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Elaeophora
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Subkingdom: Eumetazoa
(unranked): Bilateria
Superphylum: Platyzoa
Phylum: Nematoda
Class: Secernentea
Subclass: Spiruria
Order: Spirurida
Superfamily: Filarioidea
Family: Onchocercidae
Genus: Elaeophora
Species: E. sagitta
Binomial name
Elaeophora sagitta
(Linstow, 1907) Anderson & Bain, 1976

Elaeophora sagitta is a parasitic nematode found in the heart, coronary arteries and pulmonary arteries of several ruminant species and Water buffalo in Africa. Infestation usually occurs without significant health effects in the Greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), but may affect cardiac function in some other host species.

Contents

Discovery and nomenclature

This species was first described in 1907 from the heart of a Bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) from Cameroon, and named Filaria sagitta.[1] In 1926, it was transferred to the genus Cordophilus, as Cordophilus sagittus.[2] In 1976, the genus Cordophilus was made a synonym of the genus Elaeophora, so this species became Elaeophora sagitta.[3]

Hosts and geographic distribution

Adults of E. sagitta have been found attached to the inner walls of the chambers and vessels of the heart, as well as the arterioles of the lungs of various hosts: Bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), Greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), bongos (Tragelaphus eurycerus), nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), eland (Taurotragus oryx), and African Forest Buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus). This species has also been found in unspecified "cattle".[4] Lesions similar to those described in E. sagitta infestations were also found in sheep (Ovis aries), but the actual parasites were not recovered.[5] E. sagitta has been found in several African nations: Cameroon, Kenya, Malawi, Mocambique, the Republic of the Congo, South Africa and Swaziland.

Life cycle

The life cycle of E. sagitta has not been studied in detail. It is viviparous, since the female sheds microfilariae, rather than eggs, directly into the blood stream.

Prevalence

Infestation rates as high as 74%[6] and over 90%[7] have been reported in free-ranging kudu. Infestation in a herd of eland (Taurotragus oryx) in Kruger National Park was reported as "nearly half of 33" individuals.[8] A slaughterhouse survey in Swaziland yielded a very low prevalence -- 77 of 18,458 (0.416%) -- of bovine hearts showing lesions typical of E. sagitta infestation.[9] In other host species, only isolated cases have been reported.

Clinical significance

E. sagitta adults are typically found in the heart ventricles, as well as coronary and pulmonary arteries, and occasionally coronary veins. They produce aneurysmal (bulging) lesions in the vessel walls which are 1-2 cm in diameter, and have been associated with hypertrophy and dilatation of heart ventricles, thrombosis (blood clots) and myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle). The degree of interference with general circulatory function has not been studied in detail. As one author points out, however, if the infested host is fleeing from a lion, only a minor difference in cardiopulmonary efficiency could certainly affect survival.[10]

E. sagitta infestation appears to be clinically benign in greater kudu[11]. Some fatalities in a herd of eland were attributed to E. sagitta infestation, though many of the eland were also "heavily" infested with various gastrointestinal parasites.[12] In the Congo, E. sagitta infestation was suggested to be one of the factors which led to mortality in several bongos (Tragelaphus eurycerus) and one African Forest Buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus)[13]

References

  1. ^ Von Linstow, O.F.B. (1907) "Nematoden aus dem K├Âniglichen Zoologischen Museum in Berlin". Mitteilungen der Zoologischen Museum, Berlin 3:251-259.
  2. ^ M├Ânnig, H.O. (1926) "Three new helminths." Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 13:291-298.
  3. ^ Anderson, R.C. and O. Bain (1976) "CIH Keys to the Nematode Parasites of Vertebrates." Commonwealth Agriculture Bureaux: Farnham, England, Vol. 3, pp. 59-116.
  4. ^ Walker, W.D. (1971) "Cordophilus sagittus in Swaziland." Veterinary Record 88(13):342-343.
  5. ^ Huchzermeyer, F.W., M.-L. Penrith and P.W. Elkan (2001) Multifactorial mortality in bongos and other wild ungulates in the north of the Congo Republic." Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 68(4):263-269. (and references cited therein)
  6. ^ Pletcher, J.M., J. Boomker, V. De Vos, and C.H. Gardiner (1989) "Lesions in the heart and lungs of the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) caused by Cordophilus sagittus." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 20:456-470.
  7. ^ McCully, R.M., J.W. Van Niekerk, and P.A. Basson (1967) "The pathology of Cordophilus sagittus (v. Linstow, 1907) infestation in the kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros (Pallas, 1766)), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus (Pallas, 1766)) and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer (Sparrman, 1779)) in South Africa." Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 34(1):137-159.
  8. ^ Young, E. and P.A. Basson (1976) Cordophilosis and fatal gastro-intestinal verminosis in eland." Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 47:57.
  9. ^ Walker, W.D. (1971) "Cordophilus sagittus in Swaziland." Veterinary Record 88(13):342-343.
  10. ^ McCully, R.M., J.W. Van Niekerk, and P.A. Basson (1967) "The pathology of Cordophilus sagittus (v. Linstow, 1907) infestation in the kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in South Africa." Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 34(1):137-160.
  11. ^ Pletcher, J.M., J. Boomker, V. De Vos, and C.H. Gardiner (1989) "Lesions in the heart and lungs of the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) caused by Cordophilus sagittus." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 20:456-470.
  12. ^ Young, E. and P.A. Basson (1976) Cordophilosis and fatal gastro-intestinal verminosis in eland." Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 47:57.
  13. ^ Huchzermeyer, F.W., M.-L. Penrith and P.W. Elkan (2001) Multifactorial mortality in bongos and other wild ungulates in the north of the Congo Republic." Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 68(4):263-269.
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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Phylum: Nematoda
Classis: Chromadorea
Ordo: Rhabditida
Subordo: Spirurina
Infraordo: Spiruromorpha
Superfamilia: Filarioidea
Familia: Onchocercidae
Genus: Elaeophora
Species: Elaeophora sagitta


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