentation for SNTE, Stéphane Dieu, commented in January 2005, "It is really just a way to manage commercial use of the image, so that it isn't used in ways we don't approve." However, it also potentially has the effect of prohibiting tourist photographs of the tower at night from being published,[52] as well as hindering non-profit and semi-commercial publication of images of the tower. Besides, French doctrine and jurisprudence traditionally allow pictures incorporating a copyrighted work as long as their presence is incidental or accessory to the main represented subject[53], a reasoning akin to the De minimis rule. Thus, SNTE could not claim copyright on photographs of panoramas of Paris incorporating the lit tower.

In popular culture

As a global landmark, the Eiffel Tower is featured in media including films, video games, and television shows.

Taller structures

Although it was the world's tallest structure when completed in 1889, the Eiffel Tower has since lost its standing both as the tallest lattice tower and as the tallest structure in France.

Lattice towers taller than the Eiffel Tower

Name Pinnacle height Year Country Town Remarks
Kiev TV Tower 1,263 ft (385 m) 1973 Ukraine Kiev Tallest lattice tower of the world
Tashkent Tower 1,230 ft (375 m) 1985 Uzbekistan Tashkent
Pylons of Yangtze River Crossing 1,137 ft (347 m) 2003 People’s Republic of China Jiangyin 2 towers, tallest pylons in the world
Dragon Tower 1,102 ft (336 m) 2000 People’s Republic of China Harbin
Tokyo Tower 1,091 ft (333 m) 1958 Japan Tokyo
WITI TV Tower 1,078 ft (329 m) 1962 U.S. Shorewood, Wisconsin
WSB TV Tower 1,075 ft (328 m) 1957 U.S. Atlanta, Georgia

Architectural structures in France taller than the Eiffel Tower

Name Pinnacle height Year Structure type Town Remarks
Longwave transmitter Allouis 350 m 1974 Guyed Mast Allouis
HWU transmitter 350 m  ? Guyed Mast Rosnay Multiple masts
Viaduc de Millau 343 m 2004 Bridge Pillar Millau
TV Mast Niort-Maisonnay 330 m  ? Guyed Mast Niort
Transmitter Le Mans-Mayet 342 m 1993 Guyed Mast Mayet
Transmitter Roumoules 330 m 1974 Guyed Mast Roumoules spare transmission mast for long wave, insulated against ground

Other structures carrying this name

Gallery

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/chiffres/page/identite.html?id=4_14
  2. ^ http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/dossiers/index.html?id=4_12
  3. ^ http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/structure/page/structure.html?id=4_13
  4. ^ http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/structure/page/chronologie.html
  5. ^ http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/structure/page/chiffres.html
  6. ^ http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/structure/page/lexique.html
  7. ^ http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/pdf/about_the%20Eiffel_Tower.pdf?id=4_11
  8. ^ http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/chiffres/page/entreprise.html
  9. ^ http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/chiffres/page/usine.html
  10. ^ The Eiffel Tower as a World monument
  11. ^ http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/structure/page/chiffres.html
  12. ^ Watson, William. Paris Universal Exposition: Civil Engineering, Public Works, and Architecture (Washington: Government Printing office, 1892), 833.
  13. ^ Jonnes, Jill (2009). Eiffel's Tower: And the World's Fair Where Buffalo Bill Beguiled Paris, the Artists Quarreled, and Thomas Edison Became a Count. Viking Adult. pp. 163–64. ISBN 978-0670020607. 
  14. ^ Conception and design of the Eiffel Tower
  15. ^ Wulf, Theodor. Physikalische Zeitschrift, contains results of the four-day long observation done by Theodor Wulf while at the top of the Eiffel Tower in 1910.
  16. ^ Letcher, Piers (2003). Eccentric France. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 105. ISBN 978-1841620688. 
  17. ^ "A Bonanza in Paris". http://proairshow.com/Eiffel.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-04. 
  18. ^ http://www.smh.com.au/news/world/extreme-bid-to-stretch-bungy-record/2007/02/27/1172338606150.html
  19. ^ "The Eiffel Tower: Paris' Grande Dame". france.com. http://www.france.com/docs/97.html. Retrieved 2007-07-24. 
  20. ^ "Soirée réussie le 28 novembre pour fêter l'année du 200 millionième visiteur" (in French). Official Site. 2002. http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/fr/actualites/page/news_list.html?Year=2002#News122. Retrieved 2007-07-24. 
  21. ^ Porter, Darwin; Prince, D; McDonald, G; Mastrini, H; Marker, S; Princz, A; Bánfalvy, C; Kutor, A; Lakos, N (2006). Frommer's Europe. 9th ed.. Frommer's. p. 318. ISBN 978-0471922650. 
  22. ^ "All You Need To Know About the Eiffel Tower". Official Site. http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/pdf/about_the%20Eiffel_Tower.pdf?id=4_11. Retrieved 2009-01-09. 
  23. ^ The Eiffel Tower Official Website
  24. ^ Translated from the French newspaper Le Temps of 14 February 1887. Extrait de la réponse d'Eiffel
  25. ^ Elegant Shape Of Eiffel Tower Solved Mathematically By University Of Colorado Professor
  26. ^ The Virginia Engineer: Correct Theory Explaining The Eiffel Tower’s Design Revealed
  27. ^ a b A few statistics
  28. ^ Painting the Eiffel Tower
  29. ^ Corus in construction - Exhibition buildings
  30. ^ The annotated arch: a crash course in the history of architecture, By Carol Strickland, Amy Handy - Google Books
  31. ^ Space, time and architecture: the growth of a new tradition, By Sigfried Giedion - Google Books
  32. ^ Number of visitors since 1889
  33. ^ The Guardian: New look for Eiffel Tower
  34. ^ LeMonde.fr : Tour Eiffel et souvenirs de Paris
  35. ^ http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/dossiers/page/construction.html
  36. ^ Société nouvelle d'exploitation de la tour Eiffel
  37. ^ Paris France Guide: Paris Hotels, Food, Wine and Discounts - The Eiffel Tower Breaking News
  38. ^ [1]
  39. ^ Reuters.com
  40. ^ Le Figaro – Actualité en direct et informations en continu
  41. ^ Disney's official French Pavilion page — lists the Eiffel Tower as approximately 1/10th the height of the original.
  42. ^ Eiffel Tower
  43. ^ :: Falconcity of Wonders (L.L.C) ::
  44. ^ First World Plaza. Retrieved on 2008-09-13
  45. ^ Tower model at Filiatra
  46. ^ Photograph of Filiatra tower
  47. ^ LUGNET Set Guide
  48. ^ "Paris Time By Wireless", New York Times, 22 November 1913, pg 1.
  49. ^ Cass. 1re civ., 3 March 1992, RIDA 1994 no. 159, p.113.
  50. ^ Statement that publishing pictures of the lighting requires a fee
  51. ^ In the United States, for example, 17 U.S.C. § 120(a) explicitly permits the publication of photographs of copyrighted architecture in public spaces. In Germany this is known as Panoramafreiheit.
  52. ^ Eiffel Tower: Repossessed
  53. ^ E.g. "La représentation d'une œuvre située dans un lieu public n'est licite que lorsqu'elle est accessoire par rapport au sujet principal représenté ou traité"; Cass. 1re civ. 4 juillet 1995. Christophe Caron, Droit d'auteur et droits voisins, Litec, 2006, §365.
  54. ^ Eiffel Tower Co-op — SkyscraperPage.com

