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Elizabeth of Scotland
Queen consort of Bohemia
Tenure 4 November 1619 – 8 November 1620
Coronation 7 November 1619
Spouse Frederick V, Elector Palatine
Issue
Frederick Henry von der Pfalz
Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine
Elisabeth of Bohemia, Princess Palatine
Prince Rupert of the Rhine
Louise Marie of the Palatinate
Prince Maurice von Simmern
Edward, Count Palatine of Simmern
Sophia of Hanover
House House of Palatinate-Simmern
House of Stuart
Father James I of England
Mother Anne of Denmark
Born 19 August 1596
Falkland Palace, Fife
Died 13 February 1662 (aged 65)
England

Elizabeth, Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia (born Elizabeth of Scotland; 19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was the eldest daughter of James VI and I, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and Anne of Denmark. She was thus sister to King Charles I and cousin to King Frederick III of Denmark. With the demise of the Stuart dynasty in 1714, her direct descendants, the Hanoverian rulers, succeeded to the British throne.

Contents

Birth and early life

Princess Elizabeth Stuart, 1606, by Robert Peake the Elder.

Elizabeth was born at Falkland Palace, Fife.[1] At the time of her birth, her father was still the King of Scots only. She was named in honor of the Queen of England, in an attempt by her father to flatter the old queen, whose kingdom he hoped to inherit. During her early life in Scotland, Elizabeth's governess was the Countess of Kildare.[1] When Elizabeth was six years old, in 1603, Elizabeth I of England died and James succeeded to the thrones of England and Ireland. When she came to England, she was consigned to the care of Lord Harington, with whom she spent the years of her happy childhood at Combe Abbey in Warwickshire.[1]

Part of the intent of the Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was to kidnap the nine-year-old Elizabeth and put her onto the throne of England (and, presumably, Scotland) as a Catholic monarch, after assassinating her father and the Protestant English aristocracy.[1]

Among Elizabeth's suitors was King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, but she was eventually betrothed to the Elector Palatine in 1612.[1]

Marriage

Elizabeth as a widow, 1642

On 14 February 1613, she married Frederick V, then Elector of the Palatinate in Germany, and took up her place in the court at Heidelberg. Frederick was the leader of the association of Protestant princes in the Holy Roman Empire known as the Protestant Union, and Elizabeth was married to him in an effort to increase James's ties to these princes. Despite this, the two were considered to be genuinely in love, and remained a romantic couple throughout the course of their marriage.[2] Elizabeth's new husband transformed his seat at Heidelberg, creating an 'English wing' for her, a monkey-house, a menagerie - and the beginnings of a new garden in the Italian Renaissance style popular in England at the time.[3] The garden, the Hortus Palatinus was constructed by Elizabeth's former tutor, Salomon de Caus[4] and was dubbed the 'Eighth Wonder of the World' by contemporaries.[5]

In 1619, Frederick was offered and accepted the crown of Bohemia. Elizabeth was crowned Queen of Bohemia on 7 November 1619, three days after her husband was crowned King of Bohemia.[6] Frederick's rule was extremely brief, and thus Elizabeth became known as the "Winter Queen". Driven into exile, the couple took up residence in The Hague, and Frederick died in 1632. Elizabeth remained in Holland even after her son, Charles I Louis, regained his father's electorship in 1648. Following the Restoration of the English and Scottish monarchies, she travelled to London to visit her nephew, Charles II, and died while there.

Elizabeth's youngest daughter, Sophia of Hanover, had in 1658 married Ernest Augustus, the future Elector of Hanover. The Electress Sophia became the nearest Protestant relative to the English, Scottish and Irish crowns (later British crown). Under the English Act of Settlement, the succession was settled on Sophia and her issue, so that all monarchs of Great Britain from George I are descendants of Elizabeth.

Ancestry

Of Elizabeth's sixteen great-great-grandparents, five were German, four were Scottish, two were English, two were French, two were Danish, and one was Polish, giving her a thoroughly cosmopolitan background which was typical of royals at that time due to constant intermarriage among the European royal families.

