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Elizabeth I
.Elizabeth I , "Darnley Portrait", c.^ Elizabeth I , "Darnley Portrait", c.
  • Queen Elizabeth I 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.benjaminfranklin.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Queen Elizabeth I 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC elizabethi.com [Source type: Original source]

1575
Queen of England and Ireland (more...)
Reign 17 November 1558 – 24 March 1603 (&0000000000000044.00000044 years, &0000000000000127.000000127 days)
Coronation 15 January 1559 (aged 25)
Predecessor Mary I
Successor James I
House House of Tudor
Father Henry VIII
Mother Anne Boleyn
Born 7 September 1533
Greenwich, England
Died 24 March 1603 (aged 69)
Richmond, England
Burial Westminster Abbey
Signature
.Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen regnant of England and Queen regnant of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death.^ Queen of England 1558-1603 .
  • Elizabeth I of England - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HMS Queen Elizabeth, March 1945.

^ HMS Queen Elizabeth, November 1918.

.Sometimes called the Virgin Queen, Gloriana, or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty.^ What is Queen Elizabeth's last name?
  • WikiAnswers - Elizabeth I Questions including "How would history be changed if Mary Queen of Scots had assassinated Elizabeth I" 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Virgin queen Elizabeth i biograp...
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the fifth (or sixth if Lady Jane Grey is included) and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The daughter of Henry VIII, she was born a princess, but her mother, Anne Boleyn, was executed two and a half years after her birth, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate.^ Queen Elizabeth I's mother was Anne Boleyn, the second of King Henry VIII's six wives.
  • WikiAnswers - Elizabeth I Questions including "How would history be changed if Mary Queen of Scots had assassinated Elizabeth I" 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Henry VIII and his second wife Anne Boleyn.
  • WikiAnswers - Elizabeth I Questions including "How would history be changed if Mary Queen of Scots had assassinated Elizabeth I" 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Elizabeth, then three years old, was declared illegitimate and lost the title of Princess.

.Her brother, Edward VI, bequeathed the crown to Lady Jane Grey, cutting his sisters out of the succession.^ Perhaps for that reason, her brother, Edward VI, cut her out of the succession.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Her brother, Edward VI , cut her out of the succession.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Read the biography of Lady Jane Grey .
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.His will was set aside, and in 1558 Elizabeth succeeded the Catholic Mary I, during whose reign she had been imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels.^ With the death of Mary, Elizabeth succeeded to the throne of England in 1558.
  • WikiAnswers - Elizabeth I Questions including "How would history be changed if Mary Queen of Scots had assassinated Elizabeth I" 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ During her 45-year reign Elizabeth had many dogs.
  • WikiAnswers - Elizabeth I Questions including "How would history be changed if Mary Queen of Scots had assassinated Elizabeth I" 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ His will, however, was set aside, and in 1558 Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister, the Catholic Mary , during whose reign she had been imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.Elizabeth set out to rule by good counsel,[1] and she depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers led by William Cecil, Baron Burghley.^ Elizabeth set out to rule by good counsel,[1] and she depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers led by William Cecil, Baron Burghley.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth set out to rule by good counsel, and she depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers led by William Cecil, Baron Burghley .
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth set out to rule by good counsel, [1] and she depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers led by William Cecil, Baron Burghley .
  • Queen Elizabeth I 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC elizabethi.com [Source type: Original source]

.One of her first moves as queen was to support the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor.^ One of her first moves as queen was to support the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of her first moves as queen was to support the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor .
  • Queen Elizabeth I 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC elizabethi.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Various sources (American and British) are saying that the Queen was the one to break protocol first.
  • Cele|bitchy » Queen Elizabeth II 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.celebitchy.com [Source type: General]

.This Elizabethan Religious Settlement held firm throughout her reign and later evolved into today's Church of England.^ This Elizabethan Religious Settlement held firm throughout her reign and later evolved into today's Church of England.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This Elizabethan Religious Settlement held firm throughout her reign and later evolved into today's Church of England .
  • Queen Elizabeth I 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC elizabethi.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth never changed the Religious Settlement despite Protestant pressure (previously thought to originate from the Puritan choir) to do so and it is in fact the 1559 Settlement that forms much of the basis of today's Church of England .

.It was expected that Elizabeth would marry, but despite several petitions from parliament and numerous courtships, she never did.^ It was expected that Elizabeth would marry, but despite several petitions from parliament, she never did.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth wrote "On Monsieur's Departure" 8 in which she seemingly expresses her love for Alençon, but knows that she could never marry him.
  • "Eliza's works, wars, praise": Representations of Elizabeth I in Diana Primrose and Anne Bradstreet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.womenwriters.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Some people remarked that the new Lord Admiral would have preferred marrying Princess Elizabeth, such was his ambition.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.The reasons for this outcome have been much debated.^ The reasons for this choice are unknown, and they have been much debated.
  • Queen Elizabeth I 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC elizabethi.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.As she grew older, Elizabeth became famous for her virginity, and a cult grew up around her which was celebrated in the portraits, pageants, and literature of the day.^ As she grew older, Elizabeth became famous for her virginity, and a cult grew up around her which was celebrated in the portraits, pageants and literature of the day.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Rediscovering shock: Elizabeth I and the cult of the Virgin Mary."
  • "Eliza's works, wars, praise": Representations of Elizabeth I in Diana Primrose and Anne Bradstreet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.womenwriters.net [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the Earth Day Network, Earth Day is the only event celebrated around the world simultaneously by people of all backgrounds, faiths and nationalities.

.In government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and siblings.^ In government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and siblings.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In government, Elizabeth was more conservative than her father and siblings.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While Elizabeth I's previous historians may have been to generous in their assessments, Elizabeth certainly had more direct effect on her country and rule than Haigh gives her credit for in his work.
  • Buy Elizabeth I 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.jdwright.us [Source type: General]

[2] .One of her mottoes was "video et taceo" ("I see, and say nothing").^ One of her mottos was video et taceo: "I see, and say nothing".
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Her favourite motto was video et taceo ("I see and keep silent").
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One of her mottoes was video et taceo : "I see, and say nothing".
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

[3] .This strategy, viewed with impatience by her counsellors, often saved her from political and marital misalliances.^ This last quality, viewed with impatience by her counsellors, often saved her from political and marital misalliances.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I of England - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This strategy, viewed with impatience by her counsellors, often saved her from political and marital misalliances.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Though Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs and only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands, France and Ireland, the defeat of the Spanish armada in 1588 associated her name forever with what is popularly viewed as one of the greatest victories in English history.^ The subsequent English campaigns in France, however, were disorganised and ineffective.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs and only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands , France and Ireland , the defeat of the Spanish armada in 1588 associated her name forever with what is popularly viewed as one of the greatest victories in English history.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth Tudor is considered by many to be the greatest monarch in English history.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.Within 20 years of her death, she was being celebrated as the ruler of a golden age, an image that retains its hold on the English people.^ Within 20 years of her death, she was being celebrated as the ruler of a golden age, an image that retains its hold on the English people.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She reigned for about 45 years, during a period marked by increases in English power and influence worldwide, as well as great religious turmoil within England.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The recent death of the Queen Mother and her daughter Ann has made me think about the English people.
  • Guest Book for Queen Mother Elizabeth – Online Guest Book by Legacy.com. 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.legacy.com [Source type: General]

.Elizabeth's reign is known as the Elizabethan era, famous above all for the flourishing of English drama, led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe, and for the seafaring prowess of English adventurers such as Francis Drake.^ Elizabeth's reign is referred to as the Elizabethan era or the Golden Age of Elizabeth.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth's reign is known as the Elizabethan era , famous above all for the flourishing of English drama , led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe , and for the seafaring prowess of English adventurers such as Francis Drake and John Hawkins .
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What’s more, her favorites—William Shakespeare, Sir Francis Drake, and Sir Walter Raleigh—had made the Elizabethan era a cultural Golden Age still remembered today.
  • Buy Elizabeth I 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.jdwright.us [Source type: General]

.Some historians are more reserved in their assessment.^ Though some historians have criticised Elizabeth on similar grounds, Raleigh's verdict has more often been judged unfair.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though some historians have criticised Elizabeth on similar grounds,[102] Raleigh's verdict has more often been judged unfair.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While Elizabeth I's previous historians may have been to generous in their assessments, Elizabeth certainly had more direct effect on her country and rule than Haigh gives her credit for in his work.
  • Buy Elizabeth I 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.jdwright.us [Source type: General]

.They depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered,[4] sometimes indecisive ruler,[5] who enjoyed more than her share of luck.^ They often depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered, sometimes indecisive ruler, who enjoyed more than her share of luck.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They often depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered,[4] sometimes indecisive ruler,[5] who enjoyed more than her share of luck.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If Queen Elizabeth I was a virgin queen then how is there a Queen Elizabeth II? Sometimes the name is used more than once even in different blood lines, so even though she might not have had any children,...
  • WikiAnswers - Elizabeth I Questions including "How would history be changed if Mary Queen of Scots had assassinated Elizabeth I" 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity to the point where many of her subjects were relieved at her death.^ Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity to the point where many of her subjects were relieved at her death.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The triumphalist image that Elizabeth had cultivated towards the end of her reign, against a background of factionalism and military and economic difficulties, was taken at face value and her reputation inflated.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The triumphalist image that Elizabeth had cultivated towards the end of her reign, against a background of factionalism and military and economic difficulties,[144] was taken at face value and her reputation inflated.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Elizabeth is acknowledged as a charismatic performer and a dogged survivor, in an age when government was ramshackle and limited and when monarchs in neighbouring countries faced internal problems that jeopardised their thrones.^ Elizabeth is, however, acknowledged as a charismatic performer and a dogged survivor, in an age when government was ramshackle and limited and when monarchs in neighbouring countries faced internal problems that jeopardised their thrones.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth is, however, acknowledged by historians as a charismatic performer and a dogged survivor, in an age when government was ramshackle and limited and when monarchs in neighbouring countries faced internal problems that jeopardised their thrones.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The age of Elizabeth was redrawn as one of chivalry, epitomised by courtly encounters between the queen and sea-dog "heroes" such as Drake and Raleigh.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Such was the case with Elizabeth's rival, Mary, Queen of Scots, whom she imprisoned in 1568 and eventually had executed in 1587. After the short reigns of Elizabeth's brother and sister, her 44 years on the throne provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity.^ Such was the case with Elizabeth's rival, Mary, Queen of Scots , whom she imprisoned in 1568 and eventually had executed in 1587.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Did Elizabeth and Mary Queen of Scots ever meet?
  • WikiAnswers - Elizabeth I Questions including "How would history be changed if Mary Queen of Scots had assassinated Elizabeth I" 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Such was the case with Elizabeth's rival, Mary, Queen of Scots, whom she imprisoned in 1568 and eventually had executed in 1587.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[2]

Contents

Early life

Elizabeth was the only child of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, who did not bear a male heir and was executed less than three years after Elizabeth's birth.
.Elizabeth was born in Greenwich Palace in the Chamber of Virgins on 7 September 1533 between three and four o'clock in the afternoon and named after both her grandmothers, Elizabeth of York and Elizabeth Howard.^ Queen Elizabeth I of England was born on 7th September 1533.
  • WikiAnswers - Elizabeth I Questions including "How would history be changed if Mary Queen of Scots had assassinated Elizabeth I" 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Elizabeth Tudor was born on 7 September 1533 at Greenwich Palace.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth was born in Greenwich Palace in the Chamber of Virgins on 7 September 1533 between three and four o'clock in the afternoon.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

[6] .She was the second child of Henry VIII of England to survive infancy; her mother was Henry's second wife, Anne Boleyn.^ Queen Elizabeth I's mother was Anne Boleyn, the second of King Henry VIII's six wives.
  • WikiAnswers - Elizabeth I Questions including "How would history be changed if Mary Queen of Scots had assassinated Elizabeth I" 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Henry VIII and his second wife Anne Boleyn.
  • WikiAnswers - Elizabeth I Questions including "How would history be changed if Mary Queen of Scots had assassinated Elizabeth I" 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ She was the daughter of Henry VIII, King of England by his second wife Anne Boleyn.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.At birth, Elizabeth was the heiress presumptive to the throne of England.^ At birth, Elizabeth was the heiress presumptive to the throne of England.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon her birth, Elizabeth was the heiress presumptive to the throne of England despite having an older half sister, Mary; Mary was not considered by Henry VIII to be a legitimate heir because Henry annulled his marriage to her mother, the Spanish princess Catherine of Aragon.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry VII did not claim the Throne by inheritance, neither did Elizabeth (though hers was a legitimate birth subsequently invalidated).
  • The Law of Succession to the Crown in New Zealand - [1999] WkoLRev 3 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC www.austlii.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.Her older half-sister, Mary, had lost her position as legitimate heir when Henry annulled his marriage to Mary's mother, Catherine of Aragon, in order to marry Anne.^ Henry VIII tries to have his marriage to Katherine of Aragon annulled.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry VIII married Anne...
  • WikiAnswers - Elizabeth I Questions including "How would history be changed if Mary Queen of Scots had assassinated Elizabeth I" 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ The marriage was a disaster, and Henry quickly divorced Anne and married Catherine Howard .
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

[7][8] .King Henry VIII had desperately wanted a legitimate son, to ensure the Tudor succession.^ Henry 7th Tudor King of England .

^ Henry (VII, King ofEngland) Tudor .

^ Henry VIII "King of England" 1509 - 1547 Tudor .

Anne had been crowned with St. Edward's crown, unlike any other queen consort, while carrying Elizabeth. .Historian Alice Hunt has suggested that this was done because Anne's pregnancy was visible at the moment of coronation and she was carrying an heir who was presumed to be male.^ But for several years, he remained faithful to his feelings for Anne - and his attendant desire for a legitimate male heir.
  • Anne Boleyn: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It is doubtful Henry ever blamed her for the failure to produce a male heir after witnessing the endless cycle of pregnancies and prayer.
  • King Henry VIII: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ She was the claimant who combined royal blood, untainted by aspersions of illegitimacy, with demonstrable willingness to marry—and the ability to produce male heirs.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[9] .Elizabeth was baptised on 10 September in a ceremony held at Greenwich Palace.^ Elizabeth Tudor was born on 7 September 1533 at Greenwich Palace.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth was born in the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, on 7 September 1533.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth was born in Greenwich Palace in the Chamber of Virgins on 7 September 1533 between three and four o'clock in the afternoon.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thomas Cranmer, the Marquess of Exeter, Elizabeth Howard, Duchess of Norfolk, and Margaret Wotton, Marchioness of Dorset stood as her four godparents.^ In fact, her eldest Grey son, Thomas, was created marquess of Dorset during Edward IV's reign.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk In 1569, Elizabeth faced a major uprising, known as the Northern Rebellion, instigated by Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, Charles Neville, 6th Earl of Westmorland and Thomas Percy, 7th Earl of Northumberland.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Murdin, Collection of State Papers , Thomas Howard, late Duke of Norfolk, from the Tower to Elizabeth, 174.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.After Elizabeth's birth, Queen Anne failed to provide a male heir.^ After Elizabeth's birth, Queen Anne failed to provide a male heir.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But for several years, he remained faithful to his feelings for Anne - and his attendant desire for a legitimate male heir.
  • Anne Boleyn: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon her marriage, Elizabeth entered a semi-retirement - she was queen and her duty was to produce as many heirs as possible.
  • King Henry VIII: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.She suffered at least two miscarriages, one in 1534 and another at the beginning of 1536. On 2 May 1536, she was arrested and imprisoned.^ Instead, Queen Anne suffered at least two miscarriages, one in 1534 and another at the beginning of 1536.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She suffered at least two miscarriages, one in 1534 and another at the beginning of 1536.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On 2 May 1536, she was arrested and imprisoned.
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Hastily convicted on trumped-up charges, she was beheaded on 19 May 1536.[10][11]
.Elizabeth, who was two years and eight months old at the time, was declared illegitimate and deprived of the title of princess.^ Elizabeth, who was 2 years, 8 months, old at the time, was declared illegitimate and deprived of the title of princess.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth I was 69 years old when she died.
  • WikiAnswers - Elizabeth I Questions including "How would history be changed if Mary Queen of Scots had assassinated Elizabeth I" 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ At the time of her death she was 45 years old.
  • Casebook: Jack the Ripper - Elizabeth Stride 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC www.casebook.org [Source type: News]

[12] .Eleven days after Anne Boleyn's death, Henry married Jane Seymour,[13] who died 12 days after the birth of their son, Prince Edward.^ Henry VIII married Anne...
  • WikiAnswers - Elizabeth I Questions including "How would history be changed if Mary Queen of Scots had assassinated Elizabeth I" 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ He and Mary had a son, Henry, who died as teenager.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Eleven days after Anne Boleyn's death, Henry married Jane Seymour,[13] who died 12 days after the birth of their son, Prince Edward.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Elizabeth was placed in Edward's household and carried the chrisom, or baptismal cloth, at his christening.^ Elizabeth was placed in Edward's household and carried the chrisom, or baptismal cloth, at his christening.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dudley attempted to place Mary and Elizabeth in his power while Edward was dying.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

[14]
Elizabeth I, about 1546, by an unknown artist
.Elizabeth's first Lady Mistress, Lady Margaret Bryan, wrote that she was “as toward a child and as gentle of conditions as ever I knew any in my life”.^ Lady Princess, today but my Lady Elizabeth?"
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth's first governess, Lady Margaret Bryan, wrote that she was “as toward a child and as gentle of conditions as ever I knew any in my life”.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth's first governess, Lady Margaret Bryan , wrote that she was “as toward a child and as gentle of conditions as ever I knew any in my life”.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

[15] .By the autumn of 1537, Elizabeth was in the care of Blanche Herbert, Lady Troy who remained her Lady Mistress until her retirement in late 1545 or early 1546.[16] Catherine Champernowne, better known by her later, married name of Catherine “Kat” Ashley, was appointed as Elizabeth's governess in 1537, and she remained Elizabeth’s friend until her death in 1565, when Blanche Parry succeeded her as Chief Gentlewoman of the Privy Chamber[17].^ At the age of four, Elizabeth acquired a new governess, Catherine Champernowne (later Lady Catherine Ashley), whom she often referred to as "Kat".
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Until Elizabeth’s death it was unclear who should succeed her, and by what right.
  • The Law of Succession to the Crown in New Zealand - [1999] WkoLRev 3 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC www.austlii.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ At the age of four, Elizabeth passed into the care of Catherine Champernowne, better known by her later, married name of Catherine “Kat” Ashley, who remained Elizabeth’s friend for life.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.She clearly made a good job of Elizabeth’s early education: by the time William Grindal became her tutor in 1544, Elizabeth could write English, Latin, and Italian.^ Champernowne clearly made a good job of Elizabeth’s early education: by the time William Grindal became her tutor in 1544, Elizabeth could write English, Latin, and Italian.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth's reign became idealised as a time when crown, church and parliament had worked in constitutional balance.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth set out to rule by good counsel,[1] and she depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers led by William Cecil, Baron Burghley.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Under Grindal, a talented and skillful tutor, she also progressed in French and Greek.^ Under Grindal, a talented and skillful tutor, she also progressed in French and Greek.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[18] .After Grindal died in 1548, Elizabeth received her education under Roger Ascham, a sympathetic teacher who believed that learning should be fun.^ After Grindal died in 1548, Elizabeth received her education under Roger Ascham, a sympathetic teacher who believed that learning should be fun.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After Grindal died in 1548, Elizabeth received her education under Roger Ascham , a sympathetic teacher who believed that learning should be fun.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Queen Elizabeth I became queen when her sister (who was queen before her) died.
  • WikiAnswers - Elizabeth I Questions including "How would history be changed if Mary Queen of Scots had assassinated Elizabeth I" 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

[19] .By the time her formal education ended in 1550, she was the best educated woman of her generation.^ By the time her formal education ended in 1550, she was the best educated woman of her generation.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[20]
.
The Miroir or Glasse of the Synneful Soul, a translation from the French, by Elizabeth, presented to Catherine Parr in 1544. The embroidered binding with the monogram KP for "Katherin Parr" is believed to have been worked by Elizabeth.
^ The Miroir or Glasse of the Synneful Soul , a manuscript translation from the French by Elizabeth at age 11, presented to Catherine Parr in 1544.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The embroidered binding with the monogram KP for "Katherin Parr" is believed to have been worked by Elizabeth.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the influence of Catherine Parr and Ascham, Elizabeth was raised a Protestant.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

[21]

Thomas Seymour

.Henry VIII died in 1547, when Elizabeth was 13 years old, and was succeeded by her half brother, Edward VI.^ Henry VIII died in 1547, when Elizabeth was 13 years old, and was succeeded by her half brother, Edward VI .
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth was thirteen years old when her father died.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth 6 years old .

.Catherine Parr, Henry's last wife, soon married Thomas Seymour of Sudeley, Edward VI's uncle and the brother of the Lord Protector, Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset.^ Katharine Parr had married his younger brother, Sir Thomas Seymour.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The rule of England was actually in the hands of his uncle, the Lord Protector Edward Seymour, soon titled duke of Somerset.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ During Edward VI's reign, the Lord Protector was Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.The couple took Elizabeth into their household at Chelsea.^ The couple took Elizabeth into their household at Chelsea.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth was now separated from her brother's household, moving to Katharine Parr's home in Chelsea.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Catherine Parr married Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley , Edward VI's uncle, and took Elizabeth into her household.
  • Elizabeth I of England - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.There Elizabeth experienced an emotional crisis that some historians believe affected her for the rest of her life.^ There Elizabeth experienced an emotional crisis that historians believe affected her for the rest of her life.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though some historians have criticised Elizabeth on similar grounds,[102] Raleigh's verdict has more often been judged unfair.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some historians have called her lucky;[167] she believed that God was protecting her.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[22] .Seymour, approaching age 40 but having charm and "a powerful sex appeal",[22] engaged in romps and horseplay with the 14-year-old Elizabeth.^ Elizabeth 6 years old .

