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  • during his exile on Elba, Napoleon is said to have favored the island's wines made from the grape variety Aleatico?

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Elba
Native name: Isola d'Elba
Elba Westküste.jpg
West Coast
Geography
Tuscan archipelago.png
Location Tyrrhenian Sea
Coordinates 42°45.71′N 10°14.45′E / 42.76183°N 10.24083°E / 42.76183; 10.24083Coordinates: 42°45.71′N 10°14.45′E / 42.76183°N 10.24083°E / 42.76183; 10.24083
Archipelago Tuscan Archipelago
Total islands 7
Major islands Elba, Gorgona, Capraia, Pianosa, Montecristo, Giglio and Giannutri)
Area 224 km2 (86.5 sq mi)
Coastline 147 km (91 mi)
Highest point Monte Capanne (1,018 m (3,340 ft))
Country
Italy
Region Tuscany
Province Livorno
Communes of Elba Portoferraio, Campo nell'Elba, Capoliveri, Marciana, Marciana Marina, Porto Azzurro, Rio Marina and Rio nell'Elba
Largest city Portoferraio (pop. 12,013)
Demographics
Population 31,572 (as of Jan 1, 2009)
Density 140 /km2 (360 /sq mi)

Elba (Italian: Isola d'Elba, Latin: Ilva) is an Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, 20 kilometres (12 mi) from the coastal town of Piombino. The largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago, Elba is also part of the National Park of the Tuscan Archipelago and the third largest island in Italy after Sicily and Sardinia. It is located between the Tyrrhenian Sea and Ligurian Sea, about 50 kilometres (30 mi) east of the French island of Corsica.

The island is divided into eight municipalities, of which Portoferraio is the main one, the others; Campo nell'Elba, Capoliveri, Marciana, Marciana Marina, Porto Azzurro, Rio Marina, and Rio nell'Elba, are part of the province of Livorno (Leghorn, in English), with a total of about 30,000 inhabitants, which increases considerably during the summer.

Contents

Geography

The island of Elba is the largest remaining stretch of land from the ancient tract that once connected the Italian peninsula to Corsica. The northern coast is facing the Ligurian Sea; the eastern coast the Piombino Channel; the southern coast the Tyrrhenian Sea; while the Corsica channel divides the western tip of the Island from neighbouring Corsica.

The terrain is quite varied, and divided into several parts depending on its conformation and geology. The mountainous and more recent part of the Island can be found to the west, the center of which is dominated by Mount Capanne (1,018 metres (3,340 ft)), also called the "roof of the Tuscan Archipelago." The mountain is home to many animal species including the mouflon and wild boar, two species that flourish despite the continuous influx of tourists. The central part of the island is a mostly flat section with the width being reduced to just four kilometres. It is where the major centres can be found: Portoferraio, Campo nell'Elba. To the east, is the oldest part of the island, formed over 400 million years ago. In the hilly area, dominated by Monte Calamita, are the deposits of iron that made Elba famous.

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Hydrography

Rivers rarely exceed 3 km in length on the island and it is common for those of lesser length to dry up over the summer period. The most important, sorted by length, are:

  • Fosso San Francesco 6.5 km;
  • Fosso Barion, 5.1 km;
  • Fosso Redinoce, 2 km

Between Poggio and Marciana, at the foot of Mount Capanne, is a natural spring called Fonte Napoleone, which is regarded for its quality.

Climate

The climate of the Island is predominantly Mediterranean, except for Mount Capanne, where winters tend to be moderately cold. Precipitation is concentrated in autumn and comprises a normal rainfall.

The table below shows the average temperatures for the islands by month.

Mese Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Maximum Temperature (°C) 12 13 14 16 21 24 27 27 25 20 15 13 18,9
Minimum Temperature (°C) 8 9 10 12 16 19 22 21 19 15 10 8 14,1
Rain Fall (mm) 61 53 51 47 28 24 13 30 51 82 86 69 595

History

Originally inhabited by Ligures Ilvati who gave the ancient name Ilva, the island was well known from very ancient times for its iron resources and its valued mines. The Greeks called it Aethalia (fume) after the fumes of the furnaces for the metal production.[1]

The island was then invaded, first by the Etruscans and later (after 480 BC) by the Romans. After the Roman period, the island was ravaged by barbarians and Saracens. In the early 11th century it became a possession of the Republic of Pisa. When the latter was sold to the Visconti of Milan in 1398, the island was acquired by the Appiani, Lords of Piombino, who retained it for two centuries. In 1546 part of the island was handed over to Cosimo I de' Medici, who fortified Portoferraio and renamed it "Cosmopoli", while in 1577 the rest of the island was returned to the Appiani. In 1596 Philip II of Spain captured Porto Azzurro and has two fortresses built there. In 1802 the island became a French possession, and its economy flourished.