Further reading

  • 1889 La Tour Eiffel et L’Exposition Universelle, Musee d’Orsay, 16 May – 15 August 1989 [exhibition catalog]. Paris: Editions de la Reunion des Musees Nationaux, 1989
  • Frémy, Dominique, Quid de la Tour Eiffel, Robert Lafont, Paris (1989) — out of print
  • Engineering. The Paris Exhibition, 3 May 1889 (Vol. XLVII). London: Office for Advertisements and Publication.
  • Eiffel's Tower by Jill Jonnes (Viking 2009)
  • Watson, William. Paris Universal Exposition: Civil Engineering, Public Works, and Architecture. Washington [DC], Government Printing Office, 1892.
  • Chanson, Hubert (2009). Hydraulic Engineering Legends Listed on the Eiffel Tower, in "Great Rivers History", ASCE-EWRI Publication, Proceedings of the History Symposium of the World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2009, Kansas City, USA, 17-19 May, J.R. ROGERS Ed., pp. 1-7 (ISBN 9780784410325)

External links

Records
Preceded by
Washington Monument
World's tallest structure
1889—1931
300.24m
Succeeded by
Chrysler Building


Eiffel Tower
La Tour Eiffel
File:Tour Eiffel Wikimedia
The Eiffel Tower as seen from the Champ de Mars

Eiffel Tower was the world's tallest building from 1889 to 1930.[I]
General information
Location Paris, France
Coordinates 48°51′30″N 2°17′40″E / 48.8583°N 2.2945°E / 48.8583; 2.2945Coordinates: 48°51′30″N 2°17′40″E / 48.8583°N 2.2945°E / 48.8583; 2.2945
Status Complete
Constructed 1887–1889
Opening March 31, 1889
Use Observation tower,
Radio broadcasting tower
Height
Antenna or spire 324.00 m (1,063 ft)
Roof 300.65 m (986 ft)
Top floor 273.00 m (896 ft)
Technical details
Floor count 3
Elevators 7
Companies involved
Architect(s) Stephen Sauvestre
Structural engineer Maurice Koechlin,
Émile Nouguier
Contractor Gustave Eiffel & Cie
Owner City of Paris, France (100%)
Management Société d'Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel (SETE)
References: [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]

^ Fully habitable, self-supported, from main entrance to highest structural or architectural top; see the list of tallest buildings in the world for other listings.

The Eiffel Tower (French: La Tour Eiffel, [tuʁ ɛfɛl], nickname La dame de fer, the iron lady) is an 1889 iron lattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris that has become both a global icon of France and one of the most recognizable structures in the world. The tallest building in Paris,[10] it is the most-visited paid monument in the world; millions of people ascend it every year. Named for its designer, engineer Gustave Eiffel, the tower was built as the entrance arch to the 1889 World's Fair.

The tower stands 324 metres (1,063 ft) tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building. It was the tallest man-made structure in the world from its completion until the Chrysler Building in New York City was built in 1930. Not including broadcast antennas, it is the second-tallest structure in France after the 2004 Millau Viaduct.

The tower has three levels for visitors. Tickets can be purchased to ascend, by stairs or lift, to the first and second levels. The walk to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the walk from the first to the second level. The third and highest level is accessible only by elevator. Both the first and second levels feature restaurants.

The tower has become the most prominent symbol of both Paris and France, often in the establishing shot of films set in the city.

Contents

History

File:Vue Lumière No 992 - Panorama pendant l'ascension de la Tour Eiffel (1898).ogv
Panoramic view during ascension of the Eiffel Tower by the Lumière brothers, 1898
File:Reichelt.ogg
Franz Reichelt's preparations and fall from the Eiffel Tower.


The structure was built between 1887 and 1889 as the entrance arch for the Exposition Universelle, a World's Fair marking the centennial celebration of the French Revolution. Three hundred workers joined together 18,038 pieces of puddled iron (a very pure form of structural iron), using two and a half million rivets, in a structural design by Maurice Koechlin. Eiffel was assisted in the design by engineers Émile Nouguier and Maurice Koechlin and architect Stephen Sauvestre.[11] The risk of accident was great as, unlike modern skyscrapers, the tower is an open frame without any intermediate floors except the two platforms. However, because Eiffel took safety precautions, including the use of movable stagings, guard-rails and screens, only one man died. The tower was inaugurated on 31 March 1889, and opened on 6 May.

The tower was much criticised by the public when it was built, with many calling it an eyesore. Newspapers of the day were filled with angry letters from the arts community of Paris. One is quoted extensively in William Watson's US Government Printing Office publication of 1892 Paris Universal Exposition: Civil Engineering, Public Works, and Architecture: "And during twenty years we shall see, stretching over the entire city, still thrilling with the genius of so many centuries, we shall see stretching out like a black blot the odious shadow of the odious column built up of riveted iron plates."[12] Signers of this letter included Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier, Charles Gounod, Charles Garnier, Jean-Léon Gérôme, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, and Alexandre Dumas.