^ Seymour, approaching forty but with a natural charm and "a powerful sex appeal",[20] engaged in romps and horseplay with the fifteen-year-old Elizabeth.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth, nearly three years old when her mother died, was declared illegitimate and lost the title of princess.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.These included entering her bedroom in his nightgown, tickling her and slapping her on the buttocks.^ These included entering her bedroom in his nightgown, tickling her and slapping her on the buttocks.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.After Catherine Parr discovered the pair in an embrace, she ended this state of affairs.^ This state of affairs was put to a stop by Catherine Parr, after she discovered the pair in an embrace.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[23][24] .In May 1548, Elizabeth was sent away.^ In May 1548, Elizabeth was sent away.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She sent Elizabeth away amicably enough and a week later poor Bedingfield was relieved of his duties.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

[25]
.Seymour continued scheming to control the royal family.^ But Seymour continued scheming to control the royal family.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead, her royal blood was to be used to maintain Dudley's control of England, to make his family into royalty.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

[26][27] .When Catherine Parr died of puerperal fever after childbirth on 5 September 1548, he renewed his attentions towards Elizabeth, intent on wedding her.^ When Catherine Parr died of puerperal fever after childbirth on 5 September 1548, he renewed his attentions towards Elizabeth, intent on wedding her.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The queen died on 4 September 1548 of childbed fever.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The details of his former behaviour towards Elizabeth emerged during an interrogation of Catherine Ashley and Thomas Parry , Elizabeth’s cofferer .
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

[28] .The details of his former behaviour towards Elizabeth emerged during an interrogation of Catherine Ashley and Thomas Parry, Elizabeth’s cofferer.^ The details of his former behaviour towards Elizabeth emerged during an interrogation of Catherine Ashley and Thomas Parry , Elizabeth’s cofferer .
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The details of his former behaviour towards Elizabeth emerged during an interrogation of Catherine Ashley and Thomas Parry, Elizabeth’s cofferer.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the age of four, Elizabeth acquired a new governess, Catherine Champernowne (later Lady Catherine Ashley), whom she often referred to as "Kat".
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

[29] .For his brother and the council, this was the last straw,[30] and in January 1549, Seymour was arrested on suspicion of plotting to marry Elizabeth and overthrow his brother.^ On 17 January 1549, Thomas Seymour was arrested at Seymour Place in London.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For his brother and the council, this was the last straw,[28] and in January, 1549, Seymour was arrested on suspicion of plotting to marry Elizabeth and overthrow his brother.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth became implicated in Thomas Seymour's schemes to seize control of England in March 1549; when Thomas was arrested for attempting to kidnap the King, and for plotting a coup against the Lord Protector, it was suggested that she had been a party in this matter, and that she had encouraged him in his apparent ambitions to marry her.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.Elizabeth, living at Hatfield House, would admit nothing.^ Elizabeth, living at Hatfield House , would admit nothing.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, Edward VI had given Dudley Hatfield House, which was currently Elizabeth's residence.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of the Charlotte business leaders who would eventually own landmark mansions in Myers Park lived first on Elizabeth Avenue.
  • Elizabeth Neighborhood Guide 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC www.cmhpf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Her stubbornness exasperated her interrogator, Sir Robert Tyrwhitt, who reported, "I do see it in her face that she is guilty".[30] Seymour was beheaded on 20 March 1549.

Mary I's reign

Mary I, by Anthonis Mor, 1554
.Edward VI died, probably of tuberculosis, on 6 July 1553, aged 15.[31] His will swept aside the Succession to the Crown Act 1543, excluded both Mary and Elizabeth from the succession, and instead declared as his heir Lady Jane Grey, granddaughter of Henry VIII's sister Mary, Duchess of Suffolk.^ The will of Henry VIII declared that Elizabeth was to be succeeded by the descendants of his younger sister, Mary Tudor, Duchess of Suffolk, rather than by the Scottish descendants of his elder sister, Margaret Tudor.
  • Elizabeth I of England - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He left a will, in which he attempted to nullify his father's wishes for the succession: disregarding the Act of Succession 1543, the new document excluded both Mary and Elizabeth from succeeding to the throne and declared Lady Jane Grey, granddaughter of Mary, Duchess of Suffolk (Henry VIII's sister) to be heiress.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Her heiress was her sister, the Lady Mary Grey , a hunchbacked dwarf.
  • Elizabeth I of England - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[32] .Lady Jane was proclaimed queen by the Privy Council, but her support quickly crumbled, and she was deposed after reigning nine days.^ The next day, of course, Jane was proclaimed queen.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Lady Jane was proclaimed queen, but her support quickly crumbled, and she was deposed less than two weeks later.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This reveals an important fact about Jane's nine-day reign.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

[33] .Mary rode triumphantly into London, with Elizabeth at her side.^ Mary rode triumphantly into London, with Elizabeth at her side.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Armed with popular support, Mary rode triumphantly into London, her half-sister Elizabeth at her side.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I of England - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wyatt's Rebellion in 1554 sought to prevent Mary from marrying Philip, and after its failure, Elizabeth was imprisoned in the Tower of London for her alleged involvement.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

[34]
.The show of solidarity between the sisters did not last long.^ The show of solidarity between the sisters did not last long.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.Mary, the country's first undisputed queen regnant,[35] was determined to crush the Protestant faith in which Elizabeth had been educated, and she ordered that everyone attend Mass.^ Mary was determined to crush the Protestant faith in which Elizabeth had been educated, and she ordered that everyone attend Mass .
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary was determined to crush the Protestant faith in which Elizabeth had been educated, and she ordered that everyone attend Mass.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In those days, England was not comfortable with the notion of a Queen Regnant, which Mary had been and Elizabeth now was.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.This included Elizabeth, who had to outwardly conform.^ Elizabeth conformed outwardly to the Catholic faith.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This included Elizabeth, who had no choice but outwardly to conform.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This included Elizabeth, who had to outwardly conform.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

[36] .Mary's initial popularity ebbed away when it became known that she planned to marry Prince Philip of Spain, the son of Emperor Charles V.^ Mary's initial popularity ebbed away when it became known that she planned to marry Prince Philip of Spain, the son of Emperor Charles V.[32] Discontent spread rapidly through the country, and many looked to Elizabeth as a focus for their opposition to Mary's religious policies.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Certainly a queen had to marry, but not the emperor's son!
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Wyatt's Rebellion in 1554 sought to prevent Mary from marrying Philip, and after its failure, Elizabeth was imprisoned in the Tower of London for her alleged involvement.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

[37] .Discontent spread rapidly through the country, and many looked to Elizabeth as a focus for their opposition to Mary's religious policies.^ Mary's initial popularity ebbed away when it became known that she planned to marry Prince Philip of Spain, the son of Emperor Charles V.[32] Discontent spread rapidly through the country, and many looked to Elizabeth as a focus for their opposition to Mary's religious policies.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Like her mother, Mary was a devout Catholic; she recognized Elizabeth's lack of religious zeal.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Throughout 1571 and 1572, Elizabeth was at odds with her councilors, as she worked to effect some arrangement that would restore Mary to her rights in the teeth of their opposition.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.In January and February 1554, uprisings broke out (known as Wyatt's rebellion) in several parts of England and Wales, led by Thomas Wyatt.^ In January and February 1554, uprisings broke out (known as Wyatt's rebellion ) in several parts of England and Wales, led by Thomas Wyatt .
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In January and February 1554, uprisings broke out (known as Wyatt's rebellion) in several parts of England and Wales, led by Thomas Wyatt.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The letter proposes several alternatives, including letting shareholders co-invest in a small part of the deal, in what is known as a stub.

[38]
.Upon the collapse of the uprising, Elizabeth was brought to court and interrogated.^ Upon the collapse of the uprising, Elizabeth was brought to court and interrogated.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Once the rising had collapsed, Elizabeth was brought to court and interrogated.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the third week of April 1555, almost a year since she was sent to Woodstock, Elizabeth was brought to Hampton Court Palace.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.On 18 March, she was imprisoned in the Tower of London, where Lady Jane Grey had been executed on 12 February to deter the rebels.^ On 18 March, she was imprisoned in the Tower of London , where Lady Jane Grey had been executed on 12 February to deter the rebels.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Read the biography of Lady Jane Grey .
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Immediately after her accession, Mary had imprisoned Jane in the Tower of London.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

[39] .The terrified Elizabeth fervently protested her innocence.^ The terrified Elizabeth fervently protested her innocence.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[40] .Though it is unlikely that she had plotted with the rebels, some of them were known to have approached her.^ Though it is unlikely that she had plotted with the rebels, some of them were known to have approached her.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Mary's closest confidant, Charles V's ambassador Simon Renard, argued that her throne would never be safe while Elizabeth lived; and the Chancellor, Stephen Gardiner, worked to have Elizabeth put on trial.^ Elizabeth, Mary believed, was never to be trusted.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary's closest confidant, Charles V's ambassador Simon Renard , argued that her throne would never be safe while Elizabeth lived; and the Chancellor, Stephen Gardiner , worked to have Elizabeth put on trial.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary's closest confidant, Charles V's ambassador Simon Renard, argued that her throne would never be safe while Elizabeth lived; and the Chancellor, Stephen Gardiner, worked to have Elizabeth put on trial.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[41] .Elizabeth's supporters in the government, including Lord Paget, convinced Mary to spare her sister in the absence of hard evidence against her.^ However, Elizabeth's supporters in the government, including Lord Paget , convinced Mary to spare her sister in the absence of hard evidence against her.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The new king obtained from Parliament a power to dispose of the Crown by will, and devised it, failing issue of Edward, Mary or Elizabeth, to the grandchildren of his younger sister.
  • The Law of Succession to the Crown in New Zealand - [1999] WkoLRev 3 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC www.austlii.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth had no need of a man's help to govern, and marrying risked a loss of control or of foreign interference in her affairs, as had happened to her sister Mary.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.Instead, on 22 May, Elizabeth was moved from the Tower to Woodstock, where she was to spend almost a year under house arrest in the charge of Sir Henry Bedingfield.^ He was arrested and taken under guard to the Tower.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ She was then put under house arrest under the guard of Sir Henry Bedingfield.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead, on 22 May, Elizabeth was moved from the Tower to Woodstock , where she was to spend almost a year under house arrest in the charge of Sir Henry Bedingfield .
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.Crowds cheered her all along the way.^ As she rode past cheering crowds, clad in purple velvet and rich jewels, Jane Grey waited in prison, along with her husband and father-in-law.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

[42][43]
.
The remaining wing of the Old Palace, Hatfield House.
^ The remaining wing of the Old Palace, Hatfield House.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

It was here that Elizabeth was told of her sister's death in November 1558.
.On 17 April 1555, Elizabeth was recalled to court to be closely attended during the final stages of Mary's apparent pregnancy.^ On 17 April 1555, Elizabeth was recalled to court to be closely attended during the final stages of Mary's apparent pregnancy.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With his encouragement, and flush with happiness at her marriage and pregnancy, Mary finally invited Elizabeth to court.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1558, Elizabeth succeeded Mary, during whose reign she had been imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.If Mary and her child died, Elizabeth would become queen.^ If Mary and her child died, Elizabeth would become queen.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Which would become queen?
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If Edward died without heirs, Mary would inherit the throne; if Mary died without heirs, Elizabeth would become queen.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.If, on the other hand, Mary gave birth to a healthy child, Elizabeth's chances of becoming queen would recede sharply.^ If Mary and her child died, Elizabeth would become queen.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If, on the other hand, Mary gave birth to a healthy child, Elizabeth's chances of becoming queen would recede sharply.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Queen Elizabeth I; to lawyers urging her to execute Mary, Queen of Scots Brass shines as fair to the ignorant as gold to the goldsmiths.
  • *Ø*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | September 7| Humpback whales migration Australia Grace Darling rescue Saint Cloud QueenElizabeth I CJ Dennis poet Australian poetry Sentimental Bloke 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

[42] .When it became clear that Mary was not pregnant, no one believed any longer that she could have a child.^ When it became clear that Mary was not pregnant, no one believed any longer that she could have a child.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She could no longer speak.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since it became clear no one would intercede for her, she wrote to Mary herself.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

[44] Elizabeth's succession seemed assured.[45] .Even Philip, who became King of Spain in 1556, acknowledged the new political reality.^ Elizabeth then found a new enemy in her former brother-in-law, Philip II, King of Spain.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact that I even point to the existence of a ‘monarchist ideology’ will upset those who have never really questioned why they believe what they believe.
  • Co-founder of the New Zealand Republican Movement says: “Queen Elizabeth should abdicate her position as Head of the Commonwealth” | The Commonwealth Conversation 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thecommonwealthconversation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary Tudor contracted a marriage with Prince Philip of Spain (later King Philip II), seeking to strengthen the Catholic influence in England.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.From this time forward, he cultivated Elizabeth, preferring her to the likely alternative, Mary, Queen of Scots, who had grown up in France and was betrothed to the Dauphin of France.^ From this time forward, he cultivated Elizabeth, preferring her to the likely alternative, Mary, Queen of Scots , who was betrothed to the Dauphin of France .
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary Stuart had grown up in the French court and was betrothed to François, the French Dauphin.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Prior to that time, she was referred to as Queen Elizabeth.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

[46] .When his wife fell ill in 1558, Philip sent the Count of Feria to consult with Elizabeth.^ When his wife fell ill in 1558, Philip sent the Count of Feria to consult with Elizabeth.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the end of 1562, Elizabeth fell ill with smallpox , but later recovered.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the end of June, Elizabeth fell ill and asked that the queen's physician Dr Owen be sent to her.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

[47] .By October, Elizabeth was making plans for her government.^ By October, Elizabeth was making plans for her government.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.On 6 November, Mary recognised Elizabeth as her heir.^ On 6 November, Mary recognised Elizabeth as her heir.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Eleven days later, Elizabeth succeeded to the throne when Mary died at St. James's Palace on 17 November.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary Tudor died in November 1558, leaving Elizabeth as heir to the English throne.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

[48][49] Eleven days later, Elizabeth succeeded to the throne when Mary died at St. James's Palace on 17 November 1558.

Accession

Elizabeth I in her coronation robes, patterned with Tudor roses and trimmed with ermine.
.Elizabeth became queen at the age of 25. As her triumphal progress wound through the city on the eve of the coronation ceremony, she was welcomed wholeheartedly by the citizens and greeted by orations and pageants, most with a strong Protestant flavour.^ Elizabeth became queen at the age of 25.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As her triumphal progress wound through the city on the eve of the coronation ceremony, she was welcomed wholeheartedly by the citizens and greeted by orations and pageants, most with a strong Protestant flavour.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth did not use the most involved pronouns as much as the women informants, who used I , me , mine and myself more often than the Queen or the men.
  • The gender role of Queen Elizabeth I as reflected by her language – Anni Vuorinen – Helsinki English Studies: Electronic Journal 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC blogs.helsinki.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Elizabeth's open and gracious responses endeared her to the spectators, who were "wonderfully ravished".[50] The following day, 15 January 1559, Elizabeth was crowned at Westminster Abbey and anointed by the Catholic bishop of Carlisle.^ Elizabeth's open and gracious responses endeared her to the spectators, who were "wonderfully ravished".
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The following day, 15 January 1559, Elizabeth was crowned at Westminster Abbey and anointed by the Catholic bishop of Carlisle.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth's coronation was on January 15, 1559.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

.She was then presented for the people's acceptance, amidst a deafening noise of organs, fifes, trumpets, drums, and bells.^ She was then presented for the people's acceptance, amidst a deafening noise of organs, fifes, trumpets, drums, and bells.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

[51]
.On 20 November 1558, Elizabeth declared her intentions to her Council and other peers who had come to Hatfield to swear allegiance.^ Bob Kaufman is a poet who’s been very important to him, and it’s also important to him that Kaufman has not received that kind of attention that Baraka, or other sorts of poets who are his peers have.
  • Elizabeth Alexander | Interviews 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC elizabethalexander.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Now here is the crunch..Australia is supposedly a sovereign country…why then do the politicians, judges and other public officers swear an oath of allegiance to the Queen?
  • Co-founder of the New Zealand Republican Movement says: “Queen Elizabeth should abdicate her position as Head of the Commonwealth” | The Commonwealth Conversation 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thecommonwealthconversation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth specifically requested that the members of the queen's council who were executors of 'the Will of the King's majesty her father' read the letter and be allowed to visit with her.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

The speech contains the first record of her often-used metaphor of the "two bodies": the body natural and the body politic:
.My lords, the law of nature moves me to sorrow for my sister; the burden that is fallen upon me makes me amazed, and yet, considering I am God's creature, ordained to obey His appointment, I will thereto yield, desiring from the bottom of my heart that I may have assistance of His grace to be the minister of His heavenly will in this office now committed to me.^ May you now truly rest in the graceful presence of the Lord.
  • Guest Book for Queen Mother Elizabeth – Online Guest Book by Legacy.com. 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.legacy.com [Source type: General]

^ Now if God used earthquakes and such to shock people into coming around to His way of thinking, these people could be considered as people testing God.
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^ Mary replied that she had never considered marriage until God had raised her to the throne but - now that she was queen - she would lead her subjects down the path of righteousness.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.And as I am but one body naturally considered, though by His permission a body politic to govern, so shall I desire you all...to be assistant to me, that I with my ruling and you with your service may make a good account to Almighty God and leave some comfort to our posterity on earth.^ May God be with all of your family during the days of mourning.
  • Guest Book for Queen Mother Elizabeth – Online Guest Book by Legacy.com. 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.legacy.com [Source type: General]

^ My condolences to her family - May God Bless You All.
  • Guest Book for Queen Mother Elizabeth – Online Guest Book by Legacy.com. 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.legacy.com [Source type: General]

^ Thank you so much for all your kindness to make our stay so pleasant!
  • Riad Elizabeth ~ Maison d’hôtes ~ Guest House ~ Accommodation in Marrakech 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC riadelizabeth.com [Source type: General]

.I mean to direct all my actions by good advice and counsel.^ I mean to direct all my actions by good advice and counsel.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1599, Elizabeth spoke of "all my husbands, my good people".
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the venture was, first of all, too sickening for my stomach and well beyond my means.
  • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

[52]

Religion

.Unfortunately for historians, Elizabeth's personal religious convictions will never be definitely known.^ Unfortunately for historians, Elizabeth's personal religious convictions will never be definitely known.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In historian J. E. Neale's view, Elizabeth may not have declared her wishes openly to James, but she made them known with "unmistakable if veiled phrases".
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

Her religious policy favoured pragmatism above all in dealing with three major concerns. The first concern was that of her legitimacy. .Although she was technically illegitimate under both Protestant and Catholic law, her retroactively declared illegitimacy under the English church was not a serious bar compared to having never been legitimate as the Catholics claimed she was.^ Although she was technically illegitimate under both Protestant and Catholic law, her retroactively declared illegitimacy under the English church was not a serious bar compared to having never been legitimate as the Catholics claimed she was.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was this that the 1701 Act sought to guard against: in excluding Catholics from the throne, in admitting the lesser blood claims of the Hanoverian line, and in accepting female Protestant rule as a faute de mieux bar to papal pretensions.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this new world, the most potent threat to English Protestant national identity was perceived to be posed by virile Catholic males of the blood royal.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Perhaps most importantly, the break with Rome made her legitimate in her own eyes.^ Perhaps most importantly, the break with Rome made her legitimate in her own eyes.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This gossip was perhaps the most damaging, particularly to the eyes of the young king.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.For this reason, it was never in serious doubt that Elizabeth would embrace at least nominal Protestantism.^ I would like to see a proposal for anyone who is perfectly impartial in any matter, and anyone who claims they are I would seriously doubt.
  • Co-founder of the New Zealand Republican Movement says: “Queen Elizabeth should abdicate her position as Head of the Commonwealth” | The Commonwealth Conversation 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thecommonwealthconversation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was as though God and Elizabeth got together, had a meeting and decided Kayla would need us, at least for a little while, and they both knew we needed her as well.

^ The main reason is that Dudley was well aware that Elizabeth Tudor would not be his puppet, unlike Jane Grey whom he had married to his son Guildford.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.Elizabeth and her advisors perceived the threat of a Catholic crusade against heretical England.^ In this new world, the most potent threat to English Protestant national identity was perceived to be posed by virile Catholic males of the blood royal.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And from the 1680s on, as the British nation mobilized against the might of Catholic France, this threat came to life in the persons of James II and his Catholic male descendants.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Elizabeth therefore sought a Protestant solution that would not offend Catholics too greatly while addressing the desires of English Protestants; she would not tolerate the more radical Puritans though, who were pushing for far-reaching reforms.^ Elizabeth therefore sought a Protestant solution that would not offend Catholics too greatly while addressing the desires of the third concern, English Protestants.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though some historians have criticised Elizabeth on similar grounds, Raleigh's verdict has more often been judged unfair.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though some historians have criticised Elizabeth on similar grounds,[102] Raleigh's verdict has more often been judged unfair.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[53] .As a result, the parliament of 1559 started to legislate for a church based on the Protestant settlement of Edward VI, with the monarch as its head, but with many superficially Catholic elements, such as priestly vestments.^ As a result, the parliament of 1559 started to legislate for a church based on the Protestant settlement of Edward VI, with the monarch as its head, but with many superficially Catholic elements, such as priestly vestments.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Its also important to remember that the royal family are not just British, but that the monarch is head of state of many of the commonwealth nations and so it is entirely fitting that the monarch is head of the commonwealth.
  • Co-founder of the New Zealand Republican Movement says: “Queen Elizabeth should abdicate her position as Head of the Commonwealth” | The Commonwealth Conversation 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thecommonwealthconversation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Historians note that in her day, strict Protestants regarded the Acts of Settlement and Uniformity of 1559 as a compromise.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

[54]
.The House of Commons backed the proposals strongly, but the bill of supremacy met opposition in the House of Lords, particularly from the bishops.^ The House of Commons backed the proposals strongly, but the bill of supremacy met opposition in the House of Lords, particularly from the bishops.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is particularly significant in the United Kingdom, at a time when the House of Lords is undergoing reform, and significant powers are being devolved to a Scottish Parliament and a Welsh Assembly, though not an English Parliament.
  • The Law of Succession to the Crown in New Zealand - [1999] WkoLRev 3 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC www.austlii.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ In two of the three Parliaments in 1679-81, bills intended to exclude James Duke of York from the succession were introduced and debated in the House of Commons.
  • The Law of Succession to the Crown in New Zealand - [1999] WkoLRev 3 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC www.austlii.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.Elizabeth was fortunate that many bishoprics were vacant at the time, including the Archbishopric of Canterbury.^ Elizabeth was fortunate, however, that many bishoprics were vacant at the time, including the Archbishopric of Canterbury .
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth was fortunate, however, that many bishoprics were vacant at the time, including the Archbishopric of Canterbury.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ April 2009 To John and Elizabeth, Thank you for a brilliant time, hangovers included!!
  • Riad Elizabeth ~ Maison d’hôtes ~ Guest House ~ Accommodation in Marrakech 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC riadelizabeth.com [Source type: General]

[55][56]
.This enabled supporters amongst peers to outvote the bishops and conservative peers.^ This enabled supporters amongst peers to outvote the bishops and conservative peers.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nevertheless, Elizabeth was forced to accept the title of Supreme Governor of the Church of England rather than the more contentious title of Supreme Head, which many thought unacceptable for a woman to bear.^ He will, by that stage, be Britain’s new head of state and the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.
  • Co-founder of the New Zealand Republican Movement says: “Queen Elizabeth should abdicate her position as Head of the Commonwealth” | The Commonwealth Conversation 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thecommonwealthconversation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I need more than a game of thoughts Not I don't love your mind In how many times you seem to find me Left me into my cares to carry .
  • ELIZABETH VITALE writing poetry poem lyrics life experiences 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC elizabeth-vitale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I know your with me each day, but sometimes the thought of never being able to see you, hug you, tell you I love you in person, is more than I can bear.

