Emphysema: Wikis

  
  

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Emphysema
Classification and external resources

A lateral CXR of a person with emphysema. Note the barrel chest and flat diaphragm.
ICD-10 J43.
ICD-9 492
DiseasesDB 4190
MedlinePlus 000136
eMedicine med/654
MeSH D011656
.Emphysema is a long-term, progressive disease of the lung that primarily causes shortness of breath.^ Emphysema - final stages - Lung Diseases .
  • Emphysema - final stages - Lung Diseases 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC forums.about.com [Source type: General]

^ People with emphysema have obstructive lung disease.
  • B-Reader / Discovery Diagnostics, Inc. - Articles: Emphysema Article || "Discovery Diagnostics is a California medical corporation led by Daniel Powers, MD who provides primary diagnostic Imaging services in 49 states and the District of Columbia and second opinions in all 50 states." 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.breader.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emphysema is a lung disease that causes permanent damage of the airways of a person's lungs.
  • Emphysema: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC health.learninginfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In people with emphysema, the lung tissues necessary to support the physical shape and function of the lung are destroyed.^ People with emphysema have obstructive lung disease.
  • B-Reader / Discovery Diagnostics, Inc. - Articles: Emphysema Article || "Discovery Diagnostics is a California medical corporation led by Daniel Powers, MD who provides primary diagnostic Imaging services in 49 states and the District of Columbia and second opinions in all 50 states." 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.breader.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In most people, emphysema will be diagnosed by X-ray or lung-function tests.
  • Emphysema - Emphysema Description - Emphysema Symptoms - Emphysema Prevention - Emphysema Treatment 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC symptomchecker.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emphysema is a deterioration of the lung tissue.

.It is included in a group of diseases called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD (pulmonary refers to the lungs).^ Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is also called chronic obstructive lung disease.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Emphysema and Bronchitis 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.stayinginshape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Emphysema and Bronchitis 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.stayinginshape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Barnes PJ: Mediators of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  • Respiratory Research | Full text | Perforin, granzyme B and FasL expression by peripheral T lymphocytes in emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC respiratory-research.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Consider joining a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease support group.
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC emphysema.org [Source type: General]

.Emphysema is called an obstructive lung disease because the destruction of lung tissue around smaller airways, called bronchioles, makes these airways unable to hold their functional shape upon exhalation.^ Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is also called chronic obstructive lung disease.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Emphysema and Bronchitis 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.stayinginshape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Emphysema and Bronchitis 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.stayinginshape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emphysema - final stages - Lung Diseases .
  • Emphysema - final stages - Lung Diseases 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC forums.about.com [Source type: General]

^ People with emphysema have obstructive lung disease.
  • B-Reader / Discovery Diagnostics, Inc. - Articles: Emphysema Article || "Discovery Diagnostics is a California medical corporation led by Daniel Powers, MD who provides primary diagnostic Imaging services in 49 states and the District of Columbia and second opinions in all 50 states." 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.breader.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term means swelling and comes from the Greek emhysan meaning inflate, itself composed of en meaning in and physa meaning breath, blast.^ The word itself is derived from Greek and means to blow into.
  • Questions about Emphysema - Ask.com 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ The word emphysema is derived from Greek and means "to blow into," hence "air containing" or "air inflated."

[1]

Contents

Classification

.Emphysema is commonly associated with chronic bronchitis.^ People with emphysema often have chronic bronchitis also.
  • Emphysema Care Guide Information 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]
  • Emphysema | Causes, Symptoms, Treatment | PDRHealth 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.pdrhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ It is not that Chronic Bronchitis is better than emphysema .
  • Life Expectancy Emphysema - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is associated with chronic bronchitis and smoking.
  • emphysema Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Since it is difficult to delineate "pure" cases of emphysema or chronic bronchitis, they are generally grouped together as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).^ Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is also called chronic obstructive lung disease.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Emphysema and Bronchitis 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.stayinginshape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Emphysema and Bronchitis 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.stayinginshape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Barnes PJ: Mediators of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  • Respiratory Research | Full text | Perforin, granzyme B and FasL expression by peripheral T lymphocytes in emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC respiratory-research.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Consider joining a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease support group.
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC emphysema.org [Source type: General]

.Emphysema can be classified into primary and secondary color.^ Classification :- Emphysema can be classified into primary and secondary.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four radiologists visually classified different degrees of emphysema on three different types of CT images into four groups.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, it is more commonly classified by location.^ However, it is more commonly classified by location.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Emphysema can be subdivided into panacinary and centroacinary (or panacinar and centriacinar,[2] or centrilobular and panlobular).^ Panlobular Emphysema (also known as Panacinar Emphysema).
  • B-Reader / Discovery Diagnostics, Inc. - Articles: Emphysema Article || "Discovery Diagnostics is a California medical corporation led by Daniel Powers, MD who provides primary diagnostic Imaging services in 49 states and the District of Columbia and second opinions in all 50 states." 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.breader.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pathology The two basic forms of emphysema are centriacinar (centrilobular) and panacinar (panlobular).
  • Pulmonary Emphysema | July 2003 | RT for Decision Makers in Respiratory Care 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.rtmagazine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Panacinar Emphysema in association with Centrilobular Emphysema: .

[3]
.
  • Panacinar (or panlobular) emphysema: The entire respiratory acinus, from respiratory bronchiole to alveoli, is expanded.^ Panlobular Emphysema (also known as Panacinar Emphysema).
    • B-Reader / Discovery Diagnostics, Inc. - Articles: Emphysema Article || "Discovery Diagnostics is a California medical corporation led by Daniel Powers, MD who provides primary diagnostic Imaging services in 49 states and the District of Columbia and second opinions in all 50 states." 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.breader.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The acinus is uniformly involved in panacinar emphysema.

    ^ Panacinar emphysema affects the entire acinus; therefore, the alveoli on the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveolar sacs become permanently enlarged and experience alveolar-wall destruction.
    • Pulmonary Emphysema | July 2003 | RT for Decision Makers in Respiratory Care 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.rtmagazine.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Occurs more commonly in the lower lobes, especially basal segments, and anterior margins of the lungs.^ It occurs much more often in men than in women and is commonly associated with chronic bronchitis .

    ^ A syndrome including upper-lobe emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis of the lower lungs was recently characterized.
    • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Single-lung transplantation is performed more commonly among COPD patients than in any other patient population.
    • Pulmonary Emphysema | July 2003 | RT for Decision Makers in Respiratory Care 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.rtmagazine.com [Source type: Academic]

    [2]
  • .
  • Centroacinar (or centrilobular) emphysema: The respiratory bronchiole (proximal and central part of the acinus) is expanded.^ Centrilobular emphysema affects the proximal aspects of the lung acinus — primarily the area of the respiratory bronchioles .
    • B-Reader / Discovery Diagnostics, Inc. - Articles: Emphysema Article || "Discovery Diagnostics is a California medical corporation led by Daniel Powers, MD who provides primary diagnostic Imaging services in 49 states and the District of Columbia and second opinions in all 50 states." 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.breader.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In centriacinar or centrilobular emphysema, enlargement and destruction are centered in the first- and second-order respiratory bronchioles.

    ^ Proximal part of the acinus (respiratory bronchioles) is selectively or predominantly involved in centriacinar emphysema, of which there are two forms.

    .The distal acinus or alveoli are unchanged.^ The pulmonary acinus is composed of tissue distal to the terminal bronchiole compromising three to eight generations of respiratory bronchioles with their associated alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs and accompanying alveoli .
    • B-Reader / Discovery Diagnostics, Inc. - Articles: Emphysema Article || "Discovery Diagnostics is a California medical corporation led by Daniel Powers, MD who provides primary diagnostic Imaging services in 49 states and the District of Columbia and second opinions in all 50 states." 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.breader.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Occurs more commonly in the upper lobes.^ It occurs much more often in men than in women and is commonly associated with chronic bronchitis .

    ^ Participants with mostly upper-lobe emphysema and low exercise capacity were more likely to live longer and more likely to function better after LVRS than after medical treatment.
    • NATIONAL EMPHYSEMA TREATMENT TRIAL 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.nhlbi.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The bullous cysts found in association with intravenous use of cocaine or heroin occur predominantly in the upper lobes.

