Electric motor: Wikis

  
  
  

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Electric motors
.An electric motor uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy, very typically through the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors.^ With the field energy remaining constant, the conductor is changing mechanical energy into electrical energy.

^ Some of the uses of an electric motorized scooters are: .

^ It does this by forcing a current through a coil and then produces a magnetic field that spins the motor.
  • Electric Car Motor | Direct Current DC Motors For Electric Vehicles 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electriccarmotor.com [Source type: News]

.The reverse process, producing electrical energy from mechanical energy, is accomplished by a generator or dynamo.^ The reverse task, that of converting kinetic energy into electrical energy, is accomplished by a generator or dynamo.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Electric motors are a technological device than generates mechanical energy from electrical energy.
  • Electric Motors - AC and DC - Servicing, Repairs and Parts 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electric-motors.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reverse task, that of converting mechanical motion into electrical energy, is accomplished by a generator or dynamo.
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]

.Traction motors used on vehicles often perform both tasks.^ Traction motors used on locomotives often perform both tasks if the locomotive is equipped with dynamic brakes .
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, traction motors used on locomotives often perform both tasks if the locomotive is equipped with dynamic brakes .
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Traction motors used on locomotives and some electric and hybrid automobiles often perform both tasks if the vehicle is equipped with dynamic brakes .
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Many types of electric motors can be run as generators, and vice versa.^ Typically, electric motors run by electromagnetism.
  • Home: Johnson Motor 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.johnsonmotor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electric motors and generators .
  • Electric motors and generators 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.physclips.unsw.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Electric motors and generators and related drives - Copyright Info 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ There are many kinds of electric motor.
  • ELECTRIC MOTORS — FactMonster.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: General]

.Electric motors are found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives.^ These electric motors are known for their high voltage and high power application.
  • Electric Motors, DC Motors, Industrial DC Motors, Automotive DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.indiamart.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Electrical power tool motor commutators .
  • Commutators,China Electric Motor Commutator,Reverse Current Direction Switch 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC commutatorchina.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High power BLDC motors are found in electric vehicles and some industrial machinery.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.They may be powered by direct current (for example a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle), or by alternating current from a central electrical distribution grid.^ Electric Car Motors Electric Cars, electric Hybrid auto vehicles, Battery and Motors.

^ Dc electric motors are devices that run through alternating current or direct current.

^ The original electric motors were DC powered.

.The smallest motors may be found in electric wristwatches.^ This motor effectively provides a Virtual Transmission between high speed/low torque operation and the opposite More information on this electric motor can be found at Chorus Motors plc .
  • Electric Motor choices - rethinking AC induction motors - Tesla Motors Club Forum 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.teslamotorsclub.com [Source type: General]

^ Sure, the gas powered motor scooters may move faster and cover longer distances, but the electric motor scooter is far less noisy and are more compact in size.

^ It may be extremely simple to pour in a little gas to get the motor running, but with electric motors it does not work that way.
  • Electric Trolling Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.wwdirs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Medium-size motors of highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial uses.^ Power Electric provides more than standard electric motor solutions.
  • Small Electric Motors and Electric Gear Motors | Power Electric 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.powerelectric.com [Source type: News]

^ The mechanical power produced by the motor is given by: .
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Use an industrial electric motor to power your production machinery .
  • Electric Motors: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

.The very largest electric motors are used for propulsion of large ships, and for such purposes as pipeline compressors, with ratings in the millions of watts.^ Some of the uses of an electric motorized scooters are: .

^ NEMA - electrical motors efficiency ratings .

^ Air Compressor electric motors 1PH   .

.Electric motors may be classified by the source of electric power, by their internal construction, by their application, or by the type of motion they give.^ These electric motors are known for their high voltage and high power application.
  • Electric Motors, DC Motors, Industrial DC Motors, Automotive DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.indiamart.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The electric motor gets its power from a controller .
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HowStuffWorks "How Electric Cars Work" 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC auto.howstuffworks.com [Source type: News]

^ What is the significance for electric boats of the different types of motor construction?
  • Electric motor information - electric boat design and construction - electric motors, solar power, battery power, boat plans 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electricboats.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The physical principle of production of mechanical force by the interactions of an electric current and a magnetic field was known as early as 1821. Electric motors of increasing efficiency were constructed throughout the 19th century, but commercial exploitation of electric motors on a large scale required efficient electrical generators and electrical distribution networks.^ Electric motors and generators .
  • Electric motors and generators 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.physclips.unsw.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Electric motors and generators and related drives - Copyright Info 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It does this by forcing a current through a coil and then produces a magnetic field that spins the motor.
  • Electric Car Motor | Direct Current DC Motors For Electric Vehicles 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electriccarmotor.com [Source type: News]

^ The field current determines the strength of the motor's magnetic field.

.Some devices, such as magnetic solenoids and loudspeakers, although they generate some mechanical power, are not generally referred to as electric motors, and are usually termed actuators[1] and transducers,[2] respectively.^ The electric motor gets its power from a controller .

^ Electric motors and generators .
  • Electric motors and generators 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.physclips.unsw.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Electric motors and generators and related drives - Copyright Info 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Some of the uses of an electric motorized scooters are: .

Contents

History and development

Electromagnetic experiment of Faraday, ca. 1821.[3]

The principle

.The conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy by electromagnetic means was demonstrated by the British scientist Michael Faraday in 1821. A free-hanging wire was dipped into a pool of mercury, on which a permanent magnet was placed.^ Electrical motors are able to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy.
  • Electric Motors: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ One of the first electromagnetic rotary motors, if not the first, was invented by Michael Faraday in 1821 , and consisted of a free-hanging wire dipping into a pool of mercury .
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A device that changes electrical energy into mechanical energy.

.When a current was passed through the wire, the wire rotated around the magnet, showing that the current gave rise to a circular magnetic field around the wire.^ The strength of the magnetic field is proportional to the current in the wire.

^ The current then flows into the wire loop, producing a magnetic field.
  • Electric Motor - body, used, water, life, law, plants, energy, system, air, cause, primary, waves, basic, change, part, principle 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The current changes direction, and so does the magnetic field around the wire loop.
  • Electric Motor - body, used, water, life, law, plants, energy, system, air, cause, primary, waves, basic, change, part, principle 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .This motor is often demonstrated in school physics classes, but brine (salt water) is sometimes used in place of the toxic mercury.^ This motor is often demonstrated in school physics classes, but brine (salt water) is sometimes used in place of the toxic mercury.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Purpose: (1) The water well uses the motor.
  • Electric Motors Manufacturers On B2BChinaSources.Com from China Electric Motors Manufacturers & Taiwan Electric Motors Suppliers & Electric Motors Exporters 12 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.b2bchinasources.com [Source type: General]

^ This motor is often demonstrated in school physics classes, but brine is sometimes used in place of the toxic mercury.
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]

.This is the simplest form of a class of devices called homopolar motors.^ This is the simplest form of a class of electric motors called homopolar motors .
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This simple device is a motor in its simplest form.

^ Another safety device is the so-called arming switch connected between the motor and the controller.
  • Electric Motors for Model Aircraft 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC adamone.rchomepage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • AMPS - Electric Power - Electric Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.amps-rc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A later refinement is the Barlow's Wheel.^ A later refinement is the Barlow's Wheel .
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.These were demonstration devices only, unsuited to practical applications due to their primitive construction.^ These were demonstration devices, unsuited to practical applications due to limited power.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Although there are pros and cons to cast iron and aluminum, one application might strongly lean toward cast iron where another may require only aluminum construction.
  • AC asynchronous electric motor - Motor, Geared Motor, Motion Control 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.directindustry.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Due to their electronic commutation, the service life of these motors is in principle only limited by the bearings and electronic components used.
  • Brushless DC Motors 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.epn-online.com [Source type: Reference]

[citation needed]
.
Jedlik's "lightning-magnetic self-rotor", 1827. (Museum of Applied Arts, Budapest.
^ Three alternated voltages are applied to the stator's coils sequentially (by phase shift) creating a rotating magnetic field which is followed by the rotor.
  • Electric Motors for Model Aircraft 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC adamone.rchomepage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • AMPS - Electric Power - Electric Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.amps-rc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The one or several auxiliary magnetic poles can be obtained by applying a thin layer of permanent-magnetic material to at least a part of the rotor surface facing the stator surface, and by radial magnetization of this layer.
  • SELF STARTING ELECTRICAL MOTOR - Patent 3739248 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

)
.In 1827, Hungarian Ányos Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic rotating devices he called "lightning-magnetic self-rotors". He used them for instructive purposes in universities, and in 1828 demonstrated the first device which contained the three main components of practical direct current motors: the stator, rotor and commutator.^ Motor torque is developed from interaction of currents flowing in the rotor bars and the stator's rotating magnetic field.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The rotation direction of a three phase motor is controlled on the order of the phases applied to the motor.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The rotor is part of the motor shaft, which rotates inside the stator.
  • Electric Motors for Model Aircraft 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC adamone.rchomepage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • AMPS - Electric Power - Electric Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.amps-rc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic, employing no permanent magnets.^ Both electromagnets and permanent magnets have the so-called poles at either end.
  • Electric Motors for Model Aircraft 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC adamone.rchomepage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • AMPS - Electric Power - Electric Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.amps-rc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An explanation is given about how one or more fixed magnets, either permanent or electromagnetic, can cause linear movement or rotation of a current-carrying wire.
  • Meridian Education - Electric Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC meridian.films.com [Source type: General]

^ Standard or brushed DC motors encompass a wide range of low-end to high-end products, including permanent magnetic motors, electromagnetic motors, hybrid DC motors, and DC torque motors.
  • DC Motors - Import From China - SmartChinaSourcing.com | Global Sources 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.smartchinasourcing.com [Source type: News]

[5][6][7][8][9][10] .Again, the devices had no practical application.^ These were demonstration devices, unsuited to practical applications due to limited power.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

[citation needed]

The first electric motors

.The first commutator-type direct current electric motor capable of turning machinery was invented by the British scientist William Sturgeon in 1832.[11] Following Sturgeon's work, a commutator-type direct-current electric motor made with the intention of commercial use was built by Americans Emily and Thomas Davenport and patented in 1837. Their motors ran at up to 600 revolutions per minute, and powered machine tools and a printing press.^ This type of motor is now used for the vast majority of commercial applications.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The electric motor gets its power from a controller .
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The original electric motors were DC powered.

[12] .Due to the high cost of the zinc electrodes required by primary battery power, the motors were commercially unsuccessful and the Davenports went bankrupt.^ Although several of these motors were built and used to operate equipment such as a printing press, due to the high cost of primary battery power , the motors were commercially unsuccessful and Davenport went bankrupt.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ All small, high power motors require external cooling.

^ And dc motors respond quickly to changes in control signals due to the dc motor's high ratio of torque to inertia.
  • DC Motors - US Engineering/China prices. 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC sinotechmotors.com [Source type: Reference]

.Several inventors followed Sturgeon in the development of DC motors but all encountered the same cost issues with primary battery power.^ The original electric motors were DC powered.

^ Not all Electric Motor are the same.
  • Electric Motor - Providing you with Useful Information and Links for Electric Motor products. 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC electric--motor.com [Source type: General]

^ Electric motor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Several inventors followed Sturgeon in the development of DC motors but all ...
  • DC Motors – Web Listings 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.business.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.No electricity distribution had been developed at the time.^ No electricity distribution had been developed at the time.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Electric Motor Distribution With years of experience, hundreds of motors in stock, and consistently proven repair and field service, Energy Management Corporation has developed an unbeatable source of motor repair and distribution.
  • Electric Motors - Energy Management Corporation 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.emcsolutions.com [Source type: General]

^ Electric motors, Beak-mania and time, no.
  • Electric motors and generators and related drives - Copyright Info 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Like Sturgeon's motor, there was no practical commercial market for these motors.^ Like Sturgeon's motor, there was no practical commercial market for these motors.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ And while battery electric vehicles appear to be on their way to market, there have been no full-function electric vehicles of this type being mass produced.
  • 5 Facts: Electric In-Wheel Motors | GreenCar.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.greencar.com [Source type: News]

^ Please note there is a minimum order quantity of 10,000 pieces for these motors.
  • Astrosyn miniature dc motors 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.astrosyn.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
.In 1855 Jedlik built a device using similar principles to those used in his electromagnetic self-rotors that was capable of useful work.^ Ordinary clampmeters used to measure AC currents work on the principle of electromagnetic induction caused by the alternating current flowing in the conductor which reverses direction causing a dynamically changing magnetic field.

^ This will work better than the "S" rotor and is the basic method we used in 1983 with the original Flux Motor, as far as just attracting bars of iron to the stator sections.

^ See also Wikipedia: Alternator AC generator works on the principle of Faraday's laws electromagnetics.
  • Electric Motors And Generators - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

[5][7] .He built a model electric motor-propelled vehicle that same year.^ Not all Electric Motor are the same.
  • Electric Motor - Providing you with Useful Information and Links for Electric Motor products. 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC electric--motor.com [Source type: General]

^ Electric vehicles are propelled by an electric motor (or motors) powered by rechargeable battery packs.

^ Electric motor for hybrid vehicles .
  • Electric motor - Google Patent Search 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

[13] .There is no evidence that this experimentation was communicated to the wider scientific world at that time, or that it influenced the development of electric motors in the following decades.^ There would be no need for ordinary electric motor brushes.
  • Multiple, inline electric motors? | Hybrid Cars 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many kinds of electric motor.
  • ELECTRIC MOTORS — FactMonster.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: General]

^ The tag 'Electric Motors' has the following results: .
  • Electric Motors,Electric Motors Manufacturer India,Electric Motor Components Supplier 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.thomex.com [Source type: Reference]

[citation needed]
.The modern DC motor was invented by accident in 1873, when Zénobe Gramme connected the dynamo he had invented to a second similar unit, driving it as a motor.^ The modern DC motor was invented by accident in 1873, when Zénobe Gramme connected the dynamo he had invented to a second similar unit, driving it as a motor.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The modern DC motor was invented by accident in 1873, when Znobe Gramme connected a spinning dynamo to a second similar unit, driving it as a motor.
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Product Offering US Motors, U.S. Motors,US Electrical motors, Electrical motors, motors, ac motors, dc motors, 3 phase motors, induction motors, mechanical adjustable speed drives, single phase motors, inverter duty motors, switched reluctance .
  • Product Offering US Motors, U.S. Motors,US Electrical motors, Electrical motors,motors, ac motors, dc motors, 3 phase motors, inductionmotors, mechanical adjustable speed drives, single phase motors, inverter duty motors,switched reluctance 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.usmotors.com [Source type: General]

.The Gramme machine was the first electric motor that was successful in the industry.^ Industrial Sewing machine Motors .
  • Adlee, Adleepower as a Brushless DC motors, AC motor & drive manufacture 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.adlee.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Good motors for industrial sewing machine...
  • Adlee, Adleepower as a Brushless DC motors, AC motor & drive manufacture 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.adlee.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Gramme machine was the first electric motor that was successful in the industry.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

[citation needed]
.In 1886 Frank Julian Sprague invented the first practical DC motor, a non-sparking motor capable of constant speed under variable loads.^ DC Motors - Speed variation with torque .
  • DC Motors - US Engineering/China prices. 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC sinotechmotors.com [Source type: Reference]

^ DC Shunt Motors Shunt Motors for constant load application, where speed should not drop with increase on load.

^ DC Motors - Speed control .
  • DC Motors - US Engineering/China prices. 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC sinotechmotors.com [Source type: Reference]

.Other Sprague electric inventions about this time greatly improved grid electric distribution [prior work done while employed by Edison], allowed power from electric motors to be returned to the electric grid, provided for electric distribution to trolleys via overhead wires and the trolley pole, and provided controls systems for electric operations.^ The electric motor gets its power from a controller .
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HowStuffWorks "How Electric Cars Work" 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC auto.howstuffworks.com [Source type: News]

^ Other kinds of electric motors .
  • How electric motors work: An introduction from Explain thatStuff! 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.explainthatstuff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electric motors in radio control setups .

.This allowed Sprague to use electric motors to invent the first electric trolley system in 1887-88 in Richmond VA, the electric elevator and control system in 1892, and the electric subway with independently powered centrally controlled cars, which was first installed in 1892 in Chicago by the South Side Elevated Railway where it became popularly known as the "L". Sprague's motor and related inventions led to an explosion of interest and use in electric motors for industry, while almost simultaneously another great inventor was developing its primary competitor, which would become much more widespread.^ Is to design the complete electrical power and control system for a typical medium sized motor car.
  • EV Weblog: Electric Car Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.evconvert.com [Source type: General]

^ Electric motors in radio control setups .

^ Electric cars can use AC or DC motors: .
  • HowStuffWorks "Electric-car Motors and Batteries" 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC auto.howstuffworks.com [Source type: News]

.In 1888 Nikola Tesla invented the first practicable AC motor and with it the polyphase power transmission system.^ When electric motors were first invented, AC current had not yet been discovered.
  • Electric Motor - body, used, water, life, law, plants, energy, system, air, cause, primary, waves, basic, change, part, principle 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1888 Nikola Tesla invented the first practicable AC motor and with it the polyphase power transmission system.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ AC electric motor ARC Systems .
  • AC asynchronous electric motor - Motor, Geared Motor, Motion Control 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.directindustry.com [Source type: Reference]

.Tesla continued his work on the AC motor in the years to follow at the Westinghouse company.^ Tesla continued his work on the AC motor in the years to follow at the Westinghouse company.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Our precedent-setting five-year warranty distinguishes Lincoln Motors from claims you may hear from other companies.
  • Lincoln Motors Single Phase ODP TEFC Severe Duty Large Frame Washdown Explosion Proof Lincoln Electric Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.clrwtr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tower Electric Motor Company has experience selling and maintaining electrical motors and manufacturing single to three phase converters over the years since 1968.
  • Worldwide Electric Motor Sales - Worldwide Motors: single and three phase Worldwide electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electricmotorsale.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Electric Motor Sales - AC single phase, three phase: Leeson Motors, Baldor Motors, WEG Motors, Electric Motors, US Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.phaseconverter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.The development of electric motors of acceptable efficiency was delayed for several decades by failure to recognize the extreme importance of a relatively-small air gap between rotor and stator.^ Air Gap - The space between the rotor and stationary stator member in an electric motor.
  • Electric Motors Information and Resources 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electric-motors.net [Source type: Reference]

^ NEMA - electrical motors efficiency ratings .

^ Air Compressor electric motors 1PH   .