.The new Act of Supremacy became law on 8 May 1559. All public officials were to swear an oath of loyalty to the monarch as the supreme governor or risk disqualification from office; the heresy laws were repealed, to avoid a repeat of the persecution of dissenters practised by Mary.^ We note that Paul used the same precept to justify his works, saying that all prophesy subsequent to Jesus must be cut short (Jesus is the New Law or New Covenant).
  • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a matter of construction of the law of England, United Kingdom Acts have not extended to New Zealand as part of New Zealand law after 1931, without an express declaration that New Zealand has requested and consented to the enactment.
  • The Law of Succession to the Crown in New Zealand - [1999] WkoLRev 3 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC www.austlii.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Queen Regents Prerogative Act 1554 (1 Mar sess 3 c 1) (Eng), repealed by the Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1969, and Queen Mary’s Marriage Act 1554 (1 Mar sess 3 c 2) (Eng), repealed by the Statute Law Reform Act 1863.
  • The Law of Succession to the Crown in New Zealand - [1999] WkoLRev 3 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC www.austlii.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.At the same time, a new Act of Uniformity was passed, which made attendance at church and the use of an adapted version of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer compulsory, though the penalties for recusancy, or failure to attend and conform, were not extreme.^ At the same time, a new Act of Uniformity was passed, which made attendance at church and the use of an adapted version of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer compulsory, though the penalties for recusancy, or failure to attend and conform, were not extreme.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We note that Paul used the same precept to justify his works, saying that all prophesy subsequent to Jesus must be cut short (Jesus is the New Law or New Covenant).
  • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (MC, 1/22/02)(MT, Fall 02, p.23) 1552 Jan 23, The 2nd version of Book of Common Prayer became mandatory in England.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57]

Marriage question

.
Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 1560s.
^ Entering the cult of Elizabeth in this fashion, Gascoigne then gained service with Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicester, writing and acting in entertainments for Elizabeth.
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Painted by Lucas de Heere, an artist aligned with the Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicester, Allegory may have been known to Gascoigne, who became a client of the Earls shortly after publishing Hunting (32) .
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ On Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicesters petrarchan courtship of Elizabeth, see Nash, "A Subject Without Subjection," 86-88.
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Elizabeth's friendship with Dudley, her foremost favourite, lasted for over thirty years.
.From the start of Elizabeth's reign, the question arose whom she would marry.^ Elizabeth's friendship with Dudley, her foremost favourite, lasted for over thirty years.From the start of Elizabeth's reign, the question arose whom she would marry.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet while Edward was known for his piety and didacticism, Elizabeth already displayed the pragmatic character which would make her reign successful.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Some people remarked that the new Lord Admiral would have preferred marrying Princess Elizabeth, such was his ambition.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.She never did, and the reasons for this are not clear.^ However, she never married, and the reasons for this are not clear.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.Historians have speculated that Thomas Seymour had put her off sexual relationships, or that she knew herself to be infertile.^ Historians have speculated that Thomas Seymour had put her off sexual relationships, or that she knew herself to be infertile.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

[58][59] She considered several suitors until she was about fifty. Her last courtship was with François, Duke of Anjou, 22 years her junior. .Elizabeth had no need of a man's help to govern, and marrying risked a loss of control or of foreign interference in her affairs; as had happened to her sister Mary.^ Elizabeth had no need of a man's help to govern, and marrying risked a loss of control or of foreign interference in her affairs, as had happened to her sister Mary.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She was no admirer of her half-sister Mary but knew that if Jane Grey was recognized as queen, her own claim to the crown was forfeit.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As for Edward VI, he went along with the plan because of two main reasons: Elizabeth was illegitimate so there might be resistance to her rule and, as a princess, she might be persuaded to marry a foreign prince and England would fall under foreign control.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

On the other hand, marriage offered the chance of an heir.[60]

Lord Robert Dudley

.Elizabeth often received offers of marriage, but she only seriously considered three or four suitors for any length of time.^ Elizabeth often received offers of marriage, but she only seriously considered three or four suitors for any length of time.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth then considered marriage to two French Valois princes in turn, first Henri, Duke of Anjou , and later, from 1572 to 1581, his brother François, Duke of Anjou .
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For a time, Elizabeth seriously considered marrying Dudley; but after several months, she put duty ahead of her feelings and decided against the marriage.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Of these, her childhood friend Lord Robert Dudley probably came closest.^ Of these, her childhood friend Robert Dudley probably came closest.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Early in 1559, Elizabeth's friendship with the married Dudley turned to love.^ During 1559, Elizabeth's friendship with the married Dudley seems to have turned to love.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For a time, Elizabeth seriously considered marrying Dudley; but after several months, she put duty ahead of her feelings and decided against the marriage.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though she turned down Philip II's own offer in 1559, she negotiated for several years to marry his cousin Archduke Charles of Austria .
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

Their intimacy soon was talk in court and country and abroad.[61] .It was also said that Amy Robsart, his wife, was suffering from a "malady in one of her breasts",[62] and that Lord Robert and the Queen had a secret understanding to marry after Amy's death.^ (MC, 8/19/02) 1565 Jul 29, Mary Queen of Scots married her cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley.
  • Timeline Scotland 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parliament urged the queen to marry or nominate an heir, to prevent a civil war upon her death.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Dudley's wife, Amy Robsart, was found dead in 1560, under ambiguous circumstances, a great scandal arose.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[63] .This was not a welcome idea: "There is not a man who does not cry out on him and her with indignation ...^ She cries out, Who is responsible for this?
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^ He was a conscientious and pious man who impressed all who met him with his discipline and work ethic.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If a man admits having an affair to his wife why wouldn't he bring everything out in the open at that time and tell her there is a child involved.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Elizabeth Edwards: I expect a paternity test on Hunter’s child « - Blogs from CNN.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

she will marry none but the favoured .Robert", the Spanish ambassador described the situation at the beginning of 1560.[64] Accordingly, a great scandal arose when Dudley's wife died in September of the same year from a fall from a flight of stairs.^ When Dudley's wife, Amy Robsart , was found dead in 1560, under ambiguous circumstances, a great scandal arose.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A Fort Carson soldier has pleaded guilty to charges in the death of his infant daughter, who died last year of severe bleeding of the brain after a fall.

^ Thad A. and Emma F. Adams purchased the land from Heriot Clarkson in 1908 , and took out a water permit to begin construction of their house in September of that year.
  • Elizabeth Neighborhood Guide 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC www.cmhpf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65] .For a time, Elizabeth seriously considered marrying him; William Cecil, Nicholas Throckmorton, and other politicians were very alarmed and made their disapproval unmistakably clear.^ William Cecil to Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, 1561 1 .
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rumour spread through the court that she was sleeping with him; William Cecil, Elizabeth's most trusted advisor, made clear his disapproval.
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^ But she also made it clear she would not marry him.
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[66] The opposition was so overwhelming, that there were rumours that the nobility would rise if the marriage took place.[67]
.
The "Hampden" portrait, by Steven van der Meulen, ca.
^ Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, attributed to Steven van der Meulen, 1560s.
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1563. This is the earliest full-length portrait of the queen, made before the emergence of symbolic portraits representing the iconography of the "Virgin Queen".[68]
.Despite several other marriage projects, Robert Dudley was regarded as a candidate for nearly another decade.^ For a time, Elizabeth seriously considered marrying Dudley; but after several months, she put duty ahead of her feelings and decided against the marriage.
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[69] .Elizabeth encouraged him in his suit and remained extremely jealous of his affections, even after she no longer meant to marry him herself.^ Elizabeth was born in 1900, a year before Queen Victoria died, into a world that no longer exists.
  • Book Review: Queen Elizabeth: The Official Biography of the Queen Mother, by William Shawcross - The Afterword 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC network.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ She could no longer persuade herself that Edward was simply a misguided Protestant pawn.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Among the many wonderful traits Elizabeth had, was her desire to make everyone she loved happy.  She was extremely thoughtful, generous, kind and caring, and would do anything for anybody-even if it meant sacrificing for herself.  She is definetly one of a kind-an Angel on earth, if only for a short while.

[70] Elizabeth created Dudley Earl of Leicester in 1564. He finally remarried in 1578, to which the queen reacted with repeated scenes of displeasure.[71] His wife had to cope with the queen's lifelong hatred.[72] .Nevertheless, Dudley retained a special place in Elizabeth's heart.^ Dudley attempted to place Mary and Elizabeth in his power while Edward was dying.
  • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Dudley, whom she made Earl of Leicester and appointed to the Privy Council , retained a special place in her heart, though her infatuation mellowed in time to a special and lasting friendship.
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.After her death, a note from him, who had died in 1588 shortly after the Armada, was found among her most personal belongings, marked "his last letter" in her handwriting.^ After Elizabeth died, a note from Dudley, who had died in 1588, was found among her possessions, marked "his last letter".
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^ A Fort Carson soldier has pleaded guilty to charges in the death of his infant daughter, who died last year of severe bleeding of the brain after a fall.

^ Had you never come into my life I would have died along my sea ride I would have never found a home to belong For so young a child to notice me .
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[73]

Political aspects

.Elizabeth kept the marriage question open but often only as a diplomatic ploy.^ After the Dudley affair, Elizabeth kept the marriage question open but often only as a diplomatic ploy.
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^ Elizabeth often received offers of marriage, but she only seriously considered three or four suitors for any length of time.
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[74] .Parliament repeatedly petitioned her to marry, but she always answered evasively.^ Parliament repeatedly petitioned her to marry, but she always answered evasively.
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^ It was expected that Elizabeth would marry, but despite several petitions from parliament, she never did.
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[75] .In 1563, she told an imperial envoy: "If I follow the inclination of my nature, it is this: beggar-woman and single, far rather than queen and married".[74] In the same year, following Elizabeth's illness with smallpox, the succession question became a heated issue.^ In 1563, she told an imperial envoy: "If I follow the inclination of my nature, it is this: beggar-woman and single, far rather than queen and married".
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^ In the same year, following Elizabeth's illness with smallpox , the succession question became a heated issue.
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^ In 1566, Sir Robert Bell boldly pursued the issue despite Elizabeth's command to desist and became the target of her anger, saying, "Mr.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.Parliament urged the queen to marry or nominate an heir, to prevent a civil war upon her death.^ Parliament urged the queen to marry or nominate an heir, to prevent a civil war upon her death.
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^ It expressed her surprise that they hadn't announced her brother's death to her, his heir; furthermore, they were commanded to proclaim her queen in London.
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She refused to do either. .In April, she prorogued the Parliament, which did not reconvene until she needed its support to raise taxes in 1566. The House of Commons threatened to withhold funds until she agreed to provide for the succession.^ In April, she prorogued the Parliament, which did not reconvene until she needed its support to raise taxes in 1566.
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^ The House of Commons threatened to withhold funds until she agreed to provide for the succession.
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^ This culminated in agitation in the House of Commons during the parliament of 1601.
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In 1566, Sir Robert Bell boldly pursued the issue despite Elizabeth's command to desist and became the target of her anger, saying, "Mr. Bell with his complices must needs prefer their speeches to the upper house to have you my lords, consent with them, whereby you were seduced, and of simplicity did assent unto it."[76] .In 1566, she confided to the Spanish ambassador that if she could find a way to settle the succession without marrying, she would do so.^ In 1566, she confided to the Spanish ambassador that if she could find a way to settle the succession without marrying, she would do so.
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^ Confessional allegiance could challenge these older conceptions, and it did so with increasing success as the sixteenth century gave way to the seventeenth.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A bill making its way through the state Legislature could have a major impact on Larimer County's quest to find funding for construction projects.

.By 1570, senior figures in the government privately accepted that Elizabeth would never marry or name a successor.^ Since Elizabeth would never name her successor, Cecil was obliged to proceed in secret.
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^ By 1570, senior figures in the government privately accepted that Elizabeth would never marry or name a successor.
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^ However, Elizabeth's silence strengthened her own political security: she knew that if she named an heir, her throne would be vulnerable to a coup.
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.William Cecil was already seeking solutions to the succession problem.^ William Cecil was already seeking solutions to the succession problem.
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^ Quoted in Stephen Alford, The Early Elizabethan Polity: William Cecil and the British Succession Crisis (Cambridge, 1999), 205–06.
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[74] .For this stance, as for her failure to marry, she was often accused of irresponsibility.^ For this stance, as for her failure to marry, she was often accused of irresponsibility.
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[77] .Elizabeth's silence strengthened her own political security: she knew that if she named an heir, her throne would be vulnerable to a coup.^ However, Elizabeth's silence strengthened her own political security: she knew that if she named an heir, her throne would be vulnerable to a coup.
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^ Elizabeth insisted on her royal prerogative to dispense political patronage arbitrarily, on the strength of her own assessment of the candidates worthiness.
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^ Since Elizabeth would never name her successor, Cecil was obliged to proceed in secret.
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[78]
.Elizabeth's unmarried status inspired a cult of virginity.^ Elizabeth's unmarried status inspired a cult of virginity.
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^ Elizabeth's unmarried status inspired a cult of virginity .
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^ As she grew older, Elizabeth became famous for her virginity, and a cult grew up around her which was celebrated in the portraits, pageants and literature of the day.
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.In poetry and portraiture, she was depicted as a virgin or a goddess or both, not as a normal woman.^ In poetry and portraiture, she was depicted as a virgin or a goddess or both, not as a normal woman.
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^ Increasingly, Elizabeth was depicted as the handmaid of the lord—the lord ambiguously her father Henry VIII and God Himself—and, in that role, both "England's Eliza" and a surrogate Virgin Mary.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[79] .At first, only Elizabeth made a virtue of her virginity: in 1559, she told the Commons, "And, in the end, this shall be for me sufficient, that a marble stone shall declare that a queen, having reigned such a time, lived and died a virgin".[79] Later on, particularly after 1578, poets and writers took up the theme and turned it into an iconography that exalted Elizabeth.^ Virgin queen Elizabeth i biograp...
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^ At first, only Elizabeth made a virtue of her virginity: in 1559, she told the Commons, "And, in the end, this shall be for me sufficient, that a marble stone shall declare that a queen, having reigned such a time, lived and died a virgin".
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Later on, particularly after 1578, poets and writers took up the theme and turned it into an iconography that exalted Elizabeth.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.In an age of metaphors and conceits, she was portrayed as married to her kingdom and subjects, under divine protection.^ In an age of metaphors and conceits , she was portrayed as married to her kingdom and subjects, under divine protection.
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In 1599, Elizabeth spoke of "all my husbands, my good people".[80]

Foreign policy

.
François, Duke of Anjou, by Nicholas Hilliard.
^ Elizabeth then considered marriage to two French Valois princes in turn, first Henri, Duke of Anjou , and later, from 1572 to 1581, his brother François, Duke of Anjou .
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^ François, Duke of Anjou, by Nicholas Hilliard.
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^ Elizabeth then considered marriage to two French Valois princes in turn, first Henri, Duke of Anjou, and later, from 1572 to 1581, his brother François, Duke of Anjou.
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.Elizabeth called the duke her "frog", finding him "not so deformed" as she had been led to expect.^ Elizabeth called the duke her "frog", finding him "not so deformed" as she had been led to expect.
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[81]
.Apart from the Dudley courtship, Elizabeth treated the marriage issue as an aspect of foreign policy.^ Elizabeth's foreign policy was largely defensive.
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  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Apart from the Dudley affair, Elizabeth treated the marriage issue as an aspect of foreign policy.
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^ For a time, Elizabeth seriously considered marrying Dudley; but after several months, she put duty ahead of her feelings and decided against the marriage.
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  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[82] .Though she turned down Philip II's own offer in 1559, she negotiated for several years to marry his cousin Archduke Charles of Austria.^ Though she turned down Philip II's own offer in 1559, she negotiated for several years to marry his cousin Archduke Charles of Austria .
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though she turned down Philip II's own offer in 1559, she negotiated for several years to marry his cousin Archduke Charles of Austria.
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^ (WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16) 1559 The Escorial, an enormous palace built on a grid plan for Philip II, was begun in Madrid.
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.Relations with the Habsburgs deteriorated by 1568. Elizabeth then considered marriage to two French Valois princes in turn, first Henri, Duke of Anjou, and later, from 1572 to 1581, his brother François, Duke of Anjou.^ In that year, he also fought in the Netherlands against the French and Spanish (later as a captain) under the Prince of Orange.
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^ When Brandon passed away in 1545, he and Catherine's eldest son, called Henry after his late half-brother, became duke of Suffolk.
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^ It was only after she miscarried twice that Henry began to consider this second marriage as cursed as the first.
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[83] .This last proposal was tied to a planned alliance against Spanish control of the Southern Netherlands.^ This last proposal was tied to a planned alliance against Spanish control of the Southern Netherlands .
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^ This last proposal was tied to a planned alliance against Spanish control of the Southern Netherlands.
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^ In that year, he also fought in the Netherlands against the French and Spanish (later as a captain) under the Prince of Orange.
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[84] .Elizabeth seems to have taken the courtship seriously for a time, and wore a frog-shaped earring that Anjou had sent her.^ Elizabeth seems to have taken the courtship seriously for a time, and wore a frog-shaped earring that Anjou had sent her.
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^ For a time, Elizabeth seriously considered marrying Dudley; but after several months, she put duty ahead of her feelings and decided against the marriage.
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^ Elizabeth often received offers of marriage, but she only seriously considered three or four suitors for any length of time.
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  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[85]
.Elizabeth's foreign policy was largely defensive.^ Elizabeth's foreign policy was largely defensive.
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^ Apart from the Dudley affair, Elizabeth treated the marriage issue as an aspect of foreign policy.
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^ Despite Elizabeth's largely defensive foreign policy, her reign raised England's status abroad.
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.The exception was the disastrous occupation of Le Havre from October 1562 to June 1563, when Elizabeth's Huguenot allies joined with the Catholics to retake the port.^ The exception was the disastrous occupation of Le Havre from October 1562 to June 1563, when Elizabeth's Huguenot allies joined with the Catholics to retake the port.
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^ After the disastrous occupation and loss of Le Havre in 1562–1563, Elizabeth avoided military expeditions on the continent until 1585, when she sent an English army to aid the Protestant Dutch rebels against Philip II. This followed the deaths in 1584 of the allies William the Silent , Prince of Orange, and François, Duke of Anjou , and the surrender of a series of Dutch towns to Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma , Philip's governor of the Spanish Netherlands .
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^ QUEEN ELIZABETH-Class battleship ordered from HM Dockyard Portsmouth in June 1912 and laid down on 21st October that year.
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.Elizabeth had intended to exchange Le Havre for Calais, retaken by France in January 1558.[86] She sent troops into Scotland in 1560 to prevent the French using it as a base.^ She sent troops into Scotland in 1560 to prevent the French using it as a base.
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^ Elizabeth had intended to exchange Le Havre for Calais , retaken by France in January 1558.
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^ Dudley did not trust the lords so he sent his cousin Henry Dudley on a secret mission to France that day, promising Calais and Ireland in exchange for immediate military assistance.
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[87] .In 1585, she signed the Treaty of Nonsuch with the Dutch to block the Spanish threat to England.^ In 1585, she signed the Treaty of Nonsuch with the Dutch to block the Spanish threat to England.
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^ The English and the Dutch reacted in August 1585 with the Treaty of Nonsuch , whereby Elizabeth, pressured by her advisors, promised military support to the Dutch.
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[88] .Only through the activities of her fleets did Elizabeth pursue an aggressive policy.^ Only through the activities of her fleets did Elizabeth pursue an aggressive policy.
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^ Discontent spread rapidly through the country, and many looked to Elizabeth as a focus for their opposition to Mary's religious policies.
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.This paid off in the war against Spain, 80% of which was fought at sea.^ This paid off in the war against Spain, 80% of which was fought at sea.
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^ For example, C. H. Wilson (Berkeley, 1970) castigates Elizabeth for half-heartedness in the war against Spain.
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^ A new age was born, and at first the signs were good, with the ending of the war against Spain in 1604 and lower taxes.
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[89] .She knighted Francis Drake after his circumnavigation of the globe from 1577 to 1580, and he won fame for his raids on Spanish ports and fleets.^ She knighted Francis Drake after his circumnavigation of the globe from 1577 to 1580, and he won fame for his raids on Spanish ports and fleets.
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^ (TL-MB, 1988, p.22) 1573 Sir Francis Drake captured a huge shipment of Spanish silver as it was being trans-ported across the Isthmus of Panama.
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^ (MC, 7/20/02) 1573 Aug 7, Francis Drake’s fleet returned to Plymouth.
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.An element of piracy and self-enrichment drove Elizabethan seafarers, over which the queen had little control.^ In truth, however, an element of piracy and self-enrichment drove Elizabethan seafarers, over which the queen had little control.
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[90][91]

Scotland

Mary, Queen of Scots, she was Elizabeth's first cousin once removed by descendance from Henry VII
Elizabeth's first policy toward Scotland was to oppose the French presence there.[92] .She feared that the French planned to invade England and put Mary, Queen of Scots, who was considered by many to be the heir to the English crown,[93] on the throne.^ She feared that the French planned to invade England and put Mary, Queen of Scots , who was in effect the heir to the English crown, on the throne.
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^ Mary may not have been told of every Catholic plot to put her on the English throne, but from the Ridolfi Plot of 1571 to the Babington Plot of 1586, Elizabeth's spymaster Sir Francis Walsingham and the royal council keenly assembled a case against her.
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^ And, alarmingly, it brought the deposed Mary Queen of Scots back into the political arena, both as potential incumbent of the Scottish throne and powerful claimant to the English, legitimated through her queenly status, her blood, and her maternity.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[94] .Elizabeth was persuaded to send a force into Scotland to aid the Protestant rebels, and though the campaign was inept, the resulting Treaty of Edinburgh of July 1560 removed the French threat in the north.^ Elizabeth was persuaded to send a force into Scotland to aid the Protestant rebels, and though the campaign was inept, the resulting Treaty of Edinburgh of July 1560 removed the French threat in the north.
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  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The common name given to French Protestants during the Reformation, Huguenots, came into use soon thereafter.
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^ In July, Elizabeth sent out another force under Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex , to help Henry IV in besieging Rouen .
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

[95] .When Mary returned to Scotland in 1561 to take up the reins of power, the country had an established Protestant church and was run by a council of Protestant nobles supported by Elizabeth.^ Renard's advice was supported by Mary's council.
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^ When Mary returned to Scotland in 1561 to take up the reins of power, the country had an established Protestant church and was run by a council of Protestant nobles supported by Elizabeth.
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even before Mary returned to Scotland from France in 1561 to take up the role of queen regnant, that fearsome man of God John Knox warned William Cecil that this danger was inescapably attached to Elizabeth's queenship.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[96] Mary refused to ratify the treaty.[97]
.Elizabeth offended Mary by proposing her own suitor, Robert Dudley, as a husband.^ Elizabeth offended Mary by proposing her own former suitor, Robert Dudley, as a husband.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She knew that she was fourth in line for the English throne, after Mary, Elizabeth and her own mother Frances.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Entering the cult of Elizabeth in this fashion, Gascoigne then gained service with Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicester, writing and acting in entertainments for Elizabeth.
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[97] .Instead, in 1565 Mary married Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, who carried his own claim to the English throne.^ She was no admirer of her half-sister Mary but knew that if Jane Grey was recognized as queen, her own claim to the crown was forfeit.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ (TL-MB, 1988, p.19) 1558 Mary Queen of Scots married the Dauphin, who later became Francis II of France.
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^ She knew that she was fourth in line for the English throne, after Mary, Elizabeth and her own mother Frances.
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.The marriage was the first of a series of errors of judgement by Mary that handed the victory to the Scottish Protestants and to Elizabeth.^ They explored the possibility of a marriage between England's Protestant princess and a Scottish godly prince.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ How, then, to assimilate Elizabeth to the right hand and convincingly allocate Mary to the left?
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (HN, 5/8/99) 1559 May 10, Scottish Protestants under John Knox rose against Queen Mary.
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.Darnley quickly became unpopular in Scotland and then infamous for presiding over the murder of Mary's Italian secretary David Rizzio.^ Sep 8, 1565] (MC, 2/13/02) 1566 Mar 9, David Riccio, Italian singer, secretary, lover of Mary Stuart, was murdered.
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^ In 2003 Alison Weir authored "Mary, Queen of the Scots, and the Murder of Lord Darnley."
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.In February 1567, Darnley was murdered by conspirators almost certainly led by James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell.^ In February 1567, Darnley was murdered by conspirators almost certainly led by James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Shortly afterwards, on 15 May 1567, Mary married Bothwell, arousing suspicions that she had been party to the murder of her husband.
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^ The nobles cornered the newly-wed Mary and her third husband, the dubious James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell.
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.Shortly afterwards, on 15 May 1567, Mary married Bothwell, arousing suspicions that she had been party to the murder of her husband.^ Shortly afterwards, on 15 May 1567, Mary married Bothwell, arousing suspicions that she had been party to the murder of her husband.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In February 1567, Darnley was murdered by conspirators almost certainly led by James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Buchanan had already composed libels against Mary Queen of Scots; he may have forged the notorious Casket Letters that sought to implicate Mary in the murder of her husband by "proving" her adulterous passion for the earl of Bothwell.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

Elizabeth wrote to her:
.How could a worse choice be made for your honour than in such haste to marry such a subject, who besides other and notorious lacks, public fame has charged with the murder of your late husband, besides the touching of yourself also in some part, though we trust in that behalf falsely.^ Some people remarked that the new Lord Admiral would have preferred marrying Princess Elizabeth, such was his ambition.
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^ Such a wealth of handouts online will allow you to individualize how you work with your students.