    [2]
.Other types include distal acinar and irregular.^ Other types include distal acinar and irregular.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In human lungs ( 53 ), elastin content was decreased in panacinar and severe centriacinar emphysema, but collagen content was increased in centriacinar, distal acinar, and irregular emphysema.
  • On the Progressive Nature of Emphysema: Roles of Proteases, Inflammation, and Mechanical Forces -- Suki et al. 168 (5): 516 -- American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC ajrccm.atsjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[2]
.
A special type is congenital lobar emphysema (CLE).
^ A special type is congenital lobar emphysema (CLE).
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some cases of congenital lobar emphysema may be caused by autosomal dominant inheritance while others occur for no apparent reason (sporadic).
  • CIGNA - Emphysema, Congenital Lobar 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Congenital lobar emphysema may result from unknown causes or it may be inherited.
  • CIGNA - Emphysema, Congenital Lobar 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: Academic]

Congenital lobar emphysema

.CLE is results in overexpansion of a pulmonary lobe and resultant compression of the remaining lobes of the ipsilateral lung, and possibly also the contralateral lung.^ Congenital lobar emphysema :- CLE is results in overexpansion of a pulmonary lobe and resultant compression of the remaining lobes of the ipsilateral lung, and possibly also the contralateral lung.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CONCLUSION: Lung-volume reduction surgery for pulmonary emphysema improved the BODE index in patients with predominantly upper-lobe disease.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A syndrome including upper-lobe emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis of the lower lungs was recently characterized.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

.There is bronchial narrowing because of weakened or absent bronchial cartilage.^ There is bronchial narrowing because of weakened or absent bronchial cartilage.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
.There may be congenital extrinsic compression, commonly by an abnormally large pulmonary artery.^ There may be congenital extrinsic compression, commonly by an abnormally large pulmonary artery.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These tests (pulmonary function and arterial blood gas) give the best idea of disease severity and what the long­term outlook may be.
  • Section G1: Bronchitis and Emphysem 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lakesidepress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other Sub-Categories of Emphysema : Bullous Emphysema (also known as Bullous Lung Disease) : Bullous emphysema is so named when there are multiple large bullae associated with a compromise in pulmonary function.
  • B-Reader / Discovery Diagnostics, Inc. - Articles: Emphysema Article || "Discovery Diagnostics is a California medical corporation led by Daniel Powers, MD who provides primary diagnostic Imaging services in 49 states and the District of Columbia and second opinions in all 50 states." 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.breader.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This causes malformation of bronchial cartilage, making them soft and collapsible.^ This causes malformation of bronchial cartilage, making them soft and collapsible.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This air continues to dissect and make its way into the mediastinum causing a pneumomediastinum (visible on chest x-ray) and can also continue into the subcutaneous soft tissues of the chest wall as subcutaneous emphysema .
  • B-Reader / Discovery Diagnostics, Inc. - Articles: Emphysema Article || "Discovery Diagnostics is a California medical corporation led by Daniel Powers, MD who provides primary diagnostic Imaging services in 49 states and the District of Columbia and second opinions in all 50 states." 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.breader.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cold air can cause spasms of the bronchial passages, making it even more difficult to breathe.
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Emphysema - Valley Health System 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www-cgi.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • georgiahealthinfo.gov 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC georgiahealthinfo.gov [Source type: General]

[4]
.CLE is potentially reversible, yet possibly life-threatening, causing respiratory distress in the neonate.^ CLE is potentially reversible, yet possibly life-threatening, causing respiratory distress in the neonate .
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We think that the majority of cases with CLE have too severe respiratory distress to avoid surgical removal of affected lobe.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) is an uncommon cause of progressive respiratory distress that typically presents in the first few days of life.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

[4]

Signs and symptoms

.Emphysema is a disease of the lung tissue caused by destruction of structures feeding the alveoli, in some cases owing to the action of alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency.^ It is caused by a rare genetic deficiency of the protein alpha 1 -antitrypsin.
  • emphysema Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Basically this disease is characterized by elasticity of the lung tissue, destruction of structures supporting the alveoli, and destruction of capillaries feeding the alveoli.
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.essay-911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emphysema is characterized by loss of elasticity (increased pulmonary compliance) of the lung tissue caused by destruction of structures feeding the alveoli, in some cases owing to the action of alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency .
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This causes the small airways to collapse during forced exhalation, as alveolar collapsibility has decreased.^ As a result the process of breathing, and gas exchange in particular becomes quite problematic for the small airways collapse during expiration, leading to an obstructive form of lung disease, when air is trapped in the lungs.
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.essay-911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The forced exhalation compresses many of your small airways, making expelling air even more difficult.
  • MayoClinic.com Health Library - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.riversideonline.com [Source type: General]

^ The forced exhalation compresses many of your small airways, making breathing and expelling air even more difficult.
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC emphysema.org [Source type: General]

.As a result, airflow is impeded and air becomes trapped in the lungs, in the same way as other obstructive lung diseases.^ People with emphysema have obstructive lung disease.
  • B-Reader / Discovery Diagnostics, Inc. - Articles: Emphysema Article || "Discovery Diagnostics is a California medical corporation led by Daniel Powers, MD who provides primary diagnostic Imaging services in 49 states and the District of Columbia and second opinions in all 50 states." 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.breader.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inflammation in chronic obstructive lung disease.
  • Apoptosis and Emphysema: The Missing Link -- Tuder et al. 28 (5): 551 -- American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC ajrcmb.atsjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Emphysema is a chronic obstructive disease of the lungs.
  • Emphysema – UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.upmc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Your Health - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.aurorahealthcare.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Emphysema | ThirdAge Articles 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: General]
  • Emphysema - HealthLibrary - Somerville, New Jersey NJ 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.somersetmedicalcenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Butler Hospital Providence, RI 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.butler.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • St. David's HealthCare - Health Information - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC stdavids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Saint Francis Breast Health Services - 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.saintfrancis.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Emphysema - HealthLibrary 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Emphysema - Content Viewer 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.svmh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.halifaxhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Northern Arizona Healthcare - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.nahealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Information Details 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.ridgeviewmedical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tufts Medical Center - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.tufts-nemc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • St. Joseph and Redwood Memorial Hospitals - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC stjosepheureka.myhospitalwebsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Symptoms include shortness of breath on exertion, and an expanded chest.^ Shortness of breath -- initially on exertion .
  • Emphysema -- eCureMe.com 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.ecureme.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Major symptoms may include shortness of breath on exertion, coughing and loss of appetite.
  • CIGNA - Emphysema, Congenital Lobar 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: Academic]

^ His main symptom was shortness of breath on exertion.
  • Section G1: Bronchitis and Emphysem 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lakesidepress.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, the constriction of air passages isn't always immediately deadly, and treatment is available.^ Other treatments often involve using various bronchodilators, which are medications intended to open up the air passages as much as possible in order to make available all the lung function an individual has.
  • emphysema, alpha-1 antitrypsin, lung transplantation, lung volume reduction surgery 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: Academic]

.Most of the people who have emphysema are smokers.^ Chronic bronchitis, defined by a long-term cough with mucus Emphysema, defined by destruction of the lungs over time Most people with COPD have a combination of both conditions.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease :: BestHealth.com :: Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.besthealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The single most preventable cause of emphysema is cigarette smoking, with a very high percentage of people with the condition being smokers.
  • Emphysema: what you need to know - myDr.com.au 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.mydr.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ The intention of this site is to provide support for people living in the UK, who suffer from the genetic condition Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (an uncommon cause of emphysema) .
  • Emphysema | Patient UK 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Damage caused by emphysema is permanent even after the person stops smoking.^ Smoking is the leading cause of emphysema.
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www-cgi.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • georgiahealthinfo.gov 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC georgiahealthinfo.gov [Source type: General]

^ Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of emphysema.
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC copd.emedtv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The person must stop smoking permanently.
  • Emphysema - What Is Emphysema?, Who Gets Emphysema?, Effects of Smoking and Other Causes, Years ago, A Close-Up Look at the Alveoli 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.humanillnesses.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Emphysema – FREE Emphysema information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Emphysema research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.People with this disease don't get enough oxygen and cannot eradicate the carbon dioxide, so they always have a shortage of breath.^ They may need to breathe oxygen.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Emphysema and Bronchitis 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.stayinginshape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The decrease in lung elasticity, the trapping of air in the lungs, and the loss of alveolar surface area means that the person must breathe harder to force carbon dioxide out of the lungs and draw in oxygen.
  • Emphysema - What Is Emphysema?, Who Gets Emphysema?, Effects of Smoking and Other Causes, Years ago, A Close-Up Look at the Alveoli 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.humanillnesses.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Emphysema – FREE Emphysema information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Emphysema research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The damaged alveoli are not able to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the blood.
  • emphysema, alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency, lung transplantation 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: Academic]

Causes

.The primary cause of emphysema is the smoking of cigarettes.^ The most important cause of pulmonary emphysema is cigarette smoking.

^ Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of emphysema.
  • HealthyOntario.com - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.healthyontario.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Emphysema - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis - Jackson Sun 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC health.jacksonsun.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Emphysema - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis - Health - redOrbit 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC health.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The main cause of emphysema is smoking .
  • Natural Remedies for the Treatment of Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some cases it maybe due to alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency.^ An overview of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Augmentation therapy in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency in emphysema.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

.Severe cases of A1AD may also develop cirrhosis of the liver, where the accumulated A1AT leads to a fibrotic reaction.^ This study also adds to the accumulating evidence that several mechanisms may lead to …” .
  • Emphysema video and audio on health brought to you by Boston.com 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: News]

^ Most A1AD patients do not develop clinically significant emphysema, but smoking and severely decreased A1AT levels (10-15%) can cause emphysema at a young age.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the liver, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency may manifest as benign neonatal hepatitis syndrome; a small percentage of adults develop liver fibrosis, with progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

Pathophysiology

.
Pathology of lung showing centrilobular emphysema characteristic of smoking.
^ Gross pathology of bullous emphysema shows bullae on the surface of the lungs.

^ Gross pathology of emphysema shows bullae on the lung surface.

^ Floyer was studying pulmonary (lung) disorders and described the characteristic prolonged expiration and progressive nature of emphysema.
  • Emphysema - What Is Emphysema?, Who Gets Emphysema?, Effects of Smoking and Other Causes, Years ago, A Close-Up Look at the Alveoli 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.humanillnesses.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Emphysema – FREE Emphysema information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Emphysema research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

Closeup of fixed, cut surface shows multiple cavities lined by heavy black carbon deposits. (CDC/Dr. Edwin P. Ewing, Jr., 1973)
.In normal breathing, air is drawn in through the bronchi and into the alveoli, which are tiny sacs surrounded by capillaries.^ Pathophysiology:- In normal breathing , air is drawn in through the bronchi and into the alveoli, which are tiny sacs surrounded by capillaries.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lungs contain millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli.
  • Emphysema – UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.upmc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Your Health - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.aurorahealthcare.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Emphysema | ThirdAge Articles 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: General]
  • Butler Hospital Providence, RI 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.butler.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Saint Francis Breast Health Services - 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.saintfrancis.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Emphysema - HealthLibrary 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Emphysema - Content Viewer 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.svmh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.halifaxhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Northern Arizona Healthcare - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.nahealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Information Details 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.ridgeviewmedical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • St. Joseph and Redwood Memorial Hospitals - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC stjosepheureka.myhospitalwebsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The alveoli are the tiny air sacs of the lungs where oxygen is put into the bloodstream.
  • Emphysema Care Guide Information 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]
  • Emphysema | Causes, Symptoms, Treatment | PDRHealth 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.pdrhealth.com [Source type: General]

.Alveoli absorb oxygen and then transfer it into the blood.^ Alveoli absorb oxygen and then transfer it into the blood.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The damaged alveoli are not able to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the blood.
  • emphysema, alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency, lung transplantation 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tobacco smoke damages the lungs' alveoli, the tiny air sacs through which inhaled oxygen is transferred to the bloodstream and carbon dioxide is passed back to the lungs to be exhaled.
  • emphysema Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.When toxicants, such as cigarette smoke, are breathed into the lungs, the harmful particles become trapped in the alveoli, causing a localized inflammatory response.^ Cigarette smoking is the leading cause.

^ When toxicants, such as cigarette smoke, are breathed into the lungs, the harmful particles become trapped in the alveoli, causing a localized inflammatory response .
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cigarette smoking is the main cause of emphysema.
  • Dean Health System: Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.deancare.com [Source type: General]

.Chemicals released during the inflammatory response (e.g., elastase) can eventually cause the alveolar septum to disintegrate.^ Chemicals released during the inflammatory response (e.g., elastase) can eventually cause the alveolar septum to disintegrate.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the absence of antitrypsin, which normally functions to protect the lungs from damage, the walls of the alveoli are attacked by chemicals released in alveoli in response to tobacco smoke and air pollutants.
  • emphysema Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The activity of inflammatory cell–released proteases is inhibited by antiproteases, while other proteases in alveolar septal structure cells are engaged in the ongoing work of repair and angiogenic remodeling and join the neutrophil and macrophage elastases in support of the innate immune response.
  • Molecular pathogenesis of emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Molecular pathogenesis of emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

.This condition, known as septal rupture, leads to significant deformation of the lung architecture.^ This condition, known as septal rupture, leads to significant deformation of the lung architecture.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The loss of the lung architecture leads to compressible peripheral airways that close at higher than normal lung volumes (early airway closure).
  • National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC clinicaltrials.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ An empysema related condition is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (also known as COPD), a general term for a group of diseases which cause progressive damage to your lungs.
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC emphysema.org [Source type: General]

[5] .These deformations result in a large decrease of alveoli surface area used for gas exchange.^ These deformations result in a large decrease of alveoli surface area used for gas exchange.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To accommodate the decreased surface area, thoracic cage expansion (barrel chest) and diaphragm contraction (flattening) take place.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the alveoli continue to break down, hyperventilation is unable to compensate for the progressively shrinking surface area, and the body is not able to maintain high enough oxygen levels in the blood.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This results in a decreased Transfer Factor of the Lung for Carbon Monoxide (TLCO).^ The best predictor has been the diffusing capacity (transfer factor) for carbon monoxide, although no single test is entirely adequate.

^ Single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (transfer factor).
  • A Pilot Study of All-trans-Retinoic Acid for the Treatment of Human Emphysema -- MAO et al. 165 (5): 718 -- American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC ajrccm.atsjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Pulmonary function tests show respiratory volumes and flows that are often normal or subnormal, while carbon monoxide transfer is substantially reduced and exercise hypoxemia is present.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

.To accommodate the decreased surface area, thoracic cage expansion (barrel chest) and diaphragm contraction (flattening) take place.^ To accommodate the decreased surface area, thoracic cage expansion (barrel chest) and diaphragm contraction (flattening) take place.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The increased compliance and the air trapping from early closure leads to hyperinflation of the lung, over distention of the chest wall, a flattened, disadvantaged diaphragm, and ventilation-perfusion mismatch.
  • National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC clinicaltrials.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These deformations result in a large decrease of alveoli surface area used for gas exchange.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Expiration increasingly depends on the thoracic cage and abdominal muscle action, particularly in the end expiratory phase.^ Expiration increasingly depends on the thoracic cage and abdominal muscle action, particularly in the end expiratory phase.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Due to decreased ventilation, the ability to exude carbon dioxide is significantly impaired.^ Due to decreased ventilation, the ability to exude carbon dioxide is significantly impaired.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the condition progresses, the lungs also lose their ability to absorb oxygen and release carbon dioxide.
  • Emphysema - Emphysema Description - Emphysema Symptoms - Emphysema Prevention - Emphysema Treatment 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC symptomchecker.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When carbon dioxide accumulation becomes a severe problem, mechanical breathing machines called respirators, or ventilators, must be used.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Emphysema and Bronchitis 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.stayinginshape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the more serious cases, oxygen uptake is also impaired.^ In the more serious cases, oxygen uptake is also impaired.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the alveoli continue to break down, hyperventilation is unable to compensate for the progressively shrinking surface area, and the body is not able to maintain high enough oxygen levels in the blood.^ This is because emphysema sufferers may hyperventilate to maintain adequate blood oxygen levels.
  • COPD & Emphysema Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

^ As the alveoli continue to break down, hyperventilation is unable to compensate for the progressively shrinking surface area, and the body is not able to maintain high enough oxygen levels in the blood.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The body will also attempt to compensate for the low oxygen level by increasing the number of red blood cells ( secondary polycythemia ).
  • Emphysema - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis - ABQ Journal 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC health.abqjournal.com [Source type: Academic]

.The body's last resort is vasoconstricting appropriate vessels.^ The body’s last resort is vasoconstricting appropriate vessels.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This leads to pulmonary hypertension, which places increased strain on the right side of the heart, the side responsible for pumping deoxygenated blood to the lungs.^ This leads to pulmonary hypertension, which places increased strain on the right side of the heart, the side responsible for pumping deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension is a disorder of the lungs.
  • CIGNA - Emphysema, Congenital Lobar 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This tissue destruction reduces the surface area of the lung available for gas exchange and reduces elastic recoil, ultimately leading to hyperinflation, airflow limitation, ventilation/perfusion mismatching, impaired oxygen transfer, increased pulmonary vascular resistance, and right heart dysfunction.
  • A Pilot Study of All-trans-Retinoic Acid for the Treatment of Human Emphysema -- MAO et al. 165 (5): 718 -- American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC ajrccm.atsjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The heart muscle thickens in order to pump more blood.^ The heart muscle thickens in order to pump more blood.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This leads to pulmonary hypertension, which places increased strain on the right side of the heart, the side responsible for pumping deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The walls of the alveoli contain tiny blood vessels called capillaries, which lead to larger vessels that return blood to the heart to be pumped throughout the body.
  • Emphysema – FREE Emphysema information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Emphysema research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.This condition is often accompanied by the appearance of jugular venous distension.^ This condition is often accompanied by the appearance of jugular venous distension.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eventually, as the heart continues to fail, it becomes larger and blood backs up in the liver.^ Eventually, as the heart continues to fail, it becomes larger and blood backs up in the liver.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The walls of the alveoli contain tiny blood vessels called capillaries, which lead to larger vessels that return blood to the heart to be pumped throughout the body.
  • Emphysema – FREE Emphysema information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Emphysema research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood back to the heart to go to the arterial system.
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.essay-911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Patients with alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1AD) are more likely to suffer from emphysema.^ Patients with alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1AD) are more likely to suffer from emphysema.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lung volume reduction surgery in patients with emphysema and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.histopathology-india.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An overview of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