Napoleon Bonaparte's exile to Elba, from a British engraving, 1814

Following the Treaty of Fontainebleau, French emperor Napoleon I was exiled to Elba after his forced abdication in 1814 and arrived at Portoferraio on May 3, 1814 to begin his exile there. He was allowed to keep a personal guard of six hundred men. Although he was nominally sovereign of Elba, the island was patrolled by the British Navy.

During the months Napoleon stayed on the island, he carried out a series of economic and social reforms to improve the quality of life, partly to pass the time and partly out of a genuine concern for the well-being of the islanders. Napoleon stayed on Elba for 300 days. He returned to France on February 26 for the Hundred Days. After his defeat at Waterloo he was subsequently exiled again, this time to the barren and isolated South Atlantic island of Saint Helena. Napoleon's stay on Elba is the basis for the famous English language palindrome: "Able was I ere I saw Elba." Internationally, Elba is best known for its connection to Napoleon.

In the Congress of Vienna the island was given to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. In 1860 it became part of the new unified Kingdom of Italy.

French troops landed on Elba on June 17, 1944, liberating the island from the Germans. Faulty intelligence and strong defences made the battle more difficult than expected.[2]

More recently, the island has become famed for its wine, and it is today a renowned tourist resort.[3]

Transportation

The island is connected to the mainland via the two ferry companies, Toremar and Moby Lines, both offering routes between Piombino and Portoferraio, the capital located in the north, Rio Marina and Porto Azzurro, on the east coast of the island.[4] [5]

There is an airport on the island, Marina di Campo Airport. It is served by Intersky, with flights to Friedrichshafen, München and Zürich and ElbaFly by internal flights.

Tourism

Image gallery

Elba and Corsica seen from Scarlino.  
The clear water of the island.  
The beach of Cavoli.  
Mt. Capanne, the highest peak of the island.  
Twilight on Nisporto's bay.  
Napoleon's house in Portoferraio.  
Elba (bottom centre) from space, February 1994.  
Scaglieri beach  
Coast of the island (Portoferraio)  
Panorama of Marciana Marittima  

References

  1. ^ "Elba". Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/182104/Elba. Retrieved March 2010. 
  2. ^ McGrann, Bill. "Operation Brassard The Invasion Of Elba". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/85/a2943885.shtml. Retrieved March 2010. 
  3. ^ "Food and Wine". Elba Island World. http://www.island-elba.eu/Food-Wine.html. Retrieved March 2010. 
  4. ^ "Ferries to Elba". Tuscany Live. http://www.tuscanylive.com/tuscany-holidays/getting-around/by-ferry/to-elba.html. Retrieved March 2010. 
  5. ^ "Ticket Ferries to Elba" (in Italian). Traghetti Elba Reservation. http://www.traghetti-elbareservation.it. Retrieved March 2010. 
  • Chandler, David G (1990). The Illustrated Napoleon. Henry Holt & Co.. ISBN 0-8050-0442-4. 

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Elba is an island in Tuscany.

Get in

Go by ferry -- taking your car, as it a must to explore the entire island. The ships start from Piombino.

The ferry operator Toremar [[1]] is usually a lot cheaper than moby; You can compare and book ferry tickets to Elba direcly on line.

Get around

Mass transit does exist, but only to/from Portoferraio (short-distance and long-distance) and to/from Marina di Campo (short-distance only).

You can also rent cars, scooters and boats at RENT CHIAPPI, in the marina of Portoferraio. Price for a FIAT Panda is between 37€ and 45€ per days, all included.

See

Napoleon was banished to the island and both of his homes ( summer & winter ) are available to tour. You can hike,bicycle, swim or walk around the plaza at night with the locals. Incredible beauty - many,many small towns set on hilltops. Many castles. Flowers galore and the interior is full of old, little viewed churches.

  • Little Mine

57036 Porto Azzurro - Via Provinciale Est Tel. & Fax: (+39) 0565.95350 Tel. (+39) 0565.920961 info@lapiccolaminiera.it

  • Sapere Archeological Museum

Mola 50736 Porta Azzurro Info: tel. 056595033 – fax: 056595064 Email: info@sapereonline.it [2]

  • fetovaia si the best beach, you can reach by bus

Do

Napoleon's homes, bike, go to any one of 10 -12 beaches, drink some local wine, hike, visit as many old castles,churches as you can. Takes about 3 days to see the island and that still leaves many areas untouched. Was told several times by the locals that in the summer Elba becomes a day-tripper's nightmare with people from the mainland. Visited in late May - slightly cool at night.

