The Full Wiki

Elections in Brazil: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Brazil

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Brazil



Other countries · Atlas
Politics portal

Brazil elects on the national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature. The president is elected for a four-year term by the people. The National Congress (Congresso Nacional) has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies (Câmara dos Deputados) has 513 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation. The Federal Senate (Senado Federal) has 81 members, elected for an eight-year term, with elections every four years for alternatively one-third and two-third of the seats. Brazil has a multi-party system, with such numerous parties that often no one party has a chance of gaining power alone, and so they must work with each other to form coalition governments.

Contents

The Brazilian voting machines

Brazil was the first country in the world to have fully electronic elections. Electronic voting was introduced to Brazil in 1996 when the first tests were carried out in the state of Santa Catarina. The chief goal of the Brazilian voting machine is its extreme simplicity, attempting to be as straightforward as a public phone booth.

Electronic voting machine used in the 2005 referendum.

The Brazilian voting machines were firstly developed in 1996 by a Brazilian partnership formed by three companies OMNITECH (previously known as TDA), Microbase and Unisys do Brasil attending the TSE RFP for the Brazilian Elections in 1996. This machine was an IBM PC 80386 compatible adapted to perform as a voting machine, and was known as UE96. In 1998, Diebold-Procomp, Microbase and Samurai (formerly known as OMNITECH) teamed up to produce UE98. Again in 2000, Microbase and Diebold-Procomp developed UE2000 together. In 2000 Brazil achieved the first completely automated election.

The original operating system was VirtuOS, similar to DOS but complemented with multi-tasking, and was developed by Microbase. It was used in 1996, 1998 and 2000. In 2002, Unisys was unable to renew the partnership with Microbase, and Microsoft provided the Windows CE operating system free of charge. In 2004, Diebold-Procomp decided to migrate to Linux as a cost reduction measure.

The Brazilian voting machine accumulates the first three steps (elector identification, secret voting and results in each machine) in only one process, as then it can eliminate the public documents which were considered as a source of fraud. Therefore, there still remain some questions about the security of the electronic voting system, but no case of election fraud has yet been uncovered:

  1. Critics argue that they do not produce a printed vote verified by the voter which would permit an audit of the vote counting. This makes them highly dependent on the trusting of the software. The application program which verifies the internal integrity of the system is itself vulnerable to adulterations. [1] An inspection report of the City of Sto. Estevão, Bahia described the system of seals and closure of the box as simple and permitting access to the socket of the internal memory cartridge. [2] [3]
  2. It is not possible to audit the voting machine's programs, because the Brazilian Supreme Electoral Court (TSE) doesn’t permit it. However, the political parties have access to the voting machine's programs before the election for auditing.
  3. There is the possibility to violate the voting, because the elector number is typed in one machine which is connected to the voting machine, but it is not possible to know that it means that it is the same name (person)clarify.
  4. People working in the voting section may vote for absent electors. However, voting sections are composed of multiple workers drawn at random from the population as a means of preventing this type of fraud.
UE 2000 transparent prototype. Brazilian voting machine developed by Diebold-Procomp and used in the October 2000 general elections.

The voting system has been widely accepted, due in great part to the fact that it speeds up the vote count tremendously. In the 1989 presidential election between Fernando Collor de Mello and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, the vote count required nine days. In the 2002 general election, the count required less than 12 hours. In some smaller towns the election results are known minutes after the closing of the ballots.

Supporters of the electronic vote claim that unless the fraud were intentionally designed into the machines, it would be impossible to carry an extensive fraud in such a small amount of time. However, security has always been an issue, and the Brazilian Supreme Electoral Court (TSE) regularly funds research aimed at improving it. The source code to the voting software is proprietary and the public is not able to examine it. In order to be able to recount the votes, a printing system has been developed and a new electoral registration system is planned.

Brazil lends the machines to other countries for elections as well. They have been used in Paraguay and Ecuador, and there are plans to export the patented machines.