Children

  1. Frederick Henry von der Pfalz (1614-1629); drowned
  2. Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine (1617-1680); married Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel, had issue; Marie Luise von Degenfeld, had issue; Elisabeth Hollander von Bernau, had issue
  3. Elisabeth of Bohemia, Princess Palatine (1618-1680)
  4. Rupert, Duke of Cumberland (1619-1682); had two illegitimate children
  5. Maurice (1620-1652)
  6. Louise Marie of the Palatine (18 April 1622 – 11 February 1709)
  7. Ludwig (21 August 1624 – 24 December 1624)
  8. Edward, Count Palatine of Simmern (1625-1663); married Anna Gonzaga, had issue
  9. Henrietta Maria (7 July 1626-18 September 1651); married Prince Sigismund of Siebenbuergen on 16 June 1651
  10. Johann Philip Frederick (26 September 1627 – 15 December 1650); also reported to have been born on 15 September 1629
  11. Charlotte (19 December 1628 – 14 January 1631)
  12. Sophia, Electress of Hanover (14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714); married Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover, had issue including King George I of Great Britain
  13. Gustavus Adolphus (14 January 1632-1641)

Legacy

The Elizabeth River in Southeastern Virginia was named in honor of the princess, as was Cape Elizabeth, a peninsula and today a town in the U.S. state of Maine. John Smith explored and mapped New England and gave names to places mainly based on the names used by Native Americans. When Smith presented his map to Charles I, he suggested that the king should feel free to change the "barbarous names" for "English" ones. The king made many such changes, but only four survive today, one of which is Cape Elizabeth.[7]

Fiction

In W. G. Sebald's novel Vertigo (1990), a woman appears whom the narrator, travelling through Heidelberg by train in 1987, recognizes instantly "without a shadow of a doubt" as Elizabeth when she enters his carriage.

The Winter Queen also plays a seminal role in Neal Stephenson's The Baroque Cycle by giving birth to many children.

A Polish baroque poet Daniel Naborowski wrote a short poem praising Elizabeth's eyes[8]. He saw her in 1609, when he visited London on a diplomatic mission.

See also

Bibliography

  • Gorst-Williams, Jessica (1977), Elizabeth, the Winter Queen, London: Abelard, ISBN 020072472X  
  • Hart, Vaughan (1994), Art and Magic in the Court of the Stuarts, London: Routledge.
  • Ross, Josephine (1979), The Winter Queen: The Story of Elizabeth Stuart, New York: St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0312882327   (alternative ISBN 0297776037)
  • Kassel, Richard (2006), The Organ: An Encyclopedia, London: Routledge.
  • Oman, Carola (2000), The Winter Queen: Elisabeth of Bohemia, London: Phoenix Press, ISBN 1842120573  
  • Spencer, Charles (2008) Prince Rupert: the Last Cavalier, London: Phoenix.
  • Stevenson, Jane (2002), The Winter Queen: A Novel, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0618149120   (alternative ISBN 0618382674)
  • Yates, Frances (1972), The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, ISBN 0710073801  , devotes its early chapters to describing her 1613 wedding and the reputation she and her husband had in Europe at the time.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Emery Walker, Historical Portraits 1600-1700, READ BOOKS, 2007
  2. ^ Spencer, p.6.
  3. ^ Spencer, p.7.
  4. ^ Turner, p.149.
  5. ^ Kassel, p.482.
  6. ^ Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland; Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland; Museum, 2001
  7. ^ Stewart, George R. (1967) [1945]. Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States (Sentry edition (3rd) ed.). Houghton Mifflin. p. 38.  
  8. ^ http://staropolska.pl/barok/D_Naborowski/wybor_19.html

