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E-max electric scooter

Electric motorcycles and scooters are vehicles with two or three wheels that use electric motors to attain locomotion.



Electric scooter at the 2005 Vancouver EV gathering
  • Late 1860s: Earliest references to electric motorcycles can be found in patents.
  • 1911: Electric motorcycle available according to early Popular Mechanics article.[1]
  • 2007: Li-Ion cell-powered Killacycle makes new quarter mile (400-metre) record of 7.824 seconds and 168 mph (270 km/h) in Phoenix, AZ, US at AHDRA 2007.[2]

Power source

Yamaha FC Aqel

Generally, the source of power for the electric motor has been batteries, but development in fuel cell technology has created several prototypes. Some examples are: the ENV from Intelligent Energy, Honda's scooter using the Honda FC Stack, and the Yamaha FC-AQEL. Also, petroleum hybrid-electric motorcycles are under development. Some examples are the Ecycle, and Yamaha's Gen-RYU.

Advantages and disadvantages

Electric motorcycles and scooters are rising in popularity because of higher gasoline prices. Battery technology is gradually improving making this form of transportation more practical.[3]

Stylish Eped City, Epeds Uk Ltd

Advantages of electric over gasoline power:

  1. The fuel costs for electric power are approximately 25% the cost of gasoline power (US, mid-2008; see Electric car, "Running costs" for the calculation)[4]
  2. Nearly silent
  3. Environmental friendly (no exhausted gases at point of use)
  4. carbon and registration tax exemption in some countries
  5. No parking/congestion charges in some countries
  6. No road tax in some countries
  7. Using grid power to charge batteries causes less pollution than gasoline scooters;[citation needed] the amount of emissions and residues caused depends on the sources of the electricity used.
  8. No trips needed to a gas station—can be recharged at home or in charging stations. But charging or battery swapping in service stations, when needed, are faster.
  9. It can be used in a V2G system.
  10. Lower maintenance costs and fewer maintenance activities.
  11. Can be ridden indoors.
  12. More affordable than electric cars.
Electric scooters (and an electric bicycle) parked in Chengdu, China


  1. Up front costs are higher than for a comparable gasoline powered motorcycle or scooter.[citation needed]
  2. Shorter range before recharging.
  3. Longer "fill up" or recharge time.
  4. Lower maximum speed at similar price points.
  5. Electric power outlets are often not conveniently located near streets or driveways. It is often difficult or impossible to bring the battery into an apartment, for example, for recharging.
  6. Battery capacity can be as low as 20% on a cold winter day with -20 °C (lead battery)
  7. As it is already difficult for motorcycles to be "noticed" by drivers of cars and trucks, the loss of characteristic engine noise might make riding these even more dangerous than their internal combustion engine powered counterparts.


50+ mph fun-ev electric scooter

A scooter is a type of motorcycle with a step-through frame and usually with smaller wheels designed for urban transportation.


Various types of scooters

Scooters are divided into categories as per the particular niche that they are designed to operate in and speed requirements:

  • Two-wheeled Vespa-styled scooters 0-60 mph (0–100 km/h)
  • Two-wheeled Stand-up scooters (like a kick scooter) 0-25 mph (0–40 km/h)
  • Two-wheeled, side-by-side stand-up scooters like manufactured by Segway PT 0-12 mph (0–20 km/h)
  • Two-wheeled Seated scooters 0-25 mph (0–40 km/h)
  • Three-wheeled standup scooters like manufactured by Zap 0-15 mph (0–25 km/h)
  • Three- and four-wheeled Mobility scooter (disability riders) 0-10 mph (0–15 km/h)
  • Three- and four-wheeled Seated scooters/golf carts 0-25 mph (0–40 km/h)

Electric motorcycle or electric bicycle

Electric motorcycle "Electrocat"

Two-wheeled motorcycles are generally differentiated from electric bicycles and mopeds (motorized pedal cycles) by speed, with motorcycles having greater speeds—usually greater than 30 mph (about 50 km/h). Although, this line for what constitutes a 2 wheeled motorcycle has blurred due to marketing, styling, and public opinion.

Certain models of electric bicycle take the form of scooters or small motorcycles, comprising of the standard features of common e-bikes, but with plastic or metal cladding, lighting systems; such as indicators and brake lights, and speedometers. They are however, classed as electric bicycles in most areas.

3-wheeled motorcycles

Due to vagueness in motor vehicle laws, any three-wheeled vehicle that can travel over 31 mph (50 km/h) may be classified as a motorcycle. This classification does not depend on whether the operator is fully enclosed by a "cage" or exposed to the elements. Several automotive startup companies made their initial designs three wheeled vehicles, because the motorcycle classification does not require the same costly battery of crash safety testing as a four wheeled vehicle.

For design purposes, three wheeled vehicles are divided into 2 categories:

  • 1 wheel in front and 2 in back, known as a delta design or the traditional trike (tricycle) design
  • 2 wheels in front and 1 in back, known as a tadpole design.

Some three wheeled motorcycles enclose the rider in a "cabin" or cockpit. These include the Twike, Myers Motors NmG.

Some three wheeled motorcycles have independent suspension allowing the vehicle to tilt or lean, such as the Carver one.

