The Full Wiki

Emanuel Schikaneder: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Emanuel Schikaneder

Emanuel Schikaneder (Straubing, 1 September 1751 – 21 September 1812, Vienna), born Johann Joseph Schickeneder, was a German impresario, dramatist, actor, and singer. He was the librettist of Mozart's opera The Magic Flute and the builder of the Theater an der Wien.

Contents

Earlier career

Schikaneder first appeared with the theatrical troupe of F. J. Moser around 1773. Aside from operas, the company also performed farces and Singspiele. Schikander married an actress in this company, Eleonore Arth, in 1777, the same year he performed the role of Hamlet in Munich to general acclaim. He became the director of his troupe in 1778. He met Mozart in Salzburg in 1780, during an extended stay there by his company.

Schikaneder performed at the Kärntnertortheater in Vienna from 1785, while still working with the Salzburg group as time permitted. His plan to build a theatre in Vienna was vetoed by Emperor Joseph II, which prompted him to temporarily leave for Regensburg. His company returned to Vienna in 1789 and became the resident company of the suburban Theater auf der Wieden.

The company was successful there, producing among other works a production of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's already-popular opera The Abduction from the Seraglio (April and May of 1789). It also produced a series of fairy tale operas often involving elaborate theatrical machinery. These operas also made use of Schikaneder's ability to perform improvised comedy, as a "Hanswurst"-like character, inherited from the long tradition of the popular Viennese theater.[1]

Die Zauberflöte

As Papageno in The Magic Flute

The series of fairy-tale operas culminated in the September 1791 premiere of the Die Zauberflöte, with music by Mozart. The libretto was Schikaneder's and incorporated a loose mixture of Masonic elements and traditional fairy-tale themes. Schikaneder took the role of Papageno—a character reflecting the Hanswurst tradition, and thus suited to his skills—at the premiere.

Schikaneder also may have given advice to Mozart concerning the musical setting of his libretto. The dramatist Ignaz Franz Castelli tells the following tale:

The late bass singer Sebastian Meyer told me that Mozart had originally written the duet where Papageno and Papagena first see each other quite differently from the way in which we now hear it. Both originally cried out "Papageno!", "Papagena!" a few times in amazement. But when Schikaneder heard this, he called down in to the orchestra, "Hey, Mozart! That's no good, the music must express greater astonishment. They must both stare dumbly at each other, then Papageno must begin to stammer: 'Pa-papapa-pa-pa'; Papagena must repeat that until both of them finally get the whole name out". Mozart followed the advice, and in this form the duet always had to be repeated.

Castelli adds that the March of the Priests which opens the second act was also a suggestion of Schikaneder's, added to the opera at the last minute by Mozart. These stories are not accepted as necessarily true by all musicologists.[2]

Later career

The success of Die Zauberflöte and other productions allowed Schikaneder to construct a new theatre in Vienna in 1801, making use of an Imperial license he had obtained 15 years earlier. This theater, the Theater an der Wien, was opened to a performance of the opera "Alexander", to Schikaneder's own libretto with music by Franz Teyber. According to the New Grove, the Theater an der Wien was "the most lavishly equipped and one of the largest theatres of its age". However, Schikaneder may have overextended himself in building it, as in less than a year he had to give up ownership, though he twice served the theater as artistic director, staging elaborate productions there.

During this period, Schikaneder was an artistic associate of Ludwig van Beethoven, who for a time attempted to set Schikaneder's libretto Vestas Feuer ("Vesta's Fire") as an opera. Beethoven lived in rooms in the Theater an der Wien during this time at Schikaneder's invitation, and continued there for a while as he switched his efforts in operatic composition to his Fidelio.

In 1804, the Theater an der Wien was sold to Baron Peter von Braun who immediately dismissed his archrival. Schikaneder left Vienna to work in Brno and Steyr. His life took a catastrophic turn starting in 1811. First, after economic problems caused by war and an 1811 currency devaluation, he lost most of his fortune. Then, in 1812, during a journey to Budapest to take up a new post, Schikaneder was stricken with insanity. He died in poverty on 21 September 1812, aged 61, in Vienna.

Schikaneder wrote a total of about 55 theatre pieces and 44 libretti.

Family

Two of Schikaneder's relatives also worked as singers.

  • Urban Schikaneder (1746-1818), a bass, was Emanuel's older brother. He was born in Regensburg on 2 November 1746, and worked for a number of years in his brother's troupe, both as a singer and in helping to administer the group. At the premiere of The Magic Flute, he sang the role of the First Priest.[3]
  • Anna Schikaneder, (1767-1862) also called "Nanny" or "Nanette", was Urban's daughter. At age 24 she sang the role of the First Boy in The Magic Flute. Later in her career she moved to the opera company of the Theater in der Leopoldstadt, where she took on the role Queen of the Night in the same opera, among other roles. In later years she became blind, and lived in Freising.[4]

One of Urban's descendants is Jakub Schikaneder (1855-1924), a well known Czech painter.

Schikaneder's illegitimate son Franz Schikaneder (1802-1877) was a blacksmith in the service of emperor Ferdinand I of Austria. He had two daughters, Franziska and Catharina, of whom the latter died on 28 November 1914 in Vienna.[5]

Notes

  1. ^ Buch, 1997
  2. ^ According to records, Sebastian Meyer was not employed by the Schikaneder troupe until 1793, two years after the premiere of Die Zauberflöte. However, he was the second husband of Josepha Hofer who, as the first Queen of the Night, was certainly present. For skeptical comment on these tales, see Branscombe (1965).
  3. ^ Grove, "Schikaneder"
  4. ^ Grove, "Schikaneder"
  5. ^ Lorenz, 2008, pp. 32-34.

References

  • Most of the information above is taken from the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, available in many libraries and as a paid site online. But many libraries and universities have Grove in their e-sources offers.
  • Branscombe, Peter (1965) "Die Zauberflöte: Some Textual and Interpretative Problems," Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 45-63.
  • Buch, David (1997) "Mozart and the Theater auf der Wieden: New Attributions and Perspectives," Cambridge Opera Journal, pp. 195-232.
  • Deutsch, Otto Erich (1965) Mozart: A Documentary Biography; English translations by Eric Blom, Peter Branscombe, and Jeremy Noble, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. This book contains many mentions of Schikaneder from first-hand sources. The stories from Ignaz Franz Castelli were taken by Deutsch from Castelli's 1861 memoirs.
  • Lorenz, Michael: "Neue Forschungsergebnisse zum Theater auf der Wieden und Emanuel Schikaneder", Wiener Geschichtsblätter 4/2008, (Vienna: Verein für Geschichte der Stadt Wien, 2008), pp. 15-36.

External links

Advertisements

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message