Novelist Guy de Maupassant—who claimed to hate the tower[13]—supposedly ate lunch in the Tower's restaurant every day. When asked why, he answered that it was the one place in Paris where one could not see the structure. Today, the Tower is widely considered to be a striking piece of structural art.

One of the great Hollywood movie clichés is that the view from a Parisian window always includes the tower. In reality, since zoning restrictions limit the height of most buildings in Paris to 7 stories, only a very few of the taller buildings have a clear view of the tower.

Eiffel had a permit for the tower to stand for 20 years; it was to be dismantled in 1909, when its ownership would revert to the City of Paris. The City had planned to tear it down (part of the original contest rules for designing a tower was that it could be easily demolished) but as the tower proved valuable for communication purposes, it was allowed to remain after the expiry of the permit. The military used it to dispatch Parisian taxis to the front line during the First Battle of the Marne.

Timeline of events

10 September 1889
Thomas Edison visited the tower. He signed the guestbook with the following message—
To M Eiffel the Engineer the brave builder of so gigantic and original specimen of modern Engineering from one who has the greatest respect and admiration for all Engineers including the Great Engineer the Bon Dieu, Thomas Edison.
1910
Father Theodor Wulf measured radiant energy at the top and bottom of the tower, discovering at the top more than was expected, and thereby detecting what are today known as cosmic rays.[14]
4 February 1912
Austrian tailor Franz Reichelt died after jumping 60 metres from the first deck of Eiffel tower with his home-made parachute.
1914
a radio transmitter located in the tower jammed German radio communications during the lead-up to the First Battle of the Marne
1925
The con artist Victor Lustig "sold" the tower for scrap metal on two separate, but related occasions.[15]
1930
The tower lost the title of the world's tallest structure when the Chrysler Building was completed in New York City.
1925 to 1934
Illuminated signs for Citroën adorned three of the tower's four sides, making it the tallest advertising space in the world at the time.
1940-1944
Upon the German occupation of Paris in 1940, the lift cables were cut by the French so that Adolf Hitler would have to climb the steps to the summit. The parts to repair them were allegedly impossible to obtain because of the war. In 1940 German soldiers had to climb to the top to hoist the swastika, but the flag was so large it blew away just a few hours later, and was replaced by a smaller one. When visiting Paris, Hitler chose to stay on the ground. It was said that Hitler conquered France, but did not conquer the Eiffel Tower. A Frenchman scaled the tower during the German occupation to hang the French flag. In August 1944, when the Allies were nearing Paris, Hitler ordered General Dietrich von Choltitz, the military governor of Paris, to demolish the tower along with the rest of the city. Von Choltitz disobeyed the order. Some say Hitler was later persuaded to keep the tower intact so it could later be used for communications. The lifts of the Tower were working normally within hours of the Liberation of Paris.
3 January 1956
A fire damaged the top of the tower.
1957
The present radio antenna was added to the top.
1980s
A restaurant and its supporting iron scaffolding midway up the tower was dismantled; it was purchased and reconstructed on St. Charles Avenue and Joesphine Street in Garden District of New Orleans, Louisiana, by entrepreneurs John Onorio and Daniel Bonnot, originally as the Tour Eiffel Restaurant, later as the Red Room and now as the Cricket Club (owned by the New Orleans Culinary Institute). The restaurant was re-assembled from 11,000 pieces that crossed the Atlantic in a 40-foot (12 m) cargo container.
31 March 1984
Robert Moriarty flew a Beechcraft Bonanza through the arches of the tower.[16]
1987
A.J. Hackett made one of his first bungee jumps from the top of the Eiffel Tower, using a special cord he had helped develop. Hackett was arrested by the Paris police upon reaching the ground.[17]
27 October 1991
Thierry Devaux, along with mountain guide Hervé Calvayrac, performed a series of acrobatic figures of bungee jump (not allowed) from the second floor of the Tower. Facing to Champ de Mars, Thierry Devaux was using an electric winch between each figure to go back up. When firemen arrived, he stopped after the sixth bungee jump.[18]
14 July 1995
Bastille Day, French synthesiser musician Jean Michel Jarre performed Concert For Tolerance at the tower in aid of UNESCO. The free concert was attended by an estimated 1.5 million people, filling the Champ de Mars. The concert featured lighting and projection effects on the tower, and a huge fireworks display throughout. Three years later he returned to the same spot for a more dance music-oriented show, Electronic Night.
New Year's Eve 1999
The Eiffel Tower played host to Paris' Millennium Celebration. On this occasion, flashing lights and four high-power searchlights were installed on the tower, and fireworks were set off all over it. An exhibition above a cafeteria on the first floor commemorates this event. Since then, the light show has become a nightly event. The searchlights on top of the tower make it a beacon in Paris' night sky, and the 20,000 flash bulbs give the tower a sparkly appearance every hour on the hour.[19]
28 November 2002
The tower received its 200,000,000th guest.[20][21]
22 July 2003
At 19:20, a fire occurred at the top of the tower in the broadcasting equipment room. The entire tower was evacuated; the fire was extinguished after 40 minutes, and there were no reports of injuries.
2004
The Eiffel Tower began hosting an ice skating rink on the first floor each winter.[22]
2008
At the start of the French presidency of the European Union in the second half of 2008, the twelve golden stars of the European flag were mounted on the base, and whole tower bathed in blue light.
14 September 2010
Both the Eiffel Tower and Champ de Mars were evacuated following a bomb threat. And after a search of the area, no bomb was found. The tower and Champ de Mars were reopened the next day.[23][24]

Engraved names

Gustave Eiffel engraved on the tower seventy-two names of French scientists, engineers and other notable people. This engraving was painted over at the beginning of the twentieth century but restored in 1986–1987 by the Société Nouvelle d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel, a company contracted to operate business related to the Tower.

