Elections in South Africa: Wikis

  
  
  

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South Africa

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Politics and government of
South Africa



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Elections in South Africa take place on national, provincial, and local levels. South Africa is a multi-party democracy with the African National Congress in power with a significant majority since 1994. Although South Africa's democracy is rated as flawed in the Democracy Index survey conducted by the Economist, its score for electoral process is the same as that of the United States and Japan.[1]. A system of proportional representation, incorporating party lists, is in place which makes it possible for small parties to achieve representation in parliament.

The parliament has two chambers, and elects the president. The National Assembly has 400 members, elected for a five year term. The National Council of Provinces has 90 members, elected for a five year term by the provincial parliaments. The National Assembly and Provincial Councils are elected when General Elections are held.

Members to the local governing councils in the municipalities and mayors are elected in municipal elections.

Contents

History

Early days of the Union

At the time of Unification and admission as a dominion of Great Britain in 1910 until the 1929 elections the franchise structures of the constituent colonies were applied. Subsequently only white men were allowed to vote in three of the provinces while a highly restricted number of black and coloured men where able to vote in the Cape Province. In 1930 white women received political franchise. However by 1939 black men were disenfranchised in the Cape by being placed on a separate voters roll - eventually this representation was removed.

Constitutional Crisis in 1950s

After coming to power in 1948 the National Party engaged in a policy of removing coloured voters in a similar manner to black voters. This policy lead to legal challenges and amounted to a Constitutional Crisis which was stopped by Parliament reconstituting the Senate. During the crisis the Supreme Court asserted its right to test the procedure of law creation by Parliament.

Republic of South Africa

In 1960 a referendum was held to decide whether to become a republic. No changes were made to the franchise with the Republic's emergence in 1961. However with the policy of establishing Bantustans the remaining black representation in the Senate was completely removed.

Tricameral Parliament

After the 1983 referendum, it was decided to create a Tricameral Parliament, giving limited political franchise to the Coloured and Indian population groups.

End of Apartheid

After the 1992 referendum, deciding to end apartheid, universal suffrage was implemented allowing people of all races to take part in the first democratic elections in 1994.

Since 1994 all adult South Africans have in principle possessed the franchise and the right to vote is entrenched in the Constitution, however various logistical challenges still exist as is common with all democracies

Election results

2004 general election

About 56% of eligible voters took part in the election, with the ANC receiving support from about 38% of all eligible voters.[2].

e • d  Summary of the 14 April 2004 South African National Assembly election results
Parties Leaders Votes % Change Seats Change
African National Congress (ANC) Thabo Mbeki 10,880,915 69.69 +3.34 279 +13
Democratic Alliance (DA) Tony Leon 1,931,201 12.37 +2.81 50 +12
Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) Mangosuthu Buthelezi 1,088,664 6.97 -1.61 28 -6
United Democratic Movement (UDM) Bantu Holomisa 355,717 2.28 -1.14 9 -5
Independent Democrats (ID) Patricia de Lille 269,765 1.7 +1.7 7 +7
New National Party (NNP) Marthinus van Schalkwyk 257,824 1.65 -5.22 7 -21
African Christian Democratic Party (ACDP) Kenneth Meshoe 250,272 1.60 +0.17 7 +1
Freedom Front Plus (FF+) Pieter Mulder 139,465 0.89 -0.20 4 -
United Christian Democratic Party (UCDP) Lucas Mangope 117,792 0.75 -0.03 3 -
Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) Motsoko Pheko 113,512 0.73 +0.02 3 -
Minority Front (MF) Amichand Rajbansi 55,267 0.35 +0.05 2 +1
Azanian People's Organisation (AZAPO) Mosibudi Mangena 39,116 0.25 +0.08 1 -
Christian Democratic Party (CDP) Ra Du Plooy 17,619 0.11 +0.11 0 -
National Action (South Africa) (NA) Jacobus Frederick Jonker 15,804 0.10 +0.10 0 -
Peace and Justice Congress (PJC) Muhammed Rashad Khan 15,187 0.10 +0.10 0 -
Socialist Party of Azania (SOPA) Tiyani Lybon Mabasa 14,853 0.10 +0.04 0 -
New Labour Party (NLP) Colin Francois du Sart 13,318 0.09 +0.09 0 -
United Front (UF) T. D. Hlatshwayo 11,889 0.08 +0.08 0 -
Employment Movement of South Africa (EMSA) M. Reitz 10,446 0.07 +0.07 0 -
The Organisation Party (TOP) Bradford Wood 7,531 0.05 +0.05 0 -
Keep It Straight and Simple (KISS) C.C. Emary 6,514 0.04 +0.04 0 -
Total 15,612,671 100.0   400 0