.Early motors, for some rotor positions, had comparatively huge air gaps which constituted a very high reluctance magnetic circuit.^ The reluctance motor has all its poles on the stator, and a magnetic core on the rotor.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Some of the motors we manufacture include AC universal motors, small motors, DC universal motors, DC permanent magnet motors, DC shunt wound motors, gearmotors, DC permanent magnet tach generators & much more.
  • Universal Electric Motors - Universal Electric Motor Manufacturers - Universal AC Motor - Universal DC Motor 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.iqsdirectory.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The lightened aluminum motor can houses high-torque, "rare-earth" Neodymium magnets.
  • ElectriFly | RimFire Brushless Motor 12 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.electrifly.com [Source type: Academic]

.They produced far-lower torque than an equivalent amount of power would produce with efficient designs.^ Higher power density, torque density and efficiency than conventional motors.

^ Outrunner motors generally have lower Kv ratings, meaning they run at a lower speed, but with more torque, which would allow you to direct drive larger props without needing a gearbox.
  • Brushless Electric Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.rctoys.com [Source type: General]

^ Higher efficiency, more power saving, lower noise and vibration, greater reliability, Class "F", IP55, SKF bearing, OEM offered....
  • electrical motor, electrical motor Manufacturers & Suppliers 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]
  • Y2 Electrical Motor, Y2 Electrical Motor Manufacturers & Suppliers 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

.The cause of the lack of understanding seems to be that early designs were based on familiarity of distant attraction between a magnet and a piece of ferromagnetic material, or between two electromagnets.^ Magnetic forces between the permanent magnet and the electromagnet cause the rotor to turn.
  • electric motor Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about electric motor 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The device consists of a pendulum, with a pendulum bob of a two dimensional shape made of a non-ferromagnetic conducting material thats is set swinging between the poles of an electromagnet.

^ Finally, the geometric design as well as the material of the core may be optimised to ensure that the magnetic flux in each coil of the secondary is nearly the same as that in each coil of the primary.

.Efficient designs, as this article describes, are based on a rotor with a comparatively small air gap, and flux patterns that create torque.^ Torque is produced by the action of the rotor (secondary) currents on the air-gap flux.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Variable Torque Motors - Axial field weakening yields higher efficiency over the rpm range, creating a "built-in" transmission that mechanically enables an operating range up to 10x the motor base speed for electric vehicles.
  • Directory:Electric Motors - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Helical Geared Motors Our helical geared motors are designed based on international & national standards resulting into efficient and rugged drive for modern machines.
  • Electric Motors,Brake Motors,Three Phase Electric Motors,Torque Motors,India 12 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.indiamart.com [Source type: Reference]

[14]
.Note that the armature bars are at some distance (unknown) from the field pole pieces when power is fed to one of the field magnets; the air gap is likely to be considerable.^ Like the "field" the armature is a magnet.
  • Constructing the Field 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.hope.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the coil is powered, a magnetic field is generated around the armature.
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The solenoid also closes some large electrical contacts that allow approximately 150 amps of current from the battery to travel through the brushes to the commutator bars of the armature.
  • Electric Motors — WSU 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC ocw.weber.edu [Source type: Reference]

The text tells of the inefficiency of the design. (Electricity was created, as a practical matter, by consuming zinc in wet primary cells!)
.In his workshops Froment had an electromotive engine of one-horse power.^ The Electric Wheel may be constructed with one electric motor power input device and the second power input device being any suitable power input device, such as an internal combustion engine (I.C.E.).

^ The basic difference between AC and DC power is the direction the current flows through the engine; DC (direct current) motors flow in only one direction, while AC can alternate.
  • Universal Electric Motors - Universal Electric Motor Manufacturers - Universal AC Motor - Universal DC Motor 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.iqsdirectory.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They are available in limited power (less than one horse power) and their rotation speed is limited (usually maximum speed limit is about 2000 rpm).
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.But, though an interesting application of the transformation of energy, these machines will never be practically applied on the large scale in manufactures, for the expense of the acids and the zinc which they use very far exceeds that of the coal in steam-engines of the same force.^ Both methods of starting are in commercial use on a very large scale.

^ In any case, GE electric motors should be selected to satisfy the dynamic requirements of the machines on which they are applied without exceeding rated electric motor temperature.
  • Buy General Electric Motor, GE Electric Motor, Electric Motor 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.hvacplus.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These are the same type of electric motors that Currie, Lashout, and Synergy electric bicycles plus Currie USPD Pro-Drive electric bicycle kits use however they are not compatible with those bikes because they rotate counter clockwise instead of clockwise.
  • Electric Scooter and Bicycle Motors - ElectricScooterParts.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electricscooterparts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[...] motors worked by electricity, independently of any question as to the cost of construction, or of the cost of the acids, are at least sixty times as dear to work as steam-engines.
.Although Gramme's design was comparatively much more efficient, apparently the Froment motor was still considered illustrative, years later.^ BLDC motors are considered more efficient than brushed DC-motors.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ More efficiency design in circurt.
  • Electric Motors Manufacturers On B2BChinaSources.Com from China Electric Motors Manufacturers & Taiwan Electric Motors Suppliers & Electric Motors Exporters 12 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.b2bchinasources.com [Source type: General]

^ Generally higher efficiency motors are those that use more metal in their construction and the metal is laminated and insulated between laminations to reduce eddy currents, which create heat.
  • Electric Motor Brake Horsepower Calculations 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.bacharach-training.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is of some interest that the St. Louis motor, long used in classrooms to illustrate motor principles, is extremely inefficient for the same reason, as well as appearing nothing like a modern motor. .Photo of a traditional form of the motor: [3] Note the prominent bar magnets, and the huge air gap at the ends opposite the rotor.^ DO NOT SEAL THE MOTOR IN AIR TIGHT MATERIALS. Condensation may form, causing bearing and insulation damage.
  • Franklin Electric - Motor Maintenance and Trouble Shooting Page 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.aymcdonald.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mechanical losses...including bearing friction losses, the air gap maintained between the stator and rotor and the ability of the motor frame and bearings to hold that air gap, losses from internal cooling fans and brush friction.
  • ELECTRIC MOTOR SERVICE CENTER Inc. Electric Motor Principles 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The field magnet in this motor is formed by the can itself plus two curved permanent magnets: .
  • Howstuffworks "How Electric Motors Work" 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.howstuffworks.com [Source type: General]

.Even modern versions still have big air gaps if the rotor poles are not aligned.^ It is important that the auxiliary magnetic poles are mounted to hold the rotor at stand-still in a position in which each rotor magnet axis does not coincide with the mid-vertical of a stator pole, but is displaced from it.
  • SELF STARTING ELECTRICAL MOTOR - Patent 3739248 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Applying suitable voltages across each of the phase windings causes current to flow through the windings, generating a current flux vector in the air gap between the stator and the rotor.

^ It is even more favorable to provide the same number of auxiliary magnetic poles as there are rotor poles and to mount them equally spaced, on the stator circumference.
  • SELF STARTING ELECTRICAL MOTOR - Patent 3739248 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Application of electric motors revolutionized industry.^ Lincoln Electric has motors for nearly any industrial application.
  • Lincoln Motors Single Phase ODP TEFC Severe Duty Large Frame Washdown Explosion Proof Lincoln Electric Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.clrwtr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Different industries use lots of electrical motors in their applications.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Asynchronous electric brake motor TECO Industrial Motors Applications .
  • AC asynchronous electric motor - Motor, Geared Motor, Motion Control 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.directindustry.com [Source type: Reference]

.Industrial processes were no longer limited by power transmission using shaft, belts, compressed air or hydraulic pressure.^ Used chemical process plants, equipment, and machinery are typically available not because the components are obsolete or no longer operable, but because they were in facilities which were phased out due to changing markets, technology, and economics.
  • Used Dc Motors, Ac Motors, Hydraulic Motors, Used Electric Motors by IPP 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.ippe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Products are cost effective electro-magnetic & used by industrial & commercial OEM markets for wind energy, solar power, variable speed drive,...
  • Electrical, Motor, Wire Winding, Copper Coils on ThomasNet.com 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

^ AC Motors applications: wood and metal working machines, hydraulic devices, air conditioning, medical and refrigeration industries and a myriad of other electric machines.
  • AC motors - Kostov Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC kostov-motors.com [Source type: Academic]

.Instead every machine could be equipped with its own electric motor, providing easy control at the point of use, and improving power transmission efficiency.^ The electric motor gets its power from a controller .
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HowStuffWorks "How Electric Cars Work" 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC auto.howstuffworks.com [Source type: News]

^ Electric motors in radio control setups .

^ NEMA - electrical motors efficiency ratings .

.Electric motors applied in agriculture eliminated human and animal muscle power from such tasks as handling grain or pumping water.^ The electric motor gets its power from a controller .
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But this applies to any electric motor with adjustable timing.
  • Timing Electric Motors - RC Groups 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.rcgroups.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Related Keywords: electric motor , electrical motor , pump motors ] .
  • electric motors - China electric motors manufacturers, wholesalers, suppliers, exporters, distributors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.tradevv.com [Source type: Reference]

.Household uses of electric motors reduced heavy labor in the home and made higher standards of convenience, comfort and safety possible.^ Hydraulic electric motors are used in OEM...
  • Electric Motors in South Texas (TX) on ThomasNet.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

^ The NEMA enclosure standards of electrical motors .

^ Electric motors are convenient and quiet, and have replaced many other forms of motive power.
  • electric motor Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about electric motor 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today, electric motors consume more than half of all electric energy produced.^ Learn more about Electric Motors .
  • Electric Motors in South Texas (TX) on ThomasNet.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]
  • Electric Motors on ThomasNet.com 12 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Electric motors An electric motor uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy .
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Today it takes more than just a powerful motor.
  • electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.rcuniverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Categorization of electric motors

.The classic division of electric motors has been that of Alternating Current (AC) types vs Direct Current (DC) types.^ Similarly, an alternator is also an AC motor.

^ Synchronous motor • AC motor • DC Motor .
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Electric cars can use AC or DC motors: .
  • HowStuffWorks "Electric-car Motors and Batteries" 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC auto.howstuffworks.com [Source type: News]

.This is more a de facto convention, rather than a rigid distinction.^ This is more a de facto convention, rather than a rigid distinction.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This is used in industrial shops, rather than peaks and valleys the current supply is more even because of the other two cycles each offset by 120 degrees.
  • Electric Motor Basics 12 September 2009 8:15 UTC sawdustmaking.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Imagine an electric car with the same acceleration capability as a gas-powered sports car, or ultrafast rechargeable “batteries” that can be recharged a thousand times more than existing conventional batteries.

.For example, many classic DC motors run on AC power, these motors being referred to as universal motors.^ A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Synchronous motor • AC motor • DC Motor .
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Specializing in Manufacturing AC universal motors and DC permanent magnet motors .
  • Google Directory - Business > Electronics and Electrical > Electromechanical > Electric Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC directory.google.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Google Directory - Business > Electronics and Electrical > Electromechanical > Electric Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.Rated output power is also used to categorise motors, those of less than 746 Watts, for example, are often referred to as fractional horsepower motors (FHP) in reference to the old imperial measurement.^ A unit used to measure power.
  • Intro to Electric Motors 200 - Motor Controls Training 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The horsepower output of any motor can be expressed as: .

^ One horsepower is equal to 746 watts.
  • Intro to Electric Motors 200 - Motor Controls Training 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

.The ongoing trend toward electronic control further muddles the distinction, as modern drivers have moved the commutator out of the motor shell.^ The ongoing trend toward electronic control further muddles the distinction, as modern drivers have moved the commutator out of the motor shell.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ While the control circuitry can add to the expense of the brushless DC motor, the elimination of the brushes and commutator reduces maintenance, as there is no wear on an associated brush, and prevents arcing in the motor that can occur as the commutator moves past the brushes.

^ Due to their electronic commutation, the service life of these motors is in principle only limited by the bearings and electronic components used.
  • Brushless DC Motors 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.epn-online.com [Source type: Reference]

.For this new breed of motor, driver circuits are relied upon to generate sinusoidal AC drive currents, or some approximation thereof.^ For this new breed of motor, driver circuits are relied upon to generate sinusoidal AC drive currents, or some approximation of.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ AC Motor driver pioneer.
  • Electrical Motor Control :B2BManufactures.Com For Taiwan and China Electrical Motor Control Manufacturers and Electrical Motor Control Suppliers 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.manufacturers.com.tw [Source type: General]

^ Motors, drives and generators.
  • DC Motors | Business solutions from AllBusiness.com 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: News]

.The two best examples are: the brushless DC motor and the stepping motor, both being poly-phase AC motors requiring external electronic control, although historically, stepping motors (such as for maritime and naval gyrocompass repeaters) were driven from DC switched by contacts.^ The two best examples are: the brushless DC motor, and the stepping motor, both being polyphase AC motors requiring external electronic control.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Two-phase AC servo motors .
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Synchronous motor • AC motor • DC Motor .
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Considering all rotating (or linear) electric motors require synchronism between a moving magnetic field and a moving current sheet for average torque production, there is a clearer distinction between an asynchronous motor and synchronous types.^ Figure 9 - The rotating magnetic field of an AC motor.

^ For an electric motor torque increases.

^ Motor torque is developed from interaction of currents flowing in the rotor bars and the stator's rotating magnetic field.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.An asynchronous motor requires slip between the moving magnetic field and a winding set to induce current in the winding set by mutual inductance; the most ubiquitous example being the common AC induction motor which must slip to generate torque.^ We will discuss the phenomena of magnetism, AC current and basic motor operation.

^ Figure 9 - The rotating magnetic field of an AC motor.

^ The slip of the AC motor is calculated by: .
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.In the synchronous types, induction (or slip) is not a requisite for magnetic field or current production (e.g.^ In the synchronous types, induction (or slip) is not a requisite for magnetic field or current production (eg.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Full product line includes focusing magnets, solenoids, several types of chokes, RF match coils, inductors, coil assemblies, field coils, air-core coils, water-cooled coils, bobbin wound coils, edge wound coils & self-supporting coils.
  • Electrical, Motor, Wire Winding, Copper Coils on ThomasNet.com 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

^ The induction motor derives its name from the fact that ac voltages are induced in the rotor circuit by the rotating magnetic field of the stator.
  • AC asynchronous electric motor - Motor, Geared Motor, Motion Control 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.directindustry.com [Source type: Reference]

permanent magnet motors, synchronous .brush-less wound-rotor doubly-fed electric machine).^ Doubly-fed electric motor .
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On the other hand, brushed motors use armature coils which can be inexpensively machine-wound.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The rotor coils receive electric current via a so-called commutator, which is connected to a DC voltage through two brushes (hence the name).
  • Electric Motors for Model Aircraft 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC adamone.rchomepage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • AMPS - Electric Power - Electric Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.amps-rc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Comparison of motor types

Comparison of motor types[15]
Type Advantages Disadvantages Typical Application Typical Drive
AC Induction
(Shaded Pole)
Least expensive
Long life
high power
Rotation slips from frequency
Low starting torque
Fans Uni/Poly-phase AC
AC Induction
(split-phase capacitor)
High power
high starting torque
Rotation slips from frequency Appliances Uni/Poly-phase AC
AC Synchronous Rotation in-sync with freq
long-life (alternator)
More expensive Industrial motors
Clocks
Audio turntables
tape drives
Uni/Poly-phase AC
Stepper DC Precision positioning
High holding torque
Requires a controller Positioning in printers and floppy drives DC
Brushless DC Long lifespan
low maintenance
High efficiency
High initial cost
Requires a controller
Hard drives
CD/DVD players
electric vehicles
DC
Brushed DC Low initial cost
Simple speed control
High maintenance (brushes)
Low lifespan
Treadmill exercisers
automotive starters
Direct DC or PWM
Pancake DC Compact design
Simple speed control
Medium cost
Medium lifespan
Office Equip
Fans/Pumps
Direct DC or PWM

Servo motor

.A servomechanism, or servo is an automatic device that uses error-sensing feedback to correct the performance of a mechanism.^ Use trial and error to get the best performance.
  • Constructing the Field 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.hope.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These motors were commonly used to drive the capstan (s) of magnetic tape drives and are still widely used in high-performance servo-controlled systems, like humanoid robotic systems, industrial automation, medical devices, etc.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These motors were commonly used to drive the capstan (s) of magnetic tape drives and are still widely used in high-performance servo-controlled systems, like radio-controlled vehicles/aircraft, humanoid robotic systems, industrial automation, medical devices, etc.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.The term correctly applies only to systems where the feedback or error-correction signals help control mechanical position or other parameters.^ In a servo system the encoder gives the motors position to the servo amplifier and it compares this with the desired position to get the error.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The Airmaster AP332 propeller control system has extremely low power consumption; only about 1A current is drawn while the propeller is changing pitch (a couple of Figure 2.

^ Tacho generator feedback information - This document has general information on tachno feedback and other motor speed controlling methods.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.For example, an automotive power window control is not a servomechanism, as there is no automatic feedback which controls position—the operator does this by observation.^ The electrical motor position controller of claim 13 wherein the frequency varying means supplies a pulse width modulated A.C. electrical power to the first motor.
  • Electrical motor position controller - Patent 5089759 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Motor cabinet (housing): production line uses auto transfer die for power window, rod antenna of automotive components and washing machine, refrigerator used motor cabinet.
  • Electric Motors Manufacturers On B2BChinaSources.Com from China Electric Motors Manufacturers & Taiwan Electric Motors Suppliers & Electric Motors Exporters 12 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.b2bchinasources.com [Source type: General]

^ Referring now to the drawing, and to FIG. 1 in particular, there is depicted one embodiment of an electrical motor position controller 10 which precisely and re-programmably controls the position and sequence of operation of an electrical motor 12 in a predetermined sequence of operation.
  • Electrical motor position controller - Patent 5089759 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.By contrast the car's cruise control uses closed loop feedback, which classifies it as a servomechanism.^ Stepping motors can be used in simple open-loop control systems; these are generally adequate for systems that operate at low accelerations with static loads, but closed loop control may be essential for high accelerations, particularly if they involve variable loads.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The same Hall effect devices that provide the commutation can also provide a convenient tachometer signal for closed-loop control (servo-controlled) applications.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The same Hall effect sensors that provide the commutation can also provide a convenient tachometer signal for closed-loop control (servo-controlled) applications.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

Synchronous electric motor

.A synchronous electric motor is an AC motor distinguished by a rotor spinning with coils passing magnets at the same rate as the alternating current and resulting magnetic field which drives it.^ We will discuss the phenomena of magnetism, AC current and basic motor operation.

^ Figure 9 - The rotating magnetic field of an AC motor.

