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History of Japan



Eiwa (永和 ?) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. year name) of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Ōan and before Kōryaku. This period spanned the years from February 1375[1] through March 1379.[2] The emperor in Kyoto was Emperor Go-En'yū (後円融天皇 Go-En'yū-tennō ?)[3] The Southern Court rival in Yoshino during this time-frame was Emperor Chōkei (長慶天皇 Chōkei-tennō ?).


Nanboku-chō overview

The Imperial seats during the Nanboku-chō period were in relatively close proximity, but geographically distinct. They were conventionally identified as:

During the Meiji period, an Imperial decree dated March 3, 1911 established that the legitimate reigning monarchs of this period were the direct descendants of Emperor Go-Daigo through Emperor Go-Murakami, whose Southern Court (南朝 nanchō ?) had been established in exile in Yoshino, near Nara.[4]

Until the end of the Edo period, the militarily superior pretender-Emperors supported by the Ashikaga shogunate had been mistakenly incorporated in Imperial chronologies despite the undisputed fact that the Imperial Regalia were not in their possession.. [4]

This illegitimate Northern Court (北朝 hokuchō ?) had been established in Kyoto by Ashikaga Takauji. [4]

Change of era

  • 1375, also called Eiwa gannen (永和元年 ?): The new era name was created to mark an event or series of events. The previous era ended and the new one commenced in Ōan 8.

In this time frame, Tenju (1375-1381) was the Southern Court equivalent nengō.[5]

Events of the Eiwa era

  • 1375 {Eiwa 1, 3rd month): Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu visits the Iwashimizu Hachiman-gū where he worships publicly; and he offers a sword for the shrine's treasury, gold foil for the embellishment of the shrine, and a racehorses for the shrine's stable.[5]
  • 1375 (Eiwa 2, 4th month): For the first time, Shogun Yoshimitsu is permitted to enter the precincts of the Imperial quarters at the Imperial palace in Kyoto.[5]
  • 1377 -- Goryeo diplomatic envoy Jeong Mongju met with the shogunal deputy (探題 tandai ?) in Kyushu, Imagawa Ryōshun. The objective of this diplomatic mission was to begin neogiating steps to control pirates (wakō).[6]
  • 1378 (Eiwa 4, 3rd month): Yoshimitsu moves into his new home in Muromachi;[7] and the luxurious house and grounds are called Hana-no-Gosho[8]


  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Eiwa" in Japan encyclopedia, p. 173; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File.
  2. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Kōryaku" in Japan encyclopedia, p. 562; n.b., Nussbaum identifies Eiwa's end in March 1378 and Kōryaku's beginning a year later in March 1379.
  3. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 310-313.
  4. ^ a b c Thomas, Julia Adeney. (2001). Reconfiguring modernity: concepts of nature in Japanese political ideology, p. 199 n57, citing Mehl, Margaret. (1997). History and the State in Nineteenth-Century Japan. p. 140-147.
  5. ^ a b c Titsingh, p. 312.
  6. ^ Titsingh, p. 313; Kang, Jae-eun et al. (2006). The Land of Scholars : Two Thousand Years of Korean Confucianism, p. 159.
  7. ^ Titsingh, p. 313.
  8. ^ Ackroyd, Joyce. (1982) Lessons from History: The "Tokushi Yoron", p. 329.


External links

Eiwa 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
Gregorian 1375 1376 1377 1378 1379
Preceded by
Era or nengō

1375 – 1379
Succeeded by

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