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An element of a crime (collectively called elements of crime) is a basic set of common law principles regarding criminal liability that, with few exceptions, constitute the essential elements to prove that the defendant committed a crime under United States law. The jury must be convinced beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant committed each element of the particular crime charged before deciding on a guilty verdict. The component parts that make up any particular crime vary depending on the crime.[1]

The basic components are listed below.[2] However, the two generally necessary elements which must coexist for a crime to have occurred is that the defendant must have committed an act and that act must have been committed with intention.[3]


Mental state (Mens rea)

Mens rea refers to the crime's mental elements of the defendant's intent. This is a necessary element—that is, the criminal act must be voluntary or purposeful. Mens rea is the mental intention (mental fault), or fudge the defendant's state of mind at the time of the offense, sometimes called the guilty mind. It stems from the ancient maxim of obscure origin, "actus reus non facit reum nisi mens sit reas" that is translated as "the act is not guilty unless the mind is guilty."[4] For example, the mens rea of aggravated battery is the intention to do serious bodily harm. Mens rea is almost always a necessary component in order to prove that a criminal act has been committed.[2][3]

Mens rea varies depending on the offense. For murder, the mental element requires the defendant acted with "malice aforethought". Others may require proof the act was committed with such mental elements such as "knowingly" or "willfulness" or "recklessness". Arson requires an intent to commit a forbidden act, while others such as murder require an intent to produce a forbidden result. Motive, the reason the act was committed, is not the same as mens rea and the law is not concerned with motive.[2]

Although most legal systems recognize the importance of the guilty mind, or mens rea, exactly what is meant by this concept varies. The American Law Institute's Model Penal Code has reduced the mental states to four. In general, guilt can be attributed to an individual who acts “purposely,” “knowingly,” “recklessly,” or “negligently.” Together or in combination, these four attributes seem basically effective in dealing with most of the common mens rea issues.[5]

Conduct (Actus reus)

All crimes require actus reus. That is, a criminal act or an unlawful omission of an act, must have occurred. A person cannot be punished for thinking criminal thoughts. This element is based on the problem of standards of proof. How can another person's thoughts be determined and how can criminal thoughts be differentiated from idle thoughts? Further, the law's purview is not to punish criminal ideas but to punish those who act upon those ideas voluntarily. [6]

Unlike thoughts, words can be considered acts in criminal law. For example, threats, perjury, conspiracy, and solicitation are offenses in which words can constitute the element of actus reus.

The ommission of an act can also constitute the basis for criminal liability.



In general, mens rea and actus reus must occur at the same time—that is, the criminal intent had must precede or coexist with the criminal act, or in some way activate the act. The necessary mens rea may not continually be present until the forbidden act is committed, as long as it activated the conduct that produced the criminal act. However, for criminal liability to occur, there must be either overt and voluntary action or a failure to act when physically able as required by statute or law. [6]


Many crimes include an element that actual harm must occur—in other words, causation must be proved. For example, homicide requires a killing, aggravated battery requires serious bodily injury and without this outcome, no crime would have been committed. A causal relationship between conduct and result is demonstrated if the act would not have happened without direct participation of the offender.[6]

Causation is complex to prove. The act may be a "necessary but not sufficient" cause of the criminal harm. Intervening events may have occurred in between the act and the result. Therefore, the cause of the act and the forbidden result must be "proximate," or near in time.[2]


See also


  1. ^ "Glossary - Elements (of a crime)". Retrieved 2008-01-07.  
  2. ^ a b c d e Thomas, Charles W.; Bishop, Donna M. (1987). Criminal Law: Understanding Basic Principles. Newbury Park, NY: Sage. ISBN 0-8039-2669-3.  
  3. ^ a b "Criminal law". Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2008-01-07.  
  4. ^ Bonnie, Richard M.; et al. (1997). Criminal Law. Westbury, NY: The Foundation Press. pp. p. 116. ISBN 1-56662-448-7.  
  5. ^ "Criminal Law - The Mental Element". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-01-07.  
  6. ^ a b c "Criminal law". Encyclopedia Brittannica. Retrieved 2008-01-07.  


  • Bonnie, Richard J.; et al. (1997). Criminal Law. Westbury, NY: The Foundation Press, Inc.. ISBN 1-56662-448-7.  

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