  • Hiking trip on the island of Elba Going hiking on Elba means following thousands of years of its inhabitants history, from prehistoric caves to ancient stone villages, finding Etruscan furnaces and forts, visiting antique granite quarries where Romans “worked” columns. You could relive the Saracen raids, visiting battlefields, defensive forts and destroyed villages that have never been rebuilt. Walking on Elba means you’ll discover and get to know all this and more thanks to the enormous concentration of sites that this small and great island offers. What is more, the Island of Elba’s hiking routes offer a variety of itineraries for views, vegetation and level of difficulty, ranging from paths hidden in Mediterranean vegetation, to hiking itineraries through woods and routes in the mountains. All the trips are guided and include transport to the departure points and technical assistance.

Buy

Sorry or glad to say that shopping isn't what you might expect but the island is for experiencing. Some local wines. Worth tasting is the Limoncino (lemon liquor).

Eat

Seafood is fresh ( it is an island) and the bread is what you were dreaming about. Get the Italian version of steak and try the bread and tomato salad.

  • There are some shops in Porto ferraio ( the capital) but the recommended place for shopping and relaxing , walking in the evings is Marciana Marina, nice shops there where you can get designer sunglasses, ralph lauren clothes etc. Its reminding of moore of a preppy st. tropez

Drink

Some local wines and water is great tasting.

Sleep

Elba is a touristic Island and there are lot of accommodations available, from cheap camp-grounds to luxury resorts.

there is a fair number of camp-grounds all over the island but you can easily reach some of them by bus. Aquaviva or viticcio are less than 30mn away from portoferrario

  • Hotel Residence Villa Giulia (Between the picturesque towns of Capoliveri and Porto Azzurro, the 3-star Hotel Residence Villa Giulia is a modern hotel with a pool and restaurant just a few minutes away from the beautiful beaches in Lido di Capoliveri, one of the most alluring locations on Elba island.), Lido di Capoliveri - 57036 Porto Azzurro (From Portoferraio, follow provincial road SP26 towards Porto Azzurro/Capoliveri for 8 km. At the fork, stay to your left following the signs for the Hotel Residence Villa Giulia.), +39 0565 940167 (, fax: +39 0565 940110), [4].  edit
  • The white wine is amazing, be shure to get a taste of it!
  • Hotel Ilio, ++39 0565.90.80.18, [5]. The Boutique Hotel Ilio was founded in this natural paradise in 1959. It set up the Elbatuttanatura project in 1989, becoming the first "all-nature" hotel on the Island of Elba.  edit
  • Relais delle Picchiaie, [6].  edit*
  • Hotel Lacona, [7]. , situated in the south of Island of Elba, is surrounded by a marvellous park of pine woods and by the intense green of its wide grass, which reaches the long big beach of Gulf of Lacona, only a hundred meters far from the hotel. mailto:booking@tuscanhotels.it * Book your room  edit
  • Residence Apartments Lacona, [8]. , surrounded by its marvellous green park of pine woods reaching the long sandy beach of Lacona, is the ideal place for those who are keen on water activities and for families with children. mailto:booking@tuscanhotels.it  edit

Get out

Noticed that you can still get a bite to eat at almost time in the larger towns.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ELBA (Gr. AiOaXia; Lat. Il y a), an island off the W. coast of Italy, belonging to the province of Leghorn, from which it is 45 m. S., and 7 m. S.W. of Piombino, the nearest point of the mainland. Pop. (1901) 25,043 (including Pianosa). It is about 19 m. long, 62 m. broad, and 140 sq. m. in area; and its highest point is 3340 ft. (Monte Capanne). It forms, like Giglio and Monte Cristo, part of a sunken mountain range extending towards Corsica and Sardinia.

The oldest rocks of Elba consist of schist and serpentine which in the eastern part of the island are overlaid by beds containing Silurian and Devonian fossils. The Permian may be represented, but the Trias is absent, and in general the older Palaeozoic rocks are overlaid directly by the Rhaetic and Lias. The Liassic beds are often metamorphosed and the limestones contain garnet and wollastonite. The next geological formation which is represented is the Eocene, consisting of nummulitic limestone, sandstone and schist. The Miocene and Pliocene are absent. The most remarkable feature in the geology of Elba is the extent of the granitic and ophiolitic eruptions of the Tertiary period. Serpentines, peridotites and diabases are interstratified with the Eocene deposits. The granite, which is intruded through the Eocene beds, is associated with a pegmatite containing tourmaline and cassiterite. The celebrated iron ore of Elba is of Tertiary age and occurs indifferently in all the older rocks. The deposits are superficial, resulting from the opening out of veins at the surface, and consist chiefly of haematite. These ores were worked by the ancients, but so inefficiently that their spoilheaps can be smelted again with profit. This process is now gone through on the island itself. The granite was also quarried by the Romans, but is not now much worked.