Self-balancing unicycle

The Uno dicycle is another type of electric vehicle that is sometimes described as an electric motorcycle.[5][6]

Comparison of select production vehicles

Name Top Speed Power Cost Vehicle type Battery Range Comments
Type Life Capacity
Quantya Strada 55+ mph depending on final drive ratio 8.5 kW (11.4 hp) @ 4000 rpm $10,700 Dual Sport LiPo Lithium Polymer app.5 years, 1,000 cycles or 2 year warranty on battery 2.3 kWh 25–30 miles Quantya Motorcycles
Brammo Enertia 60+ mph (96+ km/h) 13 kW (17 hp) @ 4500 rpm $7,995 Motorcycle 6 Lithium iron phosphate by Valence 20,000 miles (32,000 km) 3.1 kWh 50+ miles (80+ kilometres)

Currently available at select Best Buy stores and online.[7]

Xtreme Green Products 65 mph (104 km/h) 4.5 kW Hub Motor[8] $8,495 Motorcycle Lithium Ion Power Management System 7 years 60 A·h / 6 kWh Over 100 miles (Over 160 km) Review
Vectrix VX-1 62 mph (100 km/h) 20 kW[9] $8,800 Scooter Nickel metal hydride (NiMH)
provided by GP Batteries
10 years or 50,000 miles / 80,000 km 30 A·h, 3.7 kW·h 68 miles @ 25 mph (110 km @ 40 km/h) Review
Tiger Ozone Electric 1.14 HP/485 rpm N/A $1,000 Motorcycle Lead acid N/A 35 Ah. N/A More detail Designed and manufactured in Thailand.
Eped Sport/City 40 mph+ 60 v 1,200 w £1,495 Scooter 5 Crystal Technology Cells 400+ charge cycles 20 A·h 35 miles (55 km)

Epeds Wiki

E-Solex 21 mph 400W E-solex Scooter 20 miles (without extra pedalling) E-solex
Yo Speed (45 km/h) 750W Rs.35000(~$815) Scooter 80 km @ 70 kg [10]
ZAP Xebra 40 mph (65 km/h) $10,000 3 Wheel Lead acid 3 years 25 miles at 30 mph (40 km at 50 km/h) review[citation needed]
ZAP Zapino 30 mph (48 km/h) 3 kW $3,500 Scooter Lead acid (Lithium option) 38 A·h 30 miles
EVT-4000e EVT-168 40 mph (60 km/h) 1,500 W $2,900 Scooter Lead acid, 4x12 or lithium ion 1.5 – 2 years [11], 1000+ charges for lithium 50 A·h 25 to 40 miles (40 to 60 km) North American Distributor, Taiwanese Manufacturer
Io-scooter 30 mph (50 km/h) 1500W €2,630 Scooter Lead acid, 4x12 1.5 – 2 years 50 A·h 25 to 35 miles (40 to 55 km) Io-scooter
Zero X + 60 mph (97 km/h) 17.4 kW 23 HP High Power $8350 Standard $7450 Off-road Motorcycle Patent-pending lithium ion array ? 2 kWh 40 miles (64 km) 2hrs Zero Motorcycles
Electric GPR-S 70 mph (112 km/h) 14.2 kW $8,000 Motorcycle 24 Lithium cells 2000+ charge cycles 3.3 kWh 60 miles (economy setting) Available October 2008
XM 5000Li 60 mph (96 km/h) 5.000W $6,499 Scooter 21 Lithium cells 2000+ charge cycles 60 A·h 85 miles (130 km) Review
ECPU scooter 30 mph (50 km/h) 350~500W $450(~Rs.22000) Scooter Lead acid 6 x 12 V 20 Ah 2 years 1.44 KWh 100 miles at 19 mph,70 miles at 30 mph (160 km at 32 km/h, 110 km at 45 km/h) Review
Z Electric Vehicle ZEV5700 65 mph (104 km/h) 5700 W $5895 Scooter Lithium max 60AH 10 years  ? KWh 54 miles at 50 mph,72 miles at 28 mph Z Electric Vehicle

Comparison of select upcoming vehicles

Name Top Speed Power Cost Vehicle type Battery Range Comments
Type Life Capacity
Smart Cities Roboscooter [12] ?+ mph (? km/h) $? Motorcycle ? ? miles (? kilometres) kWh ?+ miles (?+ kilometres)

Available in ?.

VentureOne 75+ mph (120+ km/h) 40+ kW $23,000 3 Wheel Lithium-ion batteries by A123Systems 5000+ charge cycles 120 miles (about 200 km) video Available in 2010.
Aptera 2e 85 mph (135 km/h) 30 kW $27,000 3 Wheel Lithium Phosphate, unknown manufacturer N/A 13 kWh 120 miles (190 km) Production expected in Q4 2009.
EVC Volta G/T Metro 70 mph (112 km/h) 8 kW $7,995 Scooter Lithium ion N/A 8 kWh 75 miles at optimized speed Production in summer 2008.
EVC Roadking 91 mph (146 km/h) 15 kW $9,895 Scooter Lithium ion N/A 8.2 kWh 75 miles at optimized speed Production in summer 2008.
Mission One 150 mph (242 km/h) N/A $68,995 Motorcycle Lithium ion N/A 150 miles Production in 2010.
EVC X21 107 mph (171 km/h) 21 kW $10,950 Scooter Lithium ion N/A 8.2 kWh 75 miles at optimized speed Production in summer 2008.

List of electric motorcycles and scooters

See Category:Electric scooters and Category:Electric motorcycles


Charging an electric scooter's battery, using a small charger and a regular 250 V power outlet

Premier of the Republic of China (Taiwan) Liu Chao-shiuan said that the government-financed Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) will help domestic manufacturers mass-produce 100,000 electric motorcycles in four years.[13]

See also


External links


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