.A1AD allows inflammatory enzymes (such as elastase) to destroy the alveolar tissue.^ A1AD allows inflammatory enzymes (such as elastase) to destroy the alveolar tissue.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the process, elastase and other proteolytic enzymes are unleashed in the lungs, where these phagocytic cells act virtually unchecked and damage lung tissue.
  • Pulmonary Emphysema | July 2003 | RT for Decision Makers in Respiratory Care 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.rtmagazine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The pathogenesis of emphysema is complex, most often resulting from tobacco-induced inflammation and/or chronic elastase-induced destruction of alveolar tissue ( 1 ).
  • A Pilot Study of All-trans-Retinoic Acid for the Treatment of Human Emphysema -- MAO et al. 165 (5): 718 -- American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC ajrccm.atsjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Most A1AD patients do not develop clinically significant emphysema, but smoking and severely decreased A1AT levels (10-15%) can cause emphysema at a young age.^ The most important cause of pulmonary emphysema is cigarette smoking.

^ Smoking is the leading cause of emphysema.
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • OhioHealth - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www-cgi.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • georgiahealthinfo.gov 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC georgiahealthinfo.gov [Source type: General]

^ Cigarette smoke is by far the most common cause of emphysema.
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OhioHealth - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www-cgi.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • georgiahealthinfo.gov 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC georgiahealthinfo.gov [Source type: General]

.The type of emphysema caused by A1AD is known as panacinar emphysema (involving the entire acinus) as opposed to centrilobular emphysema, which is caused by smoking.^ Panacinar Emphysema in association with Centrilobular Emphysema: .

^ Smoking is the leading cause of emphysema.
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • OhioHealth - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Emphysema - Valley Health System 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www-cgi.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Panlobular Emphysema (also known as Panacinar Emphysema).
  • B-Reader / Discovery Diagnostics, Inc. - Articles: Emphysema Article || "Discovery Diagnostics is a California medical corporation led by Daniel Powers, MD who provides primary diagnostic Imaging services in 49 states and the District of Columbia and second opinions in all 50 states." 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.breader.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Panacinar emphysema typically affects the lower lungs, while centrilobular emphysema affects the upper lungs.^ Panacinar Emphysema in association with Centrilobular Emphysema: .

^ Panacinar emphysema is often associated with centrilobular emphysema.

^ Panacinar emphysema typically affects the lower lungs, while centrilobular emphysema affects the upper lungs.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A1AD causes about 2% of all emphysema.^ A1AD causes about 2% of all emphysema.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emphysema develops due to: Smoking Inhaling toxins or other irritants Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1AD)—a genetic defect which can cause emphysema at an early age in nonsmokers .
  • Emphysema - HealthLibrary 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Northern Arizona Healthcare - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.nahealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Information Details 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.ridgeviewmedical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tufts Medical Center - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.tufts-nemc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • St. Joseph and Redwood Memorial Hospitals - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC stjosepheureka.myhospitalwebsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most A1AD patients do not develop clinically significant emphysema, but smoking and severely decreased A1AT levels (10-15%) can cause emphysema at a young age.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Smokers with A1AD are at the greatest risk for emphysema.^ Smokers with A1AD are at the greatest risk for emphysema.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The single greatest risk factor for emphysema is smoking.
  • MayoClinic.com Health Library - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.riversideonline.com [Source type: General]

^ Smokers living with HIV are at greater risk of emphysema than are smokers who don't have HIV infection.

.Mild emphysema can often develop into a severe case over a short period of time (1–2 weeks).^ Mild emphysema can often develop into a severe case over a short period of time (1–2 weeks).
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) was developed as a means of surgical treatment for severe pulmonary emphysema.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the late stages, the patient often experiences severe cough, constant wheezing, and shortness of breath with minimal exertion or rest.
  • COPD & Emphysema Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

.While A1AD provides some insight into the pathogenesis of the disease, hereditary A1AT deficiency only accounts for a small proportion of the disease.^ Pathogenesis Severe emphysemaWhile A1AD provides some insight into the pathogenesis of the disease, hereditary A1AT deficiency only accounts for a small proportion of the disease.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Understanding the mechanisms by which hyperinflation occurs in COPD provides better insight into how treatments can improve patients' health.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, deficiency in alpha-1-antitrypsin accounts for only a small percentage of all people with emphysema.
  • Emphysema - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.healthscout.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Studies for the better part of the past century have focused mainly upon the putative role of leukocyte elastase (also neutrophil elastase), a serine protease found in neutrophils, as a primary contributor to the connective tissue damage seen in the disease.^ Studies for the better part of the past century have focused mainly upon the putative role of leukocyte elastase (also neutrophil elastase), a serine protease found in neutrophils, as a primary contributor to the connective tissue damage seen in the disease.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This hypothesis, a result of the observation that neutrophil elastase is the primary substrate for A1AT, and A1AT is the primary inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, together have been known as the “protease-antiprotease” theory, implicating neutrophils as an important mediator of the disease.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the process, elastase and other proteolytic enzymes are unleashed in the lungs, where these phagocytic cells act virtually unchecked and damage lung tissue.
  • Pulmonary Emphysema | July 2003 | RT for Decision Makers in Respiratory Care 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.rtmagazine.com [Source type: Academic]

.This hypothesis, a result of the observation that neutrophil elastase is the primary substrate for A1AT, and A1AT is the primary inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, together have been known as the "protease-antiprotease" theory, implicating neutrophils as an important mediator of the disease.^ This hypothesis, a result of the observation that neutrophil elastase is the primary substrate for A1AT, and A1AT is the primary inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, together have been known as the “protease-antiprotease” theory, implicating neutrophils as an important mediator of the disease.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the major physiologic inhibitor for neutrophil elastase.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies for the better part of the past century have focused mainly upon the putative role of leukocyte elastase (also neutrophil elastase), a serine protease found in neutrophils, as a primary contributor to the connective tissue damage seen in the disease.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, more recent studies have brought into light the possibility that one of the many other numerous proteases, especially matrix metalloproteases might be equally or more relevant than neutrophil elastase in the development of non-hereditary emphysema.^ However, more recent studies have brought into light the possibility that one of the many other numerous proteases, especially matrix metalloproteases might be equally or more relevant than neutrophil elastase in the development of non-hereditary emphysema.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emphysema develops due to: Smoking Inhaling toxins or other irritants Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1AD)—a genetic defect which can cause emphysema at an early age in nonsmokers .
  • Emphysema - HealthLibrary 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Northern Arizona Healthcare - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.nahealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Information Details 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.ridgeviewmedical.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tufts Medical Center - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.tufts-nemc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • St. Joseph and Redwood Memorial Hospitals - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC stjosepheureka.myhospitalwebsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies for the better part of the past century have focused mainly upon the putative role of leukocyte elastase (also neutrophil elastase), a serine protease found in neutrophils, as a primary contributor to the connective tissue damage seen in the disease.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The better part of the past few decades of research into the pathogenesis of emphysema involved animal experiments where various proteases were instilled into the trachea of various species of animals.^ The topic of proteases and antiproteases and their roles in various emphysema models has recently been reviewed ( 50 ).
  • Molecular pathogenesis of emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Molecular pathogenesis of emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Pathology of human emphysema Animal models of emphysema Proteases and AAT Innate immunity and oxidative...
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Molecular pathogenesis of emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Can animal models help us to resolve the issue of whether inflammation is necessary in emphysema pathogenesis?
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Molecular pathogenesis of emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

.These animals developed connective tissue damage, which was taken as support for the protease-antiprotease theory.^ This protease-antiprotease imbalance leads to proteolytic damage to lung connective tissue (primarily elastic fibers), and the development of panacinar emphysema.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some conditions that affect connective tissue — the fibers which provide the framework and support for your body — are associated with emphysema.
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC emphysema.org [Source type: General]