Parts of the island are fertile, and the cultivation of vines, and the tunny and sardine fishery, also give employment to a part of the population. The capital of the island is Portoferraiopop. (1901) 5987 - in the centre of the N. coast, enclosed by an amphitheatre of lofty mountains, the slopes of which are covered with villas and gardens. This is the best harbour, the ancient Portus Argous. The town was built and fortified by Cosimo I. in 1548, who called it Cosmopolis. Above the harbour, between the forts Stella and Falcone, is the palace of Napoleon I., and 4 m. to the S.W. is his villa; while on the N. slope of Monte Capanne is another of his country houses. The other villages in the island are Campo nell' Elba, on the S. near the W. end, Marciana and Marciana Marina on the N. of the island near the W. extremity, Porto Longone, on the E. coast, with picturesque Spanish fortifications, constructed in 1602 by Philip III.; Rio dell' Elba and Rio Marina, both on the E. side of the island, in the mining district. At Le Grotte, between Portoferraio and Rio dell' Elba, and at Capo Castello, on the N.E. of the island, are ruins of Roman date.

Elba was famous for its mines in early times, and the smelting furnaces gave it its Greek name of A' OaNia ("soot island"). In Roman times, and until 1900, however, owing to lack of fuel, the smelting was done on the mainland. In 453 B.C. Elba was devastated by a Syracusan squadron. From the 11th to the 14th century it belonged to Pisa, and in 1399 came under the dukes of Piombino. In 1548 it was ceded by them to Cosimo I. of Florence. In 1596 Porto Longone was taken by Philip III. of Spain, and retained until 1709, when it was ceded to Naples. In 1802 the island was given to France by the peace of Amiens. On Napoleon's deposition, the island was ceded to him with full sovereign rights, and he resided there from the 5th of May 1814 to the 26th of February 1815. After his fall it was restored to Tuscany, and passed with it to Italy in 1860.

See Sir R. Colt Hoare, A Tour through the Island of Elba (London, 1814).


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Elba

Plural
-

Elba

  1. An Italian island in the Tuscan Archipelago off the west coast of Italy, between the Italian coast and Corsica.

Anagrams


Simple English

Elba
File:Elba Westkü
West Coast
Geography
File:Tuscan
LocationLigurian Sea

ArchipelagoTuscan Archipelago

Area224 km²
Highest pointMonte Capanne (1,018 m)
Administration
  Italy
RegionTuscany
Largest cityPortoferraio (12,020)

Demographics
Population30,000

Elba (in Italian Isola d'Elba) is third largest island of Italy, after Sardinia and Sicily. The land area of the island is about 224 square kms. The coastline is about 147 km. The highest mountain is Monte Capanne at 1018 metres (3340 feet). Elba and the other islands (Gorgona, Capraia, Pianosa, Montecristo, Giglio and Giannutri) of the Tuscan Archipelago are protected in the National Park of the Tuscan Archipelago. The French island of Corsica lies about 50 km to the west. Recently,the island has become famous for its wine.

The island is divided into eight communes: Portoferraio, Campo nell'Elba, Capoliveri, Marciana, Marciana Marina, Porto Azzurro, Rio Marina and Rio nell'Elba. The island has a population of about 30 000 people.

History

The island was well known in to the last century for the iron resources. Mines were created by the Etruscans first and (after 480 BC) the Romans. After the end of the Roman Empire, the island knew barbarians and Saracens. In the early 11th century it became a part of the Republic of Pisa. In 1398, was sold to the Visconti family of Milan. After a few years, the island was acquired by the Appiani, Lords of Piombino, who kept it for two centuries. In 1546 part of the island was controlled by Cosimo I de' Medici. He fortified Portoferraio and renamed it "Cosmopoli". In 1577, the rest of the island was returned to the Appiani. In 1603 Philip II of Spain captured Porto Azzurro and built two fortresses there.

In 1802 the island became a part of France. Following the Treaty of Fontainebleau, French emperor Napoleon I was exiled to Elba after his forced abdication in 1814 and arrived at Portoferraio on May 3, 1814 to begin his exile there. He was allowed to keep a personal guard of six hundred men. Napoleon stayed on Elba for 300 days before he escaped and returned to France on February 26 for the Hundred Days. Thanks to Napoleon Elba is well-known around the world. In the Congress of Vienna the island was given to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. In 1860 it became part of the new unified Kingdom of Italy.

French troops landed on Elba on June 17 1944, freeing the island from the Germans in World War II.

Airport

There is an airport on the island, the "Airport Marina di Campo", that can connect the island with the big cities of: Friedrichshafen, Munchen and Zürich.

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