External links

Elizabeth of Bohemia
Born: 19 August 1596 Died: 13 February 1662
Vacant
Title last held by
Anna of Tyrol
Queen consort of Bohemia
4 November 1619 – 9 November 1620
Vacant
Title next held by
Eleonor Gonzaga
Preceded by
Louise Juliana of Nassau
Electress Palatine
1613 – 1623
Succeeded by
Elizabeth of Lorraine
British royalty
Preceded by
Charles I of England
Heir to the English, Scottish and Irish Thrones
as heiress presumptive
27 March 1625 – 29 May 1630
Succeeded by
Charles II of England
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Elizabeth of Scotland
File:Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia by Gerrit van
Queen consort of Bohemia
Tenure 4 November 1619 – 8 November 1620
Coronation 7 November 1619
Spouse Frederick V, Elector Palatine
Issue
Prince Henry Frederick
Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine
Elizabeth, Abbess of Herford
Prince Rupert
Princess Louise Marie
Prince Maurice
Edward, Count Palatine of Simmern
Princess Henriette Marie
Sophia, Electress of Brunswick-Lüneburg
House House of Palatinate-Simmern
House of Stuart
Father James I of England
Mother Anne of Denmark
Born 19 August 1596
Falkland Palace, Fife
Died 13 February 1662 (aged 65)
England

Elizabeth of Bohemia (19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was the eldest daughter of James VI and I, King of Scotland, England, and Ireland, and Anne of Denmark. As the wife of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, she was Electress Palatine and briefly Queen of Bohemia. Due to her husband's short reign in Bohemia, Elizabeth is often referred to as the Winter Queen.

With the demise of the Stuart dynasty in 1714, her descendants, the Hanoverian rulers, succeeded to the British throne.

Contents

Birth and early life

.]] Elizabeth was born at Falkland Palace, Fife.[1] At the time of her birth, her father had yet to succeed to his later realms, and was King of Scots only. She was named in honour of the Queen of England. During her early life in Scotland, Elizabeth was brought up at Linlithgow Palace.[2] When Elizabeth was six years old, in 1603, Elizabeth I of England died and her father, James, succeeded to the thrones of England and Ireland. When she came to England, her governess was the Countess of Kildare,[1] until she was consigned to the care of Lord Harington, with whom she spent the years of her happy childhood at Combe Abbey in Warwickshire.[1]

Part of the intent of the Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was to kidnap the nine-year-old Elizabeth and put her onto the throne of England (and, presumably, Scotland) as a Catholic monarch, after assassinating her father and the Protestant English aristocracy.[1] However, this never happened as Guy Fawkes was caught by the King's soldiers and swiftly executed before he was able to ignite the powder.[3]

Among Elizabeth's suitors was King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, but she was eventually betrothed to the Elector Palatine in 1612.[1]

Marriage

File:Gerard van Honthorst
Elizabeth as a widow, 1642

On 14 February 1613, she married Frederick V, then Elector of the Palatinate in Germany, and took up her place in the court at Heidelberg. Frederick was the leader of the association of Protestant princes in the Holy Roman Empire known as the Protestant Union, and Elizabeth was married to him in an effort to increase James's ties to these princes. Despite this, the two were considered to be genuinely in love, and remained a romantic couple throughout the course of their marriage.[4] Elizabeth's new husband transformed his seat at Heidelberg, creating an 'English wing' for her, a monkey-house, a menagerie - and the beginnings of a new garden in the Italian Renaissance style popular in England at the time.[5] The garden, the Hortus Palatinus was constructed by Elizabeth's former tutor, Salomon de Caus[6] and was dubbed the 'Eighth Wonder of the World' by contemporaries.[7]

File:Nicholas Hilliard
Elizabeth by Nicholas Hilliard

In 1619, Frederick was offered and accepted the crown of Bohemia. Elizabeth was crowned Queen of Bohemia on 7 November 1619, three days after her husband was crowned King of Bohemia.[8] Frederick's rule was extremely brief, and thus Elizabeth became known as the "Winter Queen" (zimní královna in Czech). Driven into exile, the couple took up residence in The Hague, and Frederick died in 1632. Elizabeth remained in Holland even after her son, Charles I Louis, regained his father's electorship in 1648. Following the Restoration of the English and Scottish monarchies, she travelled to London to visit her nephew, Charles II, and died while there.