^ In contrast, human umbilical vein endothelial cell immunization of T cell–deficient athymic rats does not generate antiendothelial antibodies, and these animals do not develop emphysema.
  • Emphysema: An Autoimmune Vascular Disease? -- Voelkel and Taraseviciene-Stewart 2 (1): 23 -- Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC pats.atsjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, just because these substances can destroy connective tissue in the lung, as anyone would be able to predict, doesn't establish causality.^ However, just because these substances can destroy connective tissue in the lung, as anyone would be able to predict, doesn’t establish causality.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The presence of such toxic products in proximity to the lungs should cause irreversible tissue damage and destruction; however, the lungs normally remain unscathed.
  • Pulmonary Emphysema | July 2003 | RT for Decision Makers in Respiratory Care 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.rtmagazine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Usually just one lung is transplanted because the survival rate has proved to be higher for people with single-lung transplants than for people with double-lung transplants.
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC emphysema.org [Source type: General]

.More recent experiments have focused on more technologically advanced approaches, such as ones involving genetic manipulation.^ Further research is needed to determine if a more family-focused intervention, in conjunction with pharmacological and counselling approaches, would lead to improved smoking cessation outcomes.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This article reviews the current state of lung transplantation for emphysema and provides insight from more than one decade of experience with Washington University's lung transplant program.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This monograph presents an integrated approach to patients with COPD and updates their management incorporating the recent advances in the field.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

.One particular development with respect to our understanding of the disease involves the production of protease "knock-out" animals, which are genetically deficient in one or more proteases, and the assessment of whether they would be less susceptible to the development of the disease.^ One particular development with respect to our understanding of the disease involves the production of protease “knock-out” animals, which are genetically deficient in one or more proteases, and the assessment of whether they would be less susceptible to the development of the disease.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emphysema develops due to: Smoking Inhaling toxins or other irritants Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1AD)—a genetic defect which can cause emphysema at an early age in nonsmokers .

^ The decision to move (if that is involved) really has to be a personal one and cannot be based on a disease label.
  • Section G1: Bronchitis and Emphysem 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lakesidepress.com [Source type: Academic]

.Often individuals who are unfortunate enough to contract this disease have a very short life expectancy, often 0–3 years at most.^ Often individuals who are unfortunate enough to contract this disease have a very short life expectancy, often 0–3 years at most.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Review medical complications possibly associated with Emphysema: Finger clubbing Recurrent chest infections Heart failure Right-sided heart failure Often individuals who are unfortunate enough to contract this disease have a very short life expectancy often 0-3 years at most more complications...» Research More About Emphysema .
  • Symptoms of Emphysema - WrongDiagnosis.com 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]

^ Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the two most common forms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and they often occur together.
  • Emphysema - Emphysema Description - Emphysema Symptoms - Emphysema Prevention - Emphysema Treatment 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC symptomchecker.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Diagnosis

A severe case of emphysema.
.The diagnosis is usually confirmed by pulmonary function testing (e.g.^ Pulmonary function tests (PFTs).
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC emphysema.org [Source type: General]
  • MayoClinic.com Health Library - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.riversideonline.com [Source type: General]

^ These tests help confirm the diagnosis: .

^ In the pulmonary function laboratory Mr. T. undergoes both a blood test and spirometry.
  • Section G1: Bronchitis and Emphysem 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lakesidepress.com [Source type: Academic]

spirometry); however, X-ray radiography may aid in the diagnosis.

Prognosis and treatment

.Emphysema is an irreversible degenerative condition.^ Child risk over passive smoking CHILDREN who passively smoke have damaged lungs for life and are at greater risk of the degenerative condition emphysema as adults, new research reveals.
  • Emphysema Medical Condition News Headlines 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC medicalnewscenter.com [Source type: Academic]

.The most important measure to slow its progression is for the patient to stop smoking and avoid all exposure to cigarette smoke and lung irritants.^ The most important cause of pulmonary emphysema is cigarette smoking.

^ Cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for emphysema.
  • Emphysema / Lung Volume Reduction Surgery, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ, 08903 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.rwjuh.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Quitting smoking slows progression of the disease.

.Pulmonary rehabilitation can be very helpful to optimize the patient's quality of life and teach the patient how to actively manage his or her care.^ A great deal of research has been conducted to try and fully define which patients will benefit most from pulmonary rehabilitation.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (Read about " Influenza " " Pneumonia ") AAFP says they should ask their doctor about an exercise program called pulmonary rehabilitation that can help improve breathing.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Emphysema and Bronchitis 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.stayinginshape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each patient served as his own control, initially receiving optimal medical management including exercise rehabilitation before undergoing surgery.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

.Patients with emphysema and chronic bronchitis can do more for themselves than patients with any other disabling disease.^ Emphysema is a chronic obstructive disease of the lungs.

^ Emphysema commonly presents with chronic bronchitis.

^ These diseases include chronic bronchitis, asthma and emphysema.
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC emphysema.org [Source type: General]

.Emphysema is also treated by supporting the breathing with anticholinergics, bronchodilators, steroid medication (inhaled or oral), and supplemental oxygen as required.^ Inhaled and occasionally oral steroid medications may be added as well.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - COPD, Emphysema, Chronic Bronchitis - Life Extension Health Concern 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The present treatment of COPD consists of daily administration of inhaled bronchodilators and/or steroids and oxygen supplementation, often continuously for 24 hours for hypoxemic patients ( 12 ); there is no emphysema-specific treatment.
  • Molecular pathogenesis of emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Molecular pathogenesis of emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Medical treatment is the mainstay of therapy and consists of smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation, administration of bronchodilators and, when indicated, steroids and supplemental oxygen.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

.Treating the patient's other conditions including gastric reflux and allergies may improve lung function.^ Treating patient's other conditions including gastric reflux and allergies may also help the patient's lung function.
  • COPD & Emphysema Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

^ Lung volume reduction surgery – In this controversial technique, parts of diseased lung are removed to improve the function of remaining, healthier lung.

^ Click on any of the symptoms below to see a full list of other causes including diseases, medical conditions, toxins, drug interactions, or drug side effect causes of that symptom.
  • Symptoms of Emphysema - WrongDiagnosis.com 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]

.Supplemental oxygen used as prescribed (usually more than 20 hours per day) is the only non-surgical treatment which has been shown to prolong life in emphysema patients.^ Patients fly, cruise, and work while using supplemental oxygen.
  • COPD & Emphysema Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

^ Non-surgical emphysema treatment tested in Wash.
  • Emphysema News - Topix 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]
  • Emphysema News - Topix 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

^ Surgical treatment of end stage emphysema.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

.There are lightweight portable oxygen systems which allow patients increased mobility.^ There are lightweight portable oxygen systems which allow patients increasing mobility.
  • COPD & Emphysema Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

^ Recently, Wenzel and colleagues ( 15 ) showed increased MMP-9 expression in airway biopsy specimens from patients with severe asthma that had been treated with systemic steroid.
  • Emphysema: An Autoimmune Vascular Disease? -- Voelkel and Taraseviciene-Stewart 2 (1): 23 -- Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC pats.atsjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Administration of oxygen therapy increases patients' blood oxygen levels, alleviating many symptoms.
  • Emphysema - Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.mentalhelp.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Patients can fly, cruise, and work while using supplemental oxygen.^ Patients fly, cruise, and work while using supplemental oxygen.
  • COPD & Emphysema Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

^ Supplemental oxygen used as prescribed (20+ hours/day) is the only non-surgical treatment which has been shown to prolong life in emphysema patients.
  • COPD & Emphysema Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

^ In the mean time her condition got bad enough that she was forced to begin using supplemental oxygen.

.Other medications are being researched.^ Other medications are being researched.
  • COPD & Emphysema Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

^ There is also considerable and much researched evidence of other medical conditions attributable to smoking, which medical research and the gathering of doctors evidence is ongoing.
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC emphysema.org [Source type: General]

.Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) can improve the quality of life for certain carefully selected patients.^ Anaesthetic considerations for lung volume reduction surgery--a case report.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lung-Volume-Reduction Surgery (LVRS) is designed to improve respiratory function in a select group of individuals with severe emphysema.
  • Emphysema / Lung Volume Reduction Surgery, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ, 08903 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.rwjuh.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Effect of lung-volume-reduction surgery in patients with severe emphysema.
  • NEJM -- Cost Effectiveness of Lung-Volume-Reduction Surgery for Patients with Severe Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

It can be done by different methods, some of which are minimally invasive. .In July 2006 a new treatment, placing tiny valves in passages leading to diseased lung areas, was announced to have good results, but 7% of patients suffered partial lung collapse.^ In July 2006 a new treatment, placing tiny valves in passages leading to diseased lung areas, was announced to have good results, but 7% of patients suffered partial lung collapse.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A mean of 6.1 valves were placed per patient.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The result is that the small airways collapse during expiration, leading to an obstructive form of lung disease (air is trapped in the lungs in obstructive lung diseases).
  • COPD & Emphysema Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

.The only known "cure" for emphysema is lung transplant, but few patients are strong enough physically to survive the surgery.^ We prospectively studied patients undergoing lung transplantation for emphysema.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Effect of lung-volume-reduction surgery in patients with severe emphysema.
  • NEJM -- Cost Effectiveness of Lung-Volume-Reduction Surgery for Patients with Severe Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lung transplantation in patients with pulmonary emphysema.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

.The combination of a patient's age, oxygen deprivation and the side-effects of the medications used to treat emphysema cause damage to the kidneys, heart and other organs.^ Many medications are available for emphysema patients.
  • Pulmonary Emphysema | July 2003 | RT for Decision Makers in Respiratory Care 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.rtmagazine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Emphysema develops due to: Smoking Inhaling toxins or other irritants Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1AD)—a genetic defect which can cause emphysema at an early age in nonsmokers .