Design of the tower

Material

The metal structure of the Eiffel Tower weighs 7,300 tonnes while the entire structure, including non-metal components, is approximately 10,000 tonnes. As a demonstration of the economy of design, if the 7,300 tonnes of the metal structure were melted down it would fill the 125 metre square base to a depth of only 6 cm (2.36 in), assuming the density of the metal to be 7.8 tonnes per cubic metre. Depending on the ambient temperature, the top of the tower may shift away from the sun by up to 18 cm (7.1 in) because of thermal expansion of the metal on the side facing the sun.

File:Tour Eiffel
The third floor of the Eiffel Tower, at night, seen from Trocadéro

]]

Wind considerations

At the time the tower was built many people were shocked by its daring shape. Eiffel was criticised for the design and accused of trying to create something artistic, or inartistic according to the viewer, without regard to engineering. Eiffel and his engineers, however, as experienced bridge builders, understood the importance of wind forces and knew that if they were going to build the tallest structure in the world they had to be certain it would withstand the wind. In an interview reported in the newspaper Le Temps, Eiffel said:

Now to what phenomenon did I give primary concern in designing the Tower? It was wind resistance. Well then! I hold that the curvature of the monument's four outer edges, which is as mathematical calculation dictated it should be [...] will give a great impression of strength and beauty, for it will reveal to the eyes of the observer the boldness of the design as a whole.[25]

The shape of the tower was determined by empirical methods accounting for the effects of wind, and graphical methods, without an overall mathematical framework. Careful examination of the tower shows a basically exponential shape; actually two different exponentials, the lower section overdesigned to ensure resistance to wind forces.

Several explanations have been proposed over the years; the most recent is a nonlinear integral equation based on counterbalancing the wind pressure on any point on the tower with the tension between the construction elements at that point.[26][27] The tower sways 6–7 cm (2–3 in) in the wind.[28]

Maintenance

Maintenance of the tower includes applying 50 to 60 tonnes of paint every seven years to protect it from rust.

Aesthetic considerations

In order to maintain a uniform appearance to an observer on the ground, three separate colours of paint are used on the tower, with the darkest on the bottom and the lightest at the top. On occasion the colour of the paint is changed; the tower is currently painted a shade of brownish-grey.[29] On the first floor there are interactive consoles hosting a poll for the colour to use for a future session of painting.

The only non-structural elements are the four decorative grillwork arches, added in Stephen Sauvestre's sketches, which served to reassure visitors that the structure was safe, and to frame views of other nearby architecture.[30][31][32]

Tourism

Popularity

More than 200,000,000 people have visited the tower since its construction in 1889,[33] including 6,719,200 in 2006.[28] The tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world.[34][35]

Passenger Elevators

File:Eiffel Tower and Mars
View of Eiffel Tower from the Montparnasse Tower.

Ground to the second level

The original elevators to the first and second floors were provided by two companies. Both companies had to overcome many technical obstacles as neither company (or indeed any company) had experience with installing elevators climbing to such heights with large loads. The slanting tracks with changing angles further complicated the problems. The East and West elevators were supplied by the French company Roux Combaluzier Lepape, using hydraulically powered chains and rollers. Contemporary engravings of the elevators cars show that the passengers were seated at this time but it is not clear whether this was conceptual. It would be unnecessary to seat passengers for a journey of a couple of minutes. The North and South elevators were provided by the American company Otis using car designs similar to the original installation but using an improved hydraulic and cable scheme. The French elevators had a very poor performance and were replaced with the current installations in 1897 (West Pillar) and 1899 (East Pillar) by Fives-Lille using an improved hydraulic and rope scheme. Both of the original installations operated broadly on the principle of the Fives-Lille lifts.[36][37]

The Fives-Lille elevators from ground level to the first and second levels are operated by cables and pulleys driven by massive water-powered pistons. The hydraulic scheme was somewhat unusual for the time in that it included three large counterweights of 200 tonnes each sitting on top of hydraulic rams which doubled up as accumulators for the water. As the elevators ascend the inclined arc of the pillars, the angle of ascent changes. The two elevator cabs are kept more or less level and indeed are level at the landings. The cab floors do take on a slight angle at times between landings.

(July 2008)]]

The principle behind the elevators is similar to the operation of a block and tackle but in reverse. Two large hydraulic rams (over 1 metre diameter) with a 16 metre travel are mounted horizontally in the base of the pillar which pushes a carriage (the French word for it translates as chariot and this term will be used henceforth to distinguish it from the elevator carriage) with 16 large triple sheaves mounted on it. There are 14 similar sheaves mounted statically. Six wire ropes are rove back and forth between the sheaves such that each rope passes between the 2 sets of sheaves 7 times. The ropes then leave the final sheaves on the chariot and passes up through a series of guiding sheaves to above the second floor and then via a pair of triple sheaves back down to the lift carriage again passing guiding sheaves.

This arrangement means that the elevator carriage, complete with its cars and passengers, travels 8 times the distance that the rams move the chariot, the 128 metres from the ground to the second floor. The force exerted by the rams also has to be 8 times the total weight of the lift carriage, cars and passengers, plus extra to account for various losses such as friction. The hydraulic fluid was water, normally stored in three accumulators, complete with counterbalance weights. To make the elevator ascend, water was pumped using an electrically driven pump from the accumulators to the two rams. Since the counterbalance weights provided much of the pressure required, the pump only had to provide the extra effort. For the descent, it was only necessary to allow the water to flow back to the accumulators using a control valve. The lifts were operated by an operator perched precariously underneath the lift cars. His position (with a dummy operator) can still be seen on the lifts today.

The Fives-Lille elevators were completely upgraded in 1986 to meet modern safety requirements and to make the elevators easier to operate. A new computer controlled system was installed which completely automated the operation. One of the three counterbalances was taken out of use, and the cars were replaced with a more modern and lighter structure. Most importantly, the main driving force was removed from the original water pump such that the water hydraulic system provided only a counterbalancing function. The main driving force was transferred to a 320 kW electrically driven oil hydraulic pump which drives a pair of hydraulic motors on the chariot itself, thus providing the motive power. The new lift cars complete with their carriage and a full 92 passenger load weigh 22 tonnes.