^ In the section titled of the place where and howe an assembly should be made, in the presence of a Prince, or some honorable person, Gascoigne first describes the proper place to set up such an assembly or the sumptuous feast that often took place before a hunt.
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[98]
.These events led rapidly to Mary's defeat and imprisonment in Loch Leven Castle.^ These events led rapidly to Mary's defeat and imprisonment in Loch Leven Castle.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Apr 2, 1550] (MC, 6/15/02) 1567 Jun 16, Mary, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Lochleven Castle in Scotland.
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^ (HNQ, 4/13/01) 1567 Jun 16, Mary, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Lochleven Castle in Scotland.
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.The Scottish lords forced her to abdicate in favour of her son James, who had been born in June 1566. James was taken to Stirling Castle to be raised as a Protestant.^ That event was the assassination in 1570 of James Stewart, the earl of Moray, zealous leader of the Scottish Lords of the Congregation and illegitimate half-brother of Mary Queen of Scots.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She became the Queen of England when she was a week old, but was forced to abdicate her throne to her son because she became a Catholic.
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^ (WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)(MC, 3/21/02) 1736 Jan 19, James Watt, Scottish inventor of the steam engine who gave his name to a unit of power, was born.
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.Mary escaped from Loch Leven in 1568 but after another defeat fled across the border into England, where she had once been assured of support from Elizabeth.^ Mary escaped from Loch Leven in 1568 but after another defeat fled across the border into England, where she had once been assured of support from Elizabeth.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 1560s, they had called Mary's status as queen-in-waiting into question, and sought to buttress Elizabeth's legitimacy as queen of England, by articulating a "good queen, bad queen" opposition.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1558, Elizabeth succeeded Mary, during whose reign she had been imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels.
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.Elizabeth's first instinct was to restore her fellow monarch; but she and her council instead chose to play safe.^ "Woman-up" Elizabeth and live the rest of your life with courage instead of cowering behind the media and playing "victim".
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Elizabeth Edwards: I expect a paternity test on Hunter’s child « - Blogs from CNN.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.Rather than risk returning Mary to Scotland with an English army or sending her to France and the Catholic enemies of England, they detained her in England.^ It ended the war of England with Scotland and France.
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^ (MC, 8/31/01) c1392 Sir Jean Froissart authored "The Chronicles of England, France and Scotland."
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^ He had made too many enemies - particularly the Catholic nobles and churchmen who would rally around Mary.
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She was imprisoned there for the next nineteen years.[99]
Signature of Elizabeth I of England
Mary was soon the focus for rebellion. .In 1569, plotters in the Rising of the North talked of freeing her, and a scheme arose to marry her to Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk.^ Murdin, Collection of State Papers , Thomas Howard, late Duke of Norfolk, from the Tower to Elizabeth, 174.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The dangers of this new situation were considerably increased by the likelihood of a marriage between Mary Queen of Scots and Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Elizabeth reacted by sending Howard to the block.^ Elizabeth reacted by sending Howard to the block.
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.Pope Pius V issued a papal bull in 1570, called Regnans in Excelsis, declaring "Elizabeth, the pretended Queen of England and the servant of crime" to be a heretic and releasing all her subjects from any allegiance.^ (TL-MB, p.22)(MC, 1/9/02) 1570 Feb 25, Pope Pius V issued the bull Regnans in Excelsis which excommunicated Queen Elizabeth the First of England.
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^ Queen Elizabeth Plantagenet tudor of England .

^ Subjects, that is, must view the Queen and all Princes rightly or in line with the sense of propriety defined, in this case, by Elizabeth and her counselors.
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[100] .English Catholics thus had an additional incentive to look to Mary Stuart as the true sovereign of England.^ Instead, in 1565 Mary married Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, who carried his own claim to the English throne.
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^ The Norfolk-Stuart union would thus promote one long-established English ambition for a united isle.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rather than risk returning Mary to Scotland with an English army or sending her to France and the Catholic enemies of England, they detained her in England.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Mary may not have been told of every Catholic plot to put her on the English throne, but from the Ridolfi Plot of 1571 to the Babington Plot of 1586, Elizabeth's spymaster Sir Francis Walsingham and the royal council keenly assembled a case against her.^ Elizabeth I as-cended the English throne.
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^ (MC, 3/29/02) 1561 May, In Montpellier, France, a Calvinist stronghold, the Catholics marched in protest against the Calvinists chanting "We shall dance in spite of the Huguenots."
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^ In this new world, the most potent threat to English Protestant national identity was perceived to be posed by virile Catholic males of the blood royal.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[101] .At first, Elizabeth resisted calls for Mary's death.^ At first, Elizabeth resisted calls for Mary's death.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 1560s, they had called Mary's status as queen-in-waiting into question, and sought to buttress Elizabeth's legitimacy as queen of England, by articulating a "good queen, bad queen" opposition.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the death of her first husband, King Louis XII of France in 1515, Mary secretly wed her true love, Charles Brandon .
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

By late 1586 she had been persuaded to sanction her trial and execution on the evidence of letters written during the Babington Plot.[102] .Elizabeth's proclamation of the sentence announced that "the said Mary, pretending title to the same Crown, had compassed and imagined within the same realm divers things tending to the hurt, death and destruction of our royal person."^ So this thing concerning responsibility turns even another direction, showing how one's claim that one is not hurting others can in fact cause the destruction of millions of lives.
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^ After 30 years of marriage my husband did the same thing, we are divorced and the pain and desolation to our entire family has been unbearable for all of us.
  • Anderson Cooper 360: Blog Archive - Elizabeth Edwards: How I survived John's affair « - Blogs from CNN.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC ac360.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That home is now "The Elizabeth House", named in her honor.  Within two days of her death, we received a notice at our home of a scholarship that had been started in her honor.

[103] .On 8 February 1587, Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire.^ (HN, 2/1/99) 1587 Feb 8, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots (1560-67), was beheaded at age 44 in Fotheringhay Castle for her alleged part in the conspiracy to usurp Elizabeth I. In 2004 Jane Dunn authored "Elizabeth and Mary: Cousins, Rivals, Queens."
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^ Mary was beheaded in February 1587.
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[104] She was 44 years old.[105]

Spain

.After the disastrous occupation and loss of Le Havre in 1562–1563, Elizabeth avoided military expeditions on the continent until 1585, when she sent an English army to aid the Protestant Dutch rebels against Philip II. This followed the deaths in 1584 of the allies William the Silent, Prince of Orange, and François, Duke of Anjou, and the surrender of a series of Dutch towns to Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, Philip's governor of the Spanish Netherlands.^ After the disastrous occupation and loss of Le Havre in 1562–1563, Elizabeth avoided military expeditions on the continent until 1585, when she sent an English army to aid the Protestant Dutch rebels against Philip II. This followed the deaths in 1584 of the allies William the Silent, Prince of Orange, and François, Duke of Anjou, and the surrender of a series of Dutch towns to Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, Philip's governor of the Spanish Netherlands.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The exception was the disastrous occupation of Le Havre from October 1562 to June 1563, when Elizabeth's Huguenot allies joined with the Catholics to retake the port.
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^ In that year, he also fought in the Netherlands against the French and Spanish (later as a captain) under the Prince of Orange.
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.In December 1584, an alliance between Philip II and the French Catholic League at Joinville undermined the ability of Anjou's brother, Henry III of France, to counter Spanish domination of the Netherlands.^ Henry de Anjou Plantagenet II .

^ In that year, he also fought in the Netherlands against the French and Spanish (later as a captain) under the Prince of Orange.
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^ (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8) 1552 The Treaty of Friedewalde confirmed the alliance between Henry II of France and the Protestant princes of Germany against Charles V. (TL-MB, 1988, p.18) 1552 The Turks invaded Hungary again with a victory at the Battle Szegedin.
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.It also extended Spanish influence along the channel coast of France, where the Catholic League was strong, and exposed England to invasion.^ Throckmorton was the central figure in the conspiracy involving France and Spain, which called for a French invasion of England and the release from prison of Mary, Queen of Scots.
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[88] The siege of Antwerp in the summer of 1585 by the Duke of Parma necessitated some reaction on the part of the English and the Dutch. The outcome was the Treaty of Nonsuch of August 1585, in which Elizabeth promised military support to the Dutch.[106] The treaty marked the beginning of the Anglo-Spanish War, which lasted until the Treaty of London in 1604.
.The expedition was led by her former suitor, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester.^ The expedition, led by her former suitor, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, achieved nothing.
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^ Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, attributed to Steven van der Meulen, 1560s.
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^ Dudley was arrested by his former ally, the earl of Arundel.
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.Elizabeth from the start did not really back this course of action.^ Textile heir A. J. Draper, president of the Chadwick-Hoskins Mills at the time, lived on Elizabeth, as did real estate developer 0.
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^ I really disapprove of this woman analyst that was on your program (the blonde one) scrutinizing Elizabeth and condeming her for her actions, where's her empathy?
  • Anderson Cooper 360: Blog Archive - Elizabeth Edwards: How I survived John's affair « - Blogs from CNN.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC ac360.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Her strategy, to support the Dutch on the surface with an English army, while beginning secret peace talks with Spain within days of Leicester's arrival in Holland,[107] had necessarily to be at odds with Leicester's, who wanted and was expected by the Dutch to fight an active campaign.^ Elizabeth's strategy, to use the English army as a defensive bargaining tool, was soon at odds with that of Dudley, who wanted to fight an active campaign but lacked the resources to do so.
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^ Within days, Henry Grey (who had been arrested at his London home and sent to the Tower on the 28th) was released.
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^ The English and the Dutch reacted in August 1585 with the Treaty of Nonsuch, whereby Elizabeth, pressured by her advisors, promised military support to the Dutch.
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.Elizabeth on the other hand, wanted him "to avoid at all costs any decisive action with the enemy".[108] He enraged Elizabeth by accepting the post of Governor-General from the Dutch States-General.^ He enraged Elizabeth by accepting the post of Governor-General from the Dutch States-General.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In such artistic acts, which enable the creation of the public self, the artist or patron presents him- or herself The way he wants to be seenabove all, the way he wants to see himself.
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^ Elizabeth added, in even more qualified terms, that "she esteemeth all other reports false that are said also to be made of any league .
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Elizabeth saw this as a Dutch ploy to force her to accept sovereignty over the Netherlands,[109] which so far she had always declined.^ Elizabeth saw this as a Dutch ploy to embroil her further in their defense.
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^ He enraged Elizabeth by accepting the post of Governor-General from the Dutch States-General.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

She wrote to Leicester:
.We could never have imagined (had we not seen it fall out in experience) that a man raised up by ourself and extraordinarily favoured by us, above any other subject of this land, would have in so contemptible a sort broken our commandment in a cause that so greatly touches us in honour....And therefore our express pleasure and commandment is that, all delays and excuses laid apart, you do presently upon the duty of your allegiance obey and fulfill whatsoever the bearer hereof shall direct you to do in our name.^ Neither shall you take up arms in the name of God.
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^ We could never have imagined (had we not seen it fall out in experience) that a man raised up by ourself and extraordinarily favoured by us, above any other subject of this land, would have in so contemptible a sort broken our commandment in a cause that so greatly touches us in honour....And therefore our express pleasure and commandment is that, all delays and excuses laid apart, you do presently upon the duty of your allegiance obey and fulfill whatsoever the bearer hereof shall direct you to do in our name.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Westminster was surcharged with multitudes of all sorts of people in their streets, houses, windows, leads and gutters, that came out to see the obsequy, and when they beheld her statue lying upon the coffin, there was such a general sighing, groaning and weeping as the like hath not been seen or known in the memory of man.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Whereof fail you not, as you will answer the contrary at your utmost peril.^ A zillion questions compete for answers in your mind, and the one who has the answers will tell you only lies.
  • Anderson Cooper 360: Blog Archive - Elizabeth Edwards: How I survived John's affair « - Blogs from CNN.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC ac360.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

[110]
.Elizabeth's "commandment" was that her emissary read out her letters of disapproval publicly before the Dutch Council of State, Leicester having to stand nearby.^ He enraged Elizabeth by accepting the post of Governor-General from the Dutch States-General.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[111] This public humiliation of her "Lieutenant-General" combined with her continued talks for a separate peace with Spain,[112] undermined his standing among the Dutch irreversibly. .The military campaign was severely hampered by Elizabeth's repeated refusals to send promised funds for her starving soldiers.^ Elizabeth and her parliament's failure to send Dudley sufficient money and troops, combined with his own incompetence as a military leader, doomed the campaign to impotence.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

Her unwillingness to commit herself to the cause, Leicester's own shortcomings as a political and military leader and the faction-ridden and chaotic situation of Dutch politics were reasons for the campaign's failure.[113] Leicester finally resigned his command in December 1587.
.Meanwhile, Sir Francis Drake had undertaken a major voyage against Spanish ports and ships to the Caribbean in 1585 and 1586, and in 1587 had made a successful raid on Cadiz, destroying the Spanish fleet of war ships intended for the Enterprise of England:[114] Philip II had decided to take the war to England at last.^ (MC, 7/20/02) 1573 Aug 7, Francis Drake’s fleet returned to Plymouth.
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^ (TL-MB, 1988, p.22) 1573 Sir Francis Drake captured a huge shipment of Spanish silver as it was being trans-ported across the Isthmus of Panama.
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^ (TL-MB, 1988, p.20) 1563 Frederick II of Denmark allied to Poland, Lubeck, and Saxony against Sweden to start the Seven Years’ War.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[115]
.
Portrait of Elizabeth to commemorate the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588), depicted in the background.
^ Other artists similarly depicted Elizabeth with an olive branch as the allegorical figure Pax in contemporary portraits and images.
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Elizabeth's hand rests on the globe, symbolising her international power.
.On 12 July 1588, the Spanish Armada, a great fleet of ships, set sail for the channel, planning to ferry a Spanish invasion force under the Duke of Parma to the coast of southeast England from the Netherlands.^ In that year, he also fought in the Netherlands against the French and Spanish (later as a captain) under the Prince of Orange.
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Spanish forces in the Netherlands besieged Leyden, but William the Silent (Willem of Orange) breached the dykes to flood the land.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She had friends there and, if need be, would be near the coast and safety in the Spanish Netherlands.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.A combination of miscalculation,[116] misfortune, and an attack of English fire ships on 29 July off Gravelines which dispersed the Spanish ships to the northeast defeated the Armada.^ (TL-MB, 1988, p.22) 1572 Dutch warships, Beggars of the Sea, effectively harried Spanish shipping in the English Channel and fueled the Dutch War of Independence.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (MC, 7/16/02) 1557 Aug 10, Spanish and English troops in alliance defeated the French at the Battle of St. Quentin (San Quintino).
  • Timeline 1550-1574 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oct 7, Spanish, Genoese and Venetian ships of the Christian League defeated an Ot-toman fleet in the naval Battle of Lepanto, Greece.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[117] .The Armada straggled home to Spain in shattered remnants, after disastrous losses on the coast of Ireland (after some ships had tried to struggle back to Spain via the North Sea, and then back south past the west coast of Ireland).^ The 5 causeways linked Orkney’s Mainland to South Ronaldsay and marked a dividing line between the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Timeline Scotland 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The narwhals' wintering territory is near the northern Labrador Sea, where warm, salty water is moving north and cold, fresh water is moving south.

^ He stated that fifty American ships are now gathered on the coast of Palestine and a Russian aircraft carrier is now headed from the Black Sea to that area of the Mediterranean coast.
  • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

[118] .Unaware of the Armada's fate, English militias mustered to defend the country under the Earl of Leicester's command.^ Unaware of the armada's fate, English forces mustered to defend the country.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He had links with English statesmen that ran through the English ambassador to Scotland, Thomas Randolph, to, among others, William Cecil, the earl of Leicester, and Francis Walsingham.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.He invited Elizabeth to inspect her troops at Tilbury in Essex on 8 August.^ August 09 Elizabeth and John Thank you for such an inviting and warm welcome.
  • Riad Elizabeth ~ Maison d’hôtes ~ Guest House ~ Accommodation in Marrakech 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC riadelizabeth.com [Source type: General]

Wearing a silver breastplate over a white velvet dress, she addressed them in one of her most famous speeches:[119]
.My loving people, we have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit ourself to armed multitudes for fear of treachery; but I assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people....I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a King of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any Prince of Europe should dare to invade the borders of my realm.^ My prayers are with this woman that loves her family.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Elizabeth Edwards: I expect a paternity test on Hunter’s child « - Blogs from CNN.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ I hope you know how much I miss you and how much you are loved.

^ I Love You with all my heart, my precious Angel!

[120]
When no invasion came, the nation rejoiced. .Elizabeth's procession to a thanksgiving service at St Paul's Cathedral rivalled that of her coronation as a spectacle.^ (HN, 6/5/98) 1568 Jul 13, Alexander Nowell, the Dean of St Paul's Cathedral, perfected a way to bottle beer.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marching in her coronation procession, Gascoigne participated in the performance of the public ritual that established and enacted Elizabeths right to rule.
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ He restored St. Paul's Cathedral.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[118] .The defeat of the armada was a potent propaganda victory, both for Elizabeth and for Protestant England.^ The defeat of the armada was a potent propaganda victory, both for Elizabeth and for Protestant England.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Increasingly, Elizabeth was depicted as the handmaid of the lord—the lord ambiguously her father Henry VIII and God Himself—and, in that role, both "England's Eliza" and a surrogate Virgin Mary.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Crown both of England and Scotland," the (superior) male a Protestant, the (inferior) a woman who possessed undeniable blood claims?
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.The English took their delivery as a symbol of God's favour and of the nation's inviolability under a virgin queen.^ The English took their delivery as a symbol of God's favour and of the nation's inviolability under a virgin queen.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On one level, he emerges as the symbolic king of the godly nation, empowered by his generation of the English national Protestant church, the fruit of his marriage with his realm.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God Save The Queen and Long Live our great family of Commonwealth nations!
  • Co-founder of the New Zealand Republican Movement says: “Queen Elizabeth should abdicate her position as Head of the Commonwealth” | The Commonwealth Conversation 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thecommonwealthconversation.org [Source type: Original source]

[89] .However, the victory was not a turning point in the war, which continued and often favoured Spain.^ However, the victory was not a turning point in the war, which continued and often favoured Spain.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[121] .The Spanish still controlled the Netherlands, and the threat of invasion remained.^ The Spanish still controlled the Netherlands, and the threat of invasion remained.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This last proposal was tied to a planned alliance against Spanish control of the Southern Netherlands.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[115] Sir Walter Raleigh claimed after her death that Elizabeth's caution had impeded the war against Spain:
.If the late queen would have believed her men of war as she did her scribes, we had in her time beaten that great empire in pieces and made their kings of figs and oranges as in old times.^ If the late queen would have believed her men of war as she did her scribes, we had in her time beaten that great empire in pieces and made their kings of figs and oranges as in old times.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Certainly, if men purchased Peace from God (which is absolutely at no expense) there would be no need for His War.
  • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sentence was passed against them; the men would be hung, drawn, and quartered and Jane would be burnt or beheaded at the Queen's pleasure.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.But her Majesty did all by halves, and by petty invasions taught the Spaniard how to defend himself, and to see his own weakness.^ How did Vanity not see these things of the Suffering Messiah?
  • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But in all fairness to Abraham, we can see in the illustration of the wars with Sodom and Gomorrah how Abraham was a fair man.
  • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Remember that Satan thought the same of himself and how, in his jealous rage, he swore to murder all the sons of Adam.
  • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

[122]
.Though some historians have criticised Elizabeth on similar grounds,[123] Raleigh's verdict has more often been judged unfair.^ Though some historians have criticised Elizabeth on similar grounds,[102] Raleigh's verdict has more often been judged unfair.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They often depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered,[4] sometimes indecisive ruler,[5] who enjoyed more than her share of luck.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Recent historians, however, have taken a more complicated view of Elizabeth.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

Elizabeth had good reason not to place too much trust in her commanders, who once in action tended, as she put it herself, "to be transported with an haviour of vainglory".[124]