^ These motors are essentially AC synchronous motors with permanent magnet rotors.....
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.Another way of saying this is that it has zero slip under usual operating conditions.^ Relay - A device that is effective by a variation in the conditions of one electric circuit to affect the operation of other devices in the same or another electric circuit.
  • Electric Motors Information and Resources 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electric-motors.net [Source type: Reference]

^ These come incorporated with latest technology, which ensures safe and trouble free operations under critical conditions.

^ The Electrical Engineering training series says, quote: "Series motors cannot be used where a relatively constant speed is required under conditions of varying load."

.Contrast this with an induction motor, which must slip to produce torque.^ However, with a HVDC motor, because the speed vs torque performance is linear and has a small slope, a change in torque requirement produces a relatively smaller change in speed.
  • Home: Johnson Motor 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.johnsonmotor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Known for quiet operation this reversible DC PM Field High Torque motor operates on 24 - 90 volts DC producing speeds of 1500 - 6000 rpm.

^ A DC series motor provides very high start-up torque but must never be run without a load.
  • Intro to Electric Motors 200 - Motor Controls Training 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

.A synchronous motor is like an induction motor except the rotor is excited by a DC field.^ Synchronous motor • AC motor • DC Motor .
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Wound field DC motor .
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Separately excited field DC Motors .

.Slip rings and brushes are used to conduct current to rotor.^ The rotors in these motors do not require any induced current so they do not slip backward against the mains frequency.
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A secondary use of the slip ring motor is to provide a means of speed control.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The rotor coils receive electric current via a so-called commutator, which is connected to a DC voltage through two brushes (hence the name).
  • Electric Motors for Model Aircraft 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC adamone.rchomepage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • AMPS - Electric Power - Electric Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.amps-rc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rotor poles connect to each other and move at the same speed hence the name synchronous motor.^ A type of three phase AC motor whose rotor is constructed by connecting metal bars together at each end.
  • Intro to Electric Motors 200 - Motor Controls Training 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ At full load, the speed is typically 0.5 to 5 percent lower than the field speed (often called synchronous speed), with the higher percentage applying to smaller motors.
  • electric motor -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The induction motor derives its name from the fact that ac voltages are induced in the rotor circuit by the rotating magnetic field of the stator.
  • AC asynchronous electric motor - Motor, Geared Motor, Motion Control 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.directindustry.com [Source type: Reference]

Induction motor

.An induction motor (IM) is a type of asynchronous AC motor where power is supplied to the rotating device by means of electromagnetic induction.^ It is the most common AC motor type.
  • Intro to Electric Motors 200 - Motor Controls Training 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Identify the main types of AC motors.
  • Intro to Electric Motors 200 - Motor Controls Training 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Three-phase AC induction motors .
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.Another commonly used name is squirrel cage motor because the rotor bars with short circuit rings resemble a squirrel cage (hamster wheel).^ Squirrel cage motor .
  • AC asynchronous electric motor - Motor, Geared Motor, Motion Control 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.directindustry.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Most motors use the squirrel cage rotor discussed above.
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Induction motors are also sometimes called squirrel cage motors because the appearance of early rotors.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.An electric motor converts electrical power to mechanical power in its rotor (rotating part).^ Electrical motors are able to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy.
  • Electric Motors: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ The rotor is part of the motor shaft, which rotates inside the stator.
  • Electric Motors for Model Aircraft 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC adamone.rchomepage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • AMPS - Electric Power - Electric Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.amps-rc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It converts electric energy into mechanical energy.

.There are several ways to supply power to the rotor.^ There are several types of single phase AC motors in current production in the U.S., but only two types are commonly used in powering home shop machninist equipment.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ There are several types of single phase AC motors in current production in the U.S., but only two types are commonly used in powering our equipment.
  • Reversing and Repair of Electric Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.metalwebnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As described above, the rotor 62 of the first motor 12 is slidably mounted and moves in a direction away from the gear means 98 when electrical power is supplied to the windings of the first motor 12.
  • Electrical motor position controller - Patent 5089759 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.In a DC motor this power is supplied to the armature directly from a DC source, while in an induction motor this power is induced in the rotating device.^ Armature - A part of the magnetic structure of a motor that rotates in a DC or universal motor.
  • Electric Motors Information and Resources 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electric-motors.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The classic DC motor has a rotating armature in the form of an electromagnet.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In basic DC motors, an electric current is supplied to the coil through brushes in contact with the commutator piece on the rotor shaft while switching the polarities of the electric current, the rotation of the rotor shaft being thus continued.

.An induction motor is sometimes called a rotating transformer because the stator (stationary part) is essentially the primary side of the transformer and the rotor (rotating part) is the secondary side.^ The rotor is part of the motor shaft, which rotates inside the stator.
  • Electric Motors for Model Aircraft 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC adamone.rchomepage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • AMPS - Electric Power - Electric Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.amps-rc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Induction motors are also sometimes called squirrel cage motors because the appearance of early rotors.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ An AC induction motor consists of two basic assemblies - stator and rotor - and is analogous to an ac transformer with a rotating secondary.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.Induction motors are widely used, especially polyphase induction motors, which are frequently used in industrial drives.^ In a vast array of industrial, consumer and other applications, for example, electric motors are used as a prime mover for pumps, material handling equipment, process equipment, drives, and so forth.

^ These motors were commonly used to drive the capstan (s) of magnetic tape drives and are still widely used in high-performance servo-controlled systems, like humanoid robotic systems, industrial automation, medical devices, etc.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ An inverter-duty motor is a much newer concept that was necessary as general purpose motors began to be driven by variable frequency drives (VFDs or inverters).
  • Electric Motors, AC Motors, Variable Speed Motors, Induction Motor, Single Phase Motor 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.automationdirect.com [Source type: General]
  • Electric Motors, AC Motors, Variable Speed Motors, Induction Motor, Single Phase Motor 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.automationdirect.com [Source type: General]

Electrostatic motor (capacitor motor)

.An electrostatic motor or capacitor motor is a type of electric motor based on the attraction and repulsion of electric charge.^ Most electric motors work by electromagnetism , but motors based on other electromechanical phenomena, such as electrostatic forces and the piezoelectric effect , also exist.
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Refine your search below by location, company type and certification to find electric-motors manufacturers and suppliers.
  • Electric Motors Information and Resources 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electric-motors.net [Source type: Reference]

^ To make a motor of this type run, you simply add the mechanics, a power supply to charge up the cap.

.Usually, electrostatic motors are the dual of conventional coil-based motors.^ Most electric motors work by electromagnetism , but motors based on other electromechanical phenomena, such as electrostatic forces and the piezoelectric effect , also exist.
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Similar to brushless DC motors, steppers usually have permanent magnets on the rotor and coils on the stator with field movement provided by commutation from the power supply.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Most electric motors work by electromagnetism , but motors based on other electromechanical phenomena, such as electrostatic forces and the piezoelectric effect and thermal motors, also exist.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.They typically require a high voltage power supply, although very small motors employ lower voltages.^ All small, high power motors require external cooling.

^ In any case, GE electric motors should be selected to satisfy the dynamic requirements of the machines on which they are applied without exceeding rated electric motor temperature.
  • Buy General Electric Motor, GE Electric Motor, Electric Motor 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.hvacplus.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Starting characteristics of single-speed three-phase asynchronous electric motors with cage rotor for supply voltages, lower or equal to 660 V. .
  • AC motors - Kostov Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC kostov-motors.com [Source type: Academic]

.Conventional electric motors instead employ magnetic attraction and repulsion, and require high current at low voltages.^ Current electric motor News: .
  • electric motor Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about electric motor 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High amperes and low voltage of course.
  • How to make the simplest electric motor - Evil Mad Scientist Laboratories 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.evilmadscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In any case, GE electric motors should be selected to satisfy the dynamic requirements of the machines on which they are applied without exceeding rated electric motor temperature.
  • Buy General Electric Motor, GE Electric Motor, Electric Motor 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.hvacplus.com [Source type: Academic]

In the 1750s, the first electrostatic motors were developed by Benjamin Franklin and Andrew Gordon. .Today the electrostatic motor finds frequent use in micro-mechanical (MEMS) systems where their drive voltages are below 100 volts, and where moving, charged plates are far easier to fabricate than coils and iron cores.^ A motor designed for variable frequency drive has more iron.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ These motors were commonly used to drive the capstan (s) of magnetic tape drives and are still widely used in high-performance servo-controlled systems, like humanoid robotic systems, industrial automation, medical devices, etc.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Electric powered model aircraft has gained popularity, mainly because the electric motors are more quiet, clean and often easier to start and operate than the combustion motors.
  • AMPS - Electric Power - Electric Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.amps-rc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, the molecular machinery which runs living cells is often based on linear and rotary electrostatic motors.^ See also: Molecular motors Electrostatic motor Materials .
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This is what gives the three phase motor its superior starting and running power and eliminates the need for start capacitors and start relays to remove a starting winding as is often necessary on single phase motors.
  • Electric Motor Brake Horsepower Calculations 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.bacharach-training.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm not going to comment on the Lindermann Rotary Attraction Motor because none is shown running.

DC Motors

.A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power.^ The electric motor gets its power from a controller .
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Brushed DC electric motor .
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Two examples of pure DC designs are Michael Faraday's homopolar motor (which is uncommon), and the ball bearing motor, which is (so far) a novelty.^ Two examples of pure DC designs are Michael Faraday 's homopolar motor (which is uncommon), and the ball bearing motor , which is (so far) a novelty.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ One of the first electromagnetic rotary motors, if not the first, was invented by Michael Faraday in 1821 , and consisted of a free-hanging wire dipping into a pool of mercury .
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ One of the first electromagnetic rotary motors was invented by Michael Faraday in 1821 and consisted of a free-hanging wire dipping into a pool of mercury .
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.By far the most common DC motor types are the brushed and brushless types, which use internal and external commutation respectively to create an oscillating AC current from the DC source—so they are not purely DC machines in a strict sense.^ By far the most common DC motor types are the brushed and brushless types, which use internal and external commutation respectively to create an oscillating AC current from the DC source -- so they are not purely DC machines in a strict sense.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Brush dc servo motors.
  • DC Motors | Business solutions from AllBusiness.com 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: News]

^ Brushes and Commutator provides DC voltage .

Brushed DC motors

.The classic DC motor design generates an oscillating current in a wound rotor, or armature, with a split ring commutator, and either a wound or permanent magnet stator.^ DC Permanent Magnet Motor w/ Encoder - 24 vdc .

^ These motors are essentially AC synchronous motors with permanent magnet rotors.....
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The permanent magnets on the outside (stator) of a DC motor may be replaced by electromagnets.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.A rotor consists of one or more coils of wire wound around a core on a shaft; an electrical power source is connected to the rotor coil through the commutator and its brushes, causing current to flow in it, producing electromagnetism.^ The rotor coils receive electric current via a so-called commutator, which is connected to a DC voltage through two brushes (hence the name).
  • Electric Motors for Model Aircraft 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC adamone.rchomepage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • AMPS - Electric Power - Electric Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.amps-rc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A rotor consists of a coil wound around a rotor which is then powered by any type of battery.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Collector is connected to the coil wire of the motor.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.The commutator causes the current in the coils to be switched as the rotor turns, keeping the magnetic poles of the rotor from ever fully aligning with the magnetic poles of the stator field, so that the rotor never stops (like a compass needle does) but rather keeps rotating indefinitely (as long as power is applied and is sufficient for the motor to overcome the shaft torque load and internal losses due to friction, etc.^ Figure 9 - The rotating magnetic field of an AC motor.

^ When the armature becomes horizontally aligned, the commutator reverses the direction of current through the coil, reversing the magnetic field.
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Motor torque is developed from interaction of currents flowing in the rotor bars and the stator's rotating magnetic field.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

)
.Many of the limitations of the classic commutator DC motor are due to the need for brushes to press against the commutator.^ However, there are a number of limitations in the classic design, many due to the need for brushes to rub against the commutator.
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Many of the limitations of the classic commutator DC motor are due to the need for brushes to press against the commutator.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Brushes and Commutator provides DC voltage .

This creates friction. .At higher speeds, brushes have increasing difficulty in maintaining contact.^ At higher speeds, brushes have increasing difficulty in maintaining contact.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Maximum speed is about 8000 rpm, but high speed operation results in greatly increased brush wear.

^ At maximum speed, field current is increased to decrease armature current and torque as necessary to maintain a constant speed.

.Brushes may bounce off the irregularities in the commutator surface, creating sparks.^ Brushes may bounce off the irregularities in the commutator surface, creating sparks.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Sparks that occur between the brushes and the commutator can cause radio interference.
  • Electric Motors for Model Aircraft 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC adamone.rchomepage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • AMPS - Electric Power - Electric Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.amps-rc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The brushes should get a curved surface without sparks/arcing.
  • Electric Motors for Model Aircraft 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC adamone.rchomepage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • AMPS - Electric Power - Electric Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.amps-rc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(Sparks are also created inevitably by the brushes making and breaking circuits through the rotor coils as the brushes cross the insulating gaps between commutator sections.^ Sparks that occur between the brushes and the commutator can cause radio interference.
  • Electric Motors for Model Aircraft 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC adamone.rchomepage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brushless motors have no chance of sparking, unlike brushed motors, making them better suited to environments with volatile chemicals and fuels.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In a conventional (brushed) DC-motor, the brushes make mechanical contact with a set of electrical contacts on the rotor (called the commutator ), forming an electrical circuit between the DC electrical source and the armature coil-windings.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.Depending on the commutator design, this may include the brushes shorting together adjacent sections—and hence coil ends—momentarily while crossing the gaps.^ As in the DC motor, the ends of the coil connect to a split ring, whose two halves are contacted by the brushes.

^ Tweeters - loudspeakers designed for high frequencies - may be just speakers of similar design, but with small, low mass cones and coils.

^ The commutator wires and the brushes may corrode after a long running time.
  • Constructing the Field 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.hope.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Furthermore, the inductance of the rotor coils causes the voltage across each to rise when its circuit is opened, increasing the sparking of the brushes.^ Since the rotor conductors are short-circuited together at each end, the effect will be to cause currents to flow in these conductors.
  • electric motor -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Very many DC motors (brush-type) have built-in commutation, meaning that as the motor rotates, mechanical brushes automatically commutate coils on the rotor.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ For the external circuit to produce DC voltage, it is necessary to reverse the polarity of the external leads at the same time the voltage in the coil is reversed.

) .This sparking limits the maximum speed of the machine, as too-rapid sparking will overheat, erode, or even melt the commutator.^ Of course commutation limitations and mechanical strength limit maximum motor speed.

^ Limitations of mechanical commutation limit maximum motor speed.

^ This limits the maximum speed of the machine.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.The current density per unit area of the brushes, in combination with their resistivity, limits the output of the motor.^ The current density per unit area of the brushes limits the output of the motor.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Simpler models switch voltage only for doing a step, thus needing an extra current limiter: for every step, they switch a single cable to the motor.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ High K v = Low Torque per ampere Low K v = High Torque per ampere Like the actual RPM is less than the ideal due to the resistance R m, the actual torque is also less than the ideal due to the idle (no load) current I o.
  • Electric Motors for Model Aircraft 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC adamone.rchomepage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The making and breaking of electric contact also causes electrical noise, and the sparks additionally cause RFI.^ The imperfect electric contact also causes electrical noise .
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The imperfect electric contact also causes electrical noise in the attached circuit.
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A brush is what makes contact with commutator and conducts electricity to the comm.
  • RC Racing USA - Frequently Asked Electric RC Car Motor Questions 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.rcracingusa.net [Source type: General]

.Brushes eventually wear out and require replacement, and the commutator itself is subject to wear and maintenance (on larger motors) or replacement (on small motors).^ Brushes eventually wear out and require replacement, and the commutator itself is subject to wear and maintenance.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Further, because brushes make contact between moving surfaces, they wear out.

^ The ongoing trend toward electronic control further muddles the distinction, as modern drivers have moved the commutator out of the motor shell.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.The commutator assembly on a large machine is a costly element, requiring precision assembly of many parts.^ The commutator assembly on a large machine is a costly element, requiring precision assembly of many parts.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The propeller adaptor assembly includes 10 machined parts plus mounting bolts.

^ For example, the rare earth element dysprosium is required to fabricate many of the advanced electric motors used in hybrid cars (Cox 2008).
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.On small motors, the commutator is usually permanently integrated into the rotor, so replacing it usually requires replacing the whole rotor.^ Brushes eventually wear out and require replacement, and the commutator itself is subject to wear and maintenance.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These motors are essentially AC synchronous motors with permanent magnet rotors.....
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The permanent magnets on the outside (stator) of a DC motor may be replaced by electromagnets.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.Large brushes are desired for a larger brush contact area to maximize motor output, but small brushes are desired for low mass to maximize the speed at which the motor can run without the brushes excessively bouncing and sparking (comparable to the problem of "valve float" in internal combustion engines).^ Brushless motors have no chance of sparking, unlike brushed motors, making them better suited to environments with volatile chemicals and fuels.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The latter monitors engine speed by counting electrical pulses from the ignition system or from a magnetic pickup and, depending on the speed, makes small adjustments to the amount of current applied to the motor.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Once rounded, you can attach wheels such as Rubber Wheel for Pager Motor w/ Retainer or any other small output device you can create.
  • Hobby Engineering: Geared DC Motors (Assembled) Category 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.hobbyengineering.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(Small brushes are also desirable for lower cost.) .Stiffer brush springs can also be used to make brushes of a given mass work at a higher speed, but at the cost of greater friction losses (lower efficiency) and accelerated brush and commutator wear.^ Higher efficiency, more power saving, lower noise and vibration, greater reliability, Class "F", IP55, SKF bearing, OEM offered....
  • electrical motor, electrical motor Manufacturers & Suppliers 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]
  • Y2 Electrical Motor, Y2 Electrical Motor Manufacturers & Suppliers 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ Brushes eventually wear out and require replacement, and the commutator itself is subject to wear and maintenance.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On the upside, they have greater range, can fuel up in minutes, and have higher cruising speeds (30 mph by just the motor itself).
  • Electric Motor-Scooters and Motorcycles - Electric-Bikes.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electric-bikes.com [Source type: General]

.Therefore, DC motor brush design entails a trade-off between output power, speed, and efficiency/wear.^ A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The output torque times motor speed determines the output power.

^ Brushed DC electric motor .
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

A: shunt
B: series
C: compound
f = field coil
There are five types of brushed DC motor:
A. DC shunt wound motor
B. DC series wound motor
C. DC compound motor (two configurations):
  • Cumulative compound
  • Differentially compounded
D. Permanent Magnet DC Motor (not shown)
E. Separately-excited (sepex) (not shown).