Elizabeth's youngest daughter, Sophia of Hanover, had in 1658 married Ernest Augustus, the future Elector of Hanover. The Electress Sophia became the nearest Protestant relative to the English and Irish crowns (later British crown). Under the English Act of Settlement, the succession was settled on Sophia and her issue, so that all monarchs of Great Britain from George I are descendants of Elizabeth.

Ancestry

Of Elizabeth's fourteen great-great-grandparents, five were German, four were Scottish, two were French, with one each of Danish, Polish and English parentage giving her a thoroughly cosmopolitan background which was typical of royals at that time due to constant intermarriage among the European royal families.

Children

  1. Henry Frederick, Hereditary Prince of the Palatinate (1614–1629); drowned
  2. Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine (1617–1680); married Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel, had issue; Marie Luise von Degenfeld, had issue; Elisabeth Hollander von Bernau, had issue
  3. Elisabeth of Bohemia, Princess Palatine (1618–1680)
  4. Rupert, Duke of Cumberland (1619–1682); had two illegitimate children
  5. Maurice (1620–1652)
  6. Louise Marie of the Palatine (18 April 1622 – 11 February 1709)
  7. Louis (21 August 1624 – 24 December 1624)
  8. Edward, Count Palatine of Simmern (1625–1663); married Anna Gonzaga, had issue
  9. Henriette Marie of the Palatinate (7 July 1626-18 September 1651); married Prince Sigismund of Siebenbuergen on 16 June 1651
  10. John Philip Frederick (26 September 1627 – 15 December 1650); also reported to have been born on 15 September 1629
  11. Charlotte (19 December 1628 – 14 January 1631)
  12. Sophia, Electress of Hanover (14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714); married Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover, had issue including King George I of Great Britain
  13. Gustavus Adolphus (14 January 1632-1641)

Legacy

The Elizabeth River in Southeastern Virginia was named in honour of the princess, as was Cape Elizabeth, a peninsula and today a town in the U.S. state of Maine. John Smith explored and mapped New England and gave names to places mainly based on the names used by Native Americans. When Smith presented his map to Charles I, he suggested that the king should feel free to change the "barbarous names" for "English" ones. The king made many such changes, but only four survive today, one of which is Cape Elizabeth.[9]

According to legend, William the first Earl of Craven built Ashdown House in Oxfordshire, England, in honor of Elizabeth, although she died before the house was completed.

Fiction

In W. G. Sebald's novel Vertigo (1990), a woman appears whom the narrator, travelling through Heidelberg by train in 1987, recognizes instantly "without a shadow of a doubt" as Elizabeth when she enters his carriage.

The Winter Queen also plays a seminal role in Neal Stephenson's The Baroque Cycle by giving birth to many children.

A Polish baroque poet Daniel Naborowski wrote a short poem praising Elizabeth's eyes.[10] He saw her in 1609, when he visited London on a diplomatic mission.

See also

Bibliography

  • Gorst-Williams, Jessica (1977), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Elizabeth, the Winter Queen], London: Abelard, ISBN 020072472X 
  • Hart, Vaughan (1994), Art and Magic in the Court of the Stuarts, London: Routledge.
  • Ross, Josephine (1979), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator The Winter Queen: The Story of Elizabeth Stuart], New York: St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0312882327  (alternative ISBN 0-297-77603-7)
  • Kassel, Richard (2006), The Organ: An Encyclopedia, London: Routledge.
  • Oman, Carola (2000), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator The Winter Queen: Elisabeth of Bohemia], London: Phoenix Press, ISBN 1842120573 
  • Spencer, Charles (2008) Prince Rupert: the Last Cavalier, London: Phoenix.
  • Stevenson, Jane (2002), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator The Winter Queen: A Novel], Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0618149120  (alternative ISBN 0-618-38267-4)
  • Yates, Frances (1972), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator The Rosicrucian Enlightenment], London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, ISBN 0710073801 , devotes its early chapters to describing her 1613 wedding and the reputation she and her husband had in Europe at the time.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Emery Walker, Historical Portraits 1600-1700, READ BOOKS, 2007
  2. ^ Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, vol. vii, 10 (1891), 521.
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Spencer, p.6.
  5. ^ Spencer, p.7.
  6. ^ Turner, p.149.
  7. ^ Kassel, p.482.
  8. ^ Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland; Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland; Museum, 2001
  9. ^ Stewart, George R. (1967) [1945], [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States] (Sentry edition (3rd) ed.), Houghton Mifflin, p. 38 
  10. ^ http://staropolska.pl/barok/D_Naborowski/wybor_19.html