^ It is treated by supporting the breathing with anticholinergics, bronchodilators and (inhaled or oral) steroid medication, and supplemental oxygen as required.
  • COPD & Emphysema Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

.Surgical transplantation also requires the patient to take an anti-rejection drug regimen which suppresses the immune system, and can lead to microbial infection of the patient.^ Patients receiving a lung transplant must take large amounts of medication the rest of their life.
  • Section G1: Bronchitis and Emphysem 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lakesidepress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He says, "She was taking a new (medication) as part of her anti-drug treatment program.
  • Emphysema | Binside TV 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC binsidetv.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A significant number of these patients requires surgical interventions.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

.Patients who think they may have contracted the disease are recommended to seek medical attention as soon as possible.^ Most patients seek medical attention late in the course of their disease.

^ Coughing, sputum production, and breathlessness are the characteristic symptoms associated with COPD. Early in the disease, the patient’s physical examination may even be normal.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - COPD, Emphysema, Chronic Bronchitis - Life Extension Health Concern 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients who develop predominant emphysema, where the lung tissue is destroyed, may have a genetic or constitutional basis.
  • Section G1: Bronchitis and Emphysem 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lakesidepress.com [Source type: Academic]

Research

.A study published by the European Respiratory Journal suggests that tretinoin (an anti-acne drug commercially available as Retin-A) derived from vitamin A can reverse the effects of emphysema in mice by returning elasticity (and regenerating lung tissue through gene mediation) to the alveoli.^ It has control over the elastase mediated degradation of elastic tissue in the lung.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Emphysema lung tissue gene expression profiling.
  • Molecular pathogenesis of emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Molecular pathogenesis of emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Emphysema is characterised by loss of elasticity of the lung tissue; destruction of structures supporting the alveoli; and destruction of capillaries feeding the alveoli.
  • COPD & Emphysema Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

[6][7]
.While vitamin A consumption is not known to be an effective treatment or prevention for the disease, this research could in the future lead to a cure.^ The goal of treatment for people with pulmonary emphysema is to live more comfortably with the disease by providing relief of symptoms and preventing progression of the disease with minimal side effects.
  • Pulmonary Emphysema, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ, 08903 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.rwjuh.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Often your doctor will have access to full-text articles and other information that could be useful in planning a successful course of treatment and prevention.
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
  • Natural Remedies for the Treatment of Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A follow-up study done in 2010 found inconclusive results ("no definitive clinical benefits") using Vitamin A (retinoic acid) in treatment of emphysema in humans and stated that further research is needed to reach conclusions on this treatment.^ These results do not support the use of retinoids as a clinical treatment for emphysema at this time.
  • Feasibility of Retinoids for the Treatment of Emphysema Study* — CHEST 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.chestjournal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There is no treatment to cure emphysema.

^ Feasibility of retinoids for the treatment of emphysema study.
  • A Pilot Study of All-trans-Retinoic Acid for the Treatment of Human Emphysema -- MAO et al. 165 (5): 718 -- American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC ajrccm.atsjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[8]

Notable cases

.Notable cases of emphysema have included Ava Gardner, Don Cornell, Spencer Tracy,[9] Leonard Bernstein, Eddie Dean,[10] Dean Martin, Norman Rockwell, Samuel Beckett, Johnny Carson, Al Capp, T. S. Eliot, Tallulah Bankhead, Dick York, James Franciscus, R. J. Reynolds, R. J. Reynolds Jr., R. J. Reynolds, III,[11] Don Imus,[12] Ike Turner, Charlie Simpson,Yosef Hayim Yerushalmi, Elizabeth Dawn, Jerry Reed, Boris Karloff and Amy Winehouse.^ Pulmonary abnormalities, including emphysema, have been described in approximately 10% of patients.

^ Underlying lung diseases were cystic fibrosis including bronchiectasis (32%), emphysema (32%), parenchymal disorders (19%), pulmonary hypertension (11%) and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (3%).
  • Emphysema: Free Medical and Health Information on Emphysema Treatment and Research 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lifestages.com [Source type: Academic]

[13][14]

Additional images

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ emphysema at dictionary.com
  2. ^ a b c d "Emphysema". http://www.meddean.luc.edu/Lumen/MedEd/MEDICINE/PULMONAR/pathms/mpath6.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-20. 
  3. ^ Anderson AE, Foraker AG (September 1973). "Centrilobular emphysema and panlobular emphysema: two different diseases". Thorax 28 (5): 547–50. doi:10.1136/thx.28.5.547. PMID 4784376.& PMC 470076. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=4784376. 
  4. ^ a b c eMedicine Specialties > Radiology > Pediatrics --> Congenital Lobar Emphysema Author: Beverly P Wood, MD, MS, PhD, University of Southern California. Updated: December 1, 2008
  5. ^ "SURGICAL PHYSIOPATHOLOGY OF EMPHYSEMA AND LUNG VOLUME REDUCTION". http://www.fondazionecarrel.org/carrel/thorac/files/enphys/new/emphysema1.html. 
  6. ^ Mao J, Goldin J, Dermand J, Ibrahim G, Brown M, Emerick A, McNitt-Gray M, Gjertson D, Estrada F, Tashkin D, Roth M (1 March 2002). "A pilot study of all-trans-retinoic acid for the treatment of human emphysema". Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165 (5): 718–23. PMID 11874821. http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/content/full/165/5/718. 
  7. ^ "Vitamin may cure smoking disease". BBC News. December 22, 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3329103.stm. Retrieved 2006-11-18. 
  8. ^ Roth M, Connett J, D'Armiento J, Foronjy R, Friedman P, Goldin J, Louis T, Mao J, Muindi J, O'Connor G, Ramsdell J, Ries A, Scharf S, Schluger N, Sciurba F, Skeans M, Walter R, Wendt C, Wise R (2006). "Feasibility of retinoids for the treatment of emphysema study". Chest 130 (5): 1334–45. doi:10.1378/chest.130.5.1334. PMID 17099008. http://www.chestjournal.org/cgi/content/full/130/5/1334. 
  9. ^ "Spencer Tracy". Hollywood.com. http://www.hollywood.com/celebrity/Spencer_Tracy/196686. Retrieved 2009-09-12. 
  10. ^ "Eddie Dean Obituary". Allbusiness.com. http://www.allbusiness.com/retail-trade/miscellaneous-retail-retail-stores-not/4625955-1.html. Retrieved March 14, 2009. 
  11. ^ ""Death from Smoking in the R. J. Reynolds Family by Patrick Reynolds"". Tobaccofree.org. http://www.tobaccofree.org/famobit.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-12. 
  12. ^ ""Don Imus's Last Stand: Politics & Power"". Vanityfair.com. 2009-01-06. http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2006/02/imus200602?currentPage=2. Retrieved 2009-09-12. 
  13. ^ music (2008-10-27). ""Amy Winehouse rushed to hospital"". Entertainment.uk.msn.com. http://entertainment.uk.msn.com/music/news/nme/article.aspx?cp-documentid=10434337&GT1=61501. Retrieved 2009-09-12. 
  14. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Brown_%28film%29 Harry Brown(Movie)

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

Medical warning!
This article is from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica. .Medical science has made many leaps forward since it has been written.^ Medical science has made many leaps forward since it has been written.

.This is not a site for medical advice, when you need information on a medical condition, consult a professional instead.^ COPD Information Online Get the information you need.
  • What are the final stages (visual symptoms) of copd-emphysema? - Yahoo! Answers 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ This is not a site for medical advice, when you need information on a medical condition, consult a professional instead.

^ Need more information about medication you've been prescribed?

EMPHYSEMA (Gr. .Eµ4uQav to inflate) is a word vaguely meaning the abnormal presence of air in certain parts of the body.^ Eµ4uQav to inflate) is a word vaguely meaning the abnormal presence of air in certain parts of the body.

^ Emphysema is a pathological diagnosis and means when translated from the original Greek word "swelling of a body part".
  • Dr Schilling's Net Health Book - Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.nethealthbook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The word emphysema is derived from Greek and means "to blow into," hence "air containing" or "air inflated."

.At the present day, however, there are two conditions to which it refers, "pulmonary emphysema" (and the word pulmonary is often omitted) and "surgical emphysema."^ Emphysema is often referred to as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  • Emphysema Symptoms 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.flash-med.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the present day, however, there are two conditions to which it refers, "pulmonary emphysema" (and the word pulmonary is often omitted) and "surgical emphysema."