Due to elasticity in the ropes and the time taken to get the cars level with the landings, each elevator in normal service takes an average of 8 minutes and 50 seconds to do the round trip, spending an average of 1 minute and 15 seconds at each floor. The average journey time between floors is just 1 minute.

The original Otis elevators in the North and South pillars in their turn proved to be inferior to the new (in 1899) French elevators and were scrapped from the South pillar in 1900 and from the North pillar in 1913 after failed attempts to re-power them with an electric motor. The North and South pillars were to remain without elevators until 1965 when increasing visitor numbers persuaded the operators to install a relatively standard and modern cable hoisted system in the north pillar using a cable-hauled counterbalance weight, but hoisted by a block and tackle system to reduce its travel to one third of the elevator travel. The counterbalance is clearly visible within the structure of the North pillar. This latter elevator was upgraded in 1995 with new cars and computer controls.

The South pillar acquired a completely new fairly standard electrically driven elevator in 1983 to serve the Jules Verne restaurant. This was also supplied by Otis. A further four-ton service elevator was added to the South pillar in 1989 by Otis to relieve the main elevators when moving relatively small loads or even just maintenance personnel.

The East and West hydraulic (water) elevator works are on display and, at least in theory, are open to the public in a small museum located in base of the East and West tower, which is somewhat hidden from public view. Because the massive mechanism requires frequent lubrication and attention, public access is often restricted. However, when open, the wait times are much less than the other, more popular, attractions. The rope mechanism of the North tower is visible to visitors as they exit from the elevator .

Second to the third level

The original elevators from the second to the third floor were also of a water-powered hydraulic design supplied by Léon Edoux. Instead of using a separate counterbalance, the two elevator cars counterbalanced each other. A pair of 81 metre long hydraulic rams were mounted on the second level reaching nearly half way up to the third level. An elevator car was mounted on top of the rams. Ropes ran from the top of this car up to a sheave on the third level and back down to a second car. The result of this arrangement was that each car only travelled half the distance between the second and third levels and passengers were required to change elevators halfway walking between the cars along a narrow gangway with a very impressive and relatively unobstructed downward view. The ten-ton cars held 65 passengers each or up to four tons.

One interesting feature of the original installation was that the hoisting rope ran through guides to retain it on windy days to prevent it flapping and becoming damaged. The guides were mechanically moved out of the way of the ascending car by the movement of the car itself. In spite of some antifreeze being added to the water that operated this system, it nevertheless had to close to the public from November to March each year.

File:View from eiffel tower 2nd
View from the South-East edge on the second level.

The original elevators complete with their hydraulic mechanism were completely scrapped in 1982 after 97 years of service. They were replaced with two pairs of relatively standard rope hoisted cars which were able to operate all the year round. The cars operate in pairs with one providing the counterbalance for the other. Neither car can move unless both sets of doors are closed and both operators have given a start command. The commands from the cars to the hoisting mechanism are by radio obviating the necessity of a control cable. The replacement installation also has the advantage that the ascent can be made without changing cars and has reduced the ascent time from 8 minutes (including change) to 1 minute and 40 seconds. This installation also has guides for the hoisting ropes but they are electrically operated. The guide once it has moved out of the way as the car ascends automatically reverses when the car has passed to prevent the mechanism becoming snagged on the car on the downward journey in the event it has failed to completely clear the car. Unfortunately these elevators do not have the capacity to move as many people as the three public lower elevators and long lines to ascend to the third level are common. Most of the intermediate level structure present on the tower today was installed when the elevators were replaced and allows maintenance workers to take the elevator half way.

The replacement of these elevators allowed the restructuring of the criss-cross beams in upper part of the tower and further allowed the installation of two emergency staircases. These replaced the dangerous winding stairs that were installed when the tower was constructed.


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Restaurants

The tower has two restaurants: Altitude 95, on the first floor 311 ft (95 m) above sea level; and the Jules Verne, an expensive gastronomical restaurant on the second floor, with a private lift. This restaurant has one star in the Michelin Red Guide. In January 2007, the multi-Michelin star chef Alain Ducasse was brought in to run Jules Verne.[38]

Attempted Relocation

According to interviews given in the early 1980s Montreal Mayor Jean Drapeau negotiated a secret agreement with French President Charles de Gaulle for the tower to be dismantled and temporarily relocated to Montreal to serve as a landmark and tourist attraction during Expo 67. The plan was allegedly vetoed by the company which operated the tower out of fear that the French government could refuse permission for the tower to be restored to its original location.[39]

Reproductions

As one of the most iconic images in the world, the Eiffel Tower has been the inspiration for the creation of over 30 duplicates and similar towers around the world.

  • The Eiffel Tower was the inspiration for the Blackpool Tower in Blackpool, England. After visiting the Great Paris Exhibition in 1889, the town's mayor John Bickerstaffe commissioned the building of the tower, which has a very similar design and was completed 1894. The main differences are that the Blackpool Tower is approximately half the height of the Eiffel Tower and is not freestanding, the base being contained within buildings which house the Tower Circus. Both the Eiffel Tower and Blackpool Tower feature on the list of the World Federation of Great Towers.

Other Eiffel-inspired towers, in order of decreasing height:

Communications

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the tower has been used for radio transmission. Until the 1950s, an occasionally modified set of antenna wires ran from the summit to anchors on the Avenue de Suffren and Champ de Mars. They were connected to long-wave transmitters in small bunkers; in 1909, a permanent underground radio centre was built near the south pillar and still exists today. On 20 November 1913, the Paris Observatory, using the Eiffel Tower as an antenna, exchanged sustained wireless signals with the United States Naval Observatory which used an antenna in Arlington, Virginia. The object of the transmissions was to measure the difference in longitude between Paris and Washington, D.C.[50] Today, both radio and television stations broadcast their signals from the top of the Eiffel.