Brushless DC motors

.Some of the problems of the brushed DC motor are eliminated in the brushless design.^ DC brushless motor (3 Hp max.
  • DC Motor Manufacturers On B2BChinaSources.Com from China DC Motor Manufacturers & Taiwan DC Motor Suppliers & DC Motor Exporters 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.b2bchinasources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brushed DC electric motor .
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Besides "brush-type" DC motors, there is another DC motor type: brushless DC motor.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.In this motor, the mechanical "rotating switch" or commutator/brushgear assembly is replaced by an external electronic switch synchronised to the rotor's position.^ In a BLDC motor, the brush-system/commutator assembly is replaced by an intelligent electronic controller.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In this motor, the mechanical "rotating switch" or commutator/brushgear assembly is replaced by an external electronic switch synchronised to the motor's position.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The mechanical switching function, implemented by the brush and commutator combination in a brush-type motor, is replaced by electronic switching in a brushless motor.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.Brushless motors are typically 85-90% efficient or more (higher efficiency for a brushless electric motor of up to 96.5% were reported by researchers at the Tokai University in Japan in 2009),[16] whereas DC motors with brushgear are typically 75-80% efficient.^ DC Motor 16 vdc .

^ DC brushless motor (3 Hp max.
  • DC Motor Manufacturers On B2BChinaSources.Com from China DC Motor Manufacturers & Taiwan DC Motor Suppliers & DC Motor Exporters 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.b2bchinasources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These motors are little more expensive but they have higher efficiency.
  • Electric Motors for Model Aircraft 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC adamone.rchomepage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Midway between ordinary DC motors and stepper motors lies the realm of the brushless DC motor.^ Midway between ordinary DC motors and stepper motors lies the realm of the brushless DC motor .
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Supplying DC motors and stepper motors.
  • DC Motors, DC Motors Suppliers, DC Motors Manufacturers, DC Motors Exporters 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.industrymart.com [Source type: News]

^ Brushless DC motors .
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.Built in a fashion very similar to stepper motors, these often use a permanent magnet external rotor, three phases of driving coils, one or more Hall effect sensors to sense the position of the rotor, and the associated drive electronics.^ Rate this link Using three phase motor on single phase supply .
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ These motors are essentially AC synchronous motors with permanent magnet rotors.....
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Y2 motor three phase electric motor ...
  • Y2 Electrical Motor, Y2 Electrical Motor Manufacturers & Suppliers 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

.The coils are activated, one phase after the other, by the drive electronics as cued by the signals from either Hall effect sensors or from the back EMF (electromotive force) of the undriven coils.^ The coils are activated, one phase after the other, by the drive electronics as cued by the signals from the Hall effect sensors.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Others measure the back EMF in the undriven coils to infer the rotor position, eliminating the need for separate Hall effect sensors, and therefore are often called "sensorless" controllers.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Built in a fashion very similar to stepper motors, these often use a permanent magnet external rotor, three phases of driving coils, one or more Hall effect sensors to sense the position of the rotor, and the associated drive electronics.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.In effect, they act as three-phase synchronous motors containing their own variable-frequency drive electronics.^ Y2 motor three phase electric motor ...
  • Y2 Electrical Motor, Y2 Electrical Motor Manufacturers & Suppliers 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ In effect, they act as three-phase synchronous motors containing their own variable frequency drive electronics.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A motor designed for variable frequency drive has more iron.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.A specialized class of brushless DC motor controllers utilize EMF feedback through the main phase connections instead of Hall effect sensors to determine position and velocity.^ DC brushless motor (3 Hp max.
  • DC Motor Manufacturers On B2BChinaSources.Com from China DC Motor Manufacturers & Taiwan DC Motor Suppliers & DC Motor Exporters 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.b2bchinasources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A specialized class of brushless DC motor controllers utilize EMF feedback through the main phase connections instead of Hall effect sensors to determine position and velocity.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A simple DC controller connected to the batteries and the DC motor.
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These motors are used extensively in electric radio-controlled vehicles.^ The electric motor gets its power from a controller .
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electrical Motor Control with a factory in Taiwan.
  • Electrical Motor Control :B2BManufactures.Com For Taiwan and China Electrical Motor Control Manufacturers and Electrical Motor Control Suppliers 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.manufacturers.com.tw [Source type: General]

^ Electrical motor control .
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.When configured with the magnets on the outside, these are referred to by modelists as outrunner motors.^ When configured with the magnets on the outside, these are referred to by modelists as outrunner motors.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These motors are used extensively in electric radio-controlled vehicles, and referred to by modelists as outrunner motors (since the magnets are on the outside).
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These motors are essentially AC synchronous motors with permanent magnet rotors.....
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.Brushless DC motors are commonly used where precise speed control is necessary, as in computer disk drives or in video cassette recorders, the spindles within CD, CD-ROM (etc.^ DC brushless motor (3 Hp max.
  • DC Motor Manufacturers On B2BChinaSources.Com from China DC Motor Manufacturers & Taiwan DC Motor Suppliers & DC Motor Exporters 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.b2bchinasources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stepper motors are video used in robotics control and in computer accessories (disk drives, printers, scanners etc.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Low speed, low power brushless DC motors are used in direct-drive turntables .
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

) drives, and mechanisms within office products such as fans, laser printers and photocopiers. They have several advantages over conventional motors:
.
  • Compared to AC fans using shaded-pole motors, they are very efficient, running much cooler than the equivalent AC motors.^ Split-phase motors - Shaded-pole motors .
    • electric motor -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ It has very little counter EMF and runs quite efficiently as a motor.

    ^ How do I know which AC motor to use ...

    .This cool operation leads to much-improved life of the fan's bearings.
  • Without a commutator to wear out, the life of a DC brushless motor can be significantly longer compared to a DC motor using brushes and a commutator.^ Brushes and Commutator provides DC voltage .

    ^ DC brushless motor (3 Hp max.
    • DC Motor Manufacturers On B2BChinaSources.Com from China DC Motor Manufacturers & Taiwan DC Motor Suppliers & DC Motor Exporters 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.b2bchinasources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These DC motors do not have a brush and commutator combination.

    .Commutation also tends to cause a great deal of electrical and RF noise; without a commutator or brushes, a brushless motor may be used in electrically sensitive devices like audio equipment or computers.
  • The same Hall effect sensors that provide the commutation can also provide a convenient tachometer signal for closed-loop control (servo-controlled) applications.^ The electric motor gets its power from a controller .
    • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Note: If you are planning on using the same brushes again do not get motor spray on them.
    • RC Racing USA - Frequently Asked Electric RC Car Motor Questions 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.rcracingusa.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Brushes and Commutator provides DC voltage .

    .In fans, the tachometer signal can be used to derive a "fan OK" signal.
  • The motor can be easily synchronized to an internal or external clock, leading to precise speed control.
  • Brushless motors have no chance of sparking, unlike brushed motors, making them better suited to environments with volatile chemicals and fuels.^ Brushless motors have no chance of sparking, unlike brushed motors, making them better suited to environments with volatile chemicals and fuels.
    • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
    • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ In fans, the tachometer signal can be used to derive a "fan okay" signal.
    • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]
    • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ In fans, the tachometer signal can be used to derive a "fan OK" signal.
    • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
    • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

    Also, sparking generates ozone which can accumulate in poorly ventilated buildings risking harm to occupants' health.
  • Brushless motors are usually used in small equipment such as computers and are generally used to get rid of unwanted heat.
  • They are also very quiet motors which is an advantage if being used in equipment that is affected by vibrations.
.Modern DC brushless motors range in power from a fraction of a watt to many kilowatts.^ DC brushless motor (out rotor).
  • Electric Motors Manufacturers On B2BChinaSources.Com from China Electric Motors Manufacturers & Taiwan Electric Motors Suppliers & Electric Motors Exporters 12 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.b2bchinasources.com [Source type: General]
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^ Brushless DC motors .
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Modern DC brushless motors range in power from a fraction of a watt to many kilowatts.
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Larger brushless motors up to about 100 kW rating are used in electric vehicles.^ Everyday appliances and some vehicles use electric motors to function.
  • Electric Motors: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ SUVs and electric vehicles   Not rated yet Can SUVs (i.e.

^ The start-up Electric Motors Corp.
  • Electric Motors Corp. | RV Business 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.rvbusiness.com [Source type: News]

.They also find significant use in high-performance electric model aircraft.^ They also find significant use in high-performance electric model aircraft.
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Electric Motors Electric powered model aircraft has gained popularity, mainly because the electric motors are more quiet, clean and often easier to start and operate than the combustion motors.
  • Electric Motors for Model Aircraft 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC adamone.rchomepage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Jackal is a high speed, high performance, standing or sitting, electric bicycle hand built in Northern California by Thunderstruck Motors.
  • Electric Motor-Scooters and Motorcycles - Electric-Bikes.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electric-bikes.com [Source type: General]

Coreless or ironless DC motors

.Nothing in the design of any of the motors described above requires that the iron (steel) portions of the rotor actually rotate; torque is exerted only on the windings of the electromagnets.^ The rotor then is the rotating part of the motor.

^ The actual rotation speed of AC induction motor depends on the motor design.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Nothing in the design of any of the motors described above requires that the iron (steel) portions of the rotor actually rotate; torque is exerted only on the windings of the electromagnets.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • FEVj - electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.fuel-efficient-vehicles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Taking advantage of this fact is the coreless or ironless DC motor, a specialized form of a brush or brushless DC motor.^ Taking advantage of this fact is the coreless DC motor , a specialized form of a brush or brushless DC motor.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ DC brushless motor (3 Hp max.
  • DC Motor Manufacturers On B2BChinaSources.Com from China DC Motor Manufacturers & Taiwan DC Motor Suppliers & DC Motor Exporters 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.b2bchinasources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brushed DC electric motor .
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Optimized for rapid acceleration, these motors have a rotor that is constructed without any iron core.^ Optimized for rapid acceleration, these motors have a rotor that is constructed without any iron core.

^ Optimized for rapid acceleration , these motors have a rotor that is constructed without any iron core.
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These motors are essentially AC synchronous motors with permanent magnet rotors.....
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.The rotor can take the form of a winding-filled cylinder, or a self-supporting structure comprising only the magnet wire and the bonding material.^ The rotor can take the form of a winding-filled cylinder inside the stator magnets, a basket surrounding the stator magnets, or a flat pancake (possibly formed on a printed wiring board) running between upper and lower stator magnets.

^ The rotor can take the form of a winding-filled cylinder inside the stator magnets, a basket surrounding the stator magnets, or a flat pancake (possibly formed on a printed wiring board ) running between upper and lower stator magnets.
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the 'outrunner' configuration, the radial-relationship between the coils and magnets are reversed; the stator coils form the center (core) of the motor, while the permanent magnets spin on an overhanging rotor which surrounds the core.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.The rotor can fit inside the stator magnets; a magnetically-soft stationary cylinder inside the rotor provides a return path for the stator magnetic flux.^ The rotor can take the form of a winding-filled cylinder inside the stator magnets, a basket surrounding the stator magnets, or a flat pancake (possibly formed on a printed wiring board) running between upper and lower stator magnets.

^ The rotor can take the form of a winding-filled cylinder inside the stator magnets, a basket surrounding the stator magnets, or a flat pancake (possibly formed on a printed wiring board ) running between upper and lower stator magnets.
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Motor torque is developed from interaction of currents flowing in the rotor bars and the stator's rotating magnetic field.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.A second arrangement has the rotor winding basket surrounding the stator magnets.^ The stator coils surround the rotor.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The rotor can take the form of a winding-filled cylinder inside the stator magnets, a basket surrounding the stator magnets, or a flat pancake (possibly formed on a printed wiring board) running between upper and lower stator magnets.

^ The rotor can take the form of a winding-filled cylinder inside the stator magnets, a basket surrounding the stator magnets, or a flat pancake (possibly formed on a printed wiring board ) running between upper and lower stator magnets.
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.In that design, the rotor fits inside a magnetically-soft cylinder that can serve as the housing for the motor, and likewise provides a return path for the flux.^ Magnets: They are found inside the motor can.
  • RC Racing USA - Frequently Asked Electric RC Car Motor Questions 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.rcracingusa.net [Source type: General]

^ The rotor can take the form of a winding-filled cylinder inside the stator magnets, a basket surrounding the stator magnets, or a flat pancake (possibly formed on a printed wiring board) running between upper and lower stator magnets.

^ The rotor can take the form of a winding-filled cylinder inside the stator magnets, a basket surrounding the stator magnets, or a flat pancake (possibly formed on a printed wiring board ) running between upper and lower stator magnets.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Because the rotor is much lighter in weight (mass) than a conventional rotor formed from copper windings on steel laminations, the rotor can accelerate much more rapidly, often achieving a mechanical time constant under 1 ms.^ Because the rotor is much lighter in weight ( mass ) than a conventional rotor formed from copper windings on steel laminations, the rotor can accelerate much more rapidly, often achieving a mechanical time constant under 1 ms .
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Because the rotor is much lighter in weight (mass) than a conventional rotor formed from copper windings on steel laminations, the rotor can accelerate much more rapidly, often achieving a mechanical time constant under 1 ms. This is especially true if the windings use aluminum rather than the heavier copper.

^ The problem in this kind of single phase to three phase VFD is that single phase high power to dc conversion is much more expensive than three phase high power to dc conversion.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.This is especially true if the windings use aluminum rather than the heavier copper.^ This is especially true if the windings use aluminum rather than the heavier copper.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Because the rotor is much lighter in weight (mass) than a conventional rotor formed from copper windings on steel laminations, the rotor can accelerate much more rapidly, often achieving a mechanical time constant under 1 ms. This is especially true if the windings use aluminum rather than the heavier copper.

^ A set of coils can be used to create a magnetic field that translates, rather than rotates.

.But because there is no metal mass in the rotor to act as a heat sink, even small coreless motors must often be cooled by forced air.^ But because there is no metal mass in the rotor to act as a heat sink, even small coreless motors must often be cooled by forced air.
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • FEVj - electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.fuel-efficient-vehicles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Because the rotor is much lighter in weight ( mass ) than a conventional rotor formed from copper windings on steel laminations, the rotor can accelerate much more rapidly, often achieving a mechanical time constant under 1 ms .
  • Electric Motors -- AC Motors -- DC Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In smaller applications, a fan blade attached to the shaft often acts as an artificial load to limit the motor speed to a safe value, as well as a means to circulate cooling airflow over the armature and field windings.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Related limited-travel actuators have no core and a bonded coil placed between the poles of high-flux thin permanent magnets.^ Figure 1 - The lines of flux of a magnetic field travel from the N-pole to the S-pole.

^ In the photograph below, the speaker is beyond the normal upward limit of its travel, so the coil is visible above the magnet poles.

^ Producing Mechanical Force As in the generator, the motor has a definite relationship between the direction of the magnetic flux, the direction of motion of the conductor or force, and the direction of the applied voltage or current.

.These are the fast head positioners for rigid-disk ("hard disk") drives.^ As drive density increased, the precision limitations of stepper motors made them obsolete for hard drives, thus newer hard disk drives use read/write head control systems based on voice coils .
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Stepper motors can be rotated to a specific angle with ease, and hence stepper motors are used in pre-gigabyte era computer disk drives, where the precision they offered was adequate for the correct positioning of the read/write head of a hard disk drive.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • FEVj - electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.fuel-efficient-vehicles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Note that hard drives no longer use stepper motors to position the read/write heads, instead utilising a voice coil and servo feedback for head positioning.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

Printed Armature or Pancake DC Motors

.A rather unique motor design the pancake/printed armature motor has the windings shaped as a disc running between arrays of high-flux magnets, arranged in a circle, facing the rotor and forming an axial air gap.^ Air Gap - The space between the rotor and stationary stator member in an electric motor.
  • Electric Motors Information and Resources 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electric-motors.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The motor then operates solely on the running winding.
  • FEVj - electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.fuel-efficient-vehicles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In a brush-type motor, the winding is in the rotor.

.This design is commonly known the pancake motor because of its extremely flat profile, although the technology has had many brand names since it's inception, such as ServoDisc.^ There are too many possible and gearbox combinations to get the appropriate one, because how it works depends on what king of motor it is and what type of gearbox it is eq....
  • Electric Motors Manufacturers On B2BChinaSources.Com from China Electric Motors Manufacturers & Taiwan Electric Motors Suppliers & Electric Motors Exporters 12 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.b2bchinasources.com [Source type: General]

^ Synchronous motors are occasionally used as traction motors; the TGV may be the best-known example of such use.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ High-volume everyday items, such as hand drills and kitchen appliances, use a dc servomotor known as a universal motor.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.The printed armature (originally formed on a printed circuit board) in a printed armature motor is made from punched copper sheets that are laminated together using advanced composites to form a thin rigid disc.^ Timing Ring: This is used to advance the timing of the motor.
  • RC Racing USA - Frequently Asked Electric RC Car Motor Questions 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.rcracingusa.net [Source type: General]

^ On the other hand, brushed motors use armature coils which can be inexpensively machine-wound.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Using advanced chemistry NiMH batteries and a totally silent, brushless motor, the EPS kit is lightweight and extremely unassuming.

.The printed armature has a unique construction, in the brushed motor world, in that is does not have a separate ring commutator.^ On the other hand, brushed motors use armature coils which can be inexpensively machine-wound.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As the armature rotates on axis, the stationary brushes come into contact with different sections of the rotating commutator.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Many of the limitations of the classic commutator DC motor are due to the need for brushes to press against the commutator.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.The brushes run directly on the armature surface making the whole design very compact.^ Their compact design and sturdy construction helps in making sure about the performance in any condition.