France

.When the Protestant Henry IV inherited the French throne in 1589, Elizabeth sent him military support.^ When the Protestant Henry IV inherited the French throne in 1589, Elizabeth sent him military support.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dudley did not trust the lords so he sent his cousin Henry Dudley on a secret mission to France that day, promising Calais and Ireland in exchange for immediate military assistance.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, the strategy actually promoted Elizabeth's exceptional status, as the Protestant Old Testament heroine Deborah, and hence her tenure of the throne.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was her first venture into France since the retreat from Le Havre in 1563. Henry's succession was strongly contested by the Catholic League and by Philip II, and Elizabeth feared a Spanish takeover of the channel ports.^ It was her first venture into France since the retreat from Le Havre in 1563.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry's succession was strongly contested by the Catholic League and by Philip II, and Elizabeth feared a Spanish takeover of the channel ports.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the disastrous occupation and loss of Le Havre in 1562–1563, Elizabeth avoided military expeditions on the continent until 1585, when she sent an English army to aid the Protestant Dutch rebels against Philip II. This followed the deaths in 1584 of the allies William the Silent, Prince of Orange, and François, Duke of Anjou, and the surrender of a series of Dutch towns to Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, Philip's governor of the Spanish Netherlands.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The subsequent English campaigns in France, however, were disorganised and ineffective.^ The subsequent English campaigns in France, however, were disorganised and ineffective.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[125] .Lord Willoughby, largely ignoring Elizabeth's orders, roamed northern France to little effect, with an army of 4,000 men.^ The Turkish army of 40,000 men besieged the Knights of Malta, led by Grand Master Jean de la Valette, at their garrison, St. Elmo.
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^ (MC, 5/21/02) 1650 Jun 28, Lord Cromwell set off for Scotland at the head of an army of 16,354 men.
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He withdrew in disarray in December 1589, having lost half his troops. .In 1591, the campaign of John Norreys, who led 3,000 men to Brittany, was even more of a disaster.^ In 1591, the campaign of John Norreys, who led 3,000 men to Brittany, was even more of a disaster.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, more women than men are bloggers, with 20% of American women who have visited blogs having their own versus 14 % of men.
  • GEN-ERIC News :: The News You May Have Missed Elsewhere 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC gen-eric.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People who live to 100 or more are known to have just as many—and sometimes even more—harmful gene variants compared with younger people.
  • GEN-ERIC News :: The News You May Have Missed Elsewhere 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC gen-eric.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As for all such expeditions, Elizabeth was unwilling to invest in the supplies and reinforcements requested by the commanders. .Norreys left for London to plead in person for more support.^ Norreys left for London to plead in person for more support.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.In his absence, a Catholic League army almost destroyed the remains of his army at Craon, north-west France, in May 1591. In July, Elizabeth sent out another force under Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, to help Henry IV in besieging Rouen.^ In spring 1599, Elizabeth sent Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, to put the revolt down.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In July, Elizabeth sent out another force under Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, to help Henry IV in besieging Rouen.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In his absence, a Catholic League army almost destroyed the remains of his army at Craon, north-west France, in May 1591.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

The result was just as dismal. .Essex accomplished nothing and returned home in January 1592. Henry abandoned the siege in April.^ Essex accomplished nothing and returned home in January 1592.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry abandoned the siege in April.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[126] .As usual, Elizabeth lacked control over her commanders once they were abroad.^ As usual, Elizabeth lacked control over her commanders once they were abroad.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth had good reason not to place too much trust in her commanders, who once in action tended, as she put it herself, "to be transported with an haviour of vainglory".
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are usually free-flowing in solution, but for use in a functional device, they have to be organized in three dimensions, or on surfaces, in a well-controlled manner.
  • GEN-ERIC News :: The News You May Have Missed Elsewhere 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC gen-eric.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

"Where he is, or what he doth, or what he is to do," she wrote of Essex, "we are ignorant".[127]

Ireland

.Although Ireland was one of her two kingdoms, Elizabeth faced a hostile—and in places virtually autonomous[128]—Catholic population that was willing to plot with her enemies.^ Although it takes only one red-haired parent to produce ginger babies, two redheads obviously creates a much stronger possibility.
  • GEN-ERIC News :: The News You May Have Missed Elsewhere 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC gen-eric.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It contains virtual tours of ancient Celtic spiritual places at Glendalough, Ireland, Iona, Scotland (do not miss these tours!
  • RESOURCE URL LIST FOR THE SCA RESEARCHER 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC scholar76.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Elizabeth sits on an unseen stool or chair with her back to a shade tree as one of two flanked courtiers holds open a covered container, offering her a drink.
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Her policy there was to grant land to her courtiers and prevent the rebels from giving Spain a base from which to attack England.[87] .In response to a series of uprisings, the English forces pursued scorched-earth tactics, burning the land and slaughtering man, woman and child.^ Let no man nor woman lay charge upon whose child can be dedicated to the Convent.
  • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How can you live with the man and go on the road and rake the "other woman" and her innocent child over the coals and act like he was a bystander when you get home ?
  • Anderson Cooper 360: Blog Archive - Elizabeth Edwards: How I survived John's affair « - Blogs from CNN.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC ac360.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

During a revolt in Munster led by Gerald FitzGerald, Earl of Desmond, in 1582, an estimated 30,000 Irish people starved to death. .The poet Edmund Spenser wrote that the victims "were brought to such wretchedness as that any stony heart would have rued the same".[129] Elizabeth advised her commanders that the Irish, "that rude and barbarous nation", be well treated; but she showed no remorse when force and bloodshed were deemed necessary.^ Elizabeth advised her commanders that the Irish, "that rude and barbarous nation", be well treated; but she showed no remorse when force and bloodshed were deemed necessary.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The poet Edmund Spenser wrote that the victims "were brought to such wretchedness as that any stony heart would have rued the same".
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As for all such expeditions, Elizabeth was unwilling to invest in the supplies and reinforcements requested by the commanders.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[130]
.Between 1594 and 1603, Elizabeth faced her most severe test in Ireland, with the revolt known as Tyrone's Rebellion, or the Nine Years War.^ The United States is facing several catastrophic dangers, but none is more significant than the war in Iraq, Sen.

^ He was largely responsible for the Scandinavian Seven Years' War (1562-1570), which did so much to exacer-bate the relations between Denmark and Sweden.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no evidence she was ever particularly close to Elizabeth; the gulf between nine and thirteen is great.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.Its leader, Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, was backed by Spain.^ Its leader, Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, was backed by Spain.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[131] .In spring 1599, Elizabeth sent Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, to put the revolt down.^ Entering the cult of Elizabeth in this fashion, Gascoigne then gained service with Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicester, writing and acting in entertainments for Elizabeth.
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Another notorious (but finally unsuccessful) courtier, Robert Devereux, the Earl of Essex, clearly embodied a treasonous threat to Elizabeth when he put his hand on his sword in anger because she had slapped him.
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ On Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicesters petrarchan courtship of Elizabeth, see Nash, "A Subject Without Subjection," 86-88.
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

To her frustration,[132] he made little progress and returned to England without permission. .He was replaced by Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy, who took three years to defeat the rebels.^ Insurance man W.E. Price took possession in 1925, and allowed the Adams to continue to live there until they could by it back three years later.
  • Elizabeth Neighborhood Guide 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC www.cmhpf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This naturally terrified the Protestant lords who had prospered during his six-year reign.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.O'Neill finally surrendered in 1603, a few days after Elizabeth's death.^ O'Neill finally surrendered in 1603, a few days after Elizabeth's death.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[133]

Russia

Ivan the Terrible shows his treasures to Elizabeth's ambassador. Painting by Alexander Litovchenko, 1875
Elizabeth continued to maintain the diplomatic relations with the Tsardom of Russia originally established by her deceased brother. .She often wrote to its then ruler, Tsar Ivan IV, on amicable terms, though the Tsar was often annoyed by her focus on commerce rather than on the possibility of a militairy alliance.^ They often depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered,[4] sometimes indecisive ruler,[5] who enjoyed more than her share of luck.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ My heart contemplated a good thing: to persuade God that Hitler is that Antichrist and be done with the matter so that the world could focus on Good rather than evil.
  • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rather than as a brave defender of the Protestant nations against Spain and the Habsburgs, she is more often regarded as cautious in her foreign policies.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Tsar even proposed to her once, and during his later reign, asked for a guarantee to be granted asylum in England should his rule be jeopardised.^ This Elizabethan Religious Settlement held firm throughout her reign and later evolved into today's Church of England.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He is alleged to have committed robbery, rape, and possibly even murder—although who didn’t in England during the Wars of the Roses?
  • RESOURCE URL LIST FOR THE SCA RESEARCHER 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC scholar76.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the reign of her Protestant cousin, Queen Elizabeth I , Jane was celebrated as a martyr to her faith and she remains one of the most famous queens of England.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

.Upon Ivan's death, he was succeeded by his simple-minded son Feodor.^ He was succeeded by his son Maximilian II. (TL-MB, 1988, p.20) 1564 Ivan IV was forced by the Russian nobles (Boyars) to withdraw from Moscow.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike his father, Feodor had no enthusiasm in maintaining exclusive trading rights with England.^ No woman had ruled England in her own right before.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ None of the lords cared whether England was a righteous nation; no one cared about Edward's will.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

Feodor declared his kingdom open to all foreigners, and dismissed the English ambassador Sir Jerome Bowes, whose pomposity had been tolerated by the new Tsar's late father. Elizabeth sent a new ambassador, Dr. Giles Fletcher, to demand from the regent Boris Godunov that he convince the Tsar to reconsider. The negotiations failed, due to Fletcher addressing Feodor with two of his titles omitted. Elizabeth continued to appeal to Feodor in half appealing, half reproachful letters. .She proposed an alliance, something which she had refused to do when offered one by Feodor's father, but was turned down.^ Fearful of assassination he turned on his own family, executed one son, and blinded 2 sons, his father and his brothers.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[134]

Barbary states, Ottoman Empire, Japan

Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud, Moorish ambassador of the Barbary States to the Court of Queen Elizabeth I in 1600.[135]
.Trade and diplomatic relations developed between England and the Barbary states during the rule of Elizabeth.^ M. J. Thorpe, ed., Calendar of the State Papers relating to Scotland 1509–1603 and the State Papers relating to Mary, Queen of Scots during Her Detention in England, 1568–1587 , 2 vols.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His death destabilized the innovative, and fragile, equilibrium between blood, election, and male identity, in the persons of Moray, James VI, and Elizabeth, that had underpinned the amity in Christ of England and Scotland during the 1560s.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I begin by depicting the "fraternal bond" between England and Scotland, with particular reference to the relationship between English councilors of state and the earl of Moray.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[136][137] England established a trading relationship with Morocco in opposition to Spain, selling armour, ammunition, timber, and metal in exchange for Moroccan sugar, in spite of a Papal ban.[138] .In 1600, Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud, the principal secretary to the Moroccan ruler Mulai Ahmad al-Mansur, visited England as an ambassador to the court of queen Elizabeth I,[139][140] in order to negotiate an Anglo-Moroccan alliance against Spain.^ Queen Elizabeth Plantagenet tudor of England .

^ In the 1560s, they had called Mary's status as queen-in-waiting into question, and sought to buttress Elizabeth's legitimacy as queen of England, by articulating a "good queen, bad queen" opposition.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (HN, 12/13/99)(AP, 6/22/00) 1586 Oct 14, Mary, Queen of Scots, went on trial in England, accused of committing treason against Queen Elizabeth the First.
  • Timeline Scotland 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[135][141] .Elizabeth "agreed to sell munitions supplies to Morocco, and she and Mulai Ahmad al-Mansur talked on and off about mounting a joint operation against the Spanish".[142] Discussions however remained inconclusive, and both rulers died within two years of the embassy.^ In that year, he also fought in the Netherlands against the French and Spanish (later as a captain) under the Prince of Orange.
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ If anyone doubts that, just watch tv, she is everywhere(CNN, Oprah), talking about the affair to sell her book.
  • Anderson Cooper 360: Blog Archive - Elizabeth Edwards: How I survived John's affair « - Blogs from CNN.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC ac360.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth was the photographer for our local newspaper, The Franklin Press for nearly two years.

[143]
.Diplomatic relations were also established with the Ottoman Empire with the chartering of the Levant Company and the dispatch of the first English ambassador to the Porte, William Harborne, in 1578.[142] For the first time, a Treaty of Commerce was signed in 1580.[144] Numerous envoys were dispatched in both directions and epistolar exchanges occurred between Elizabeth and Sultan Murad III.^ The first of these was the Highland Park Company's original development along Elizabeth Avenue.
  • Elizabeth Neighborhood Guide 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC www.cmhpf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Again, where schools to teach English were established, they churned out mimic men of Empire.
  • Co-founder of the New Zealand Republican Movement says: “Queen Elizabeth should abdicate her position as Head of the Commonwealth” | The Commonwealth Conversation 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thecommonwealthconversation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In a proclamation addressed to "all persons, both English and Scottish, that are disposed to hear the truth," Elizabeth denied reports that a deal had been done between her and Moray or (a less credible denial) between him and her councilors to secure that perfect union officially.
  • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[145] .In one correspondence, Murad entertained the notion that Islam and Protestantism had "much more in common than either did with Roman Catholicism, as both rejected the worship of idols", and argued for an alliance between England and the Ottoman Empire.^ Vice President Dick Cheney and his wife made twice as much and paid the tax man about $50,000 more than they owed.

^ More importantly, Edward was a devout Protestant and did not want Roman Catholicism restored in England.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Roper’s supporters – and he has more than a few – argue that he should be credited with building the world’s first motorcycle.
  • GEN-ERIC News :: The News You May Have Missed Elsewhere 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC gen-eric.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[146] .To the dismay of Catholic Europe, England exported tin and lead (for cannon-casting) and ammunitions to the Ottoman Empire, and Elizabeth seriously discussed joint military operations with Murad III during the outbreak of war with Spain in 1585, as Francis Walsingham was lobbying for a direct Ottoman military involvement against the common Spanish enemy.^ By the 1530s Spanish settlers were cultivating wild tobacco (N. rustica) and exporting it to Europe from the West Indies.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, she would leave the throne to a Catholic husband and England would become yet another state of the Imperial empire.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As a US naval commander he invaded England during the American War of Independence.
  • Timeline Scotland 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[147]
.The first Englishman to reach Japan, William Adams, was a former employee of the Barbary Company, which had been established in 1585. He set foot in Japan in August 1600, as a pilot for the Dutch East India Company.^ (TL-MB, 1988, p.20) 1560 The first blacks set foot in Brazil.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He would play a key role as a counselor to the Japanese Shogun, and helped establish the first diplomatic contacts and commercial treaties between England and Japan.^ This study represents the first time that light has been shown to play a role in bacterial virulence (infection).
  • GEN-ERIC News :: The News You May Have Missed Elsewhere 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC gen-eric.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reign of the Tudors This is a role-playing game set in 16th century England.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Merovingian kings of France established the first forests in the sixth century and William brought the concept to England.
  • RESOURCE URL LIST FOR THE SCA RESEARCHER 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC scholar76.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Later years

English Royalty
House of Tudor
England Arms 1405.svg
Royal Coat of Arms
Henry VIII
   Henry, Duke of Cornwall
   Mary I
   Elizabeth I
   Edward VI
.As Elizabeth aged and marriage became unlikely, her image gradually changed.^ As Elizabeth aged and marriage became unlikely, her image gradually changed.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth became queen at the age of 25.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth Edwards supports same-sex marriage [sf chronicle] Mrs. Edwards Comfortable With Gay Unions [nyt] (image: sf chronicle) .
  • Elizabeth Edwards Declares Support for Gay Marriage - Towleroad, More than gay news. More gay men 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC www.towleroad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.She was portrayed as Belphoebe or Astraea, and after the Armada, as Gloriana, the eternally youthful Faerie Queene of Edmund Spenser's poem.^ She was portrayed as Belphoebe or Astraea, and after the Armada, as Gloriana, the eternally youthful Faerie Queene of Edmund Spenser's poem.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Spensers Faerie Queene and the Cult of Elizabeth .
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[148] .Her painted portraits became less realistic and more a set of enigmatic icons that made her look much younger than she was.^ Vice President Dick Cheney and his wife made twice as much and paid the tax man about $50,000 more than they owed.

^ There, another rift occurred between her and the Dudleys, much more serious than the first.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By the 1970s, the Elizabeth area looked much different than it had in its heyday fifty years earlier.
  • Elizabeth Neighborhood Guide 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC www.cmhpf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In fact, her skin had been scarred by smallpox in 1562, leaving her half bald and dependent on wigs and cosmetics.^ In fact, her skin had been scarred by smallpox in 1562, leaving her half bald and dependent on wigs and cosmetics.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[149][150] .Sir Walter Raleigh called her "a lady whom time had surprised".[151] However, the more Elizabeth's beauty faded, the more her courtiers praised it.^ Sir Walter Raleigh called her "a lady whom time had surprised".
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the more Elizabeth's beauty faded, the more her courtiers praised it.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though some historians have criticised Elizabeth on similar grounds,[102] Raleigh's verdict has more often been judged unfair.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[149]
.Elizabeth was happy to play the part,[152] but it is possible that in the last decade of her life she began to believe her own performance.^ Little Kayla I'm not sure what part Elizabeth had in sending Kayla from Heaven to earth, but I know she played a role, somehow.

^ The last two decades also saw the construction of two more hospitals adjacent to the Elizabeth neighborhood.
  • Elizabeth Neighborhood Guide 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC www.cmhpf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were also a tribute to Elizabeth, and of her very precious life, for which I was so very honored to be a part of.

.She became fond and indulgent of the charming but petulant young Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, who took liberties with her for which she forgave him.^ She became fond and indulgent of the charming but petulant young Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, who took liberties with her for which she forgave him.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, by William Segar, 1590Elizabeth was happy to play the part,[116] but it is possible that in the last decade of her life she began to believe her own performance.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In spring 1599, Elizabeth sent Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, to put the revolt down.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[153] She repeatedly appointed him to military posts despite his growing record of irresponsibility. .After Essex's desertion of his command in Ireland in 1599, Elizabeth had him placed under house arrest and the following year deprived him of his monopolies.^ After Essex's desertion of his command in Ireland in 1599 (returning to England from Ireland against Elizabeth's express command), Elizabeth had him placed under house arrest and the following year deprived him of his monopolies.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Ireland was one of her two kingdoms, Elizabeth faced a hostile—and in places virtually autonomous[107]—Catholic population that was willing to plot with her enemies.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth had good reason not to place too much trust in her commanders, who once in action tended, as she put it herself, "to be transported with an haviour of vainglory".
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[154] .In February 1601, the earl tried to raise a rebellion in London.^ In February 1601, the earl tried to raise a rebellion in London.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.He intended to seize the queen but few rallied to his support, and he was beheaded on 25 February.^ He intended to seize the queen but few rallied to his support, and he was beheaded on 25 February.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Elizabeth knew that her own misjudgements were partly to blame for this turn of events.^ She knew that she was fourth in line for the English throne, after Mary, Elizabeth and her own mother Frances.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

An observer reported in 1602 that "Her delight is to sit in the dark, and sometimes with shedding tears to bewail Essex".[155]
.The monopolies Elizabeth reclaimed from Essex were her typical reward to a courtier during the last years of her reign.^ The monopolies Elizabeth reclaimed from Essex were her typical reward to a courtier during the last years of her reign.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1558, Elizabeth succeeded Mary, during whose reign she had been imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The notion of a great Elizabethan age depends largely on the builders, dramatists, poets, and musicians who were active during Elizabeth's reign.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.She had come to rely on this cost-free system of patronage rather than ask Parliament for more subsidies in a time of war.^ She had come to rely on this cost-free system of patronage rather than ask Parliament for more subsidies in a time of war.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States is facing several catastrophic dangers, but none is more significant than the war in Iraq, Sen.

^ The north metro, northwest, Gold and DIA rail lines will cost more than $2 billion.

[156] The practice soon led to price-fixing, the enrichment of courtiers at the public's expense, and widespread resentment.[157] This culminated in agitation in the House of Commons during the parliament of 1601.[158] In her famous "Golden Speech" of 30 November 1601, Elizabeth professed ignorance of the abuses and won the members over with promises and her usual appeal to the emotions:[159]
.Who keeps their sovereign from the lapse of error, in which, by ignorance and not by intent they might have fallen, what thank they deserve, we know, though you may guess.^ Who keeps their sovereign from the lapse of error, in which, by ignorance and not by intent they might have fallen, what thank they deserve, we know, though you may guess.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ntozake Shange talked about that when she says in the introduction to Nappy Edges, all Chaka would have to do is sing one note and you’d know who it was.
  • Elizabeth Alexander | Interviews 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC elizabethalexander.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Even in their writings at least they say that the way they were able to keep fighting and living with it is that they learned to listen to their selves and their bodies, in the face of extreme institutional pressure, of doctors saying, you know, we have to take it out.
  • Elizabeth Alexander | Interviews 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC elizabethalexander.net [Source type: Original source]

.And as nothing is more dear to us than the loving conservation of our subjects' hearts, what an undeserved doubt might we have incurred if the abusers of our liberality, the thrallers of our people, the wringers of the poor, had not been told us!^ But these times are terrible times of revolution, more governed by opposing factions than by the people; and the people become pawns between the power mongers.
  • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nothing can be more abhorrent to democracy than to imprison a person or keep him in prison because he is unpopular.
  • Co-founder of the New Zealand Republican Movement says: “Queen Elizabeth should abdicate her position as Head of the Commonwealth” | The Commonwealth Conversation 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thecommonwealthconversation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nearly 43,000 people die each year in traffic accidents in the U.S. In more than 13,000 of these cases, speed is a factor in the accident.
  • GEN-ERIC News :: The News You May Have Missed Elsewhere 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC gen-eric.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[160]
.The period after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 brought new difficulties for Elizabeth that lasted the fifteen years until the end of her reign.^ In Elizabeth, demolition sometimes exceeded demand for new construction, and lots occasionally remained vacant for years, particularly along Central Avenue.
  • Elizabeth Neighborhood Guide 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC www.cmhpf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Upon the reign of Elizabeth I in 1558 a new statement of doctrine was needed.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the Thousand Year reign of Peace under the Messiah, the Devil is let out of his pit for a short period of time.
  • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

[121] The conflicts with Spain and in Ireland dragged on, the tax burden grew heavier, and the economy was hit by poor harvests and the cost of war. .Prices rose and the standard of living fell.^ Prices rose and the standard of living fell.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[161][162] .During this time, repression of Catholics intensified, and Elizabeth authorised commissions in 1591 to interrogate and monitor Catholic householders.^ During this time, repression of Catholics intensified, and Elizabeth authorised commissions in 1591 to interrogate and monitor Catholic householders.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[163] To maintain the illusion of peace and prosperity, she increasingly relied on internal spies and propaganda.[161] .In her last years, mounting criticism reflected a decline in the public's affection for her.^ An estimated 15,700 students bypassed Denver Public Schools last year in favor of private or suburban schools they see as safer or academically superior.