External links

Elizabeth of Bohemia
Born: 19 August 1596 Died: 13 February 1662
Preceded by
Louise Juliana of Nassau
Electress Palatine
1613–1623
Succeeded by
Elisabeth of Lorraine
Vacant
Title last held by
Anna of Tyrol
Queen consort of Bohemia
4 November 1619 – 9 November 1620
Vacant
Title next held by
Eleonor Gonzaga
British royalty
Preceded by
Charles I of England
Heir to the English, Scottish and Irish Thrones
as heiress presumptive
27 March 1625 – 29 May 1630
Succeeded by
Charles II of England

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

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Simple English

Elizabeth of Bohemia
Born 19 August 1596
Died 13 February 1662
File:Eliz bohemia
Elizabeth of Bohemia

Elizabeth of Bohemia (born Elizabeth Stuart, August 19 1596 to February 13 1662) was a Scottish born Queen of Bohemia. As well as being Queen of Bohemia, she was also titled Electress of Palatine and Princess Elizabeth Stuart of Scotland Elizabeth was the oldest daughter of King James IV of Scotland (later, James I of England) and his wife, Anne of Denmark. Her brother was Charles I. She was Queen of Bohemia only for a few months so she is sometimes called "The Winter Queen".

Contents

Childhood

Elizabeth was born at Falkland Palace in Fife, Scotland. Her father gave her the name Elizabeth to make Queen Elizabeth I of England happy. The Queen had no children. James wanted her to chose him to be King of England when she died. She later agreed and James IV became King James I of England (as well as Wales and Ireland) in 1603. Elizabeth Stuart now had a higher status. This meant meant that more important men would want to marry her.

The gunpowder plot

At this time, there was strong fighting between Catholics and Protestants in England. King James was Catholic but many Catholics did not like him because he gave the Protestants too much freedom to do what they wanted. In 1605, a group decided to try to blow up the English Parliament with gunpowder when King James was there. This is called The Gunpowder Plot. The group planned to kidnap Princess Elizabeth from Coombe Abbey, in Warwickshire. They wanted to make her the Queen. Because she was only nine years old, important Catholics would have the real power over her kingdoms. In the end, the group were found before they could kill King James.

Marriage

On February 14 1613, Elizabeth married Frederick V. He was the Elector of the Palatinate. She moved to his court at Heidelberg. Frederick was the leader of an important group of Protestant princes, called the Evangelical Union. James wanted Elizabeth to marry someone from this group so he could have a stronger friendship with them.

Queen of Bohemia

In 1619, Frederick was asked to become King of Bohemia. He and Elizabeth moved to Prague. There was also strong fighting between different religious groups there. After only a few months of being King, Frederick had to leave the country. Because she was queen for such a short time, Elizabeth is sometimes called ‘The Winter Queen’. She was also called ‘Queen of Hearts’ because many people liked her.

Exile and death

Elizabeth and Frederick lived in exile in The Hague. They could not return to Bohemia. Frederick died in 1632 and Elizabeth lived in Holland for most of the rest of her life. After her brother’s son, Charles, became King of England and Scotland, she went to London to see him. She died there in 1662, when she was 65 years old.

Children

She had eight children in total. Charles I Louis, became Elector of the Palatine in 1648. Her other children were: Frederick Henry von der Pfalz, Elisabeth of Bohemia, Princess Palatine, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Louise Marie of the Palatinate, Prince Maurice von Simmern, Edward, Count Palatine of Simmern and Sophia of Hanover. After the 1701 Act of Settlement, Electress Sophia and her children were made heirs to the English and Scottish thrones. This means that all Kings and Queens of Great Britain after George I are Elizabeth’s descendants.


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