^ The advantage of the universal motor is that AC supplies may be used on motors which have the typical characteristics of DC motors, specifically high starting torque and very compact design if high running speeds are used.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A key aspect of the brush assembly is that the brushes must make contact with the commutator so current can flow into the armature magnet.
  • Constructing the Field 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.hope.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An alternative manufacturing method is to use wound copper wire laid flat with a central conventional commutator, in a flower and petal shape.^ (I am using copper speaker wire.
  • How to make the simplest electric motor - Evil Mad Scientist Laboratories 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.evilmadscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Take one of the 2 inch wires from the field magnet and attach that in hole 5b using the same method as above.
  • Constructing the Field 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.hope.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using the needle-nose pliers, squeeze the commutator wires so that they are pressed tightly against the tubing on the motor shaft.
  • Constructing the Field 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.hope.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The windings are typically stabilized by being impregnated with electrical epoxy potting systems.^ The windings are typically stabilized by being impregnated with epoxy resins.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • FEVj - electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.fuel-efficient-vehicles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The windings are typically stabilized by being impregnated with Electrical epoxy potting systems.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Is to design the complete electrical power and control system for a typical medium sized motor car.
  • EV Weblog: Electric Car Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.evconvert.com [Source type: General]

.These are filled epoxies that have moderate mixed viscosity and a long gel time.^ Filled epoxies that have moderate mixed viscosity and a long gel time.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.They are highlighted by low shrinkage and low exotherm, and are typically UL 1446 recognized as a potting compound for use up to 180°C (Class H) (UL File No.^ These systems are highlighted by low shrinkage and low exotherm.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Typically UL 1446 recognized as a potting compound for use up to 180C (Class H) UL File No.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Table 1 lists typical vehicles under each of these classes and their range using various lead acid battery packs (6V and 12V).
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

E 210549).
.The unique advantage of ironless DC motors is that there is no cogging (vibration caused by attraction between the iron and the magnets) and parasitic eddy currents cannot form in the rotor as it is totally ironless.^ DC brushless motor (out rotor).
  • Electric Motors Manufacturers On B2BChinaSources.Com from China Electric Motors Manufacturers & Taiwan Electric Motors Suppliers & Electric Motors Exporters 12 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.b2bchinasources.com [Source type: General]
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^ What is the difference between having permanent magnets and having electromagnets in a DC motor?

^ Coreless or Ironless DC motors .
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.This can greatly improve efficiency, but variable-speed controllers must use a higher switching rate (>40 kHz) or direct current because of the decreased electromagnetic induction.^ When a motor speed controller is used, it varies the voltage fed to the motor.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ This is especially true if the semiconductor circuit is also used for variable-speed control.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ New York 1964 ISBN 0471061344 (Inverter circuits are used for variable frequency motor speed control ) B. R. Pelly, "Thyristor Phase-Controlled Converters and Cycloconverters: Operation, Control, and Performance" (New York: John Wiley, 1971).
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.These motors were originally invented to drive the capstan(s) of magnetic tape drives, in the burgeoning computer industry.^ These motors were commonly used to drive the capstan (s) of magnetic tape drives and are still widely used in high-performance servo-controlled systems, like humanoid robotic systems, industrial automation, medical devices, etc.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These motors were commonly used to drive the capstan (s) of magnetic tape drives and are still widely used in high-performance servo-controlled systems, like radio-controlled vehicles/aircraft, humanoid robotic systems, industrial automation, medical devices, etc.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Industrial Motors & Drives We design and develop industrial motors and drives that are used for conveyors, packaging machinery, machine tools, speed reducers, commercial ovens, medical and laboratory equipment.

.Pancake motors are still widely used in high-performance servo-controlled systems, humanoid robotic systems, industrial automation and medical devices.^ A "servo" is a generic term used for an automatic control system.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ These motors were commonly used to drive the capstan(s) of magnetic tape drives and are still widely used in high-performance servo-controlled systems.

^ Rate this link Servo motor control .
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.Due to the variety of constructions now available the technology is used in applications from high temperature military to low cost pump and basic servo applications.^ This type of motor is now used for the vast majority of commercial applications.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Fiber and epoxy materials are used to create the fan blades which are designed for low vibration and high efficiency.
  • Electric Motors Manufacturers & Suppliers 12 September 2009 8:15 UTC catalogs.indiamart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These motors were commonly used to drive the capstan (s) of magnetic tape drives and are still widely used in high-performance servo-controlled systems.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

Universal motors

.A series-wound motor is referred to as a universal motor when it has been designed to operate on either AC or DC power.^ A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A variant of the wound field DC motor is the universal motor .
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Synchronous motor • AC motor • DC Motor .
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.The ability to operate on AC is because the current in both the field and the armature (and hence the resultant magnetic fields) will alternate (reverse polarity) in synchronism, and hence the resulting mechanical force will occur in a constant direction.^ We will discuss the phenomena of magnetism, AC current and basic motor operation.

^ The permanent magnet is able to do this because of its inherent magnetic force which is referred to as a "magnetic field".

^ As the motor accelerates, the armature (and hence field) current reduces.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.Operating at normal power line frequencies, universal motors are very rarely larger than one kilowatt (about 1.3 horsepower).^ Operating at normal power line frequencies, the maximum output of universal motors is limited and motors exceeding one kilowatt (about 1.3 horsepower ) are rare.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Operating at normal power line frequencies, the maximum output of universal motors is limited and motors exceeding one kilowatt are rare.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As you shift gears to maintain normal pedal speeds, you keep the motor operating between its most powerful and efficient speeds, for several times the torque, higher top speeds, and much better range than typical electric bike products lacking variable motor gearing.

.Universal motors also form the basis of the traditional railway traction motor in electric railways.^ But universal motors also form the basis of the traditional railway traction motor in electric railways .
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Brand-independant electric motor selection site Electric Motors and Generators , explanations with animations from the University of New South Wales.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Barlow's Wheel • Nanomotor • Traction motor • Lynch motor • Mendocino motor • Repulsion motor • Inchworm motor • Booster (electric power) • Brush (electric) .
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.In this application, to keep their electrical efficiency high, they were operated from very low frequency AC supplies, with 25 and 16.7 hertz (Hz) operation being common.^ In this application, to keep their electrical efficiency high, they were operated from very low frequency AC supplies, with 25 Hz and 16 2 / 3 hertz operation being common.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In this application, to keep their electrical efficiency high, they were operated from very low frequency AC supplies, with 25 and 16.7 hertz (Hz) operation being common.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Fiber and epoxy materials are used to create the fan blades which are designed for low vibration and high efficiency.
  • Electric Motors Manufacturers & Suppliers 12 September 2009 8:15 UTC catalogs.indiamart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because they are universal motors, locomotives using this design were also commonly capable of operating from a third rail powered by DC.^ A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Because they are universal motors, locomotives using this design were also commonly capable of operating from a third rail powered by DC .
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ They have ac/dc outputs….so why not use an AC motor?
  • EV Weblog: Electric Car Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.evconvert.com [Source type: General]

.An advantage of the universal motor is that AC supplies may be used on motors which have some characteristics more common in DC motors, specifically high starting torque and very compact design if high running speeds are used.^ A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ One advantage of having wound stators in a motor is that one can make a motor that runs on AC or DC, a so called universal motor .

^ Synchronous motor • AC motor • DC Motor .
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.The negative aspect is the maintenance and short life problems caused by the commutator.^ The negative aspect is the maintenance and short life problems caused by the commutator .
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.As a result, such motors are usually used in AC devices such as food mixers and power tools which are used only intermittently, and often have high starting-torque demands.^ To prevent overheating usually the motor is over-dimensioned (the power of the motor is chosen too high).
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Power tools and some appliances use brushed AC motors.

^ As a result such motors are usually used in AC devices such as food mixers and power tools which are used only intermittently.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Continuous speed control of a universal motor running on AC is easily obtained by use of a thyristor circuit, while (imprecise) stepped speed control can be accomplished using multiple taps on the field coil.^ The speed of an "universal motor" can be easily controlled using PWM control methods like phase control of AC power.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The running of the motor can be controlled with a contactor or an electrical circuit.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The motor 12 will run at the speed programmed in the step is this option is utilized.
  • Electrical motor position controller - Patent 5089759 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Household blenders that advertise many speeds frequently combine a field coil with several taps and a diode that can be inserted in series with the motor (causing the motor to run on half-wave rectified AC).^ Household blenders that advertise many speeds frequently combine a field coil with several taps and a diode that can be inserted in series with the motor (causing the motor to run on half-wave DC with 0.707 of the RMS voltage of the AC power line).
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Household blenders that advertise many speeds frequently combine a field coil with several taps and a diode that can be inserted in series with the motor (causing the motor to run on half-wave rectified AC).
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ There are too many possible and gearbox combinations to get the appropriate one, because how it works depends on what king of motor it is and what type of gearbox it is eq....
  • Electric Motors Manufacturers On B2BChinaSources.Com from China Electric Motors Manufacturers & Taiwan Electric Motors Suppliers & Electric Motors Exporters 12 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.b2bchinasources.com [Source type: General]
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.Universal motors generally run at high speeds, making them useful for appliances such as blenders, vacuum cleaners, and hair dryers where high RPM operation is desirable.^ The motor then operates solely on the running winding.
  • FEVj - electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.fuel-efficient-vehicles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Operating the motor at this voltage limits the maximum speed and torque at high speed.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Universal motors generally run at high speeds, making them useful for appliances such as blenders , vacuum cleaners , and hair dryers where high RPM operation is desirable.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.They are also commonly used in portable power tools, such as drills, circular and jig saws, where the motor's characteristics work well.^ Purpose: (1) The water well uses the motor.
  • Electric Motors Manufacturers On B2BChinaSources.Com from China Electric Motors Manufacturers & Taiwan Electric Motors Suppliers & Electric Motors Exporters 12 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.b2bchinasources.com [Source type: General]

^ Power tools and some appliances use brushed AC motors.

^ Those motors can work well on both AC and DC power.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

Many vacuum cleaner and weed trimmer motors exceed 10,000 RPM, while Dremel and other similar miniature grinders will often exceed 30,000 RPM.
.Motor damage may occur due to overspeeding (running at an RPM in excess of design limits) if the unit is operated with no significant load.^ Many vacuum cleaner and weed trimmer motors exceed 10,000 RPM, while Dremel and other similar miniature grinders will often exceed 30,000 RPM. Motor damage may occur due to overspeeding (running at an RPM in excess of design limits) if the unit is operated with no significant load.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Many vacuum cleaner and weed trimmer motors will exceed 10,000 RPM, Dremel and other similar miniature grinders will often exceed 30,000 RPM. A theoretical universal motor allowed to operate with no mechanical load will overspeed, which may damage it.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ That's alot of RPMs for that motor, almost 90,000rpm It could come apart even for very short runs...
  • electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.rcuniverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On larger motors, sudden loss of load is to be avoided, and the possibility of such an occurrence is incorporated into the motor's protection and control schemes.^ On larger motors, sudden loss of load is to be avoided, and the possibility of such an occurrence is incorporated into the motor's protection and control schemes.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The outputs are connected to various external devices, such as the first motor control starter mean 14, the external controller 36, and miscellaneous outputs 40 which control various devices on the associated machine.
  • Electrical motor position controller - Patent 5089759 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ How large this current is, and how quickly it diminishes depends on the motor type, how its controlled, and what its mechnical load is.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.In some smaller applications, a fan blade attached to the shaft often acts as an artificial load to limit the motor speed to a safe value, as well as a means to circulate cooling airflow over the armature and field windings.^ Above this speed, the motor is horsepower limited.

^ In smaller applications, a fan blade attached to the shaft often acts as an artificial load to limit the motor speed to a safe value, as well as a means to circulate cooling airflow over the armature and field windings.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Often, a small fan blade attached to the armature acts as an artificial load to limit the motor speed to a safe value, as well as provide cooling airflow to the armature and field windings.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

AC motors

.In 1882, Nikola Tesla discovered the rotating magnetic field, and pioneered the use of a rotary field of force to operate machines.^ In 1882, Nikola Tesla identified the rotating magnetic field principle, and pioneered the use of a rotary field of force to operate machines.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Phase Rotating magnetic field .

^ Tesla had suggested that the commutators from a machine could be removed and the device could operate on a rotary field of force.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.He exploited the principle to design a unique two-phase induction motor in 1883. In 1885, Galileo Ferraris independently researched the concept.^ Two-phase AC servo motors .
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ He exploited the principle to design a unique two-phase induction motor in 1883.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1885, Galileo Ferraris independently researched the concept.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.In 1888, Ferraris published his research in a paper to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Turin.^ In 1888, Ferraris published his research in a paper to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Turin.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
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  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Tesla had suggested that the commutators from a machine could be removed and the device could operate on a rotary field of force.^ Tesla had suggested that the commutators from a machine could be removed and the device could operate on a rotary field of force.
  • Electric Motor K-12 Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1882, Nikola Tesla identified the rotating magnetic field principle, and pioneered the use of a rotary field of force to operate machines.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Instead of producing rotary torque from a cylindrical machine it produces linear force from a flat one.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.Professor Poeschel, his teacher, stated that would be akin to building a perpetual motion machine.^ Professor Poeschel, his teacher, stated that would be akin to building a perpetual motion machine .
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

[17] .Tesla would later attain U.S. Patent 0,416,194, Electric Motor (December 1889), which resembles the motor seen in many of Tesla's photos.^ Would electric motors work here?

^ What sive electric motor(s) would I need?
  • EV Weblog: Electric Car Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.evconvert.com [Source type: General]

^ Tesla would later attain U.S. Patent 0416194 ( G.patent ; PDF ) , Electric Motor (December 1889), which resembles the motor seen in many of Tesla's photos.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.This classic alternating current electro-magnetic motor was an induction motor.^ This classic alternating current electro-magnetic motor was an induction motor .
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Synchronous Alternating-current Motors.

^ An asynchronous motor requires slip between the moving magnetic field and a winding set to induce current in the winding set by mutual inductance; the most ubiquitous example being the common AC induction motor which must slip in order to generate torque.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Michail Osipovich Dolivo-Dobrovolsky later invented a three-phase "cage-rotor" in 1890. This type of motor is now used for the vast majority of commercial applications.^ Rate this link Using three phase motor on single phase supply .
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ This type of motor is now used for the vast majority of commercial applications.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ There are two types of rotors used in induction motors.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

Components

A typical AC motor consists of two parts:
  • An outside stationary stator having coils supplied with AC current to produce a rotating magnetic field, and;
  • An inside rotor attached to the output shaft that is given a torque by the rotating field.

Torque motors

.A torque motor (also known as a limited torque motor) is a specialized form of induction motor which is capable of operating indefinitely while stalled, that is, with the rotor blocked from turning, without incurring damage.^ Operating the motor at this voltage limits the maximum speed and torque at high speed.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The force to turn, which is delivered to the electric motor by the motor or shaft, is known as torque.
  • Electric Motors: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ A torque motor is a specialized form of induction motor which is capable of operating indefinitely at stall (with the rotor blocked from turning) without damage.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.In this mode of operation, the motor will apply a steady torque to the load (hence the name).^ In this mode, the motor will apply a steady torque to the load (hence the name).
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In this mode of operation, the motor will apply a steady torque to the load (hence the name).
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus, the first and most important step in electric motor selection is determining load characteristics -- torque and speed versus time.
  • Buy General Electric Motor, GE Electric Motor, Electric Motor 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.hvacplus.com [Source type: Academic]

.A common application of a torque motor would be the supply- and take-up reel motors in a tape drive.^ A common application of a torque motor would be the supply- and take-up reel motors in a tape drive.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A common application of a torque motor would be the supply- and take-up reel motors in a tape drive .
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Applications include explosion proof motors, single phase motors with high torque and motors for air movement.
  • Electric Motors - Electric Motors Companies, Exporters, Importers, Manufacturers, Buyers, Sellers 12 September 2009 8:15 UTC search.elecdir.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric Dc Motors - Electric Dc Motors Companies, Exporters, Importers, Manufacturers, Buyers, Sellers 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC search.elecdir.com [Source type: Reference]

.In this application, driven from a low voltage, the characteristics of these motors allow a relatively-constant light tension to be applied to the tape whether or not the capstan is feeding tape past the tape heads.^ In this application, driven from a low voltage, the characteristics of these motors allow a relatively-constant light tension to be applied to the tape whether or not the capstan is feeding tape past the tape heads.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A common application of a torque motor would be the supply- and take-up reel motors in a tape drive.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Some are designed to to rotate at constant speed (those used in disk drives) and the speed of some can be controlled by varying the voltage applid to them (usually the motors used in fans).
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.Driven from a higher voltage, (and so delivering a higher torque), the torque motors can also achieve fast-forward and rewind operation without requiring any additional mechanics such as gears or clutches.^ Operating the motor at this voltage limits the maximum speed and torque at high speed.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Driven from a higher voltage, (and so delivering a higher torque), the torque motors can also achieve fast-forward and rewind operation without requiring any additional mechanics such as gears or clutches .
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As you shift gears to maintain normal pedal speeds, you keep the motor operating between its most powerful and efficient speeds, for several times the torque, higher top speeds, and much better range than typical electric bike products lacking variable motor gearing.

.In the computer gaming world, torque motors are used in force feedback steering wheels.^ In the computer world, torque motors are used with force feedback steering wheels.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A linear motor is essentially an electric motor that has been "unrolled" so that, instead of producing a torque (rotation), it produces a linear force along its length by setting up a traveling electromagnetic field.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The first four data lines are used to control the motors, and the strobe signal from the computer stores the data in latch.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.Another common application is the control of the throttle of an internal combustion engine in conjunction with an electronic governor.^ Another common application is the control of the throttle of an internal combustion engine in conjunction with an electronic governor .
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Remove any ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) components, making room for the EV components .
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some companies offer 12-V Li-ion batteries for vehicle applications at a cost of $2500 each plus another $500 each to cover the special electronics and charger.
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this usage, the motor works against a return spring to move the throttle in accordance with the output of the governor.^ In this usage, the motor works against a return spring to move the throttle in accordance with the output of the governor.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Volt 300 Watt Kollmorgan Brushless Motor With Built In Speed Controller Built-in variable speed controller works with any 5k Ohm throttle or potentiometer to vary the speed of motor from full stop to full forward.
  • Electric Scooter and Bicycle Motors - ElectricScooterParts.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electricscooterparts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How it works When you want help, you turn a variable throttle on the handlebars to activate the motor.

.The latter monitors engine speed by counting electrical pulses from the ignition system or from a magnetic pickup [18] and, depending on the speed, makes small adjustments to the amount of current applied to the motor.^ FIG. 4 as a function of pulses and motor speed.
  • Electrical motor position controller - Patent 5089759 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The latter monitors engine speed by counting electrical pulses from the ignition system or from a magnetic pickup and, depending on the speed, makes small adjustments to the amount of current applied to the motor.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The gasoline engine is replaced by an electric motor .
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the engine starts to slow down relative to the desired speed, the current will be increased, the motor will develop more torque, pulling against the return spring and opening the throttle.^ When used with a load that has a torque curve that increases with speed, the motor will operate at the speed where the torque developed by the motor is equal to the load torque.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Motor power is proportional to torque and speed.