[164]
.One of the causes for this "second reign" of Elizabeth, as it is now frequently called,[165] was the different character of Elizabeth's governing body, the privy council in the 1590s.^ Meanwhile he joined a Paris gang called "Brotherhood of the Coquille", frequented taverns, committed at least one crime, and disappeared from Paris while waiting a trip to the gallows.
  • RESOURCE URL LIST FOR THE SCA RESEARCHER 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC scholar76.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its location within walking distance but outside of what is now thought of as Elizabeth underscores the seamless pattern of residential development in the decades before the Second World War.
  • Elizabeth Neighborhood Guide 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC www.cmhpf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To gain government support, he spent June 1553 persuading the Privy Council, judiciary, and various churchmen to endorse Edward's device.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

A new generation was in power. .With the exception of Lord Burghley, the most important politicians had died around 1590: The Earl of Leicester in 1588, Sir Francis Walsingham in 1590, Sir Christopher Hatton in 1591.[166] Factional strife in the government, which had not existed in a noteworthy form before the 1590s,[167] now became its hallmark.^ There exists a story that Guildford asked to see Jane before they died and that Mary granted his request.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The most important thing is your health and hopefully the Lord will take good care of that.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Elizabeth Edwards: I expect a paternity test on Hunter’s child « - Blogs from CNN.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ (NH, 11/96, p.38) 1573 Sir Francis Walsingham began serving as principal secretary for Queen Elizabeth I. He founded a vast espionage network to protect the queen and served her until 1590.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[168] .A bitter rivalry between the Earl of Essex and Robert Cecil, son of Lord Burghley, and their respective adherents, for the most powerful positions in the state marred politics.^ It is not a symbol of Imperial power, that is but a use of it, but a contract between the State and the Individual.
  • Co-founder of the New Zealand Republican Movement says: “Queen Elizabeth should abdicate her position as Head of the Commonwealth” | The Commonwealth Conversation 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thecommonwealthconversation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Montrose, "Idols of the Queen," 147, establishes that the "Rainbow Portrait" was read throughout Europe as a celebration of not only Queen Elizabeth but also of Sir Robert Cecil and his father William Cecil, Lord Burghley.
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[169] The queen's personal authority was lessening,[170] as is shown in the affair of Dr. Lopez, her trusted physician. .When he was wrongly accused by the Earl of Essex of treason out of personal pique, she could not prevent his execution, although she had been angry about his arrest and seems not to have believed in his guilt (1594).^ August 20th, 2009 4:22 pm ET It would seem to me that if Mrs. Edwards does not want to be asked questions about her personal life she should stay out of the limelight.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Elizabeth Edwards: I expect a paternity test on Hunter’s child « - Blogs from CNN.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ In July, Elizabeth sent out another force under Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, to help Henry IV in besieging Rouen.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[171]
.This same period of economic and political uncertainty, however, produced an unsurpassed literary flowering in England.^ This same period of economic and political uncertainty, however, produced an unsurpassed literary flowering in England.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[172] .The first signs of a new literary movement had appeared at the end of the second decade of Elizabeth's reign, with John Lyly's Euphues and Edmund Spenser's The Shepheardes Calender in 1578. During the 1590s, some of the great names of English literature entered their maturity, including William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe.^ Responses to “Co-founder of the New Zealand Republican Movement says: “Queen Elizabeth should abdicate her position as Head of the Commonwealth”” .
  • Co-founder of the New Zealand Republican Movement says: “Queen Elizabeth should abdicate her position as Head of the Commonwealth” | The Commonwealth Conversation 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thecommonwealthconversation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Its location within walking distance but outside of what is now thought of as Elizabeth underscores the seamless pattern of residential development in the decades before the Second World War.
  • Elizabeth Neighborhood Guide 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC www.cmhpf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anthology of Middle English Literature (1350-1485) http://www.luminarium.org/medlit/ This elegant site features the selected works of Medieval authors including Geoffrey Chaucer and William Langland.

.During this period and into the Jacobean era that followed, the English theatre reached its highest peaks.^ The Hussite Wars era was an era of intense Czech nationalism during which Jan Hus introduced characters into the Czech alphabet to better adapt the language to the Roman alphabet.
  • RESOURCE URL LIST FOR THE SCA RESEARCHER 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC scholar76.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[173] .The notion of a great Elizabethan age depends largely on the builders, dramatists, poets, and musicians who were active during Elizabeth's reign.^ The notion of a great Elizabethan age depends largely on the builders, dramatists, poets, and musicians who were active during Elizabeth's reign.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1558, Elizabeth succeeded Mary, during whose reign she had been imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ivan the Terrible, Tsar of Muscovy, sacked the city of Great Novgorod, massacring most of its inhabitants during a five-week reign of terror.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They owed little directly to the queen, who was never a major patron of the arts.^ They owed little directly to the queen, who was never a major patron of the arts.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact that I even point to the existence of a ‘monarchist ideology’ will upset those who have never really questioned why they believe what they believe.
  • Co-founder of the New Zealand Republican Movement says: “Queen Elizabeth should abdicate her position as Head of the Commonwealth” | The Commonwealth Conversation 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thecommonwealthconversation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Queen, however, looks directly at the would-be courtier Gascoigne, who kneels before her on one knee as she motions with her right hand for him to come closer.
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[174]

Death

Portrait of King James by John de Critz
.Elizabeth's most trusted advisor, Burghley, died on 4 August 1598. His political mantle passed to his son, Robert Cecil, who soon became the leader of the government.^ Portrait of King James by John de Critz, circa 1606Elizabeth's most trusted advisor, Burghley, died on 4 August 1598.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His political mantle passed to his son, Robert Cecil, who soon became the leader of the government.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She became fond and indulgent of the charming but petulant young Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, who took liberties with her for which she forgave him.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[175] One task he addressed was to prepare the way for a smooth succession. .Since Elizabeth would never name her successor, Cecil was obliged to proceed in secret.^ Since Elizabeth would never name her successor, Cecil was obliged to proceed in secret.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Elizabeth's silence strengthened her own political security: she knew that if she named an heir, her throne would be vulnerable to a coup.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was expected that Elizabeth would marry, but despite several petitions from parliament, she never did.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[176] .He therefore entered into a coded negotiation with James VI of Scotland, who had a strong but unrecognised claim.^ He therefore entered into a coded negotiation with James VI of Scotland, who had a strong but unrecognised claim.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After Essex's downfall, James VI of Scotland referred to Cecil as "king there in effect".
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ James, aka King James VI of Scotland ruled Scotland from 1567-25 and England from 1603-25.
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[177] .Cecil coached the impatient James to humour Elizabeth and "secure the heart of the highest, to whose sex and quality nothing is so improper as either needless expostulations or over much curiosity in her own actions".[178] The advice worked.^ Truman seemed to be a man who took this to heart and insisted on being his own man as much as possible.
  • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Heart and Stomach of a King : Elizabeth I and the Politics of Sex and Power .
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

James's tone delighted Elizabeth, who responded: "So trust I that you will not doubt but that your last letters are so acceptably taken as my thanks cannot be lacking for the same, but yield them to you in grateful sort".[179] In historian J. E. Neale's view, Elizabeth may not have declared her wishes openly to James, but she made them known with "unmistakable if veiled phrases".[180]
.The Queen's health remained fair until the autumn of 1602, when a series of deaths among her friends plunged her into a severe depression.^ The Queen's health remained fair until the autumn of 1602, when a series of deaths among her friends plunged her into a severe depression.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That He will literally put a hook in Gog's Mouth and draw Him and His Friends into the trap of death?
  • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

.In February 1603, the death of Catherine Howard, Countess of Nottingham, the niece of her cousin and close friend Catherine, Lady Knollys, came as a particular blow.^ In February 1603, the death of her cousin and close friend, Catherine Carey, Countess of Nottingham, came as a particular blow.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.In March, Elizabeth fell sick and remained in a "settled and unremovable melancholy".[181] She died on 24 March 1603 at Richmond Palace, between two and three in the morning.^ Of course, we know that this did occur and the Tudor dynasty died with Elizabeth I in 1603.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Musgrave, R-Fort Morgan, raised $246,653.79 between January and March, down from $388,514.85 in the first three months of 2005.

^ He sets his great palace between the two seas, in Jerusalem.
  • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

.A few hours later, Cecil and the council set their plans in motion and proclaimed James VI of Scotland as king of England.^ After Essex's downfall, James VI of Scotland referred to Cecil as "king there in effect".
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ James, aka King James VI of Scotland ruled Scotland from 1567-25 and England from 1603-25.
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^ A few hours later, Cecil and the council set their plans in motion and proclaimed James VI of Scotland as James I of England.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[182]
Elizabeth's funeral cortège, 1603, possibly by William Camden
Elizabeth's coffin was carried downriver at night to Whitehall, on a barge lit with torches. .At her funeral on 28 April, the coffin was taken to Westminster Abbey on a hearse drawn by four horses hung with black velvet.^ At her funeral on 28 April, the coffin was taken to Westminster Abbey on a hearse drawn by four horses hung with black velvet.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At her girdle hung a prayer book also bound in black velvet.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

In the words of the chronicler John Stow:
.Westminster was surcharged with multitudes of all sorts of people in their streets, houses, windows, leads and gutters, that came out to see the obsequy, and when they beheld her statue lying upon the coffin, there was such a general sighing, groaning and weeping as the like hath not been seen or known in the memory of man.^ Have they not read that Gog's Friends are all those who were against God's People, Israel?
  • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ May 12th, 2009 12:28 am ET In reference to Edwards : There are many women out there without a job whose aim is to snag the most powerful man they can whether it be a teacher,a politition ,or a millionaire.
  • Anderson Cooper 360: Blog Archive - Elizabeth Edwards: How I survived John's affair « - Blogs from CNN.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC ac360.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I would like to see a proposal for anyone who is perfectly impartial in any matter, and anyone who claims they are I would seriously doubt.
  • Co-founder of the New Zealand Republican Movement says: “Queen Elizabeth should abdicate her position as Head of the Commonwealth” | The Commonwealth Conversation 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thecommonwealthconversation.org [Source type: Original source]

[183]
.Despite the presence of several other claimants to the throne, the transition of power went smoothly.^ It was invoked several times to prevent claimants to the French throne from actually sitting on it because it forbade inheritance through a female ancestor.
  • RESOURCE URL LIST FOR THE SCA RESEARCHER 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC scholar76.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[184] .James's succession set aside Henry VIII's Third Succession Act and will in favour of the line of Henry's younger sister, Mary Tudor.^ Edward's course of action removed the succession from the heirs of Henry VIII and gave it to the heirs of Henry's younger sister, Mary.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry viii Tudor King of England .

^ Henry (VIII, King ofEngland) Tudor .

[185] .To rectify this, James had Parliament pass the Succession to the Crown Act 1603.^ (TL-MB, 1988, p.22) 1572 The British Parliament passed the Act for Punishment as Vagabonds.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Scottish Parliament passed a Leap Year Act whereby women could propose to men.
  • Timeline Scotland 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Edward's device would have no legal validity as long as Henry VIII's 1544 Act of Succession was still acknowledged by parliament.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

The question of whether Parliament could control the succession to the crown by statute was controversial throughout the 17th century.[186]

Legacy

.Elizabeth was lamented, but many people were relieved at her death.^ Elizabeth was lamented, but the people were relieved at her death.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity to the point where many of her subjects were relieved at her death.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[187] .Expectations of King James were high, and at first they were met, with the ending of the war against Spain in 1604 and lower taxes.^ (TL-MB, 1988, p.20) 1563 The Peace of Amboise ended the First War of Religion in France.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nuclear power was first developed for evil application: that is, to lay evil upon the Japanese, to end a war.
  • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First on his list would be to end the war gradually and help Iraqis develop a decentralized government.

.Until the death of Robert Cecil in 1612, the government ran along much the same lines as before.^ The story takes up when the Cid is exiled from Castile by the King of Leon-Castile, Alfonso VI, in 1081, until shortly before his death in 1099.
  • RESOURCE URL LIST FOR THE SCA RESEARCHER 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC scholar76.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Jews had to face the same thing: The Suffering Messiah was before them all along and they refused to face up to the sayings about it.
  • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

[188] .James's rule, however, became unpopular when he turned state affairs over to court favourites, and in the 1620s there was a nostalgic revival of the cult of Elizabeth.^ James I's rule, however, became unpopular when he turned state affairs over to court favourites, and in the 1620s there was a nostalgic revival of the cult of Elizabeth.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As she grew older, Elizabeth became famous for her virginity, and a cult grew up around her which was celebrated in the portraits, pageants and literature of the day.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[189] Elizabeth was praised as a heroine of the Protestant cause and the ruler of a golden age. .James was depicted as a Catholic sympathiser, presiding over a corrupt court.^ James was depicted as a Catholic sympathiser, presiding over a corrupt court.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[190] .The triumphalist image that Elizabeth had cultivated towards the end of her reign, against a background of factionalism and military and economic difficulties,[191] was taken at face value and her reputation inflated.^ The triumphalist image that Elizabeth had cultivated towards the end of her reign, against a background of factionalism and military and economic difficulties,[144] was taken at face value and her reputation inflated.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The period after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 brought new difficulties for Elizabeth that lasted the fifteen years until the end of her reign.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity to the point where many of her subjects were relieved at her death.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

Godfrey Goodman, Bishop of Gloucester, recalled: "When we had experience of a Scottish government, the Queen did seem to revive. .Then was her memory much magnified."^ Then was her memory much magnified."
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[192] .Elizabeth's reign became idealised as a time when crown, church and parliament had worked in constitutional balance.^ Elizabeth's reign became idealised as a time when crown, church and parliament had worked in constitutional balance.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With the reign of Elizabeth I a new statement of doctrine of the Church of England was needed.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, Elizabeths right and power to rule not only derived from her coronation and investiture with the imperial crown but also was directly linked to and balanced by her counselors in the form of parliament.
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[193]
.
Elizabeth I, painted after 1620, during the first revival of interest in her reign.
^ Elizabeth I, painted by an unknown artist after 1620, during the first revival of interest in her reign.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1558, Elizabeth succeeded Mary, during whose reign she had been imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The monopolies Elizabeth reclaimed from Essex were her typical reward to a courtier during the last years of her reign.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Time sleeps on her right and Death looks over her left shoulder; two putti hold the crown above her head.^ Queen Elizabeth II was CHOSEN and I repeat CHOSEN, by ALL the leaders of the Commonwealth at the time of the 1st Head of the Commonwealth’s (King George VI) death.
  • Co-founder of the New Zealand Republican Movement says: “Queen Elizabeth should abdicate her position as Head of the Commonwealth” | The Commonwealth Conversation 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thecommonwealthconversation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time, in looking outside the court for an arena of male action, they demonstrate how right Castiglione was that the courtier is feminized by the pursuit of ambition."
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[194]
.The picture of Elizabeth painted by her Protestant admirers of the early 17th century has proved lasting and influential.^ The picture of Elizabeth painted by her Protestant admirers of the early 17th century has proved lasting and influential.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Scotland's Early Medieval Sculptured Stones Pictures--This site describes a project to document stone sculptures dating from the fifth through the eleventh centuries.
  • RESOURCE URL LIST FOR THE SCA RESEARCHER 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC scholar76.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 2421 Weddington Avenue is an old farmhouse that appears to date from the late nineteenth century, the last rural structure to survive in Elizabeth.
  • Elizabeth Neighborhood Guide 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC www.cmhpf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[195] .Her memory was also revived during the Napoleonic Wars, when the nation again found itself on the brink of invasion.^ The Hussite Wars era was an era of intense Czech nationalism during which Jan Hus introduced characters into the Czech alphabet to better adapt the language to the Roman alphabet.
  • RESOURCE URL LIST FOR THE SCA RESEARCHER 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC scholar76.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[196] .In the Victorian era, the Elizabethan legend was adapted to the imperial ideology of the day,[187][197] and in the mid-20th century, Elizabeth was a romantic symbol of the national resistance to foreign threat.^ In the Victorian era, the Elizabethan legend was adapted to the imperial ideology of the day,[140][150] and in the mid-20th century, Elizabeth was a romantic symbol of the national resistance to foreign threat.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the ideas are present, as is the idea of romantic leadership of a nation in peril, because they were present in Elizabethan times".
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the representation of the English manner, the image of Elizabeth attended by male courtiers represents the Queen as the defining focus of the Elizabethan political community and an emblem of national identity.
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[198][199] .Historians of that period, such as J. E. Neale (1934) and A. L. Rowse (1950), interpreted Elizabeth's reign as a golden age of progress.^ Historians of that period, such as J. E. Neale (1934) and A. L. Rowse (1950), interpreted Elizabeth's reign as a golden age of progress.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The age of Elizabeth was redrawn as one of chivalry, epitomised by courtly encounters between the queen and sea-dog "heroes" such as Drake and Raleigh.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth was praised as a heroine of the Protestant cause and the ruler of a golden age.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[200] .Neale and Rowse also idealised the Queen personally, she always did everything right; her more unpleasant traits were ignored or explained as signs of stress.^ She didn't want Mary as queen any more than he did.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

[201]
.Recent historians, however, have taken a more complicated view of Elizabeth.^ Recent historians, however, have taken a more complicated view of Elizabeth.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though some historians have criticised Elizabeth on similar grounds,[102] Raleigh's verdict has more often been judged unfair.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By focusing attention and analysis solely or primarily on Elizabeth, however, cultural historians often forward a unidirectional model of the cult and its power.
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[202] .Her reign is famous for the defeat of the Armada, and for successful raids against the Spanish, such as those on Cádiz in 1587 and 1596, but some historians point to military failures on land and at sea.^ Her reign is famous for the defeat of the Armada, and for successful raids against the Spanish, such as those on Cádiz in 1587 and 1596, but some historians point to military failures on land and at sea, such as the "Islands voyage" to the Azores, of 1597 (where Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex defied the Queen's orders, and pursued the Spanish treasure fleet before ensuring that the Spanish navy was out of action).
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The period after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 brought new difficulties for Elizabeth that lasted the fifteen years until the end of her reign.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity to the point where many of her subjects were relieved at her death.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[125] Elizabeth's problems in Ireland also stain her record.[203] .Rather than as a brave defender of the Protestant nations against Spain and the Habsburgs, she is more often regarded as cautious in her foreign policies.^ More Afghanistan news in NATIONAL/FOREIGN POLICY .

^ Rather than as a brave defender of the Protestant nations against Spain and the Habsburgs, she is more often regarded as cautious in her foreign policies.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They often depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered,[4] sometimes indecisive ruler,[5] who enjoyed more than her share of luck.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.She offered minimal aid to foreign Protestants and failed to provide her commanders with the funds to make a difference abroad.^ She offered minimal aid to foreign Protestants and failed to provide her commanders with the funds to make a difference abroad.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[204]
.Elizabeth established an English church that helped shape a national identity and remains in place today.^ Elizabeth established an English church that helped shape a national identity and remains in place today.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She therefore determined to establish an English church suited to the needs of the English people.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the representation of the English manner, the image of Elizabeth attended by male courtiers represents the Queen as the defining focus of the Elizabethan political community and an emblem of national identity.
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[205][206][207] .Those who praised her later as a Protestant heroine overlooked her refusal to drop all Catholic practices.^ Those who praised her later as a Protestant heroine overlooked her refusal to drop all Catholic practices.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First there is the blood sacrifice of the Messiah; then the blood sacrifice of Israel; and finally the blood sacrifice of the Gentile or all those nations who were against Israel.
  • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That in itself should say it all but for those who love to get on CNN and listen to themselves talk, I'll spell it out.
  • Anderson Cooper 360: Blog Archive - Elizabeth Edwards: How I survived John's affair « - Blogs from CNN.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC ac360.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

[208] .Historians note that in her day, strict Protestants regarded the Acts of Settlement and Uniformity of 1559 as a compromise.^ Historians note that in her day, strict Protestants regarded the Acts of Settlement and Uniformity of 1559 as a compromise.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result, the parliament of 1559 started to legislate for a church based on the Protestant settlement of Edward VI, with the monarch as its head.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[209][210][211] In fact, Elizabeth believed that faith was personal and did not wish, as Francis Bacon put it, to "make windows into men's hearts and secret thoughts".[212][213]
.Despite Elizabeth's largely defensive foreign policy, her reign raised England's status abroad.^ With the reign of Elizabeth I a new statement of doctrine of the Church of England was needed.
  • Timeline 1550-1574 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the reign of her Protestant cousin, Queen Elizabeth I , Jane was celebrated as a martyr to her faith and she remains one of the most famous queens of England.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

."She is only a woman, only mistress of half an island," marvelled Pope Sixtus V, "and yet she makes herself feared by Spain, by France, by the Empire, by all".[214] Under Elizabeth, the nation gained a new self-confidence and sense of sovereignty, as Christendom fragmented.^ In fact, Frances Grey was shown great favor at court, even gaining precedence over Princess Elizabeth.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the Earth Day Network, Earth Day is the only event celebrated around the world simultaneously by people of all backgrounds, faiths and nationalities.