^ Emphysema is often grouped with a group of lung diseases referred to as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Depending on the degree of emphysema, surgery may be performed.
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.cts.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Of pulmonary emphysema there are two forms, true vesicular and interstitial (or interlobular).^ Pulmonary lobar interstitial emphysema.
  • Unbound MEDLINE | Pulmonary Emphysema journal articles 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.unboundmedicine.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is also a form of emphysema that runs in families.
  • http://www.fairview.org/staywell/quiz_load.aspx?ContentTypeId=40&ContentId=EmphysemaBreathingPuQuiz 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.fairview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Emphysema Quiz 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC healthlibrary.brighamandwomens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of pulmonary emphysema there are two forms, true vesicular and interstitial (or interlobular).

.Vesicular emphysema signifies that there is an enlargement of air-vesicles, resulting either from their excessive distension, from destruction of the septa, or from both causes combined (see Respiratory System).^ Vesicular emphysema signifies that there is an enlargement of air-vesicles, resulting either from their excessive distension, from destruction of the septa, or from both causes combined (see Respiratory System ).

^ Are there causes for emphysema besides smoking?
  • Emphysema (Health & Wellbeing: Respiratory Problems) 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.videojug.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But there are some clear causes for emphysema: .
  • What Causes Emphysema? 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.ehealthmd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In interstitial emphysema the air is infiltrated into the connective tissue beneath the pleura and between the pulmonary air-cells.^ Surgical emphysema signifies the effusion of air into the general connective tissues of the body.

^ In interstitial emphysema the air is infiltrated into the connective tissue beneath the pleura and between the pulmonary air-cells.

^ Health Videos More Health Videos » Emphysema is a lung disease involving damage to the air sacs (alveoli).There is progressive destruction of alveoli and the surrounding tissue that supports the alveoli.

.The former variety is by far the more common, and appears to be capable of being produced by various causes, the chief of which are the following: I. Where a portion of the lung has become wasted, or its vesicular structure permanently obliterated by disease, without corresponding falling in of the chest wall, the neighbouring air-vesicles or some of them undergo dilatation to fill the vacuum (vicarious emphysema).^ Emphysema is a disease in which the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in the lungs become damaged.
  • Emphysema - 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.haleclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WHAT CAUSES OF EMPHYSEMA? Cigarette smoking is by far the most common cause of emphysema.
  • COPD/ EMPHYSEMA /Lung Disease 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC cybersarges.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dust or chemical-filled air at work can cause emphysema.

.2. In some cases of bronchitis, where numbers of the smaller bronchial tubes become obstructed, the air in the pulmonary vesicles remains imprisoned, the force of expiration being insufficient to expel it; while, on the other hand, the stronger force of inspiration being adequate to overcome the resistance, the air-cells tend to become more and more distended, and permanent alterations in their structure, including emphysema, are the result (inspiratory theory).^ Pulmonary emphysema: when more is less.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Molecular pathogenesis of emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, or bronchi, that bring air into the lungs.
  • What is broncitious | ChaCha Answers 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.chacha.com [Source type: General]

^ The bronchi are the lining of the air tubes of the lungs.

.3. Emphysema also arises from exertion involving violent expiratory efforts, during which the glottis is constricted, as in paroxysms of coughing, in straining, and in lifting heavy weights (expiratory theory).^ Emphysema also arises from exertion involving violent expiratory efforts, during which the glottis is constricted, as in paroxysms of coughing, in straining, and in lifting heavy weights (expiratory theory).

^ Early symptoms or emphysema include shortness of breath, a chronic cough, a bluish coloration of the skin caused by lack of oxygen, shortness of breath (chronic), shortness of breath with mild exertion wheezing.
  • Emphysema - Pulmonary Medicine | Texas Institute of Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine | 281-357-0111 | Houston pulmonary medicine and sleep medicine physicians specializing in the treatment of sleep disorders such as sleep apnea, insomnia, restless leg syndrome, narcolepsy and snoring, plus pulmonary medicine diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, COPD, pneumonia and emphysema. 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC texaslungdocs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Those with moderate or severe emphysema maybe have symptoms with little exertion (such as getting around the house) or during activities of daily living or even at rest.

.Whooping-cough is well known as the exciting cause of emphysema in many persons.^ Whooping-cough is well known as the exciting cause of emphysema in many persons.

^ It's not known how many people have emphysema caused by AAT deficiency.
  • What Is Emphysema? 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other important symptoms of emphysema include chronic cough, coloration of the skin caused by lack of oxygen, shortness of breath after minimal physical activity, and wheezing.
  • Methods for assessing emphysema invention 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.freshpatents.com [Source type: Academic]

.4. Another view, known as the nutritive theory, maintains that emphysema depends essentially on a primary nutritive change in the walls of the air-vesicles.^ Another view, known as the nutritive theory, maintains that emphysema depends essentially on a primary nutritive change in the walls of the air-vesicles.

^ Subcutaneous emphysema occurs when air gets into tissues under the skin covering the chest wall or neck.
  • Subcutaneous emphysema - Scripps Health - San Diego 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC mobile.scripps.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Subcutaneous emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This hypothesis, a result of the observation that neutrophil elastase is the primary substrate for A1AT, and A1AT is the primary inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, together have been known as the “protease-antiprotease” theory, implicating neutrophils as an important mediator of the disease.
  • Emphysema | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus these are impaired in their resisting power, and are far more likely to become distended by any force acting on them from within.^ The disease becomes more likely as we get older.

^ Thus these are impaired in their resisting power, and are far more likely to become distended by any force acting on them from within.

^ Breathing becomes more difficult, and a person feels easily short of breath, like he or she is not getting enough air.
  • InteliHealth: 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.intelihealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Emphysema - Emphysema Description - Emphysema Symptoms - Emphysema Prevention - Emphysema Treatment 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC symptomchecker.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.5. Again in certain cases the cartilages of the chest become hypertrophied and rigid, thus causing a primary chronic enlargement, and the lungs become emphysematous in order to fill up the increased space (Freund's theory).^ Again in certain cases the cartilages of the chest become hypertrophied and rigid, thus causing a primary chronic enlargement, and the lungs become emphysematous in order to fill up the increased space (Freund's theory).

^ This then causes air to become trapped in the lungs.

^ It is caused by chronic irritation of the lung tissue.

.In whatever manner produced, this disease gives rise to important morbid changes in the affected portions of the lungs, especially the loss of the natural elasticity of the air-cells, and likewise the destruction of many of the pulmonary capillary blood-vessels, and the diminution of aerating surface for the blood.^ Emphysema is a serious disease that affects the lungs.

^ In whatever manner produced, this disease gives rise to important morbid changes in the affected portions of the lungs, especially the loss of the natural elasticity of the air-cells, and likewise the destruction of many of the pulmonary capillary blood-vessels, and the diminution of aerating surface for the blood.

^ Lungs affected by emphysema show loss of alveolar walls and destruction of alveolar capillaries .
  • emphysema (medical disorder) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.As a consequence an increased strain is thrown on the right ventricle with a consequent dilatation leading on to heart failure and all its attendant troubles.^ This can lead to heart failure.
  • Emphysema : Canadian Lung Association 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lung.ca [Source type: General]
  • Bronchite chronique, emphysème et MPOC 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.pq.lung.ca [Source type: General]

^ As a consequence an increased strain is thrown on the right ventricle with a consequent dilatation leading on to heart failure and all its attendant troubles.

^ This leads to enlargement and increased strain on the right side of the heart, which in turn leads to peripheral edema (swelling of the peripherals) as blood gets backed up in the systemic circulation, causing fluid to leave the circulatory system and accumulate in the tissues.
  • Emphysema Pulmonology 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: Academic]

.The chief symptom in this complaint is shortness of breath, more or less constant but greatly aggravated by exertion, and by attacks of bronchitis, to which persons suffering from emphysema appear to be specially liable.^ Too much exertion can create asthma attacks and extreme shortness of breath.

^ Those with emphysema will then experience a shortness of breath when a lot of exertion is enforced.

^ Less shortness of breath.
  • Department of Surgery 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.uhmc.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The respiration is of similar character to that already described in the case of asthma.^ The respiration is of similar character to that already described in the case of asthma .

.In severe forms of the disease the patient comes to acquire a peculiar puffy or bloated appearance, and the configuration of the chest is altered, assuming the character known as the barrel-shaped or emphysematous chest.^ This causes the chest to take on an enlarged, barrel-shaped appearance.
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.hmc.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chest may be barrel-shaped.
  • Emphysema - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Emphysema - NY Times Health Information 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Emphysema - Scripps Health - San Diego 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC mobile.scripps.org [Source type: Academic]
  • OLOL Baton Rouge - Emphysema. Emphysema is a lung disease that involves damage... 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.ololrmc.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Emphysema : Wilmington, Delaware DE 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.christianacare.org [Source type: Academic]
  • HowStuffWorks "Emphysema - Medical Dictionary" 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC healthguide.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A barrel-shaped chest.