^ As the motor speed controller's output voltage increases, the motor will start to turn.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.Should the engine run too fast, the governor will reduce the current being applied to the motor, causing the return spring to pull back and close the throttle.^ Should the engine run too fast, the governor will reduce the current being applied to the motor, causing the return spring to pull back and close the throttle.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The latter monitors engine speed by counting electrical pulses from the ignition system or from a magnetic pickup and, depending on the speed, makes small adjustments to the amount of current applied to the motor.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If the engine starts to slow down relative to the desired speed, the current will be increased, the motor will develop more torque, pulling against the return spring and opening the throttle.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

Slip ring

.The slip ring is a component of the wound rotor motor as an induction machine (best evidenced by the construction of the common automotive alternator), where the rotor comprises a set of coils that are electrically terminated in slip rings.^ Best size for electric car motor?

^ The rotor is the rotating electrical component.

^ The slip ring or wound rotor motor is an induction machine where the rotor comprises a set of coils that are terminated in slip rings to which external impedances can be connected.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.These are metal rings rigidly mounted on the rotor, and combined with brushes (as used with commutators), provide continuous unswitched connection to the rotor windings.^ These DC motors do not have a brush and commutator combination.

^ In a brush-type motor, the winding is in the rotor.

^ A secondary use of the slip ring motor is to provide a means of speed control.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.In the case of the wound-rotor induction motor, external impedances can be connected to the brushes.^ In a brush-type motor, the winding is in the rotor.

^ The slip ring or wound rotor motor is an induction machine where the rotor comprises a set of coils that are terminated in slip rings to which external impedances can be connected.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On the other hand, brushed motors use armature coils which can be inexpensively machine-wound.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.The stator is excited similarly to the standard squirrel cage motor.^ The stator is the same as is used with a standard squirrel cage motor.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The problem with the induction and squirrel cage motors shown in this animation is that capacitors of high value and high voltage rating are expensive.

^ This schematic suggests why they might be called squirrel cage motors.

.By changing the impedance connected to the rotor circuit, the speed/current and speed/torque curves can be altered.^ Because the torque curve of the motor is effectively modified by the resistance connected to the rotor circuit, the speed of the motor can be altered.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By changing the impedance connected to the rotor circuit, the speed/current and speed/torque curves can be altered.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Motor torque is developed from interaction of currents flowing in the rotor bars and the stator's rotating magnetic field.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.(Slip rings are most-commonly used in automotive alternators as well as in synchro angular data-transmission devices, among other applications.^ Which vehicles are the most commonly used for conversions?
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A secondary use of the slip ring motor is to provide a means of speed control.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A hall effect device (HED) is a commonly used means for providing this positional feedback.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

)
.The slip ring motor is used primarily to start a high inertia load or a load that requires a very high starting torque across the full speed range.^ A secondary use of the slip ring motor is to provide a means of speed control.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When used with a load that has a torque curve that increases with speed, the motor will operate at the speed where the torque developed by the motor is equal to the load torque.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A brushless motor is often used when high reliability, long life and high speeds are required.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.By correctly selecting the resistors used in the secondary resistance or slip ring starter, the motor is able to produce maximum torque at a relatively low supply current from zero speed to full speed.^ A secondary use of the slip ring motor is to provide a means of speed control.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Operating the motor at this voltage limits the maximum speed and torque at high speed.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ So, it produces greater torque, greater speed, and can handle the current of a larger controller.

.This type of motor also offers controllable speed.^ We are offering wide range of dc motor drives like: - DC Motor Drives - D. C.Motors Speed Control Panels (Rectifier).

^ See Details from $100 15 offers FEATURES:* 5.5 amp motor, 0 to 850 rpm, trigger speed control with reversing* Heavy-Duty industrial chuck* 8 ft.
  • Tools and Accessories - Find great deals, lowest prices, and buy Tools and Accessories at Shopping.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.shopping.com [Source type: General]

^ The speed of an "universal motor" can be easily controlled using PWM control methods like phase control of AC power.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.Motor speed can be changed because the torque curve of the motor is effectively modified by the amount of resistance connected to the rotor circuit.^ Because the torque curve of the motor is effectively modified by the resistance connected to the rotor circuit, the speed of the motor can be altered.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Circuit can be modified for 8 servo motors.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Motor power is proportional to torque and speed.

.Increasing the value of resistance will move the speed of maximum torque down.^ As the motor temperature increases, maximum armature and fields currents must be reduced which significantly reduces maximum motor torque.

^ Maximum speed is about 8000 rpm, but high speed operation results in greatly increased brush wear.

^ Operating the motor at this voltage limits the maximum speed and torque at high speed.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.If the resistance connected to the rotor is increased beyond the point where the maximum torque occurs at zero speed, the torque will be further reduced.^ If the resistance connected to the rotor is increased beyond the point where the maximum torque occurs at zero speed, the torque will be further reduced.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Increasing the value of resistance on the rotor circuit will move the speed of maximum torque down.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As the motor temperature increases, maximum armature and fields currents must be reduced which significantly reduces maximum motor torque.

.When used with a load that has a torque curve that increases with speed, the motor will operate at the speed where the torque developed by the motor is equal to the load torque.^ When used with a load that has a torque curve that increases with speed, the motor will operate at the speed where the torque developed by the motor is equal to the load torque.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Operating the motor at this voltage limits the maximum speed and torque at high speed.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ DC motors have high torque at low speeds and decreasing torque as the speed increases.

.Reducing the load will cause the motor to speed up, and increasing the load will cause the motor to slow down until the load and motor torque are equal.^ Motor power is proportional to torque and speed.

^ DC motors have high torque at low speeds and decreasing torque as the speed increases.

^ The gearbox increases the torque generating ability of the motor while simultaneously reducing it's output speed.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.Operated in this manner, the slip losses are dissipated in the secondary resistors and can be very significant.^ Operated in this manner, the slip losses are dissipated in the secondary resistors and can be very significant.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.The speed regulation and net efficiency is also very poor.^ The speed regulation is also very poor.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Series wound motors offer very high starting torques and good torque output per ampere, but have generally poor speed regulation.

Stepper motors

.Closely related in design to three-phase AC synchronous motors are stepper motors, where an internal rotor containing permanent magnets or a magnetically-soft rotor with salient poles is controlled by a set of external magnets that are switched electronically.^ Two-phase AC servo motors .
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These motors are essentially AC synchronous motors with permanent magnet rotors.....
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The rotation direction of a three phase motor is controlled on the order of the phases applied to the motor.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.A stepper motor may also be thought of as a cross between a DC electric motor and a rotary solenoid.^ A stepper motor may also be thought of as a cross between a DC electric motor and a solenoid .
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Brushed DC electric motor .
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Any thoughts on dc motors.
  • EV Weblog: Electric Car Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.evconvert.com [Source type: General]

.As each coil is energized in turn, the rotor aligns itself with the magnetic field produced by the energized field winding.^ This in turn, causes the creation of a magnetic field.

^ The coil lies in a steady magnetic field.

^ As each coil is energized in turn, the rotor aligns itself with the magnetic field produced by the energized field winding.
  • FEVj - electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.fuel-efficient-vehicles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Unlike a synchronous motor, in its application, the stepper motor may not rotate continuously; instead, it "steps" — starts and then quickly stops again — from one position to the next as field windings are energized and de-energized in sequence.^ Unlike a synchronous motor, in its application, the motor may not rotate continuously; instead, it "steps" from one position to the next as field windings are energized and de-energized in sequence.
  • FEVj - electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.fuel-efficient-vehicles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the stepper system, the driver advances one step, and the stepper motor follows.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ In smaller applications, a fan blade attached to the shaft often acts as an artificial load to limit the motor speed to a safe value, as well as a means to circulate cooling airflow over the armature and field windings.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Depending on the sequence, the rotor may turn forwards or backwards, and it may change direction, stop, speed up or slow down arbitrarily at any time.^ Depending on the sequence, the rotor may turn forwards or backwards.
  • FEVj - electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.fuel-efficient-vehicles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Volt 300 Watt Kollmorgan Brushless Motor With Built In Speed Controller Built-in variable speed controller works with any 5k Ohm throttle or potentiometer to vary the speed of motor from full stop to full forward.
  • Electric Scooter and Bicycle Motors - ElectricScooterParts.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electricscooterparts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the current direction in the electromagnetic coils was changed every time the magnet turned 180 degrees or halfway around,then the magnet would continue to rotate.

.Simple stepper motor drivers entirely energize or entirely de-energize the field windings, leading the rotor to "cog" to a limited number of positions; more sophisticated drivers can proportionally control the power to the field windings, allowing the rotors to position between the cog points and thereby rotate extremely smoothly.^ The electric motor gets its power from a controller .
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Simple stepper motor drivers entirely energize or entirely de-energize the field windings, leading the rotor to " cog " to a limited number of positions; more sophisticated drivers can proportionally control the power to the field windings, allowing the rotors to position between the cog points and thereby rotate extremely smoothly.
  • Electric motor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In a brush-type motor, the winding is in the rotor.

This mode of operation is often called microstepping. .Computer controlled stepper motors are one of the most versatile forms of positioning systems, particularly when part of a digital servo-controlled system.^ A potentiometer controls the servo position.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Computer controlled stepper motors are one of the most versatile forms of positioning systems, particularly when part of a digital servo-controlled system.
  • FEVj - electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.fuel-efficient-vehicles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Rate this link Servo motor control .
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.Stepper motors can be rotated to a specific angle in discrete steps with ease, and hence stepper motors are used for read/write head positioning in computer floppy diskette drives.^ Stepper motors can be rotated to a specific angle with ease, and hence stepper motors are used in computer disk drives, where the high precision they offer is necessary for the correct functioning of, for example, a hard disk drive or CD drive.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Stepper motors produce motion in discrete steps.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ These pulses are called "steps", hence the name "stepper motor".
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.They were used for the same purpose in pre-gigabyte era computer disk drives, where the precision and speed they offered was adequate for the correct positioning of the read/write head of a hard disk drive.^ Stepper motors can be rotated to a specific angle with ease, and hence stepper motors are used in pre-gigabyte era computer disk drives, where the precision they offered was adequate for the correct positioning of the read/write head of a hard disk drive.

^ These are the same type of electric motors that Currie, Lashout, and Synergy electric bicycles plus Currie USPD Pro-Drive electric bicycle kits use however they are not compatible with those bikes because they rotate counter clockwise instead of clockwise.
  • Electric Scooter and Bicycle Motors - ElectricScooterParts.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electricscooterparts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stepper motors can be rotated to a specific angle with ease, and hence stepper motors are used in computer disk drives, where the high precision they offer is necessary for the correct functioning of, for example, a hard disk drive or CD drive.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.As drive density increased, the precision and speed limitations of stepper motors made them obsolete for hard drives—the precision limitation made them unusable, and the speed limitation made them uncompetitive—thus newer hard disk drives use voice coil-based head actuator systems.^ Above this speed, the motor is horsepower limited.

^ As drive density increased, the precision limitations of stepper motors made them obsolete for hard drives, thus newer hard disk drives use read/write head control systems based on voice coils.

^ The servo system uses a sensor to sense motor position/speed.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

(The term "voice coil" in this connection is historic; it refers to the structure in a typical (cone type) loudspeaker. .This structure was used for a while to position the heads.^ Note that hard drives no longer use stepper motors to position the read/write heads, instead utilising a voice coil and servo feedback for head positioning.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.Modern drives have a pivoted coil mount; the coil swings back and forth, something like a blade of a rotating fan.^ Some are designed to to rotate at constant speed (those used in disk drives) and the speed of some can be controlled by varying the voltage applid to them (usually the motors used in fans).
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Some brushless DC motors have a built-in tachometer which gives out pulses as the motor rotates (this applies to both disk drive motors and some computer fans).
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Brushless motors are seen nowadays in very many computer application, they for example rotate normal PC fans, hard disks and disk drives.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.Nevertheless, like a voice coil, modern actuator coil conductors (the magnet wire) move perpendicular to the magnetic lines of force.^ In this motor, small single-turn copper "shading coils" create the moving magnetic field.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Producing Mechanical Force As in the generator, the motor has a definite relationship between the direction of the magnetic flux, the direction of motion of the conductor or force, and the direction of the applied voltage or current.

^ Additionally, the magnetic flux linking these turns can be increased by coiling the conductor around a material with a high permeability.

)
.Stepper motors were and still are often used in computer printers, optical scanners, and digital photocopiers to move the optical scanning element, the print head carriage (of dot matrix and inkjet printers), and the platen.^ Stepper motors can be rotated to a specific angle with ease, and hence stepper motors are used in pre-gigabyte era computer disk drives, where the precision they offered was adequate for the correct positioning of the read/write head of a hard disk drive.

^ Rate this link PC's BIOS interrupt drives twin stepper motors - design idea for computer controlled stepper motor system    Rate this link Slot machine sheet stepper motor controls - Stepper motor driver stage for two stepper motors using two L297 driver ICs.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ This motor is often demonstrated in school physics classes, but brine (salt water) is sometimes used in place of the toxic mercury.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.Likewise, many computer plotters (which since the early 1990s have been replaced with large-format inkjet and laser printers) used rotary stepper motors for pen and platen movement; the typical alternatives here were either linear stepper motors or servomotors with complex closed-loop control systems.^ There are many applications where there is possible to use servo or stepper motor.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Stepper motors are traditionally used in various motion control applications.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Stepper motors can also be used for positioning of valve pilot stages, for fluid control systems.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.So-called quartz analog wristwatches contain the smallest commonplace stepping motors; they have one coil, draw very little power, and have a permanent-magnet rotor.^ These motors are essentially AC synchronous motors with permanent magnet rotors.....
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Powerful four brush permanent magnet electric motor design.
  • Electric Scooter and Bicycle Motors - ElectricScooterParts.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electricscooterparts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Permanent magnet motor .
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.The same kind of motor drives battery-powered quartz clocks.^ Well it is a generator and not a motor (well can be both at the same time driving itself, using a little circuit, but that is not the point right now).

^ This month's article covers the selection of the electric motor and propeller and explains the performance benefits and power available from a high-efficiency electric drive system.

^ This means for the same input power, a BLDC motor will convert more electrical power into mechanical power than a brushed motor.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.Some of these watches, such as chronographs, contain more than one stepping motor.^ This circuit contains such components as limit switches, three phase reversing motor starter, push buttons, step down transformer, and safety switch.
  • Electrical Motor Control Circuits download - Troubleshooting Electric Motor Control - Best Software Downloads 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.bestsoftware4download.com [Source type: General]

^ After ordering more than one motor from this site, I should post a comment, OUTSTANDING!.

^ ORIGINAL: Access Today it takes more than just a powerful motor.
  • electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.rcuniverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Stepper motors were upscaled to be used in electric vehicles under the term SRM (Switched Reluctance Motor).^ Everyday appliances and some vehicles use electric motors to function.
  • Electric Motors: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ These motors are used extensively in electric radio-controlled vehicles.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Stepper motors were upscaled to be used in electric vehicles under the term SRM (switched reluctance machine).

Linear motors

.A linear motor is essentially an electric motor that has been "unrolled" so that, instead of producing a torque (rotation), it produces a straight-line force along its length by setting up a traveling electromagnetic field.^ Instead of producing rotary torque from a cylindrical machine it produces linear force from a flat one.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The start-up Electric Motors Corp.
  • Electric Motors Corp. | RV Business 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.rvbusiness.com [Source type: News]

^ The force to turn, which is delivered to the electric motor by the motor or shaft, is known as torque.
  • Electric Motors: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

.Linear motors are most commonly induction motors or stepper motors.^ Linear motors are most commonly induction motors or stepper motors.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ E EADmotors Manufacturer of stepping motors, brushless DC motors, induction motors, torque motors, hysteresis motors, motor tachometers, fans, blowers, reducers, gear motors and linear actuators.
  • Electric Motors: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Three-phase power regulator - This three-phase linear power regulator can control resistive loads or induction motors.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.You can find a linear motor in a maglev (Transrapid) train, where the train "flies" over the ground, and in many roller-coasters where the rapid motion of the motorless railcar is controlled by the rail.^ You can find a linear motor in a maglev ( Transrapid ) train, where the train "flies" over the ground.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If you look you can find many forums on advanced motors.

^ Rate this link Motioncontrol.com - This Motor and Motion Control Portal has a direct path for the engineers to find motion control manufacturers and their products.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.On a smaller scale, at least one letter-size (8.5" x 11") computer graphics X-Y pen plotter made by Hewlett-Packard (in the late 1970s to mid 1980's) used two linear stepper motors to move the pen along the two orthogonal axes.^ Stepper motors can be rotated to a specific angle with ease, and hence stepper motors are used in pre-gigabyte era computer disk drives, where the precision they offered was adequate for the correct positioning of the read/write head of a hard disk drive.

^ Rate this link PC's BIOS interrupt drives twin stepper motors - design idea for computer controlled stepper motor system    Rate this link Slot machine sheet stepper motor controls - Stepper motor driver stage for two stepper motors using two L297 driver ICs.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ No matter how you gear it, a stepper motor still moves in discrete steps.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

Feeding and windings

Doubly-fed electric motor

.Doubly-fed electric motors have two independent multiphase windings that actively participate in the energy conversion process with at least one of the winding sets electronically controlled for variable speed operation.^ The electric motor gets its power from a controller .
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such motors may also possess one or two sets of windings, constant torque, variable torque and/or constant horsepower.
  • Electric Motors: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Electrical motor control .
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.Two is the most active multiphase winding sets possible without duplicating singly-fed or doubly-fed categories in the same package.^ Such motors may also possess one or two sets of windings, constant torque, variable torque and/or constant horsepower.
  • Electric Motors: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Variable reluctance motors usually have three (sometimes four) windings, with a common return, while permanent magnet motors usually have two independent windings, with or without center taps.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.As a result, doubly-fed electric motors are machines with an effective constant torque speed range that is twice synchronous speed for a given frequency of excitation.^ Motor power is proportional to torque and speed.

^ Synchronous motors can operate at a constant speed up to full load.
  • Electric Motors Information and Resources 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electric-motors.net [Source type: Reference]

^ As you shift gears to maintain normal pedal speeds, you keep the motor operating between its most powerful and efficient speeds, for several times the torque, higher top speeds, and much better range than typical electric bike products lacking variable motor gearing.

.This is twice the constant torque speed range as singly-fed electric machines, which have only one active winding set.^ Furthermore, since the motor's field, created by the permanent magnet, is constant, the relationship between torque and speed is very linear.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The Spec Of Electric Motors : We also could design various speeds, torque parameters & dynamic characterics for your requirements.
  • Electric Motors Manufacturers On B2BChinaSources.Com from China Electric Motors Manufacturers & Taiwan Electric Motors Suppliers & Electric Motors Exporters 12 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.b2bchinasources.com [Source type: General]

^ So, the electricity input is only indirectly related to the production of mechanical energy in the machine.