^ Yet the park has been strong enough to survive all the intrusions and still provide a tree-shaded interlude in the heart of Elizabeth.
  • Elizabeth Neighborhood Guide 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC www.cmhpf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[189][215][216] .Elizabeth was the first Tudor to recognise that a monarch ruled by popular consent.^ And because of the secret marriage of Mary Tudor and Charles Brandon, the first woman to rule England in her own right would be Jane Grey.
  • Lady Jane Grey: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Gascoigne fully recognizes the efficacious power of making the monarch into a scared being, for he had strategically transformed Elizabeth into a supraterrestrial goddess the preceding summer.
  • [EMLS 11.1 (May, 2005): 1.1-54] �Set in portraiture�:  George Gascoigne, Queen Elizabeth, and Adapting the Royal Image 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC extra.shu.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

[217] .She therefore always worked with parliament and advisers she could trust to tell her the truth—a style of government that her Stuart successors failed to follow.^ She therefore always worked with parliament and advisers she could trust to tell her the truth—a style of government that her Stuart successors failed to follow.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some historians have called her lucky;[214] she believed that God was protecting her.^ Some historians have called her lucky;[167] she believed that God was protecting her.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[218] .Priding herself on being "mere English",[219] Elizabeth trusted in God, honest advice, and the love of her subjects for the success of her rule.^ Priding herself on being "mere English",[172] Elizabeth trusted in God, honest advice, and the love of her subjects for the success of her rule.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth had good reason not to place too much trust in her commanders, who once in action tended, as she put it herself, "to be transported with an haviour of vainglory".
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth set out to rule by good counsel,[1] and she depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers led by William Cecil, Baron Burghley.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

[220] In a prayer, she offered thanks to God that:
[At a time] when wars and seditions with grievous persecutions have vexed almost all kings and countries round about me, my reign hath been peacable, and my realm a receptacle to thy afflicted Church. .The love of my people hath appeared firm, and the devices of my enemies frustrate.^ The love of my people hath appeared firm, and the devices of my enemies frustrate.
  • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I love my people, that is not uncritical space, not sentimental.
  • Elizabeth Alexander | Interviews 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC elizabethalexander.net [Source type: Original source]

[214]

Ancestry

See also

Notes

  1. ^ ".I mean to direct all my actions by good advice and counsel.^ I mean to direct all my actions by good advice and counsel.
    • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In 1599, Elizabeth spoke of "all my husbands, my good people".
    • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But the venture was, first of all, too sickening for my stomach and well beyond my means.
    • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

    " Elizabeth's first speech as queen, Hatfield House, 20 November 1558. Loades, 35.
  2. ^ a b Starkey, 5.
  3. ^ Neale, 386.
  4. ^ In 1593 during the crisis of Henry IV's conversion, the French ambassador implored Burghley "Protect me by your wisdom from the ire of this great princess; for by the living God, when I see her enraged against any person whatever I wish myself in Calcutta, fearing her anger like death itself."". John Lothrop Motley; History of the United Netherlands, 1590-99.
  5. ^ Somerset, 729.
  6. ^ Somerset, 4.
  7. ^ Loades, 3–5
  8. ^ Somerset, 4–5.
  9. ^ Hunt
  10. ^ Loades, 6–7.
  11. ^ Haigh, 1–3.
  12. ^ In the act of July 1536, it was stated that Elizabeth was "illegitimate... and utterly foreclosed, excluded and banned to claim, challenge, or demand any inheritance as lawful heir...to [the King] by lineal descent". Elizabeth who was an incredibly bright child, did not notice that her mother was gone but she did notice the change of her name. She apparently said to her governess. "how haps it governor, yesterday my Lady Princess, today but my Lady Elizabeth?" Somerset, 10.
  13. ^ "It had taken Henry VIII a month to dispose of his wife on a charge of treason, sweep some of her friends to the block with her, bastardise her child, and acquire a new queen. Here was the power of the Tudor monarchy in action, with the King bending his Council, the Church, and the law to do his will." Haigh, 1.
  14. ^ Loades, 7–8.
  15. ^ Somerset, 11.
  16. ^ Richardson, 39–46; Lady Troy's funeral elegy says she was the "guardian, before she passed away, Of Henry VIII's household and his children yonder..."; Sir Rober Tyrwhitt's letter..."four of her gentlewomen confess that Ashley first removed Lady Troy...".
  17. ^ Richardson, 56, 75–82, 136
  18. ^ Our knowledge of Elizabeth’s schooling and precocity comes largely from the memoirs of Roger Ascham, also the tutor of Prince Edward. Loades, 8–10.
  19. ^ Somerset, 25.
  20. ^ Loades, 21.
  21. ^ Davenport, 32.
  22. ^ a b Loades, 11.
  23. ^ Loades, 14.
  24. ^ "Kat Ashley told another of Elizabeth’s servants, Thomas Parry, that the Queen lost patience with both her husband and Elizabeth after she ‘suddenly came upon them where they were all alone, he having her in his arms’.” Somerset, 23.
  25. ^ She moved into the household of Catherine Ashley’s sister Joan and her husband, Sir Anthony Denny, at Cheshunt. Loades, 16.
  26. ^ Haigh, 8.
  27. ^ Not only Elizabeth but Princess Mary and Lady Jane Grey had lived in Seymour's household at various times. Seymour had also "wormed his way" into King Edward’s confidence by slipping him pocket money and calling the Lord Protector stingy; and he had tried to have himself appointed the governor of the King’s person. Neale, 32.
  28. ^ Williams, 24.
  29. ^ Loades, 14, 16.
  30. ^ a b Neale, 33.
  31. ^ "Edward VI". The British Monarchy - Official Website. http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensofEngland/TheTudors/EdwardVI.aspx. Retrieved 2009-04-23. 
  32. ^ Loades, 24–25.
  33. ^ "Lady Jane Grey". The British Monarchy - Official Website. http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensofEngland/TheTudors/Jane.aspx. Retrieved 2009-04-23. 
  34. ^ Elizabeth had assembled 2,000 horsemen, "a remarkable tribute to the size of her affinity". Loades 25.
  35. ^ "Mary I". The British Monarchy - Official Website. http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensofEngland/TheTudors/MaryI.aspx. Retrieved 2009-04-23. 
  36. ^ Loades, 26.
  37. ^ Loades, 27.
  38. ^ Neale, 45.
  39. ^ Somerset, 49.
  40. ^ Loades, 28.
  41. ^ Somerset, 51.
  42. ^ a b Loades, 29.
  43. ^ "The wives of Wycombe passed cake and wafers to her until her litter became so burdened that she had to beg them to stop." Neale, 49.
  44. ^ Loades, 32.
  45. ^ Somerset, 66.
  46. ^ Neale, 53.
  47. ^ Loades, 33.
  48. ^ Neale, 59.
  49. ^ Somerset, 71.
  50. ^ Somerset, 89–90. The "Festival Book" account, from the British Library
  51. ^ Neale, 70.
  52. ^ Full document reproduced by Loades, 36–37.
  53. ^ Lee, Christopher (1995, 1998). "Disc 1". This Sceptred Isle 1547-1660. ISBN 0563557699. 
  54. ^ Loades, 46.
  55. ^ "It was fortunate that ten out of twenty-six bishoprics were vacant, for of late there had been a high rate of mortality among the episcopate, and a fever had conveniently carried off Mary's Archbishop of Canterbury, Reginald Pole, less than twenty-four hours after her own death". Somerset, 98.
  56. ^ "There were no less than ten sees unrepresented through death or illness and the carelessness of 'the accursed cardinal' [Pole]". Black, 10.
  57. ^ Somerset, 101–103.
  58. ^ Loades, 38.
  59. ^ Haigh, 19.
  60. ^ Loades, 39.
  61. ^ Wilson, 95, 114; Doran Monarchy, 72
  62. ^ Wilson, 95
  63. ^ Gristwood, 129
  64. ^ Chamberlin, 118
  65. ^ It is now presumed that Amy Dudley had cancer. At the time, it was widely believed that Dudley had done away with her in order to marry the queen. Somerset, 166–167.
  66. ^ Wilson, 126–128
  67. ^ Doran Monarchy, 45
  68. ^ Anna Dowdeswell (28 November 2007). "Historic painting is sold for £2.6 million". bucksherald.co.uk. http://www.bucksherald.co.uk/news/Historic-painting-is-sold-for.3532557.jp. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  69. ^ Doran Monarchy, 212
  70. ^ "...and after all, she will either not marry or else marry Robert, to whom she has always been so much attached...the Queen is in love with Robert" (Philip II of Spain in October 1565): Haynes, 47; Hume, 90–104; Adams, 384, 146
  71. ^ Jenkins, 245, 247; Leicester still wrote in 1585: "She [the Queen] doth take every occasion by my marriage to withdraw any good from me.": Hammer, 46
  72. ^ Hammer, 34
  73. ^ Wilson, 303
  74. ^ a b c Haigh, 17.
  75. ^ Loades, 40.
  76. ^ Hasler, 421–424.
  77. ^ Haigh, 20–21.
  78. ^ When in 1566 a parliamentary commission urged Elizabeth to name an heir, she referred to the way "a second person, as I have been" had been used as the focus of plots against her sister, Queen Mary. Haigh, 22–23.
  79. ^ a b Haigh, 23.
  80. ^ Haigh, 24.
  81. ^ Frieda, 397.
  82. ^ Loades, 51.
  83. ^ Loades, 53–54.
  84. ^ Loades, 54.
  85. ^ Somerset, 408.
  86. ^ Frieda, 191.
  87. ^ a b Loades, 55.
  88. ^ a b Haigh, 135.
  89. ^ a b Loades, 61.
  90. ^ Flynn and Spence, 126–128.
  91. ^ Somerset, 607–611.
  92. ^ Haigh, 131.
  93. ^ Mary's position as heir derived from her great-grandfather Henry VII of England, through his daughter Margaret Tudor. In her own words, "I am the nearest kinswoman she hath, being both of us of one house and stock, the Queen my good sister coming of the brother, and I of the sister". Guy, 115.
  94. ^ On Elizabeth's accession, Mary's Guise relatives had pronounced her Queen of England and had the English arms emblazoned with those of Scotland and France on her plate and furniture. Guy, 96–97.
  95. ^ By the terms of the treaty, both British and French troops withdrew from Scotland. Haigh, 132.
  96. ^ Loades, 67.
  97. ^ a b Loades, 68.
  98. ^ Letter to Mary, Queen of Scots, 23 June 1567." Quoted by Loades, 69–70.
  99. ^ Loades, 72–73.
  100. ^ McGrath, 69
  101. ^ Loades, 73.
  102. ^ Guy, 483–484.
  103. ^ Loades, 78–79.
  104. ^ Guy, 1–11.
  105. ^ "Mary, Queen of Scots". The British Monarchy - Official Website. http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/Scottish%20Monarchs(400ad-1603)/TheStewarts/MaryQueenofScots.aspx. Retrieved 2009-04-23. 
  106. ^ Strong / van Dorsten, 20–26
  107. ^ Strong / van Dorsten, 43
  108. ^ Strong / van Dorsten, 72
  109. ^ Strong / van Dorsten, 50
  110. ^ Letter to Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 10 February 1586, delivered by Sir Thomas Heneage. Loades, 94.
  111. ^ Chamberlin, 263–264
  112. ^ Elizabeth's ambassador in France was actively misleading her as to the true intentions of the Spanish king, who only tried to buy time for his great assault upon England: Parker, 193.
  113. ^ Haynes, 15; Strong / van Dorsten, 72–79
  114. ^ Parker, 193–194
  115. ^ a b Haigh, 138.
  116. ^ When the Spanish naval commander, the Duke of Medina Sidonia, reached the coast near Calais, he found the Duke of Parma's troops unready and was forced to wait, giving the English the opportunity to launch their attack. Loades, 64.
  117. ^ Black, 349.
  118. ^ a b Neale, 300.
  119. ^ Though most historians accept that Elizabeth gave such a speech, its authenticity has been questioned, since it was not published until 1654. Doran Suitors, 235–236.
  120. ^ Somerset, 591; Neale, 297–98.
  121. ^ a b Black, 353.
  122. ^ Haigh, 145.
  123. ^ For example, C. H. Wilson castigates Elizabeth for half-heartedness in the war against Spain. Haigh, 183.
  124. ^ Somerset, 655.
  125. ^ a b Haigh, 142.
  126. ^ Haigh, 143.
  127. ^ Haigh, 143–144.
  128. ^ One observer wrote that Ulster, for example, was "as unknown to the English here as the most inland part of Virginia". Somerset, 667.
  129. ^ Somerset, 668.
  130. ^ Somerset, 668–669.
  131. ^ Loades, 98.
  132. ^ In a letter of 19 July 1599 to Essex, Elizabeth wrote: "For what can be more true (if things be rightly examined) than that your two month's journey has brought in never a capital rebel against whom it had been worthy to have adventured one thousand men". Loades, 98.
  133. ^ Loades, 98–99.
  134. ^ Russia and Britain by Crankshaw, Edward, published by Collins, 126 p. The Nations and Britain series
  135. ^ a b Tate Gallery exhibition "East-West: Objects between cultures" [1]
  136. ^ Vaughan, Performing Blackness on English Stages, 1500-1800 Cambridge University Press 2005 p.57 [2]
  137. ^ Nicoll, Shakespeare Survey. The Last Plays Cambridge University Press 2002, p.90 [3]
  138. ^ Speaking of the Moor, Emily C. Bartels p.24
  139. ^ Vaughan, p.57
  140. ^ University of Birmingham Collections [4]
  141. ^ Vaughan, p.57
  142. ^ a b The Jamestown project by Karen Ordahl Kupperman
  143. ^ Nicoll, p.96
  144. ^ The Encyclopedia of world history by Peter N. Stearns, p.353
  145. ^ Kupperman, p.39
  146. ^ Kupperman, p.40
  147. ^ Kupperman, p.41
  148. ^ Blanche Parry, Elizabeth's Chief Lady of the Bedchamber, commissioned her epitaph in Bacton Church. Dated to before November 1578, this has the first depiction of Queen Elizabeth I as Gloriana: Richardson, 145–148.
  149. ^ a b Loades, 92.
  150. ^ Gaunt, 37.
  151. ^ Haigh, 171.
  152. ^ "The metaphor of drama is an appropriate one for Elizabeth's reign, for her power was an illusion—and an illusion was her power. Like Henry IV of France, she projected an image of herself which brought stability and prestige to her country. By constant attention to the details of her total performance, she kept the rest of the cast on their toes and kept her own part as queen." Haigh, 179.
  153. ^ Loades, 93.
  154. ^ Loades, 97.
  155. ^ Black, 410.
  156. ^ A Patent of Monopoly gave the holder control over an aspect of trade or manufacture. See Neale, 382.
  157. ^ Williams, 208.
  158. ^ Black, 192–194.
  159. ^ She gave the speech at Whitehall Palace to a deputation of 140 members, who afterwards all kissed her hand. Neale, 383–384.
  160. ^ Loades, 86.
  161. ^ a b Haigh, 155.
  162. ^ Black, 355–356.
  163. ^ Black, 355.
  164. ^ This criticism of Elizabeth was noted by Elizabeth's early biographers William Camden and John Clapham. For a detailed account of such criticisms and of Elizabeth's "government by illusion", see chapter 8, "The Queen and the People", Haigh, 149–169.
  165. ^ Adams, 7; Hammer, 1
  166. ^ Lacey, 50
  167. ^ Doran Monarchy, 216
  168. ^ Hammer, 1–2
  169. ^ Hammer, 1, 9
  170. ^ Hammer, 9–10
  171. ^ Lacey, 117–120
  172. ^ Black, 239.
  173. ^ Black, 239–245.
  174. ^ Haigh, 176.
  175. ^ After Essex's downfall, James VI of Scotland referred to Cecil as "king there in effect". Croft, 48.
  176. ^ Cecil wrote to James, "The subject itself is so perilous to touch amongst us as it setteth a mark upon his head forever that hatcheth such a bird". Willson, 154.
  177. ^ James VI of Scotland was a great-great-grandson of Henry VII of England, and thus Elizabeth's first cousin twice removed since Henry VII was Elizabeth's paternal grandfather.
  178. ^ Willson, 154.
  179. ^ Willson, 155.
  180. ^ Neale, 385.
  181. ^ Black, 411.
  182. ^ Black, 410–411.
  183. ^ Weir, 486.
  184. ^ The heir presumptive under the terms of Henry VIII's Will, i.e. either Edward Seymour, Viscount Beauchamp, or Anne Stanley, Countess of Castlehaven, depending on whether one recognized the legitimacy of the first-mentioned's birth; and the Lady Arbella Stuart on grounds similar to James's own.
  185. ^ Goldsworthy, 145
  186. ^ Goldsworthy, 145; see also Noel Cox "The Law of Succession to the Crown in New Zealand" in: Waikato Law Review (1999), esp. ch. III "Power to change descent of the Crown" [5] for a discussion of the controversy, and the place of James's succession therein.
  187. ^ a b Loades, 100–101.
  188. ^ Willson, 333.
  189. ^ a b Somerset, 726.
  190. ^ Strong, 164.
  191. ^ Haigh, 170.
  192. ^ Weir, 488.
  193. ^ Dobson and Watson, 257.
  194. ^ Strong, 163–164.
  195. ^ Haigh, 175, 182.
  196. ^ Dobson and Watson, 258.
  197. ^ The age of Elizabeth was redrawn as one of chivalry, epitomised by courtly encounters between the queen and sea-dog "heroes" such as Drake and Raleigh. Some Victorian narratives, such as Raleigh laying his cloak before the queen or presenting her with a potato, remain part of the myth. Dobson and Watson, 258.
  198. ^ Haigh, 175.
  199. ^ In his preface to the 1952 reprint of Queen Elizabeth I, J. E. Neale observed: "The book was written before such words as "ideological", "fifth column", and "cold war" became current; and it is perhaps as well that they are not there. But the ideas are present, as is the idea of romantic leadership of a nation in peril, because they were present in Elizabethan times".
  200. ^ Haigh, 182.
  201. ^ Kenyon, 207
  202. ^ Haigh, 183.
  203. ^ Black, 408–409.
  204. ^ Haigh, 142–147, 174–177.
  205. ^ Loades, 46–50.
  206. ^ Weir, 487.
  207. ^ Hogge, 9–10.
  208. ^ The new state religion was condemned at the time in such terms as "a cloaked papistry, or mingle mangle". Somerset, 102.
  209. ^ Haigh, 45–46, 177.
  210. ^ Black, 14–15.
  211. ^ Collinson, 28–29.
  212. ^ Williams, 50.
  213. ^ Haigh, 42.
  214. ^ a b c Somerset, 727.
  215. ^ Hogge, 9n.
  216. ^ Loades, 1.
  217. ^ As Elizabeth's Lord Keeper, Sir Nicholas Bacon, put it on her behalf to parliament in 1559, the queen "is not, nor ever meaneth to be, so wedded to her own will and fantasy that for the satisfaction thereof she will do anything...to bring any bondage or servitude to her people, or give any just occasion to them of any inward grudge whereby any tumults or stirs might arise as hath done of late days". Starkey, 7.
  218. ^ Somerset, 75–76.
  219. ^ Edwards, 205.
  220. ^ Starkey, 6–7.

References

.
  • Adams, Simon (2002), Leicester and the Court: Essays in Elizabethan Politics, Manchester: Manchester University Press, ISBN 0719053250 .
  • Black, J. B. (1945) [1936], The Reign of Elizabeth: 1558–1603, Oxford: Clarendon, OCLC 5077207 .
  • Chamberlin, Frederick (1939), Elizabeth and Leycester, Dodd, Mead & Co. .
  • Collinson, Patrick (2003), "The Mongrel Religion of Elizabethan England", in Doran, Susan, Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum, London: Chatto and Windus, ISBN 0701174765 .
  • Croft, Pauline (2003), King James, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0333613953 .
  • Davenport, Cyril (1899), Pollard, Alfred, ed., English Embroidered Bookbindings, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co., OCLC 705685 .
  • Dobson, Michael & Watson, Nicola (2003), "Elizabeth's Legacy", in Doran, Susan, Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum, London: Chatto and Windus, ISBN 0701174765 .
  • Doran, Susan (1996), Monarchy and Matrimony: The Courtships of Elizabeth I, London: Routledge, ISBN 0415119693 .
  • Doran, Susan (2003), "The Queen's Suitors and the Problem of the Succession", in Doran, Susan, Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum, London: Chatto and Windus, ISBN 0701174765 .
  • Edwards, Philip (2004), The Making of the Modern English State: 1460–1660, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 031223614X .
  • Flynn, Sian & Spence, David (2003), "Elizabeth's Adventurers", in Doran, Susan, Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum, London: Chatto and Windus, ISBN 0701174765 .
  • Frieda, Leonie (2005), Catherine de Medici, London: Phoenix, ISBN 0173820390 .
  • Goldsworthy, J. D. (1999), The Sovereignty of Parliament, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0198268939 .
  • Gristwood, Sarah (2008), Elizabeth and Leicester, Bantam Books, ISBN 9780553817867 
  • Guy, John (2004), My Heart is My Own: The Life of Mary Queen of Scots, London and New York: Fourth Estate, ISBN 184115752X .
  • Haigh, Christopher (2000), Elizabeth I (2nd ed.^ In the 1500s, Queen Elizabeth I of England bought a narwhal tusk for a price supposedly equal to a castle, and other royals sought the tusk for medicinal purposes.

    ^ King Rene’s Tournament Book—This site contains a Modern English translation of a book written around 1460 by Rene, a French claimant to the thrones of Jerusalem and Sicily.
    • RESOURCE URL LIST FOR THE SCA RESEARCHER 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC scholar76.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This site contains pictures from present exhibitions at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, as well as links to pictures from past exhibitions.
    • RESOURCE URL LIST FOR THE SCA RESEARCHER 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC scholar76.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ), .Harlow (UK): Longman Pearson, ISBN 0582437547 .
  • Hammer, P. E. J. (1999), The Polarisation of Elizabethan Politics: The Political Career of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, 1585-1597, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521019419 .
  • Hasler, P. W, ed.^ Richard Plantagenet, 2nd Earl Cambridge .

    ^ Richard Conisburgh Plantagenet 2nd Earl Cambridge .

    ^ Richard Plantagenet, 2nd Earl of Cambridge .

    (1981), History of Parliament. .House of Commons 1558–1603 (3 vols), London: Published for the History of Parliament Trust by H.M.S.O., ISBN 0118875019 .
  • Haynes, Alan (1987), The White Bear: The Elizabethan Earl of Leicester, London: Peter Owen, ISBN 0720606721 .
  • Hogge, Alice (2005), God's Secret Agents: Queen Elizabeth's Forbidden Priests and the Hatching of the Gunpowder Plot, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 0007156375 .
  • Hume, Martin (1904), The Courtships of Queen Elizabeth, London: Eveleigh Nash & Grayson, http://www.archive.org/details/courtshipsofquee00humeuoft .
  • Hunt, Alice (2008), The Drama of Coronation: Medieval Ceremony in Early Modern England, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press .
  • Jenkins, Elizabeth (2002), Elizabeth and Leicester, The Phoenix Press, ISBN 1842125605 .
  • Kenyon, John P. (1983), The History Men: The Historical Profession in England since the Renaissance, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 0297782541 .
  • Lacey, Robert (1971), Robert Earl of Essex: An Elizabethan Icarus, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 0297003208 .
  • Loades first=David (2003), Elizabeth I: The Golden Reign of Gloriana, London: The National Archives, ISBN 1903365430 .
  • Lockyer, Roger (2004), Tudor and Stuart Britain 1485–1714 (Third ed.^ Elizabeth Of York Plantagenet (Queen Of England) .

    ^ Elizabeth (Queen of England) Plantagenet - York .

    ^ In the 1500s, Queen Elizabeth I of England bought a narwhal tusk for a price supposedly equal to a castle, and other royals sought the tusk for medicinal purposes.

    ), London: Pearson, ISBN 0582771889 .
  • McGrath, Patrick (1967), Papists and Puritans under Elizabeth I, London: Blandford Press .
  • Neale, J. E. (1954) [1934], Queen Elizabeth I: A Biography (reprint ed.), .London: Jonathan Cape, OCLC 220518 .
  • Parker, Geoffrey (2000), The Grand Strategy of Philip II, New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 0300082738 .
  • Richardson, Ruth Elizabeth (2007), Mistress Blanche: Queen Elizabeth I's Confidante, Woonton: Logaston Press, ISBN 9781904396864 .
  • Rowse, A. L. (1950), The England of Elizabeth, London: Macmillan, OCLC 181656553 .
  • Somerset, Anne (2003), Elizabeth I. (1st Anchor Books ed.^ Elizabeth Of York Plantagenet (Queen Of England) .

    ^ Elizabeth Plantagenet Queen of England .

    ^ Elizabeth I (Plantagenet) Queen of England .

    ), London: Anchor Books, ISBN 0385721579 .
  • Starkey, David (2003), "Elizabeth: Woman, Monarch, Mission", in Doran, Susan, Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum, London: Chatto and Windus, ISBN 0701174765 .
  • Strong, Roy C. (2003) [1987], Gloriana: The Portraits of Queen Elizabeth I, London: Pimlico, ISBN 071260944X .
  • Strong, R. C. & van Dorsten, J. A. (1964), Leicester's Triumph, Oxford University Press .
  • Weir, Alison (1999), Elizabeth the Queen, London: Pimlico, ISBN 0712673121 .
  • Williams, Neville (1972), The Life and Times of Elizabeth I, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 0297831682 .
  • Willson, David Harris (1963) [1956], King James VI & I, London: Jonathan Cape, ISBN 0224605720 .
  • Wilson, Derek (1981), Sweet Robin: A Biography of Robert Dudley Earl of Leicester 1533-1588, London: Hamish Hamilton, ISBN 0241101492 .