2009 general election

e • d  Summary of the 22 April 2009 South African National Assembly election results
Parties Leaders Votes % Seats
Floor crossing[3] 2009
[4]
+/–
2009 +/− 2005 2007 Dissol.
African National Congress (ANC) Jacob Zuma 11,650,748 65.90 −3.79 +14 +4 297 264 −33
Democratic Alliance (DA) Helen Zille 2,945,829 16.66 +4.29 −3 ±0 47 67 +20
Congress of the People (COPE) Mosiuoa Lekota 1,311,027 7.42 +7.42 new 30 +30
Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) Mangosuthu Buthelezi 804,260 4.55 −2.42 −5 ±0 23 18 −5
Independent Democrats (ID) Patricia de Lille 162,915 0.92 −0.78 −2 −1 4 4 ±0
United Democratic Movement (UDM) Bantu Holomisa 149,680 0.85 −1.43 −3 ±0 6 4 −2
Freedom Front Plus (VF+) Pieter Mulder 146,796 0.83 −0.06 ±0 ±0 4 4 ±0
African Christian Democratic Party (ACDP) Kenneth Meshoe 142,658 0.81 −0.79 −3 ±0 4 3 −1
United Christian Democratic Party (UCDP) Lucas Mangope 66,086 0.37 −0.38 ±0 ±0 3 2 −1
Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) Motsoko Pheko 48,530 0.27 −0.46 ±0 −2 1 1 ±0
Minority Front (MF) Amichand Rajbansi 43,474 0.25 −0.10 ±0 ±0 2 1 −1
Azanian People's Organisation (AZAPO) Mosibudi Mangena 38,245 0.22 −0.03 ±0 ±0 1 1 ±0
African Peoples' Convention (APC) Themba Godi 35,867 0.20 +0.20 +2 2 1 −1
Movement Democratic Party (MDP) 29,747 0.17 +0.17 new 0 ±0
Al Jama-ah Abdul Gamiet Flacks 25,947 0.15 +0.15 new 0 ±0
Christian Democratic Alliance (CDA)* Louis Michael Green 11,638 0.07 −0.13 new 0 ±0
National Democratic Convention (NADECO) Hawu Mbatha 10,830 0.06 +0.06 +4 ±0 4 0 −4
New Vision Party (NVP) 9,296 0.05 +0.05 new 0 ±0
United Independent Front (UIF) Malizole Diko 8,872 0.05 +0.05 +2 −2 0 0 ±0
Great Kongress of SA (GKSA) 8,271 0.05 +0.05 new 0 ±0
South African Democratic Congress (SADECO) Ziba Jiyane 6,035 0.03 +0.03 new 0 ±0
Keep It Straight and Simple (KISS) C.C. Emary 5,440 0.03 −0.01 new 0 ±0
Pan Africanist Movement (PAM) 5,426 0.03 +0.03 new 0 ±0
Alliance of Free Democrats (AFD) 5,178 0.03 +0.03 new 0 ±0
Women Forward (WF) 5,087 0.03 +0.03 new 0 ±0
A Party 2,847 0.02 +0.02 new 0 ±0
New National Party (NNP) (joined ANC in 2005) Marthinus van Schalkwyk −1.65 −7 did not run 0 0
Christian Democratic Party (CDP) (see CDA) Theunis Botha −0.04 did not run 0
National Action (NA) Jacobus Frederick Jonker −0.10 did not run 0
Peace and Justice Congress (PJC) Muhammed Rashad Khan −0.10 did not run 0
Socialist Party of Azania (SOPA) Tiyani Lybon Mabasa −0.10 did not run 0
New Labour Party (NLP) (see CDA) Colin Francois du Sart −0.10 did not run 0
United Front (UF) T. D. Hlatshwayo −0.08 did not run 0
Employment Movement of South Africa (EMSA) M. Reitz −0.07 did not run 0
The Organisation Party (TOP) Bradford Wood −0.05 did not run 0
Federation of Democrats (FD)[3] +1 ±0 1 0 −1
National Alliance (NA)[3] 1 0 −1
United Party of South Africa (UPSA)[3] 1 −1 0 0 ±0
Progressive Independent Movement (PIM)[3] +1 −1 0 0 ±0
Total 17,680,729 100.0 400 400
Spoilt votes (% is of all votes cast)[5][6] 239,237 1.34 −0.25

Notes:

* The 2009 Christian Democratic Alliance (CDA) was an alliance of the 2004 Christian Democratic Party (CDP), the 2004 New Labour Party (NLP) and other parties that weren't on the 2004 national ballot.

Past elections and referendums

See also

References

  1. ^ "Democracy Index 2008". http://a330.g.akamai.net/7/330/25828/20081021185552/graphics.eiu.com/PDF/Democracy%20Index%202008.pdf. Retrieved 2009-02-11.  
  2. ^ McKinley, Dale T. (2004-04-29). "South Africa: A disillusioned democracy". Green Left Weekly. http://www.greenleft.org.au/back/2004/580/580p18.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-21.  
  3. ^ a b c d e "State of parties after floor-crossing as at 17 September 2007". Parliamentary Monitoring Group. http://www.pmg.org.za/parlinfo/seats. Retrieved 2009-04-26.  
  4. ^ "Official national election results". Independent Online. Reuters. 2009-04-25. http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=3086&art_id=nw20090425180808812C584100. Retrieved 2009-04-26.  
  5. ^ "South Africa: 2009 National Assembly election results". Electoral Institute of Southern Africa. April 2009. http://www.eisa.org.za/WEP/sou2009results1.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-28.  
  6. ^ "South Africa: National results 2004". EISA. May 2007. http://www.eisa.org.za/WEP/souresults2004.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-28.  







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