FM-radio

Programme Frequency ERP
France Inter 87.8 MHz 10 kW
RFI Paris 89.0 MHz 10 kW
TSF Jazz 89.9 MHz 6 kW
Nostalgie 90.4 MHz 10 kW
Chante France 90.9 MHz 4 kW

Television

Programme Channel-Number Frequency ERP
Canal+ 6 182,25 MHz 100 kW
France 2 22 479,25 MHz 500 kW
TF1 25 503,25 MHz 500 kW
France 3 28 527,25 MHz 500 kW
France 5 30 543,25 MHz 100 kW
M6 33 567,25 MHz 100 kW

Image copyright claims

The tower and its representations have long been in the public domain; however, a French court ruled, in March 1992, that the night-time light display is protected under copyright, except in a panoramic view. SNTE (Société nouvelle d'exploitation de la tour Eiffel) installed a special lighting display on the tower in 1989, for the tower's 100th anniversary. The Court of Cassation, France's judicial court of last resort, decided that the display was an "original visual creation" protected by copyright.[51] Since then, the SNTE considers any night-time image of the lighting display under copyright. As a result, it is no longer legal to publish contemporary photographs of the tower at night without permission in France and some other countries.[52][53]

The imposition of copyright has been controversial. The Director of Documentation for SNTE, Stéphane Dieu, commented in January 2005, "It is really just a way to manage commercial use of the image, so that it isn't used in ways we don't approve." However, it also potentially has the effect of prohibiting tourist photographs of the tower at night from being published,[54] as well as hindering non-profit and semi-commercial publication of images of the tower. Besides, French doctrine and jurisprudence traditionally allow pictures incorporating a copyrighted work as long as their presence is incidental or accessory to the main represented subject,[55] a reasoning akin to the De minimis rule. Thus, SNTE could not claim copyright on photographs of panoramas of Paris incorporating the lit tower.

In popular culture

As a global landmark, the Eiffel Tower is featured in media including films, video games, and television shows.

In a commitment ceremony in 2007, Erika Eiffel, an American woman famously "married" the Eiffel Tower. Her relationship with the tower has been the subject of extensive global publicity.[56]

Taller structures

Although it was the world's tallest structure when completed in 1889, the Eiffel Tower has since lost its standing both as the tallest lattice tower and as the tallest structure in France.

Lattice towers taller than the Eiffel Tower

Name Pinnacle height Year Country Town Remarks
Kiev TV Tower 1,263 ft (385 m) 1973 Ukraine Kiev Tallest lattice tower of the world
Tashkent Tower 1,230 ft (375 m) 1985 Uzbekistan Tashkent
Pylons of Yangtze River Crossing 1,137 ft (347 m) 2003 People's Republic of China Jiangyin 2 towers, tallest pylons in the world
Dragon Tower 1,102 ft (336 m) 2000 People's Republic of China Harbin
Tokyo Tower 1,091 ft (333 m) 1958 Japan Tokyo
WITI TV Tower 1,078 ft (329 m) 1962 U.S. Shorewood, Wisconsin
WSB TV Tower 1,075 ft (328 m) 1957 U.S. Atlanta, Georgia

Architectural structures in France taller than the Eiffel Tower

Name Pinnacle height Year Structure type Town Remarks
Longwave transmitter Allouis 350 m 1974 Guyed Mast Allouis
HWU transmitter 350 m  ? Guyed Mast Rosnay Multiple masts
Viaduc de Millau 343 m 2004 Bridge Pillar Millau
TV Mast Niort-Maisonnay 330 m  ? Guyed Mast Niort
Transmitter Le Mans-Mayet 342 m 1993 Guyed Mast Mayet
Transmitter Roumoules 330 m 1974 Guyed Mast Roumoules spare transmission mast for long wave, insulated against ground

Other structures carrying this name

Gallery

See also

File:Arc Triomphe.jpg Paris portal

References

Further reading

  • 1889 La Tour Eiffel et L’Exposition Universelle, Musée d'Orsay, 16 May – 15 August 1989 [exhibition catalog]. Paris: Editions de la Reunion des Musees Nationaux, 1989
  • Frémy, Dominique, Quid de la Tour Eiffel, Robert Lafont, Paris (1989) — out of print
  • Engineering. The Paris Exhibition, 3 May 1889 (Vol. XLVII). London: Office for Advertisements and Publication.
  • Eiffel's Tower by Jill Jonnes (Viking 2009)
  • Watson, William. Paris Universal Exposition: Civil Engineering, Public Works, and Architecture. Washington [DC], Government Printing Office, 1892.
  • Chanson, Hubert (2009). Hydraulic Engineering Legends Listed on the Eiffel Tower, in "Great Rivers History", ASCE-EWRI Publication, Proceedings of the History Symposium of the World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2009, Kansas City, USA, 17–19 May, J.R. ROGERS Ed., pp. 1–7 (ISBN 978-0-7844-1032-5)

External links

Records
Preceded by
Washington Monument
World's tallest structure
1889—1931
300.24m
Succeeded by
Chrysler Building


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Paris/7th arrondissement article)

From Wikitravel

Europe : France : Île-de-France : Paris : 7th arrondissement
Eiffel Tower Reflection from "gadl"
Eiffel Tower Reflection from "gadl"

The 7th arrondissement is perhaps the most expensive area to live in Paris, the Eiffel Tower, one of the most famous tourist sites in the world, is located here, as well as many government buildings (ministries, the National Assembly and so on). Many dignitaries and VIPs populate this arrondissement.

Expect high prices at cafés and restaurants.

Get in

By Métro/RER

Line 6 serves stations Bir-Hakeim (Eiffel Tower), Sevres-Babylon (Le Bon Marche).

Line 8 serves stations Invalides (Les Invalides), Varenne (Les Invalides, Musee de Rodin), Ecole-Militaire (Eiffel Tower), Latour Maubourg(Hotel des Invalides).

Line 10 serves station Sevres-Babylon(Le Bon Marche).

Line 13 serves stations Invalides(Les Invalides).

RER-C serves stations Invalides (Les Invalides), Champ de Mars-Tour Eiffel (Eiffel Tower), Musee D'Orsay (Musee D'Orsay).

  • Batobus [1], the hop on hop off service along the tourist sites on the Seine has stops at Tour Eiffel and the Musee d'Orsay.
Map of the 7th Arrondissement
Map of the 7th Arrondissement

Eiffel Tower Light Show

From dusk till 2 am there is a light show for ten minutes on every hour.