Further reading

  • Camden, William. History of the Most Renowned and Victorious Princess Elizabeth. Wallace T. MacCaffrey (ed). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, selected chapters, 1970 edition. OCLC 59210072.
  • Clapham, John. Elizabeth of England. E. P. Read and Conyers Read (eds). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1951. OCLC 1350639.
  • Elizabeth I: The Collected Works Leah S. Marcus, Mary Beth Rose & Janel Mueller (eds.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. ISBN 0226504654.
  • Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum. Susan Doran (ed.). London: Chatto and Windus, 2003. ISBN 0701174765.
  • Ridley, Jasper. Elizabeth I: The Shrewdness of Virtue. New York : Fromm International, 1989. ISBN 088064110X.

External links

Elizabeth I of England
Born: 7 September 1533 Died: 24 March 1603
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Mary I
Queen of England
Queen of Ireland

17 November 1558 – 24 March 1603
Succeeded by
James I
English royalty
Preceded by
Lady Mary Tudor
Heir to the English Throne
as heiress presumptive
March 1534 – 1536
Succeeded by
Edward, Prince of Wales
Preceded by
Lady Catherine Grey
Heir to the English and Irish Thrones
as heiress presumptive
19 July 1553 – 17 November 1558
Vacant
Never designated an heir¹
Title next held by
Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales
Notes and references
1. Her potential heirs at the time of succession were Lady Frances Brandon by the Third Succession Act and Mary, Queen of Scots, by cognatic primogeniture

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Elizabeth I of England (1533-1603, ascended in 1558)
.Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death.^ Queen Elizabeth I of England was born on 7th September 1533.
  • WikiAnswers - Elizabeth I Questions including "How would history be changed if Mary Queen of Scots had assassinated Elizabeth I" 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Elizabeth I , Queen of England , 1533 - 1603 .
  • Queen Elizabeth by J. E. Neale at Questia Online Library 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Queen of England 1558-1603 .
  • Elizabeth I of England - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sometimes referred to as The Virgin Queen (since she was never married), Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth I was the fifth and final monarch of the Tudor dynasty.^ Although Elizabeth is referred to as the "Virgin Queen" because she never married, it is unclear whether she was literally a virgin.
  • WikiSlice 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She is sometimes referred to as The Virgin Queen , as she never married, Gloriana , or Good Queen Bess , and was immortalized by Edmund Spenser as the Faerie Queene .

^ Virgin queen Elizabeth i biograp...
  • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Sourced

.
  • Much suspected by me,
    Nothing proved can be,
    Quoth Elizabeth prisoner.^ Much suspected by me, Nothing proved can be.
    • Queen Elizabeth I - Historical profile - The Tudors Wiki 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Queen Elizabeth I of England, born on September 7, 1533; said to have been spoken by her when she arrived as a prisoner at the Tower of London Much suspected by me, Nothing proved can be.
    • *Ø*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | September 7| Humpback whales migration Australia Grace Darling rescue Saint Cloud QueenElizabeth I CJ Dennis poet Australian poetry Sentimental Bloke 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Elizabeth proved herself circumspect and clever; she managed to admit nothing which would offend .
    • Queen Elizabeth I: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Written with a diamond on her window at Woodstock (1555), published in Acts and Monuments (1563) by John Foxe
  • This is the Lord's doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes.^ Elizabeth quoted Psalm 118 in response: "This is the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes".

    ^ Illustrated title page from Actes and Monuments by John Foxe , vol.
    • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As recent work by the John Foxe Project has shown, the new edition of the Acts and Monuments featured changes that made it consonant with the immediate application of biblical typology to the two queens that I have described.
    • | Gender, Religion, and Early Modern Nationalism: Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Scots, and the Genesis of English Anti-Catholicism | The American Historical Review, 107.3 | The History Cooperative 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Her reaction when she was told she was Queen (1558-11-17)
  • Kings were wont to honour philosophers, but if I had such I would honour them as angels that should have such piety in them that they would not seek where they are the second to be the first, and where the third to be the second and so forth.^ She was Queen from 17 November 1558 until...
    • WikiAnswers - Elizabeth I Questions including "How would history be changed if Mary Queen of Scots had assassinated Elizabeth I" 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If anyone found some private information that they would like to be deleted from the website, the webmaster would be very much willing to promptly delete such information upon request.
    • Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II - Home 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ While it may have been whispered that Elizabeth may have been Smeaton or Norris' daughter instead of the King's I think the fact it was clearly stated in the third act of succession in 1543 that Elizabeth would rule after Edward and Mary if they died without heirs to rule after them.
    • Queen Elizabeth I - Historical profile - The Tudors Wiki 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Response to Parliament (October 1566)
  • Though I be a woman yet I have as good a courage answerable to my place as ever my father had.^ But it is my object to present her as a queen; to show with what dignity and ability a woman may fill one of the most difficult and responsible stations of the world.

    ^ Queen Elizabeth I; to Parliament, 1566, reasserting her authority There is no marvel in a woman learning to speak, but there would be in teaching her to hold her tongue.
    • *Ø*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | September 7| Humpback whales migration Australia Grace Darling rescue Saint Cloud QueenElizabeth I CJ Dennis poet Australian poetry Sentimental Bloke 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ He could quote Saint Paul along with the ancient Fathers of the Church to demonstrate the "proper" place of women-"Man is not of the woman, but the woman of the man."

    I am your anointed Queen. .I will never be by violence constrained to do anything.^ Queen Elizabeth I; to Parliament on the succession issue I will never be by violence constrained to do anything.
    • *Ø*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | September 7| Humpback whales migration Australia Grace Darling rescue Saint Cloud QueenElizabeth I CJ Dennis poet Australian poetry Sentimental Bloke 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    .I thank God I am endued with such qualities that if I were turned out of the Realm in my petticoat I were able to live in any place in Christendom.
    • Response to Parliament (October 1566)
  • I will make you shorter by the head.^ Queen Elizabeth I; in Apophthegms , by Francis Bacon , 1625 I thank God I am endued with such qualities that if I were turned out of the Realm in my petticoat I were able to live in any place in Christendom.
    • *Ø*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | September 7| Humpback whales migration Australia Grace Darling rescue Saint Cloud QueenElizabeth I CJ Dennis poet Australian poetry Sentimental Bloke 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It turned out to be such a wonderful experience!

    ^ Thank you for making it special.
    • Riad Elizabeth ~ Maison d’hôtes ~ Guest House ~ Accommodation in Marrakech 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC riadelizabeth.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Response to Parliament (October 1566)
  • The use of the sea and air is common to all; neither can a title to the ocean belong to any people or private persons, forasmuch as neither nature nor public use and custom permit any possession thereof.
    • To the Spanish Ambassador (1580)
  • Brass shines as fair to the ignorant as gold to the goldsmiths.
    • Letter (1581)
  • I grieve and dare not show my discontent,
    I love and yet am forced to seem to hate,
    I do, yet dare not say I ever meant,
    I seem stark mute but inwardly do prate.
    • "On Monsieur's Departure" (February 1582)
  • My care is like my shadow in the sun,
    Follows me flying, flies when I pursue it,
    Stands and lies by me, doth what I have done.^ My care is like my shadow in the sun, Follows me flying, flies when I pursue it, Stands and lies by me, doth what I have done.
    • The Website of Queen Elizabeth I - Ask Queen Elizabeth I 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.elizabethtudor.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I love her with all my heart."
    • Queen Elizabeth I / Vox Populi / Divas - The Site / Political Divas 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.divasthesite.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Neither can title to the ocean belong to any people or private persons for as much as neither nature nor public use and custom permitteth any possession thereof..."
    • History of Nova Scotia, Jan 1960 - Dec 1969 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC alts.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


    .His too familiar care doth make me rue it.^ His too familiar care doth make me rue it.
    • Queen Elizabeth I - Historical profile - The Tudors Wiki 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: General]
    • The Website of Queen Elizabeth I - Ask Queen Elizabeth I 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.elizabethtudor.co.uk [Source type: Original source]


    .No means I find to rid him from my breast,
    Till by the end of things it be supprest.
    ^ No means I find to rid him from my breast, Till by the end of things it be supprest.
    • The Website of Queen Elizabeth I - Ask Queen Elizabeth I 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.elizabethtudor.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ My feeling is those are her things, her room and much of it was priceless to her, as they have become to me, why in the world would I get rid of those things?

    ^ Some of my writings are words just written No use from real meaning I pass these by, look into my wonder time .
    • ELIZABETH VITALE writing poetry poem lyrics life experiences 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC elizabeth-vitale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


    .Some gentler passion slide into my mind,
    For I am soft and made of melting snow;
    Or be more cruel, love, and so be kind.
    ^ Some gentler passion slide into my mind, For I am soft and made of melting snow; Or be more cruel, love, and so be kind.
    • Queen Elizabeth I - Historical profile - The Tudors Wiki 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: General]
    • The Website of Queen Elizabeth I - Ask Queen Elizabeth I 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.elizabethtudor.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ My heart is tired My mind is empty of sky No more left to write .
    • ELIZABETH VITALE writing poetry poem lyrics life experiences 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC elizabeth-vitale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ After 28 days of drawing every day, I was so excited to see how my work had changed that I made a slide show of the pictures, and posted it to my blog .


    .Let me or float or sink, be high or low.^ Let me or float or sink, be high or low.
    • Queen Elizabeth I - Historical profile - The Tudors Wiki 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: General]
    • The Website of Queen Elizabeth I - Ask Queen Elizabeth I 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.elizabethtudor.co.uk [Source type: Original source]


    .Or let me live with some more sweet content,
    Or die and so forget what love ere meant.
    • "On Monsieur's Departure" (February 1582)
  • Must is not a word to be used to princes!^ Or let me live with some more sweet content, Or die and so forget what love ere meant.
    • Queen Elizabeth I - Historical profile - The Tudors Wiki 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: General]
    • The Website of Queen Elizabeth I - Ask Queen Elizabeth I 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.elizabethtudor.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The poem is called : "On Monsieur's departure" I grieve and dare not show my discontent, I love and yet am forced to seem to hate, I do, yet dare not say I ever meant, I seem stark mute but inwardly do prate.
    • Queen Elizabeth I - Historical profile - The Tudors Wiki 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC tudorswiki.sho.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Two Poems I enjoyed writing On Monsieur's Departure I grieve and dare not show my discontent, I love and yet am forced to seem to hate, I do, yet dare not say I ever meant, I seem stark mute but inwardly do prate.
    • The Website of Queen Elizabeth I - Ask Queen Elizabeth I 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.elizabethtudor.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    .Little man, little man, if your late father were here he would never dare utter such a word.^ I would like to say to that blond woman on your show, may you never have cancer and be in her situation.
    • Anderson Cooper 360: Blog Archive - Elizabeth Edwards: How I survived John's affair « - Blogs from CNN.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC ac360.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sometimes the only way to convince man the worth of certain values, many grouped under the category of Liberty, is to offer up your own life to those who would dare to take it.
    • The_String_of_Pearls2.html 25 September 2009 7:54 UTC www.maravot.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Someone who would never dare prosper at the expense of others – because their political privileges represent a modern and healthy belief (or myth).
    • Co-founder of the New Zealand Republican Movement says: “Queen Elizabeth should abdicate her position as Head of the Commonwealth” | The Commonwealth Conversation 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thecommonwealthconversation.org [Source type: Original source]

    • To Robert Cecil when he said, in her final illness (March 1603), that she must go to bed.
  • Anger makes dull men witty, but it keeps them poor.
  • If thy heart fails thee, climb not at all.
    • Rhyming response written on a windowpane beneath Sir Walter Raleigh's writing: "Fain would I climb, yet fear I to fall." As quoted in The History of the Worthies of England (1662) by Thomas Fuller
  • God may forgive you, but I never can. .
    • To the Countess of Nottingham, as quoted in The History of England Under the House of Tudor (1759) by David Hume, Vol.^ Mary was kept under house arrest for 19 years, staying at a number of different castles in England and being regularly moved for reasons of security.
      • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A3533519 27 January 2010 23:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Cobbett, William (ed) The Parliamentary History of England (1806-20) vol IV, 1132, 1196, 1250, 1332.
      • The Law of Succession to the Crown in New Zealand - [1999] WkoLRev 3 18 September 2009 16:24 UTC www.austlii.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Elton, G.R. England under the Tudors.
      • Elizabeth I encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
      • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

      II, Ch. 7

Speech to the Troops at Tilbury (1588)

Delivered at Tilbury, Essex on August 19, 1588. Full text at Wikisource.
.
  • Let tyrants fear, I have always so behaved myself that, under God, I have placed my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and good-will of my subjects.
  • I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a king of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realm.
  • Rather than any dishonour shall grow by me, I myself will take up arms, I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field.^ Lift up your hearts.
    • The Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.oremus.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Elizabeth encouraged her troops with a notable speech, known as the Speech to the Troops at Tilbury, in which she famously declared, "I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a King, and of a King of England too!

    ^ Thanks for taking my recommendations to heart.

    I know already, for your forwardness you have deserved rewards and crowns.
  • By your concord in the camp, and your valour in the field, we shall shortly have a famous victory over those enemies of my God, of my kingdom, and of my people.

The Golden Speech (1601)

Delivered to the House of Commons on November 30, 1601. Full text at Wikisource.
.
  • Though God hath raised me high, yet this I count the glory of my Crown, that I have reigned with your loves.
  • I do not so much rejoice that God hath made me to be a Queen, as to be a Queen over so thankful a people.^ This makes me that I do not so much rejoice that God has made me to be a Queen, as to be a Queen over so thankful a people....

    ^ And, though God has raised me high, yet this I count the glory of my crown, that I have reigned with your loves.

    ^ Thank you so much for your cooperation.

    .Therefore I have cause to wish nothing more than to content the subject and that is a duty which I owe.^ America is nothing more than a Plantation.
    • Queen Elizabeth controls and has amended U.S. Social Security 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And as nothing is more dear to us than the loving conservation of our subjects' hearts, what an undeserved doubt might we have incurred if the abusers of our liberality, the thrallers of our people, the wringers of the poor, had not been told us!
    • Elizabeth I, Queen of England - RoyalWeb 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.countyhistorian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After years of heroism in the fight against the French, Ash Denison wants nothing more than to savor the good life.

    .Neither do I desire to live longer days than I may see your prosperity and that is my only desire.
  • I know the title of a King is a glorious title, but assure yourself that the shining glory of princely authority hath not so dazzled the eyes of our understanding, but that we well know and remember that we also are to yield an account of our actions before the great judge.^ The queen ELIZABETH. Well in my eye's She is the Queen .
    • ELIZABETH VITALE writing poetry poem lyrics life experiences 3 February 2010 15:19 UTC elizabeth-vitale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It’s fun to get to know your client’s wants and desires as well as your own.
    • Elizabeth Newlin – Arizona Real Estate Agent 19 January 2010 18:39 UTC www.elizabethnewlin.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It is not my desire to live or to reign longer than my life and reign shall be for your good.
    • *Ø*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | September 7| Humpback whales migration Australia Grace Darling rescue Saint Cloud QueenElizabeth I CJ Dennis poet Australian poetry Sentimental Bloke 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    .To be a king and wear a crown is a thing more glorious to them that see it than it is pleasant to them that bear it.
  • There will never Queen sit in my seat with more zeal to my country, care to my subjects and that will sooner with willingness venture her life for your good and safety than myself.^ Queen Elizabeth I; Tilbury speech, August 8, 1588, to her troops on the approach of the Spanish Armada To be a King and wear a crown is a thing more pleasant to them that see it, than it is pleasant to them that bear it.
    • *Ø*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | September 7| Humpback whales migration Australia Grace Darling rescue Saint Cloud QueenElizabeth I CJ Dennis poet Australian poetry Sentimental Bloke 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There will never Queen sit in my seat with more zeal to my country, care for my subjects, and that will sooner with willingness venture her life for your good and safety, than myself.

    ^ My heart was never set on any worldly goods, but only for my subjects' good.

    .For it is my desire to live nor reign no longer than my life and reign shall be for your good.^ For it is my desire to live nor reign no longer than my life and reign shall be for your good.

    ^ It is not my desire to live or to reign longer than my life and reign shall be for your good.
    • *Ø*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | September 7| Humpback whales migration Australia Grace Darling rescue Saint Cloud QueenElizabeth I CJ Dennis poet Australian poetry Sentimental Bloke 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ As for me, I shall do no otherwise than pleases me.
    • *Ø*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | September 7| Humpback whales migration Australia Grace Darling rescue Saint Cloud QueenElizabeth I CJ Dennis poet Australian poetry Sentimental Bloke 11 September 2009 9:39 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    And though you have had, and may have, many princes more mighty and wise sitting in this seat, yet you never had nor shall have, any that will be more careful and loving.

External links

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Simple English

Elizabeth I of England
Born 7 September 1533
Palace of Placentia, Greenwich, England
Died Richmond Palace, England

Elizabeth I of England (7 September 1533 - 24 March 1603) was the Queen of England from 17 November 1558 until she died in 1603. She has also been called The Virgin Queen or Good Queen Bess.

Contents

Early life

Elizabeth was born in the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, England. She was the daughter of King Henry VIII of England and his second wife, Anne Boleyn. When she was very young, she lost her right to be called a princess, because her mother was found guilty of having lovers and was executed. After Anne's death, the king said she should no longer be treated as his daughter. Her half-sister Mary was in the same position. Mary was much older than Elizabeth, but her mother had been divorced by King Henry and she was also being treated as if she was not the King's daughter.

After Anne Boleyn died, King Henry married Jane Seymour, who became queen. Jane had a baby son, who was named Edward. Men were thought to make better rulers than women, so Edward became heir to the throne as soon as he was born.

Elizabeth was taken away from the royal court and was looked after by other people. She was given a good education. Elizabeth could speak and read six languages: her native English, as well as French, Italian, Spanish, Greek, and Latin.

When she was thirteen years old, King Henry died. Elizabeth's younger half-brother, Edward, became King even though he was only a child. He was called King Edward VI of England. Because King Henry had no other children, he left a will saying that, if Edward had no children of his own, Mary would be queen after him, and Elizabeth would be queen after Mary. At the time no one thought this would ever happen, but Edward died when he was only fifteen. Mary then became queen, and was called Queen Mary I of England.

During Mary's reign, life became difficult for Elizabeth. When King Henry VIII divorced Mary's mother, he had quarreled with the Pope and most people in England had turned away from the Roman Catholic religion. Mary had been loyal to the old religion, and, as soon as she became queen, she married King Philip II of Spain, who was a Roman Catholic. This marriage made her unpopular because Spain and England were old enemies. Mary wanted everyone else in England to be Roman Catholic again, so she tried to make Elizabeth attend Roman Catholic services. Elizabeth pretended to believe the same as Mary, but she was not really a Catholic. Because of the argument over religion, many people in the country preferred Elizabeth to Mary and wanted to make her queen. She was accused of trying to take Mary's throne, and was even put into the Tower of London for a while.

Queen of England

Elizabeth became the Queen of England in 1558 after her half-sister, Queen Mary, died. She was crowned on January 15, 1559 at Westminster Abbey. She was crowned by Owen Oglethorpe, Bishop of Carlisle. Her father Henry VIII made a new law, the Act of Supremacy, in 1534. Supremacy means top and power. This law decided that the king was the head of the church in England. Elizabeth tried to bring Catholics and Protestants together. She did not believe that people should be punished for what they believed in, but she was strict about people keeping to the rules of the church.

Elizabeth has been called the "Virgin Queen", because she never married. The English loved Elizabeth because she courted them but they wanted her to marry and give them a king and heirs. Because Elizabeth was a woman, many people believed that she would do whatever her husband told her. Mary's marriage to Philip of Spain had caused a lot of problems, and Elizabeth did not want to make the same mistake in marrying a foreign ruler. If she married one person, she would form an alliance with one country, but could make many enemies. Politics would become uneasy and England would be opposed by other countries. She played the political games with the prospect of marrying one prince or another...aligning England with one side of a power struggle or the other - perhaps a country seeking to assert itself into the world politics would win her hand. If Elizabeth had married, it is likely England would have been attacked by one or both of the major powers at the time - Spain or France. By keeping suitors on their toes, she delayed such an invasion for many years. She was fond of saying England was her husband.

If Elizabeth had married a man who was not a prince or king, that might also have caused problems because other people would have been jealous of her husband. Most people believe that she was in love with Robert Dudley, the 1st Earl of Leicester. She renewed her friendship with Robert Dudley when they were both prisoners in the Tower of London during Queen Mary's reign. Elizabeth knew about Robert Dudley's marriage to a woman called Amy Robsart as she had attended their wedding. After Elizabeth became queen, there was gossip about her friendship with Robert Dudley. Not long afterwards, Amy died in an accident. It seems that she fell down stairs after sending all her servants away, her body was not found until later. Some people said that her husband had arranged for her to be killed so he would be free to marry Queen Elizabeth...some think she committed suicide because of her husband's attention on the queen. All this gossip made it impossible for Elizabeth to marry him. When Elizabeth found she could not marry the man she loved, she may have decided that she would not marry at all.

Elizabeth I caught smallpox in 1562. This scared Parliament, because they did not know who would be the King or Queen after her. They asked Elizabeth I to name an heir, but she did not during the height of her illness. When she became aware of her surroundings again, she asked that Robert Dudley be made king when she died. She outlived him.

The person with the most legitimate claim to follow Elizabeth to the throne of England was her cousin, Mary Stuart, who was already Queen of Scotland. Mary Stuart and Elizabeth were rivals; Mary was a Catholic and Elizabeth was a Protestant. Mary married a French prince and became the French queen was well as the Queen of Scots. Some people wanted to force Elizabeth off the throne and replace her with Mary. This made Mary a danger to Elizabeth's bid for power.

Because many Scottish people were Protestants, they did not like Mary and wanted to get rid of her. She was put in prison, but in 1568, she escaped and ran away to England, to ask for help from Elizabeth. Elizabeth kept her as a prisoner for many years. In 1578, Elizabeth was told that Mary had been plotting to kill her and become queen in her place. Mary was put on trial and found guilty, and Elizabeth agreed to put Mary to death. This action was popular with Elizabeth's court, but it made her enemies in the Catholic countries of Europe, such as France and Spain.

End of Elizabeth's reign

After the death of her friend Robert Dudley, Elizabeth was very upset and turned to Dudley's stepson, the Earl of Essex, who was a young man and not always very sensible. He let Elizabeth down several times. In the end, she sent him away from the royal court. Essex behaved very stupidly by getting a gang of his friends together and trying to take over the country. Not many people supported them, and they were all executed. Elizabeth was very hurt by the way he had behaved, and she was even more upset at having to agree to his execution.

Elizabeth I fell ill in February 1603, she was suffering from physical weakness and insomnia. She had no children, so she decided that James VI would be the next king of England. James VI was the son of Mary Stuart, but he was a Protestant. Elizabeth I died at the age of 69, on March 24, 1603. She had managed to keep peace in the country and to keep the independence of England. These were thought to be great achievements.

Legacy

There have been many films about Elizabeth I.

Other websites

English Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

rue:Алжбета I Анґліцька


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 08, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Elizabeth I of England, which are similar to those in the above article.








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