Embargo: Wikis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An embargo is the partial or complete prohibition of commerce and trade with a particular country, in order to isolate it. Embargoes are considered strong diplomatic measures imposed in an effort, by the embargo-imposing-country, to elicit a given national-interest result from the country on which it is imposed. Embargoes are similar to economic sanctions and are generally considered legal barriers to trade, not to be confused with blockades, which are often considered to be acts of war.[1] The Embargo of 1807 was a series of laws passed by the U.S. Congress 1806-1808, during the second term of President Thomas Jefferson. Britain and France were engaged in a major war; the U.S. wanted to remain neutral and trade with both sides, but neither side wanted the other to have the American supplies. The American national-interest goal was to use the new laws to avoid war, punish Britain, and force that country to respect American rights.[2]

One of the most comprehensive attempts at an embargo happened during the Napoleonic Wars. In an attempt to cripple the United Kingdom economically, the Continental System- which forbade European nations from trading with the UK- was created. In practice it was not completely enforceable and was as harmful if not more so to the nations involved than to the British.[citation needed]

The United States imposed an embargo on Cuba's Castro government on February 7, 1962.[3] Misnomered by Cuba as "el bloqueo" (the blockade), the US embargo on Cuba remains as one of the longest standing embargoes. While taking some steps to allow limited economic exchanges with Cuba, President Barack Obama stated that, without improved human rights and freedoms by Cuba's current government, the embargo remains "in the national interest of the United States." The embargo has, thus far, had very limited success in bringing about any such changes in Cuban policies, as it is widely criticized and has, more significantly, been completely disregarded, even by many countries considered to be avowed allies of the United States.

Oddly enough, United States law prohibits participation in secondary embargoes.[citation needed] This occurs when one country pressures a business to stop doing business with a third country over issues with which the business is not directly involved. Not only is an American business required not to participate in a secondary embargo, but is also required to report all attempts to get a business to participate in a secondary embargo. The situation which led to these laws are attempts by Arab countries to prevent American companies from doing business with Israel and Iraq.[citation needed]

In effort to punish South Africa for its policies of apartheid, The United Nation General Assembly adopted a voluntary international oil embargo against South Africa on November 20, 1987; that embargo had the support of 130 countries.[4]

Embargoes are complex in their international meaning. In response to embargoes, an independent economy or autarky often develops in an area subjected to heavy embargo. Effectiveness of embargoes are thus necessarily in direct proportion to the extent and degree of international participation.

Contents

List of countries under embargo

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Former embargoes

Notes

See also


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to The Embargo article)

From Wikisource

The Embargo
by William Cullen Bryant

When private faith and public trust are sold,
And traitors barter liberty for gold;
When fell corruption, dark, and deep, like fate,
Saps the foundation of a sinking state;
Then warmer numbers glow through satire's page,
And all her smiles are darken'd into rage;
Then keener indignation fires her eye,
Then flash her lightnings, and her thunders fly!

PD-icon.svg This work published before January 1, 1923 is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

EMBARGO (a Spanish word meaning "stoppage"), in international law, the detention by a state of vessels within its ports as a measure of public, as distinguished from private, utility. In practice it serves as a mode of coercing a weaker state. In the middle ages war, being regarded as a complete rupture between belligerent states, operated as a suspension of all respect for the person and property of private citizens; an article of Magna Carta (1215) provided that ". .. if there shall be found any such merchants in our land in the beginning of a war, they shall be attached, without damage to their bodies or goods, until it may be known unto us, or our Chief Justiciary, how our merchants are treated who happen to be in the country which is at war with us; and if ours be safe there, theirs shall be safe in our lands" (art. 48).

Embargoes in anticipation of war have long since fallen into disuse, and it is now customary on the outbreak of war for the belligerents even to grant a respite to the enemy's trading vessels to leave their ports at the outbreak of war, so that neither ship nor cargo is any longer exposed to embargo. This has been confirmed in one of the Hague Conventions of 1907 (convention relative to the status of enemy merchant ships at the outbreak of hostilities, Oct. 18, 1907), which provides that "when a merchant ship belonging to one of the belligerent powers is at the commencement of hostilities in an enemy port, it is desirable that it should be allowed to depart freely, either immediately, or after a reasonable number of days of grace, and to proceed, after being furnished with a pass, direct to its port of destination, or any other port indicated" (art. 1). The next article of the same convention limits the option apparently granted by the use of the word "desirable," providing that "a merchant ship unable, owing to circumstances of force majeure, to leave the enemy port within the period contemplated (in the previous article), or which was not allowed to leave, cannot be confiscated. The belligerent may only detain it, without compensation, but subject to the obligation of restoring it after the war, or requisition it on payment of compensation" (art. 2). (T. BA.)


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also embargo

German

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Embargo

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Noun

Embargo n. (genitive Embargos, plural Embargos)

  1. embargo

Derived terms

  • Diplomatieembargo, Handelsembargo, Teilembargo, Totalembargo, Rohstoffembargo, Waffenembargo

Simple English

An embargo is when a government starts a trade blockade on a country or a certain part of a country. This is usually because of a political problem inside the country.

Uses

An embargo stops trade between countries. This means that the countries in question will get poorer and hopefully any problem within the country will stop.


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