Brazilian Supreme Electoral Court (TSE) is testing a new machine which has a digital screen, so the electors just have to put three fingerprints which will identify them. It will make more difficult to carry out fraudulent voting for absent electors. However, the National Congress of Brazil has to approve a law to change the electoral registration process, because then they will register their fingerprints in the Electoral Court computers. The goal is to have this law totally approved by July 2008, so the election in 2012 will use this new system.

2006 General election

Advertisements

Presidential election

e • d  Summary of the 1 October and 29 October 2006 Brazil presidential election results
Candidates Votes % 1st round Votes % 2nd round
  Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT, PC do B, PRB, PMDB, PL, PSB, PP, PMN) 46,662,365 48.61 58,295,042 60.83
  Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB, PFL, PPS) 39,968,369 41.64 37,543,178 39.17
  Heloísa Helena (P-SOL, PSTU, PCB) 6,575,393 6.85 - -
  Cristovam Buarque (PDT) 2,538,844 2.64 - -
  Ana Maria Rangel (PRP) 126,404 0.13 - -
  José Maria Eymael (PSDC) 63,294 0.07 - -
  Luciano Bivar (PSL) 62,064 0.06 - -
Total (turnout 83.2 and ) 95,996,733 100.00 95,838,220 100.00
Notes: party of the candidate, supporting parties, unofficial supporting parties
Source: Justiça Eleitoral

Parliamentary election

e • d  Summary of the 1 October 2006 National Congress of Brazil election results
Parties Chamber of Deputies Federal Senate
Votes % Seats Votes % Total seats elected in 2006
  Workers' Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores) 13,989,859 15.0 83 16,222,159 19.2 101 2
  Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro) 13,580,517 14.6 89 10,148,024 12.0 162 4
  Brazilian Social Democratic Party (Partido da Social-Democracia Brasileira) 12,691,043 13.6 65 10,547,778 12.5 142 5
  Democrats (Democratas) 10,182,308 10.9 65 21,653,812 25.7 18 6
  Progressive Party (Partido Progressista) 6,662,309 7.1 42 4,228,431 5.0 1 1
  Brazilian Socialist Party (Partido Socialista Brasileiro) 5,732,464 6.2 27 2,143,355 2.5 3 1
  Democratic Labour Party (Partido Democrático Trabalhista) 4,854,017 5.2 24 5,023,041 6.0 5 1
  Brazilian Labour Party (Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro) 4,397,743 4.7 22 2,676,469 3.2 4 3
  Liberal Party (Partido Liberal) 4,074,618 4.4 23 696,501 0.8 3 1
  Socialist People's Party (Partido Popular Socialista) 3,630,462 3.9 21 1,232,571 1.5 1 1
  Green Party (Partido Verde) 3,368,561 3.6 13 1,425,765 1.7 0 0
  Communist Party of Brazil (Partido Comunista do Brasil) 1,982,323 2.1 13 6,364,019 7.5 2 1
  Social Christian Party (Partido Social Cristão) 1,747,863 1.9 9 131,548 0.2 0 0
  Socialism and Freedom Party (Partido Socialismo e Liberdade) 1,149,619 1.2 3 351,527 0.4 11 0
  Party of the Reconstruction of the National Order (Partido de Reedificação da Ordem Nacional) 907,494 1.0 2 69,640 0.1 0 0
  Party of National Mobilization (Partido da Mobilização Nacional) 875,686 0.9 3 12,925 0.0 0 0
  Christian Labour Party (Partido Trabalhista Cristão) 806,662 0.9 4 39,690 0.0 0 0
  Humanist Party of Solidarity (Partido Humanista da Solidariedade) 435,328 0.5 2 24,940 0.0 0 0
  Christian Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democrata Cristão) 354,217 0.4 0 53,025 0.1 0 0
  Labour Party of Brazil (Partido Trabalhista do Brasil) 311,833 0.3 1 69,923 0.1 0 0
  Party of the Nation's Retirees (Partido dos Aposentados da Nação) 264,682 0.3 1 2,969 0.0 0 0
  Brazilian Republican Party (Partido Republicano Brasileiro) 244,059 0.3 1 264,155 0.3 2 0
  Republican Progressive Party (Partido Republicano Progressista) 233,497 0.3 0 12,954 0.0 0 0
  Social Liberal Party (Partido Social Liberal) 190,793 0.2 0 46,542 0.0 0 0
  Brazilian Labour Renewal Party (Partido Renovador Trabalhista Brasileiro) 171,908 0.2 0 644,111 0.8 1 1
  National Labour Party (Partido Trabalhista Nacional) 149,809 0.2 0 11,063 0.0 0 0
  United Socialist Workers' Party (Partido Socialista dos Trabalhadores Unificado) 101,307 0.1 0 196,636 0.2 0 0
  Brazilian Communist Party (Partido Comunista Brasileiro) 64,766 0.1 0 62,756 0.1 0 0
  Workers Cause Party (Partido da Causa Operária) 29,083 0.0 0 27,476 0.0 0 0
Total (turnout 83.3%) 93,184,830 100 513 84,383,805 100 81 27
Source: Election Resources on the Internet: Federal Elections in Brazil, Official Federal Senate website for continuing senators.