.A doubly-fed motor allows for a smaller electronic converter but the cost of the rotor winding and slip rings may offset the saving in the power electronics components.^ Simple stepper motor drivers entirely energize or entirely de-energize the field windings, leading the rotor to " cog " to a limited number of positions; more sophisticated drivers can proportionally control the power to the field windings, allowing the rotors to position "between" the "cog" points and thereby rotate extremely smoothly.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The rotors in these motors do not require any induced current so they do not slip backward against the mains frequency.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Also provided all 6 winding connections are available separately, a 3 phase motor can be converted to a capactor start and run motor by commoning two of the windings and connecting the third via a capacitor to act as a start winding.

.Difficulties with controlling speed near synchronous speed limit applications.^ Rate this link PIC Based Speed Controller - Real world applications often call for controlling small to medium sized DC motors from digital circuits.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The applications where accurate speed control is needed, you need s frequency converter.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Servo motors are usually designed to be particularly sensitive to the systems control signal voltages, especially at or near zero speed.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

[19]

Singly-fed electric motor

.Singly-fed electric motors incorporate a single multiphase winding set that is connected to a power supply.^ The electric motor gets its power from a controller .
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rate this link Using three phase motor on single phase supply .
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Electric Bike with 10Ah, 48V Lead-acid Battery and 350W Rated Motor Power .
  • Electric Motor Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

.Singly-fed electric machines may be either induction or synchronous.^ The second is, that the conversion rate for the indirect induction machine is different than for the direct induction machine, and therefore it can produce more mechanical energy from less electricity because that's what it does.

^ Rate this link Synchronous Motor Operation    Rate this link The Selection, Connection, Reversing and Repair of Electric Motors - Selecting a motor and connecting the electricals are the first challenges encountered after purchasing that long coveted machine tool.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The three-phase AC synchronous motor type has three electrical connections The stepper motor type may have more poles on the stator.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.The active winding set can be electronically controlled.^ The various winding configurations of electric motors have lost much of their significance with the advent of electronic controls.

.Induction machines develop starting torque at zero speed and can operate as standalone machines.^ The RS-IR motor has a centrifugal switch that shorts all segments of the commutator so that the motor operates as an induction motor once it has been accelerated to full speed.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Operating the motor at this voltage limits the maximum speed and torque at high speed.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Two-step auto-transformer starters start and accelerate the AC induction motor with rediced torque to normal speed.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.Synchronous machines must have auxiliary means for startup, such as a starting induction squirrel-cage winding or an electronic controller.^ They may also be started as induction motors using a squirrel-cage winding that shares the common rotor: once the motor reaches synchronous speed, no current is induced in the squirrel-cage winding so it has little effect on the synchronous operation of the motor, aside from stabilizing the motor speed on load changes.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When the motor is starting, the startup winding is connected to the power source via a set of spring-loaded contacts pressed upon by the not-yet-rotating centrifugal switch.
  • FEVj - electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.fuel-efficient-vehicles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The construction of an induction generator is essentially the same as that of an induction motor: Both have a squirrel-cage rotor and wound stator.

.Singly-fed electric machines have an effective constant torque speed range up to synchronous speed for a given excitation frequency.^ Furthermore, since the motor's field, created by the permanent magnet, is constant, the relationship between torque and speed is very linear.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The Spec Of Electric Motors : We also could design various speeds, torque parameters & dynamic characterics for your requirements.
  • Electric Motors Manufacturers On B2BChinaSources.Com from China Electric Motors Manufacturers & Taiwan Electric Motors Suppliers & Electric Motors Exporters 12 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.b2bchinasources.com [Source type: General]

^ N s = Synchronous speed, in revolutions per minute F = AC power frequency p = Number of poles per phase winding Actual RPM for an induction motor will be less than this calculated synchronous speed by an amount known as slip , that increases with the torque produced.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.The induction (asynchronous) motors (i.e., squirrel cage rotor or wound rotor), synchronous motors (i.e., field-excited, permanent magnet or brushless DC motors, reluctance motors, etc.^ In actual operation, rotor sped always lags the magnetic field?s speed.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ A simple, permanent-magnet dc motor is an essential element in a variety of products, such as toys, servo mechanisms, valve actuators, robots, and automotive electronics.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Motortronics Manufacturer of solid state motor control products www.motortronics.com N Northern Magnetics Manufacturer of both AC and DC linear motors.
  • Electric Motors: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

), which are discussed on this page, are examples of singly-fed motors. By far, singly-fed motors are the predominantly installed type of motors.

Nanotube nanomotor

.Researchers at University of California, Berkeley, recently developed rotational bearings based upon multiwall carbon nanotubes.^ Researchers at University of California, Berkeley , have developed rotational bearings based upon multiwall carbon nanotubes.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By attaching a gold plate (with dimensions of order 100nm) to the outer shell of a suspended multiwall carbon nanotube (like nested carbon cylinders), they are able to electrostatically rotate the outer shell relative to the inner core.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.By attaching a gold plate (with dimensions of the order of 100 nm) to the outer shell of a suspended multiwall carbon nanotube (like nested carbon cylinders), they are able to electrostatically rotate the outer shell relative to the inner core.^ By attaching a gold plate (with dimensions of order 100nm) to the outer shell of a suspended multiwall carbon nanotube (like nested carbon cylinders), they are able to electrostatically rotate the outer shell relative to the inner core.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Researchers at University of California, Berkeley , have developed rotational bearings based upon multiwall carbon nanotubes.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.These bearings are very robust; devices have been oscillated thousands of times with no indication of wear.^ These bearings are very robust; Devices have been oscillated thousands of times with no indication of wear.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I'm very enthusiastic about these, it's no secret!

.These nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) are the next step in miniaturization and may find their way into commercial applications in the future.^ These nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) are the next step in miniaturization that may find their way into commercial aspects in the future.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Stepping motors can be used in simple open-loop control systems; these are generally adequate for systems that operate at low accelerations with static loads, but closed loop control may be essential for high accelerations, particularly if they involve variable loads.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Unlike a synchronous motor, in its application, the motor may not rotate continuously; instead, it "steps" from one position to the next as field windings are energized and de-energized in sequence.
  • FEVj - electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.fuel-efficient-vehicles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

See also:

Efficiency

To calculate a motor's efficiency, the mechanical output power is divided by the electrical input power:
\eta = \frac{P_m}{P_e},
where .η is energy conversion efficiency, Pe is electrical input power, and Pm is mechanical output power.^ It converts electric energy into mechanical energy.

^ Output power divided by input power determines efficiency.

^ With the field energy remaining constant, the conductor is changing mechanical energy into electrical energy.

.In simplest case Pe = VI, and Pm = Tω, where V is input voltage, I is input current, T is output torque, and ω is output angular frequency.^ Or if the speed was increased to 3798 rpm then the back EMF would again equal battery voltage and the armature current and torque would be 0.

^ This energy transfer ratio determines the input-voltage to output-voltage ratio.

^ The strength of the magnetic field times the armature current determines the output torque.

.In theory, this would imply that the efficiency of a DC motor would peak at 1/2 of the stall torque.^ Brushless motors are typically 85-90% efficient, whereas DC motors with brushgear are typically 75-80% efficient.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ E EADmotors Manufacturer of stepping motors, brushless DC motors, induction motors, torque motors, hysteresis motors, motor tachometers, fans, blowers, reducers, gear motors and linear actuators.
  • Electric Motors: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ A common application of a torque motor would be the supply- and take-up reel motors in a tape drive.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.However, in practice, the efficiency of a DC motor peaks at a torque that is less than 1/2 of the stall torque.^ BLDC motors are considered more efficient than brushed DC-motors.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Brushless motors are typically 85-90% efficient, whereas DC motors with brushgear are typically 75-80% efficient.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ E EADmotors Manufacturer of stepping motors, brushless DC motors, induction motors, torque motors, hysteresis motors, motor tachometers, fans, blowers, reducers, gear motors and linear actuators.
  • Electric Motors: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

Implications

.Because a DC motor operates most efficiently at less than 1/2 its stall torque, an "oversized" motor runs with the highest efficiency.^ The motor then operates solely on the running winding.
  • FEVj - electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.fuel-efficient-vehicles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ BLDC motors are considered more efficient than brushed DC-motors.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As you shift gears to maintain normal pedal speeds, you keep the motor operating between its most powerful and efficient speeds, for several times the torque, higher top speeds, and much better range than typical electric bike products lacking variable motor gearing.

.IE: using a bigger motor than is necessary enables the motor to operate closest to no load, or peak operating conditions.^ Static Phase Converters Read about this technology and what electric motor loads it can be used to start and when it is better to use a rotary phase converter instead.
  • Worldwide Electric Motor Sales - Worldwide Motors: single and three phase Worldwide electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electricmotorsale.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If a transmission is not used, a gear ratio that allows the motor to start easily under load must be used.
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stepping motors can be used in simple open-loop control systems; these are generally adequate for systems that operate at low accelerations with static loads, but closed loop control may be essential for high accelerations, particularly if they involve variable loads.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

Torque capability of motor types

.When optimally designed for a given active current (i.e., torque current), voltage, pole-pair number, excitation frequency (i.e., synchronous speed), and core flux density, all categories of electric motors or generators will exhibit virtually the same maximum continuous shaft torque (i.e., operating torque) within a given physical size of electromagnetic core.^ The speed at which this generated voltage is equal to battery voltage with maximum field current is a critical design parameter in electric vehicle design.

^ The reluctance motor has all its poles on the stator, and a magnetic core on the rotor.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Operating the motor at this voltage limits the maximum speed and torque at high speed.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.Some applications require bursts of torque beyond the maximum operating torque, such as short bursts of torque to accelerate an electric vehicle from standstill.^ This is great for short bursts of acceleration.
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The RS-IR motor has a centrifugal switch that shorts all segments of the commutator so that the motor operates as an induction motor once it has been accelerated to full speed.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The speed at which this generated voltage is equal to battery voltage with maximum field current is a critical design parameter in electric vehicle design.

.Always limited by magnetic core saturation or safe operating temperature rise and voltage, the capacity for torque bursts beyond the maximum operating torque differs significantly between categories of electric motors or generators.^ Operating the motor at this voltage limits the maximum speed and torque at high speed.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ This voltage is also generated during normal motor operation.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Operate everyday appliances with electric motors .
  • Electric Motors: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

.Note: Capacity for bursts of torque should not be confused with Field Weakening capability inherent in fully electromagnetic electric machines (Permanent Magnet (PM) electric machine are excluded).^ All electric motors use electromagnetic fields to create torque.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Standard or brushed DC motors encompass a wide range of low-end to high-end products, including permanent magnetic motors, electromagnetic motors, hybrid DC motors, and DC torque motors.
  • DC Motors - Import From China - SmartChinaSourcing.com | Global Sources 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.smartchinasourcing.com [Source type: News]

^ Authored by: Anonymous on Sunday, December 27 2009 @ 03:20 PM PST How to make the simplest electric motor The Halls Effect generates a current when passed through a magnetic field.
  • How to make the simplest electric motor - Evil Mad Scientist Laboratories 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.evilmadscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Field Weakening, which is not readily available with PM electric machines, allows an electric machine to operate beyond the designed frequency of excitation without electrical damage.^ In 1882, Nikola Tesla identified the rotating magnetic field principle, and pioneered the use of a rotary field of force to operate machines.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The speed at which this generated voltage is equal to battery voltage with maximum field current is a critical design parameter in electric vehicle design.

^ The distinguishing design of a Series Wound DC motor is that the field windings and the armature are electrically connected in series.

.Electric machines without a transformer circuit topology, such as Field-Wound (i.e., electromagnet) or Permanent Magnet (PM) Synchronous electric machines cannot realize bursts of torque higher than the maximum designed torque without saturating the magnetic core and rendering any increase in current as useless.^ Powerful four brush permanent magnet electric motor design.
  • Electric Scooter and Bicycle Motors - ElectricScooterParts.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electricscooterparts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In either style (wound-field or permanent magnet) the commutator.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The magnetic field increases with the amp-turns of the field.

.Furthermore, the permanent magnet assembly of PM synchronous electric machines can be irreparably damaged, if bursts of torque exceeding the maximum operating torque rating are attempted.^ Furthermore, since the motor's field, created by the permanent magnet, is constant, the relationship between torque and speed is very linear.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ These motors are essentially AC synchronous motors with permanent magnet rotors.....
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The second is, that the conversion rate for the indirect induction machine is different than for the direct induction machine, and therefore it can produce more mechanical energy from less electricity because that's what it does.

.Electric machines with a transformer circuit topology, such as Induction (i.e., asynchronous) electric machines, Induction Doubly-Fed electric machines, and Induction or Synchronous Wound-Rotor Doubly-Fed (WRDF) electric machines, exhibit very high bursts of torque because the active current (i.e., Magneto-Motive-Force or the product of current and winding-turns) induced on either side of the transformer oppose each other and as a result, the active current contributes nothing to the transformer coupled magnetic core flux density, which would otherwise lead to core saturation.^ A change in this current creates a change in magnetic flux that, in turn, generates an electromotive force (emf) that acts to oppose this change in current.

^ If you double the current, the magnetic force is doubled.

^ As the rotor turns, the current in the windings is commutated to produce a continuous torque output.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.Electric machines that rely on Induction or Asynchronous principles short-circuit one port of the transformer circuit and as a result, the reactive impedance of the transformer circuit becomes dominant as slip increases, which limits the magnitude of active (i.e., real) current.^ F Force Engineering Limited UK-based designer and manufacturer of linear induction motors and other special electromagnetic machines.
  • Electric Motors: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ The second is, that the conversion rate for the indirect induction machine is different than for the direct induction machine, and therefore it can produce more mechanical energy from less electricity because that's what it does.

^ Where it is necessary to limit the starting inrush current (where the motor is large compared with the short-circuit capacity of the supply), reduced voltage starting using either series inductors, an autotransformer , thyristors , or other devices are used.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.Still, bursts of torque that are two to three times higher than the maximum design torque are realizable.^ The three separate phases (current flows) are labeled A, B and C. At time 1, phase A is at zero amps, phase B is near its maximum amperage and flowing in the positive direction, and phase C is near to its maximum amperage but flowing in the negative direction.

^ In the split-phase motor, the startup winding is designed with a higher resistance than the running winding.
  • FEVj - electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.fuel-efficient-vehicles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ At this point in the cycle, the supply current will be zero, and therefore the average motor current will always be higher than the supply current unless the percentage "on" time is 100%.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Synchronous WRDF electric machine is the only electric machine with a truly dual ported transformer circuit topology (i.e., both ports independently excited with no short-circuited port).^ So, the electricity input is only indirectly related to the production of mechanical energy in the machine.

^ The shunt field windings of both DC machines are excited through a variable resistor from the generator's armature.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Then, by configuring the machine to operate on short pulses of DC current, an inductor can be charged with electric current.

.The dual ported transformer circuit topology is known to be unstable and requires a multiphase slip-ring-brush assembly to propagate limited power to the rotor winding set.^ The rotors in these motors do not require any induced current so they do not slip backward against the mains frequency.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When the motor is starting, the startup winding is connected to the power source via a set of spring-loaded contacts pressed upon by the not-yet-rotating centrifugal switch.
  • FEVj - electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.fuel-efficient-vehicles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ N s = Synchronous speed, in revolutions per minute F = AC power frequency p = Number of poles per phase winding Actual RPM for an induction motor will be less than this calculated synchronous speed by an amount known as slip , that increases with the torque produced.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.If a precision means were available to instantaneously control torque angle and slip for synchronous operation during motoring or generating while simultaneously providing brushless power to the rotor winding set (see Brushless wound-rotor doubly-fed electric machine), the active current of the Synchronous WRDF electric machine would be independent of the reactive impedance of the transformer circuit and bursts of torque significantly higher than the maximum operating torque and far beyond the practical capability of any other type of electric machine would be realizable.^ The motor then operates solely on the running winding.
  • FEVj - electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.fuel-efficient-vehicles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ AC motors operate from alternating current (AC) power sources.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Operating the motor at this voltage limits the maximum speed and torque at high speed.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.Torque bursts greater than eight times operating torque have been calculated.^ In addition, the high voltage, high amperage EV controllers and motors can produce greater torque and horsepower than the original engine in the smaller FWD vehicles.
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Materials

.There is an impending shortage of many rare raw materials used in the manufacture of hybrid and electric cars (Nishiyama 2007) (Cox 2008).^ Under the hood, there are a lot of differences between gasoline and electric cars: .
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many applications where there is possible to use servo or stepper motor.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Jacob Dec 25, 2008 00:57 AM # I am also new to the electric car projects.
  • EV Weblog: Electric Car Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.evconvert.com [Source type: General]

.For example, the rare earth element dysprosium is required to fabricate many of the advanced electric motors used in hybrid cars (Cox 2008).^ Best size for electric car motor?

^ Many of the DC motors used in electric cars come from the electric forklift industry.
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Static Phase Converters Read about this technology and what electric motor loads it can be used to start and when it is better to use a rotary phase converter instead.
  • Worldwide Electric Motor Sales - Worldwide Motors: single and three phase Worldwide electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electricmotorsale.com [Source type: Academic]

However, over 95% of the world's rare earth elements are mined in China (Haxel et al. 2005), and domestic Chinese consumption is expected to consume China's entire supply by 2012 (Cox 2008).[citation needed]
.While permanent magnet motors, favored in hybrids such as those made by Toyota, often use rare earth materials in their magnets, AC traction motors used in production electric vehicles such as the GM EV1, Toyota RAV4 EV and Tesla Roadster do not use permanent magnets or the associated rare earth materials.^ These motors are essentially AC synchronous motors with permanent magnet rotors.....
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Electric Scooter with 500 or 800W Power and Rare-earth Permanent Magnet Motor .
  • Electric Motor Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ I have a MET 36v Perm Magnet Motor I will be using on an electric motorcycle.
  • EV Weblog: Electric Car Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.evconvert.com [Source type: General]

.AC motors typically use conventional copper wire for their stator coils and copper or aluminum rods or bars for their rotor.^ The stator coils surround the rotor.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Collector is connected to the coil wire of the motor.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ (I am using copper speaker wire.
  • How to make the simplest electric motor - Evil Mad Scientist Laboratories 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.evilmadscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.AC motors do not significantly use rare earth materials.^ How do I know which AC motor to use ...