L'Eglise du Dome
L'Eglise du Dome
  • La Tour Eiffel (The Eiffel Tower), (Métro: Bir-Hakeim or Ecole Militiare, RER-C Champ de Mars-TourEiffel), +33 1 14 52 14 90. A symbol of Paris and one of the most famous landmarks in the world. Built by Gustave Eiffel in 1887-1889, the tower was almost torn down in 1909 and only saved due to its use as a telegraphy antenna. Note that the queues can be very long. Entry to the Eiffel Tower is on a first come, first served basis; the tower does not offer advance tickets or accept reservations. The North, West and East pillars have elevators that go to the first and second floors; the South pillar has stairs that can be climbed to the second floor. To reach the top floor, an additional elevator ride is required, and the wait for this can be very long as well. Taking the Métro as far as Ecole Militiare and then strolling up the Champ de Mars is a lovely way to arrive at the tower.  edit
Napoleon's Tomb in l'Eglise du Dôme
Napoleon's Tomb in l'Eglise du Dôme
  • l'Assemblée Nationale, 33 quai d'Orsay, +33 1 40 63 60 00, [2]. Open Mon, Fri, Sat 8.40AM - 11.40AM and 2PM - 5PM. Guided tours conducted all day, ID required. Formerely the Palais Bourbon, this building has housed the National Assembly, the French parliament's lower house, since 1827. Some interesting architecture and the library features the painting l'Histoire de la civilization by Delacroix. Visitors may be interested in attending assembly debates.  edit
  • Hôtel des Invalides, Métro: Invalides, [3]. Founded in 1671 by Louis XIV as a hospital for 6000 war-wounded soldiers - this function explaining the name of the building - the golden-domed Hôtel des Invalides still functions as an infirmary and now also houses the Musée de l'Armée (see below). The church attached, l'Eglise du Dôme, houses the tomb of Napoleon.  edit
Musee d'Orsay
Musee d'Orsay
  • Musée d'Orsay, 1 rue de la Légion d'Honneur / rue de Lille (located on the Left Bank of the Seine, adjacent to the Pont Solferino and Pont Royal - opposite the Jardin des Tuileries in the 1st arrondissement, ''Métro: Solferino'', or ''Assemblée Nationale'', RER C: ''Musée d'Orsay'', bus 24, 63, 68, 69, 73, 83, 84, 94), +33 1 06 91 09 45, [4]. Housed in a former Beaux-Arts railway station (completed in 1900 for the Exposition Universelle, later saved from demolition and converted to its present use), the rambling, open-plan museum is home to the works of the great artists of the 19th century (1848-1914) - Impressionists, post-Impressionists, and the rest - that were formerly displayed in the Louvre. This is perhaps the most spectacular collection of European impressionism in the world-- breath-taking rooms full of Manet, Renoir, Monet, Van Gogh, and many others. Impressionist represent the biggest draw, but there is much more to explore. €8; concessions €5.50; under-18 free.  edit
  • Musée du quai Branly, 37 quai Branly (Métro: Iéna, Bir Hakeim), [5]. Open Tue-Sun 10 AM -6 PM (Thu -9 PM).. Opened in 2006, this is the newest and the most modern of Paris' great museums, housing an outstanding collection of tribal art, with a particular emphasis on France's former (and present) territories in Oceania and Africa. The museum is huge and you can easily spend half a day wandering out, especially if you pause to explore the multimedia presentations. Admission 8.5€, with discount 6€ (''permanent collection only'')..  edit
  • Musée Rodin, 77 Rue de Varenne (Métro: Varenne), +33 1 44 18 61 10 (fax: +33 1 44 18 61 30), [6]. Closed Mondays.. A museum dedicated to the life and work of the great sculptor. The house contains an extensive collection, which is unusually well presented in a spacious building with big windows that are open in nice weather, which makes this museum double pleasant. Admission 5€, with discount 3€, garden only 1€, visitors under 18 free..  edit
  • Les Egouts de Paris, (entrance opposite 93 quai d'Orsay near the Pont d'Alma, Métro: Alma-Marceau). For an interesting take on Paris, check out the underground sewers of Paris.  edit
  • Vedettes de Paris (sightseeing cruises), [7]. Discover Paris by river on a chic boat.  edit
  • Le Bon Marché, 24, rue de Sèvres (Metro: Sèvres Babylone), +33 1 00 09 00 93. The world's first department store and one of the largest in modern Paris.  edit
  • Au Pied de Fouet (At the wrong end of the whip), 45 rue de Babylone (Métro: Vaneau), +33 1 47 05 12 27, [8]. It's an appropriate name for a restaurant renowned for its unapologetically rude wait staff. Some people say that this is part of the charm of the place, perhaps that fits your definition of the word "charm" as well? Or perhaps not. One way or the other it's cheap and the food is good. €8-€12.  edit
  • Chez Germaine, 30 rue Pierre Leroux, +33 1 42 73 28 34. It's all about home-cooking, like your grandma would do if she were French, and trained in cooking.  edit
  • l'Oasis, 162, rue de Grenelle. An authentic take on Moroccan cuisine  edit
  • Tribeca, 36, Rue Cler, 75007 Paris, 01 45 55 12 01. A very nice terrasse on the rue Cler (pedestrian area). The food is simple but good and reasonably cheap. dinner menu Approx. €20.  edit
  • Le Clos des Gourmets, 16 avenue Rapp (Métro: Ecole Militaire / Alma Marceau, RER: Pont de l'Alma), +33 1 45 51 75 61. Open Tue-Sat 12.15PM - 2PM, 7.15PM - 11PM, Closed Sun-Mon and August. A great little restaurant, elegant without being stuffy, popular with foreign visitors and American diplomatic staff (interesting conversations to be overheard....), fantastic French cuisine with a twist - try the avocado millefeuille with orange sauce for dessert (a surprisingly good combination) dinner menu: €33, credit cards accepted.  edit
  • Chez l'Ami Jean, 27 Rue Malar. A sensational little restaurant featuring food and wine from the Basque region. dinner menu Approx. €30, credit cards accepted.  edit
  • Le Petit Tibéro, 132 rue du Bac, +33 1 45 48 76 25.  edit
  • Le Voltaire, 27, quai Voltaire, +33 1 42 61 17 49. Le Voltaire has always been tres chic and with customers like Helene Rochas and the Rothschild family, you know you are dining with the right set. Peaceful wood paneling and lighting that flatters, it is an intimate and romantic setting, where newcomers feel that they belong to an exclusive club. Be sure to dine upon the tenderloin in pepper sauce, magnifique!  edit
  • Le Cafe des Lettres, 53, rue de Verneuil, +33 1 42 22 52 17. Open noon until 11pm Mon to Sat. The charming cobblestoned courtyard makes this an ideal place to sit down and linger over a glass of wine. Excellent cocktail list.  edit
  • Hôtel Chomel, 15, rue Chomel, +33 1 45 48 55 52, [9]. Basic but clean 3 star hotel.  edit
  • Hôtel du Champ de Mars, 7, rue du Champ de Mars, +33 1 45 51 52 30 (fax: +33 1 45 51 64 36). Great value for money in an affordable location.  edit
  • Hôtel Saint-Dominique, 62, rue Saint-Dominique, +33 1 47 05 51 44, [10]. Charming decor and attentive staff.  edit
  • Hôtel Lindbergh, 5, rue Chômel, +33 1 45 48 35 53.  edit
  • Duquesne Eiffel Hôtel, 23, avenue Duquesne, +33 1 44 42 09 09.  edit
  • Hôtel de la Tulipe, 33, rue Malar, +33 1 45 51 67 21, [11].  edit
  • Grand Hotel Leveque, 29, rue Cler (Métro: École Militaire), +33 1 47 05 49 15 (fax: +33 1 45 50 49 36), [12]. Located near to the Eiffel Tower on a charming market street. €75 to €150..  edit
  • Timhôtel Best Western Tour Eiffel Invalides, 35, boulevard de La Tour-Maubourg, +33 1 45 56 10 78.  edit
  • Hôtel Saint-Dominique, 62, rue St Dominique, (33-1) 47 05 51 44 (fax: (33-1) 47 05 81 28), [13].  edit
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

