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Emperor Tsuchimikado
83th Emperor of Japan
Reign 1198–1210
Born 1196
Died 1231[aged 35]
Buried Kanegahara no Misasagi (Kyoto)
Predecessor Emperor Go-Toba
Successor Emperor Juntoku

Emperor Tsuchimikado (土御門天皇 Tsuchimikado-tennō ?) (January 3, 1196 – November 6, 1231) was the 83rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1198 through 1210.[1]

Contents

Genealogy

Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name (his imina)[2] was Tamehito-shinnō (為仁親王 ?).[3]

He was the firstborn son of Emperor Go-Toba. His mother was Ariko (在子)(1171-1257), daughter of Minamoto no Michichika (源通親).

  • Empress (Chūgū): Ōinomikado (Fujiwara) noReiko (大炊御門(藤原)麗子)[4]
  • Lady-in-waiting: Tsuchimikado (Minamoto) no Michi-ko (土御門(源)通子)[5]
    • First daughter: Princess Haruko (春子女王)
    • Second daughter: Imperial Princess Akiko (覚子内親王)[6]
    • Third son: Prince Jinsuke (仁助法親王) (Buddhist Priest)
    • Fourth son: Prince Chikahito (静仁法親王) (Buddhist Priest)
    • Sixth son: Prince Kunihito (邦仁王) (Emperor Go-Saga)
    • Fifth daughter: Princess Hideko (秀子女王)

Events of Tsuchimikado's life

In 1198, he became emperor upon the abdication of Emperor Go-Toba, who continued to rule actually as cloistered emperor.

  • 1198 (Kenkyū 9, 11th day of the 1st month): In the 15th year of Go-Toba-tennō 's reign (後鳥天皇15年), the emperor abdicated; and the succession (‘‘senso’’) was received by his eldest son.[7]
  • Kenkyū 9, in the 3rd month (1198): Emperor Tsuchimikado is said to have acceded to the throne (‘‘sokui’’).[8]

In 1210, Go-Toba persuaded him to abdicate in favor of his younger brother, who became Emperor Juntoku.

In Kyōto, Minamoto no Michichika took power as steward, and in Kamakura, in 1199, upon the death of Minamoto no Yoritomo, Hōjō Tokimasa began to rule as Gokenin.

Tsuchimikado felt compelled to abandon Kyoto, traveling first to Tosa province (now known as Kōchi Prefecture); and later, he removed himself to Awa province, where he died in exile.[9]

Kugyō

Kugyō (公卿) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras.

In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Tsuchimikado's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included:

Eras of Tsuchimikado's reign

The years of Tschuimikado's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō.[11]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp.221-230; Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, pp. 3339-341; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. pp. 220-221.
  2. ^ Brown, pp. 264; n.b., up until the time of Emperor Jomei, the personal names of the emperors (their imina) were very long and people did not generally use them. The number of characters in each name diminished after Jomei's reign.
  3. ^ Titsingh, p. 221; Brown, p. 339; Varley, p. 220.
  4. ^ The Emergence of Japanese Kingship, Joan R. Piggott, p5
  5. ^ Fortunes of Emperors, Richard A. Ponsonby, p45
  6. ^ The Emergence of Japanese Kingship, Joan R. Piggott, p5
  7. ^ Brown, p.339; Varley, p. 44; n.b., a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami.
  8. ^ Titsingh, p.221; Varley, p. 44.
  9. ^ Takekoshi, Yosaburō. (2004). The Economic Aspects of the History of the Civilization of Japan, Volume 1, p. 186.
  10. ^ a b Brown, p. 339.
  11. ^ Titsingh, p. 221; Brown, p. 340.

References

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Go-Toba
Emperor of Japan:
Tsuchimikado

1198-1210
Succeeded by
Emperor Juntoku
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