^ The speed of an "universal motor" can be easily controlled using PWM control methods like phase control of AC power.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Electric Scooter with 500 or 800W Power and Rare-earth Permanent Magnet Motor .
  • Electric Motor Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

Motor standards

The following are major design and manufacturing standards covering electric motors:

Uses

.Electric motors are used in many, if not most, modern machines.^ Static Phase Converters Read about this technology and what electric motor loads it can be used to start and when it is better to use a rotary phase converter instead.
  • Worldwide Electric Motor Sales - Worldwide Motors: single and three phase Worldwide electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electricmotorsale.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I recommend: ControlDesign.com discusses electric motor losses, in particular Joule-effect losses, which are the most significant in AC electric motors.
  • Electric Motors: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ On the other hand, brushed motors use armature coils which can be inexpensively machine-wound.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.Obvious uses would be in rotating machines such as fans, turbines, drills, the wheels on electric cars, locomotives and conveyor belts.^ Golf Cart for Electric Kit Car   Is there any 8-person golf cart which can go at least 50 mph, so you can use all the parts and build an electric kit car?

^ In 1882, Nikola Tesla identified the rotating magnetic field principle, and pioneered the use of a rotary field of force to operate machines.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Third most popular electric car motors, but if all motors cost the same, these would be the hands-down winner.

.Also, in many vibrating or oscillating machines, an electric motor spins an irregular figure with more area on one side of the axle than the other, causing it to appear to be moving up and down.^ Cause electric motors have more torque to begin with.
  • EV Weblog: Electric Car Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.evconvert.com [Source type: General]

^ Electric Car Motors, Generators, and Perpetual Motion   Why can't a generator be added to the EV's system to keep the battery recharged...preferably one that draws from the energy that the battery is already ...

^ On the other hand, brushed motors use armature coils which can be inexpensively machine-wound.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.Electric motors are also popular in robotics.^ Third most popular electric car motors, but if all motors cost the same, these would be the hands-down winner.

^ These are the second most popular electric car motors in the EV Photo Album , but that's not necessarily because they're the best thing going.

^ Recently, an increase in the popularity of electric-powered model aircraft has spurred demand for high-performance BLDC motors.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.They are used to turn the wheels of vehicular robots, and servo motors are used to turn arms and legs in humanoid robots.^ They use a motor that has a shaft sticking out of both ends.
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A simple, permanent-magnet dc motor is an essential element in a variety of products, such as toys, servo mechanisms, valve actuators, robots, and automotive electronics.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ These motors were commonly used to drive the capstan (s) of magnetic tape drives and are still widely used in high-performance servo-controlled systems.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.In flying robots, along with helicopters, a motor causes a propeller or wide, flat blades to spin and create lift force, allowing vertical motion.^ As electrical energy is passed through the brushes and consequently through the armature a torsional force is generated as a reaction between the motor's field and the armature causing the motor's armature to turn.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ So if you wanted to use this hanging Magnet *MOTOR* for something you could attach a fan blade(propeller) to the spinning shaft (or on any spinning part) and it would move wind like any fan *MOTOR*.
  • How to make the simplest electric motor - Evil Mad Scientist Laboratories 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.evilmadscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The phase of the magnetic field in this startup winding is shifted from the phase of the mains power, allowing the creation of a moving magnetic field which starts the motor.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

.Electric motors are replacing hydraulic cylinders in airplanes and military equipment.^ The gasoline engine is replaced by an electric motor .
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dart Electric Motor & Supply, now called Electrical Equipment Sales, has new, used, & reconditioned electric motor equipment.
  • Electric Motors Information and Resources 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electric-motors.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Barry: I had purchased a replacement pool pump motor from Electric Motor warehouse.

[20][21]
.In industrial and manufacturing businesses, electric motors are used to turn saws and blades in cutting and slicing processes, and to spin gears and mixers (the latter very common in food manufacturing).^ Different industries use lots of electrical motors in their applications.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Static Phase Converters Read about this technology and what electric motor loads it can be used to start and when it is better to use a rotary phase converter instead.
  • Worldwide Electric Motor Sales - Worldwide Motors: single and three phase Worldwide electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electricmotorsale.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If a transmission is not used, a gear ratio that allows the motor to start easily under load must be used.
  • Electric Vehicle Conversions | EV Conversions | Electric Car Conversions | Electric Vehicle Motors | Electric Vehicle Controllers | EV Motors | EV Controllers 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.ddmotorsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Linear motors are often used to push products into containers horizontally.^ A brushless motor is often used when high reliability, long life and high speeds are required.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Motor cabinet (housing): production line uses auto transfer die for power window, rod antenna of automotive components and washing machine, refrigerator used motor cabinet.
  • Electric Motors Manufacturers On B2BChinaSources.Com from China Electric Motors Manufacturers & Taiwan Electric Motors Suppliers & Electric Motors Exporters 12 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.b2bchinasources.com [Source type: General]

^ There are several types of single phase AC motors in current production in the U.S., but only two types are commonly used in powering home shop machninist equipment.
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

.Many kitchen appliances also use electric motors to accomplish various jobs.^ Static Phase Converters Read about this technology and what electric motor loads it can be used to start and when it is better to use a rotary phase converter instead.
  • Worldwide Electric Motor Sales - Worldwide Motors: single and three phase Worldwide electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electricmotorsale.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some are designed to to rotate at constant speed (those used in disk drives) and the speed of some can be controlled by varying the voltage applid to them (usually the motors used in fans).
  • ePanorama.net - Links 19 November 2009 19:16 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The Spec Of Electric Motors : We also could design various speeds, torque parameters & dynamic characterics for your requirements.
  • Electric Motors Manufacturers On B2BChinaSources.Com from China Electric Motors Manufacturers & Taiwan Electric Motors Suppliers & Electric Motors Exporters 12 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.b2bchinasources.com [Source type: General]

Food processors and grinders spin blades to chop and break up foods. .Blenders use electric motors to mix liquids, and microwave ovens use motors to turn the tray food sits on.^ Static Phase Converters Read about this technology and what electric motor loads it can be used to start and when it is better to use a rotary phase converter instead.
  • Worldwide Electric Motor Sales - Worldwide Motors: single and three phase Worldwide electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electricmotorsale.com [Source type: Academic]

^ MORE TORQUE. I believe that it is possible to build a motor that uses not very much electrical energy to run, wich creates a lot of torque, and that this engine can turn a conventional generator while recapturing some or most of the input energy.

^ I have a MET 36v Perm Magnet Motor I will be using on an electric motorcycle.
  • EV Weblog: Electric Car Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.evconvert.com [Source type: General]

.Toaster ovens also use electric motors to turn a conveyor to move food over heating elements.^ Static Phase Converters Read about this technology and what electric motor loads it can be used to start and when it is better to use a rotary phase converter instead.
  • Worldwide Electric Motor Sales - Worldwide Motors: single and three phase Worldwide electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electricmotorsale.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In this motor, small single-turn copper "shading coils" create the moving magnetic field.
  • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Electric motors contrast engines because engines use fuel and electric motors do not.
  • Electric Motors Information and Resources 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electric-motors.net [Source type: Reference]

References and further reading

Citations
  1. ^ "What is an Actuator?", wiseGEEK. Conjecture Corp., 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-13.
  2. ^ Schoenherr, Steven E. (2001), "Loudspeaker History". Recording Technology History. Retrieved 2010-03-13.
  3. ^ Faraday, Michael (1844). Experimental Researches in Electricity. 2.  See plate 4.
  4. ^ spark museum
  5. ^ a b Electricity and magnetism, translated from the French of Amédée Guillemin. Rev. and ed. by Silvanus P. Thompson. London, MacMillan, 1891
  6. ^ Nature 53. (printed in 1896) page: 516
  7. ^ a b http://www.mpoweruk.com/timeline.htm
  8. ^ http://www.fh-zwickau.de/mbk/kfz_ee/praesentationen/Elma-Gndl-Generator%20-%20Druckversion.pdf
  9. ^ http://www.uni-regensburg.de/Fakultaeten/phil_Fak_I/Philosophie/Wissenschaftsgeschichte/Termine/E-Maschinen-Lexikon/Chronologie.htm
  10. ^ http://www.mpoweruk.com/history.htm
  11. ^ Gee, William (2004). "Sturgeon, William (1783–1850)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/26748. 
  12. ^ [1] Garrison, Ervan G., "A history of engineering and technology". CRC Press, 1998. ISBN 084939810X, 9780849398100. Retrieved May 7, 2009.
  13. ^ http://www.frankfurt.matav.hu/angol/magytud.htm
  14. ^ For a description and superb illustration of one such early electric motor designed by Froment, see a Google Books PDF online version of Ganot's Physics, 14th Edition, N.Y., 1893 translated by Atkinson, pp. 907 and 908. (Section 899, and Figure 888). (Note to readers using Google: This is not Ganon's Physics.) [2]
  15. ^ http://www.circuitcellar.com/ Motor Comparison, Circuit Cellar Magazine, July 2008, Issue 216, Bachiochi, p.78
  16. ^ [JSAP] Tokai University Unveils 100W DC Motor with 96% Efficiency http://techon.nikkeibp.co.jp/english/NEWS_EN/20090403/168295/
  17. ^ "Tesla's Early Years". PBS.
  18. ^ http://www.daytronic.com/products/trans/t-magpickup.htm
  19. ^ Cyril W. Lander, Power Electronics 3rd Edition, Mc Graw Hill International UK Limited, London 1993 ISBN 0-07-707714-8 Chapter 9-8 Slip Ring Induction Motor Control
  20. ^ Briere D. and Traverse, P. (1993) “Airbus A320/A330/A340 Electrical Flight Controls: A Family of Fault-Tolerant Systems” Proc. FTCS, pp. 616-623.
  21. ^ North, David. (2000) "Finding Common Ground in Envelope Protection Systems". Aviation Week & Space Technology, Aug 28, pp. 66–68.
General references
.
  • Donald G. Fink and H. Wayne Beaty, Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, Eleventh Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978, ISBN 0-07-020974-X.
  • Edwin J. Houston and Arthur Kennelly, Recent Types of Dynamo-Electric Machinery, copyright American Technical Book Company 1897, published by P.F. Collier and Sons New York, 1902
  • Kuphaldt, Tony R. (2000-2006).^ Refine your search below by location, company type and certification to find electric-motors manufacturers and suppliers.
    • Electric Motors Information and Resources 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.electric-motors.net [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Edwin J. Houston and Arthur Kennelly, Recent Types of Dynamo-Electric Machinery , copyright American Technical Book Company 1897, published by P.F. Collier and Sons New York, 1902 Kuphaldt, Tony R., Lessons In Electric Circuits — Volume II, Chapter 13 AC MOTORS < http://www.ibiblio.org/obp/electricCircuits/AC/AC_13.html > A.O.Smith: The AC's and DC's of Electric Motors < http://www.aosmithmotors.com/pdf/brochures/bulletin3100/ACDC.PDF > http://www.tfcbooks.com/tesla/system.htm "Tesla's Early Years".
    • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ General references Donald G. Fink and H. Wayne Beaty, Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, Eleventh Edition , McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978, ISBN 0-07-020974-X .
    • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

    "Chapter 13 AC MOTORS". Lessons In Electric Circuits — Volume II. .http://www.ibiblio.org/obp/electricCircuits/AC/AC_13.html.^ Edwin J. Houston and Arthur Kennelly, Recent Types of Dynamo-Electric Machinery , copyright American Technical Book Company 1897, published by P.F. Collier and Sons New York, 1902 Kuphaldt, Tony R., Lessons In Electric Circuits — Volume II, Chapter 13 AC MOTORS < http://www.ibiblio.org/obp/electricCircuits/AC/AC_13.html > A.O.Smith: The AC's and DC's of Electric Motors < http://www.aosmithmotors.com/pdf/brochures/bulletin3100/ACDC.PDF > http://www.tfcbooks.com/tesla/system.htm "Tesla's Early Years".
    • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Will be giving more details here: > > > http://www.energeticforum.com/renewa...lectric-motor- > > > secrets.html > > > > > > --- In Magnetricity@yahoogroups.com > , Rick Friedrich > > > wrote: > > > > .

    ^ Versione tradotta della pagina http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/271-electric-motor-secrets.html (BETA) .

    .Retrieved 2006-04-11.
     
  • "A.O.Smith: The AC's and DC's of Electric Motors" (PDF).^ DC Electric Motors DC Servo Motors DC Torque Motors Magnet DC Motors DC Motor Manufacturers Brushless DC Motors Advertisement .
    • DC Motor Manufacturers On B2BChinaSources.Com from China DC Motor Manufacturers & Taiwan DC Motor Suppliers & DC Motor Exporters 22 September 2009 15:55 UTC www.b2bchinasources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Spec Of Electric Motors : 1.DC torque motor + Potentiometer: 28 V, 1600Rpm.
    • Electric Motors Manufacturers On B2BChinaSources.Com from China Electric Motors Manufacturers & Taiwan Electric Motors Suppliers & Electric Motors Exporters 12 September 2009 8:15 UTC www.b2bchinasources.com [Source type: General]

    ^ RE: electric motors - 1/14/2010 4:04 PM .
    • electric motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.rcuniverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .http://www.aosmithmotors.com/uploadedFiles/AC-DC%20manual.pdf.^ Dan P. Mar 26, 2008 02:20 AM # http://www.evconvert.com/faq#faq_361 .
    • EV Weblog: Electric Car Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.evconvert.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Hi John, I just started about 5 Bedini threads here: http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/ You can see the list.

    ^ Mike Dieroff Sep 18, 2008 11:46 AM # Check out http://www.ddmotorsystems.com/ElectricVehicles.shtml for any motorcycle conversion needs.
    • EV Weblog: Electric Car Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.evconvert.com [Source type: General]

    Retrieved 2009-12-07
    . 
  • Resenblat & Frienman DC and AC machinery
  • http://www.streetdirectory.com/travel_guide/115541/technology/understanding_electric_motors_and_their_uses.html
Further reading
.
  • Shanefield D. J., Industrial Electronics for Engineers, Chemists, and Technicians,William Andrew Publishing, Norwich, NY, 2001.
  • Fitzgerald/Kingsley/Kusko (Fitzgerald/Kingsley/Umans in later years), Electric Machinery, classic text for junior and senior electrical engineering students.^ How to Properly Select a Step Motor EDUCYPEDIA Stepper Motor Links Stepper Motor Basics Introduction to Stepping Motors Jones on Stepping Motors Control unipolar motor with bipolar driver Selecting the Proper Size Stepper Motor Fitzgerald/Kingsley/Kusko (Fitzgerald/Kingsley/Umans in later years), * Electric Machinery , classic text for junior and senior electrical engineering students.
    • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ High power BLDC motors are found in electric vehicles and some industrial machinery.
    • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ One day I pop out the gas engine and a few days later a fully attached and matched electric motor is in place… .
    • EV Weblog: Electric Car Motors 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC www.evconvert.com [Source type: General]

    .Originally published in 1952, 6th edition published in 2002.
  • Bedford, B. D.; Hoft, R. G. et al.^ Originally published in 1952, 6th edition published in 2002.
    • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Bedford, B. D., Hoft, R. G., et al., "Principles of Inverter Circuits".
    • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

    (1964). .Principles of Inverter Circuits.^ Bedford, B. D., Hoft, R. G., et al., "Principles of Inverter Circuits".
    • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

    .New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..^ John Gerrity Olean, New York John W. Gerrity, Jr. Olean, NY USA 050627 11:06:14 .

    ^ New York 1964 ISBN 0471061344 (Inverter circuits are used for variable frequency motor speed control ) B. R. Pelly, "Thyristor Phase-Controlled Converters and Cycloconverters: Operation, Control, and Performance" (New York: John Wiley, 1971).
    • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    • PowerPedia:Electric motor - PESWiki 19 January 2010 9:55 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Reference]

    ISBN 0 471 06134 4.  (Inverter circuits are used for variable-frequency motor speed control)
  • B. R. Pelly, "Thyristor Phase-Controlled Converters and Cycloconverters: Operation, Control, and Performance" (New York: John Wiley, 1971).
  • John N. Chiasson, Modeling and High Performance Control of Electric Machines, Wiley-IEEE Press, New York, 2005, ISBN 0-471-68449-X.

See also

External links

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Simple English

An electric motor changes electrical energy into mechanical movement. A dynamo or an electric generator does the reverse: it changes mechanical movement into electric energy. Most of the electric motors work by using the force of magnetism. But, an electric motor may work using different types of forces.

Contents

Inside an Electric Motor

Let's start by looking at the overall plan of a simple two-pole DC electric motor. A simple motor has six parts: • Armature or rotor • Commutator • Brushes • Axle • Field magnet • DC power supply of some sort An electric motor is all about magnets and magnetism: A motor uses magnets to create motion. If you have ever played with magnets you know about the fundamental law of all magnets: Opposites attract and likes repel. So if you have two bar magnets with their ends marked "north" and "south," then the north end of one magnet will attract the south end of the other. On the other hand, the north end of one magnet will repel the north end of the other (and similarly, south will repel south). Inside an electric motor, these attracting and repelling forces create rotational motion.[1]

To understand how electric motors work, the key is to understand how electromagnets work. An electromagnet is the basis of an electric motor.

History

In 1821, Michael Faraday made the first electric motor. It worked using the force of magnetism.

He created a simple electromagnet by taking a nail and a wire, wrapping about 100 loops of wire around the nail and connected it to a battery. With this he had a simple electromagnet with north and south pole. In the middle of the nail he had made a hole and put a spindle into the hole so that the nail could rotate. He then took a horseshoe-shaped magnet and placed the wire wrapped nail in the middle.

He connected the wire of the north pole to the negative pole of the battery and the wire of the south pole to the positive pole. The basic law of magnetism told him what would happen: the north end of the electromagnet would repel the north end of the horseshoe-shaped magnet and would attract the south pole. The same happened on the other side of the nail, with the result that the nail turned.

Faraday was not happy with the result of the electromotor, because the motor turned only once. He changed the polarity of the battery and the wire wrapped nail again turned just once. If he changed the polarity every time, when the north pole of the wire wrapped nail is opposite to the south pole of the horseshoe-shaped magnet, then he would have the result he was looking for. The wire wrapped nail would turn and turn around the spindle (as long as the battery is not empty).

Examples

Examples of electric motors include: fans, washing machines, fridges, pool pumps, vacuum cleaners and fan ovens.

References


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 11, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Electric motor, which are similar to those in the above article.








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