EIFFEL TOWER. Erected for the exposition of 1889, the Eiffel Tower, in the Champ de Mars, Paris, is by far the highest artificial structure in the world, and its height of 300 metres (984 ft.) surpasses that of the obelisk at Washington by 42 9 ft., and that of St Paul's cathedral by 580 ft. Its framework is composed essentially of four uprights, which rise from the corners of a square measuring loo metres on the side; thus the area it covers at its base is nearly 22 acres. These uprights are supported on huge piers of masonry and concrete, the foundations for which were carried down, by the aid of iron caissons and compressed air, to a depth of about 15 metres on the side next the Seine, and about 9 metres on the other side. At first they curve upwards at an angle of 54 0; then they gradually become straighter, until they unite in a single shaft rather more than half-way up. The first platform, at a height of 57 metres, has an area of 5860 sq. yds., and is reached either by staircases or lifts. The next, accessible by lifts only, is 115 metres up, and has an area of 32 sq. yds; while the third, at 276, supports a pavilion capable of holding Boo persons. Nearly 25 metres higher up still is the lantern, with a gallery 5 metres in diameter. The work of building this structure, which is mainly composed of iron lattice-work, was begun on the 28th of January 1887, and the full height was reached on the 13th of March 1889. Besides being one of the sights of Paris, to which visitors resort in order to enjoy the extensive view that can be had from its higher galleries on a clear day, the tower is used to some extent for scientific and semi-scientific purposes; thus meteorological observations are carried on. The engineer under whose direction the tower was constructed was Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (born at Dijon on the 15th of December 1832), who had already had a wide experience in the construction of large metal bridges, and who designed the huge sluices for the Panama Canal, when it was under the French company.


<< Eifel

Eildon Hills >>


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

The Eiffel Tower

Proper noun

Singular
Eiffel Tower

Plural
-

Eiffel Tower

  1. An iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris, a global icon of France; one of the most recognizable structures in the world.
    • 1993 4/11, JACK SCHNEDLER, “PARIS IN ONE WILD DAY”, Chicago Sun-Times:
      I'm headed back down the elevator, having suppressed the impulse to buy an Eiffel Tower table lamp or pencil sharpener.
    • 1998, Rogers, Terrence, “City of vapor”, American Artist, vol. 62 Issue 672, Jul, page 28: 
      Los Angeles is a city of image and imagination: a vast urban expanse filled with buildings and streets, yet relatively free of famous landmarks. There is neither an Eiffel Tower nor a Times Square, no Big Ben or Golden Gate Bridge to symbolize the complex essence of the city.
    • 1998 6/10, Jill Lieber, “Having a ball in Paris: France hosts soccer's world best”, USA Today:
      Grandfathers decked out in bright yellow and green soccer jerseys, showing off Eiffel Towers shaved into the back of their heads.

Translations


Simple English

File:Tour eiffel at sunrise from the
The Tower at sunrise (seen from the Trocadero)
File:Eiffel Tower Uploaded by
The stars of the European Union for the tower

The Eiffel Tower (French: Tour Eiffel; IPA pronunciation: "eye-full" English; "eh-fehl" French) is a famous landmark in Paris. It was built between 1887 and 1889 as the entrance arch for a fair called the Exposition Universelle. It is 300 metres tall, but this height does not include the 24 m aerial (antenna) on the top; the total height of the structure is 324 m (1058 feet). There are also 1,665 steps inside the Eiffel Tower. It weighs 10,000 tons. It consists of 18,038 pieces and 2 1/2 million rivets.

History

The Eiffel Tower was built by Gustave Eiffel for the 100th year of the French freedom. At first, the Eiffel Tower was to be made in Barcelona, Spain, but the people of Barcelona did not want it. When the tower was built, it was only meant to be kept for 20 years. People did not like the Eiffel Tower and wanted it taken down. After the 20 years , the tower became the property of Paris again. By this time, the city had learned that the tower could be used to help with communications. The military used the tower to communicate during battle. When the tower was used in the capture of the spy, "Mata Hari", nobody wanted it taken apart.

Other websites

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