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Eleonor Magdalene of the Palatinate-Neuburg
Holy Roman Empress
Queen of Bohemia and Hungary
Spouse Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
Issue
Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor
Maria Elisabeth
Maria Anna, Queen of Portugal
Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Maria Magdalena
House House of Wittelsbach
House of Habsburg
Father Philipp Wilhelm, Elector Palatine
Mother Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt
Born 6 January 1655(1655-01-06)
Düsseldorf
Died 19 January 1720 (aged 65)
Vienna

Eleonor Magdalene of the Palatinate (6 January 1655 – 19 January 1720, Vienna) was Holy Roman Empress as the spouse of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor.[1] Through her marriage, she was also Queen of Bohemia and Hungary, German Queen, and Archduchess of Austria. She served as Interim Regent in 1711.

Contents

Birth and family

Born in Düsseldorf, Eleonore was the oldest daughter of Philipp Wilhelm, Elector Palatine and his wife Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt. Among her siblings were Maria Sophia, future wife of Peter II of Portugal and Maria Anna, future wife of Charles II of Spain.

Marriage

Painting depicting the 1676 marriage of Eleonor and Leopold

Eleonor married Emperor Leopold I in 1676. She was a good candidate as a bride for the emperor already in 1673 because of her family's reputed great fertility and connections, and although Claudia Felicitas of Austria was chosen before her in 1674, she was chosen in 1676. She accepted without enthusiasm to make her parents happy: Eleonor was brought up to an extreme degree of Catholicism and had originally wished to become a nun.

Empress

Eleonor was active within social work. She suffered from depression and was described as self-destructive. She introduced a more economical household at court: she hosted a court affected by her strong religious views: strict, simple and conventlike and, as it was said, in an atmosphere which reminded of an eternal mourning period, which was regarded as somewhat ridiculous and exaggerated. She was drawn to the pentative side of Catholicism, and often dressed in black as if she was in mourning.

She was politically active and did not lack influence over her spouse: it is reported how she received and opened important political documents while the Emperor stood waiting beside her "as a secretary". She made great efforts to provide favors, positions and lucrative posts for her relatives, and secured high positions for her brothers. In addition, she was the protector of the chancellor Theodor Strattmann. She accompanied her spouse on his travels, and she also saw to the upbringing of her children personally.

She became widowed in 1705. As an Empress Dowager, she strived to keep her political influence through her daughter-in-law, Empress Wilhelmine Amalia.

Regent

After the death of her son in 1711, she served as interim Regent, during which she had conflicts with Grafen Wratislaw and Prince Eugen. She managed to stop Feldmarschall Johann Graf Pálffy von Ungarn, brother of the royal mistress of the late Emperor Joseph, Marianne Pálffy, to unite with the rebels of Hungary, after which she signed the treaty of Szatmár. She presided over the congress to determine the succession and election of an new Emperor, and favoured the election of Emperor Charles. When Charles returned from Spain, she resigned from court and retired to charity and penance.

Issue

She had 11 children, amongst whom were two emperors:

Their other children were:

Ancestry

References

  1. ^ a b Wheatcroft (1995), p. 201.

Sources

  • Wheatcroft, Andrew (1995). The Habsburgs: Embodying Empire. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0670854905.  
  • Konrad Kramar und Petra Stuiber: „Die schrulligen Habsburger – Marotten und Allüren eines Kaiserhauses“. Ueberreuter, Wien 1999, ISBN 3-8000-3742-4.
  • Kaiserin Eleonore Magdalena Theresia (1655-1720)
Eleonor Magdalene of the Palatinate-Neuburg
Born: 6 January 1655 Died: 19 January 1720
German royalty
Preceded by
Claudia Felicitas of Austria
Empress of the Holy Roman Empire, Archduchess consort of Austria
1676-1705
Succeeded by
Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick
German Queen
1676-1690
Queen consort of Hungary
1676-1687
Queen consort of Bohemia
1676–1705
Preceded by
Jelena Zrinski
Princess consort of Transylvania
1691–1705
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File:Eleonore of Pfalz
Eleonor Magdalene of the Palatinate

Eleonor Magdalene of the Palatinate (6 January 1655 – 19 January 1720, Vienna) was Holy Roman Empress as wife of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. She was also Queen of Bohemia and Hungary, German Queen, and Archduchess of Austria.

Born in Düsseldorf, Eleonore was the oldest daughter of Philipp Wilhelm, Elector Palatine and his wife Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt. Among her siblings were Maria Sophia, wife of Peter II of Portugal and Maria Anna, wife of Charles II of Spain.

She married Leopold I in 1676. She had 11 children, amongst whom were two emperors:

Their other children were

  • Christina (1679-1679)
  • Maria Elisabeth (1680-1741), Archduchess, governor of the Austrian Netherlands Archduchess Maria Elisabeth of Austria (1680–1741)
  • Leopold Joseph (1682-1684)
  • Maria Anna (1683-1754), Archduchess, married John V of Portugal, King of Portugal
  • Maria Theresia (1684-1696)
  • Maria Antonia (1686-1692)
  • Maria Josepha (1687-1703)
  • Maria Magdalena (1689-1743)
  • Maria Margaretha (1690-1691)

Eleonor had originally the wish to become a nun. She was a good candidate as a bride for the emperor already in 1673 because of her familys reputed great fertility and connections, and although Claudia Felicitas was chosen bofore her in 1674, she was accepted in 1676. She wielded some influence within foreign policy and was active within social work. She introduced a more economicall household at the court. She suffered from depression and was described as self-destructive. She accompanied her spouse on his travels.

Ancestry

References

Eleonor Magdalene of the Palatinate
Born: 6 January 1655 Died: 19 January 1720
German royalty
Preceded by
Claudia Felicitas of Austria
Empress of the Holy Roman Empire, Archduchess consort of Austria
1676-1705
Succeeded by
Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick
German Queen
1676-1690
Queen consort of Hungary
1676-1687
Queen consort of Bohemia
1676–1705
Preceded by
Jelena Zrinski
Princess consort of Transylvania
1691–1705

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