.The main element in the treatment of emphysema consists in attention to the general condition of the health, and in the avoidance of all causes likely to aggravate the disease or induce its complications.^ What are the general treatments for Emphysema?
  • Naturally Occuring Home Based Herbal Remedies and Cures For Emphysema 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.home-remedies.info [Source type: General]
  • Introduction to Emphysema, its Symptoms and Major Causes 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.home-remedies.info [Source type: Academic]

^ See all treatments for this condition .

^ One of the main cause of emphysema is smoking.
  • Stop Smoking and Emphysema Together 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: General]

.Compressed air baths and expiration into rarefied air may be useful.^ Compressed air baths and expiration into rarefied air may be useful.

^ Two cases of mediastinal emphysema occurred after the use of high-speed...may be responsible for both mediastinal emphysema and air embolism.
  • JAMA -- Search Result 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC jama.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This results in a smaller total number of air sacs.  Fewer air sacs means that the lungs are not able to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream as well.  Also the lungs may not be able to get rid of carbon dioxide as well.  .
  • Emphysema - National Jewish Health 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.nationaljewish.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During attacks of urgent dyspnoea and lividity, with engorgement of veins, the patient should be repeatedly bled until relief is obtained.^ During attacks of urgent dyspnoea and lividity, with engorgement of veins , the patient should be repeatedly bled until relief is obtained.

^ In some cases, LVRS can provide relief for transplant patients until a donor lung becomes available.

^ But patients with frequent chest pain (angina attacks) should be very cautious – they are twice as likely to suffer an attack in the air as on the ground.
  • :: Welcome to I955fm.com :: 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC i955fm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Interstitial emphysema arising from the rupture of air-cells in the immediate neighbourhood of the pleura may occur as a complication of the vesicular form, or separately as the result of some sudden expulsive effort, such as a fit of coughing, or, as has frequently happened, in parturition.^ Interstitial emphysema arising from the rupture of air-cells in the immediate neighbourhood of the pleura may occur as a complication of the vesicular form, or separately as the result of some sudden expulsive effort, such as a fit of coughing, or, as has frequently happened, in parturition.

^ Subcutaneous emphysema occurs when air...
  • SJ/C, Savannah - Subcutaneous emphysema. Subcutaneous emphysema occurs when air... 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.sjchs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emphysema results from damage to the tiny air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs.
  • Emphysema FAQ and Free Check for Early Signs of Disease 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.mindxpansion.com [Source type: General]

.Gangrene or post-mortem decomposition may lead to the presence of air in the interstitial tissue of the lung.^ Gangrene or post-mortem decomposition may lead to the presence of air in the interstitial tissue of the lung.

^ Loss of elasticity leads to the collapse of the air passages (bronchioles), so that air cannot move out of the lungs properly and the air tends to get trapped inside the lungs.
  • Emphysema - chronic cough, symptoms, treatment information - Patient Health International 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.patienthealthinternational.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Emphysema : 1) A lung condition featuring an abnormal accumulation of air in the lung's many tiny air sacs, a tissue called alveoli.
  • Emphysema definition - Lungs: Pulmonary and Respiratory Health and Medical Information Produced by Doctors 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.medterms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Occasionally the air infiltrates the cellular tissue of the posterior mediastinum, and thence comes to distend the integument of the whole surface of the body (surgical emphysema).^ Crepitus; Subcutaneous air; Tissue emphysema .
  • Subcutaneous emphysema: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Surgical emphysema signifies the effusion of air into the general connective tissues of the body.

^ Occasionally the air infiltrates the cellular tissue of the posterior mediastinum, and thence comes to distend the integument of the whole surface of the body (surgical emphysema).

.Surgical emphysema signifies the effusion of air into the general connective tissues of the body.^ Crepitus; Subcutaneous air; Tissue emphysema .
  • Subcutaneous emphysema: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Surgical emphysema signifies the effusion of air into the general connective tissues of the body.

^ In the lungs, MMP-12 protein is made by immune cells and has been implicated in emphysema because it can degrade connective tissues such as elastin, which gives lungs elasticity.
  • Gene Variant May Help Against Emphysema, Asthma - Science News 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.sciencenews.org [Source type: Academic]

.The commonest causes are a wound of some air-passage, or a penetrating wound of the chest wall without injury to the lung.^ The commonest causes are a wound of some air-passage, or a penetrating wound of the chest wall without injury to the lung.

^ This then causes air to become trapped in the lungs.

^ About A condition of the lungs, in which the small air sacs of the lungs, know as alveoli expand and dilate secondary to numerous causes.
  • Emphysema Information : Vitabase 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.nutrasanus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It may, however, occur in any situation of the body and in many other ways.^ It may, however, occur in any situation of the body and in many other ways.

^ The escape of air into other body tissues, as may occur during surgery.
  • Emphysema definition - Lungs: Pulmonary and Respiratory Health and Medical Information Produced by Doctors 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.medterms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since this disease occurs in the lower lung areas, it is easier to diagnose than many other conditions.
  • A1AD Emphysema, An Inherited Trait 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: Academic]

.Its severity varies from very slight cases where only a little crepitation may be felt under the skin, to extreme cases where the whole body is blown up and death is imminent from impeded respiration and failure of the action of the heart.^ Why hypertension severity may cause heart failure.

^ Its severity varies from very slight cases where only a little crepitation may be felt under the skin, to extreme cases where the whole body is blown up and death is imminent from impeded respiration and failure of the action of the heart.

^ In time, heart failure may develop.

.In the milder cases no treatment is necessary as the air gradually becomes absorbed, but in the more severe cases incisions must be made in the swollen cellular tissues to allow the air to escape.^ In the milder cases no treatment is necessary as the air gradually becomes absorbed, but in the more severe cases incisions must be made in the swollen cellular tissues to allow the air to escape.

^ In the case discussed, the type of dental handpiece selected was inappropriate for a procedure in which tissue flaps are lifted, as they must be during an extraction, since water and compressed air are delivered.
  • Abstracts: Cervicofacial subcutaneous air emphysema after dental extraction. Orbital emphysema causing vision loss after a dental extraction - Health 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other treatments such as steroids, antibiotics, oxygen, and mucolytic medicines are sometimes prescribed in severe cases, or during a flare-up (exacerbation) of symptoms.
  • Emphysema | Bronchitis | Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease | COPD | Health | goodtoknow 19 January 2010 18:23 UTC www.goodtoknow.co.uk [Source type: General]



Simple English

File:Centrilobular emphysema 865
A section of a dead person's lung that shows severe emphysema. The black "bubbles" are emphysemous alveoli that have expanded and become filed with black carbon that is from smoking.

[[File:|right|thumb|A thoracic radiograph of a person with emphysema. At the arrow in the left lung (right side of picture) can be seen a faint bubbley section that looks like a ghostly bunch of grapes. This is emphysema.]] Emphysema is a disease of the lungs. It is one of the diseases that make up COPD which is a set of diseases where the flow of air in the lungs is obstructed. Emphysema is most often caused by smoking but can be caused by other diseases or have no known cause at all. It occurs when the very small air sacs (called the alveoli) at the ends of the airways in the lungs start to break down from many sacs to form much bigger sacs. The alveoli are the areas of the lung where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged into and out of the blood. Emphysema makes it hard for people to blow air out of the lungs because air gets trapped inside the broken alveoli due to the collapse of the walls. There is no cure at the moment for emphysema but treatment includes stopping smoking and taking medicines. Sometimes small amounts of oxygen are given to the patient but large amounts can cause problems. Sometimes sections of the lungs can collapse causing a pneumothorax where the lung comes away from the walls of the chest. This is a medical emergency and needs the patient to go to a hospital's emergency department. Emphysema can often lead to the death of the patient.

People who suffer from emphysema may also have swollen legs and ankles. This is due to a build up of lymphatic fluid in the tissues (which also may happen in the lungs). This happens due to failure or the right side of the heart. Severe cases of emphysema require hospital treatment but there is little that can be done to help. The damage cannot be reversed. Large amounts of oxygen are not, and should not, be given because this can actually lead to the person to stop breathing. This is because a person with emphysema becomes used to having a high amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in their blood and the body switches to using the amount of oxygen (O2). When this happens if a person gets too much oxygen the body slows down breathing and can even stop breathing altogether.

File:Emphysema low
This microscope image shows the very large expanded sections of lung tissue. These "holes" should be tiny and there should be thousands of them, instead of only hundreds.


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Up to date as of December 19, 2010

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