Substitutes from another party admitions:

1Senator Ana Júlia de Vasconcelos Carepa, of the Workers' Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores), resigned following her election as Governor of Pará State in 2006, in the middle of her Senate term. José Nery de Azevedo, of the Socialism and Freedom Party (Partido Socialismo e Liberdade) took her seat in the Senate.

2Senator Leonel Arcângelo Pavan of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (Partido da Social-Democracia Brasileira), resigned following his election as Vice Governor of Santa Catarina State in 2006, in the middle of his Senate term. Neuto Fausto de Couto, of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro) took his seat in the Senate.

Past elections and referendums

Election results 1982-2006

e • d  Summary of Brazilian elections for the Chamber of Deputies, 1982-2006
Parties 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006
Democratic Social / Reform Progressive Party 43.2 7.9 8.9 9.2 - - -
Progressive Party - - - 6.8 11.3 7.8 7.1
Liberal Front Party - 17.7 12.4 12.8 17.3 13.4 10.9
Liberal Party - 2.8 4.3 3.5 2.5 4.3 4.4
Brazilian Labour Party 4.4 4.5 5.6 5.2 5.7 4.6 4.7
National Reconstruction Party - - 8.3 - - - -
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party 43.0 47.8 19.3 20.3 15.2 13.4 14.6
Brazilian Social Democracy Party - - 8.7 14.0 17.5 14.3 13.6
Workers' Party 3.6 6.9 10.2 13.1 13.2 18.4 15.0
Brazilian Socialist Party - 1.0 1.9 2.1 3.4 5.3 6.2
Democratic Labour Party 5.8 6.5 10.0 7.1 5.7 5.1 5.2
Socialist People's Party - 0.9 1.0 0.6 1.3 3.1 3.9
Green Party - - - 0.2 0.4 1.4 3.6
Others 0.0 4.0 9.4 5.1 6.5 8.9 10.8
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Source: Banco de Dados Eleitorais do Brasil

Referendums

Brazil has held three national referendums in its history. In the first, held on January 6, 1963, the people voted for the re-establishment of the presidential system of government (82% of valid ballots), which had been modified by a constitutional amendment in 1961. A second referendum, as ordered by the Federal Constitution of 1988, was held on April 21, 1993, when the voters voted for a republican form of government and reaffirmed the presidential system.

A third national referendum, on the prohibition of the commerce of personal firearms and ammunition, was held on October 23, 2005. The ban proposal was rejected by 64% of the electorate.

See also

External links


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message