The Full Wiki

Endocrinology: Wikis

  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Endocrinology

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Endocrinologist
Occupation
Names Doctor, Medical Specialist
Type Specialty
Activity sectors Medicine
Description
Education required Doctor of Medicine
Fields of employment Hospitals, Clinics
Average salary USD $199,000 (M.D., D.O.)
.Endocrinology (from Greek ἔνδον, endo, "within"; κρῑνω, krīnō, "to separate"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of medicine dealing with disorder of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones, the integration of developmental events such as proliferation, growth, and differentiation (including histogenesis and organogenesis) and the coordination of metabolism, respiration, excretion, movement, reproduction, and sensory perception depend on chemical cues, substances synthesised and secreted by specialized cells.^ Endocrine Reviews $ REG Comprehensive and authoritative review articles on experimental and clinical endocrinology and related areas such as cell biology, immunology, pharmacology, and reproductive medicine.
  • Medical Matrix - Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

^ American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism Publishes reports of original studies and special communications about endocrine and metabolic systems.
  • Medical Matrix - Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Society of Endocrinology, UK. Endocrinology $ REG Peer-reviewed, original research reports on all aspects of endocrinology, including growth factors, neuroendocrinology/signal transduction, bone and mineral, steroids, reproductive system.
  • Medical Matrix - Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

.Endocrinology is concerned with the study of the biosynthesis, storage, chemistry, and physiological function of hormones and with the cells of the endocrine glands and tissues that secrete them.^ Calcitonin, a hormone secreted by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland, is an antihypercalcemic hormone.
  • Endocrinology (Dec.1999) 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.utmb.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Endocrinology A textbook that covers clinical aspects of the endocrine pancreas, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, the parathyroid glands and vitamin D, the gonad, the pituitary gland, cardiovascular and renal endocrinology.
  • Medical Matrix - Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Endocrine Reviews $ REG Comprehensive and authoritative review articles on experimental and clinical endocrinology and related areas such as cell biology, immunology, pharmacology, and reproductive medicine.
  • Medical Matrix - Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

.The endocrine system consists of several glands, in different parts of the body, that secrete hormones directly into the blood rather than into a duct system.^ The endocrine system is a complex group of glands.
  • The Endocrine System: What is an Endocrinologist? 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.hormone.org [Source type: Academic]
  • :: Endocrinology :: 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.saifeehospital.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diseases and disorders of the endocrine system can be grouped into several different areas.
  • The Endocrine System: What is an Endocrinologist? 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.hormone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The endocrine glands, on the other hand, secrete the hormones they produce directly into the bloodstream.
  • Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.health.uab.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.rush.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Hormones have many different functions and modes of action; one hormone may have several effects on different target organs, and, conversely, one target organ may be affected by more than one hormone.^ It also involves many other organs which respond to, modify or metabolize hormones.

^ These hormones help control many different functions within the body, such as the rate of metabolism, bone health, growth and reproduction.
  • Endocrinology & Diabetes Treatment, Sharon E. Selinger M.D. & Matthew L. Surgan, M.D., Summit, New Jersey 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC endosummit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The endocrine system regulates the release of hormones that influence almost every function of our bodies, from cell development to organ function to moods.
  • Diagnoses, treatment and management of endocrine disorders 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.childrens.com [Source type: News]

.In the original 1902 definition by Bayliss and Starling (see below), they specified that, to be classified as a hormone, a chemical must be produced by an organ, be released (in small amounts) into the blood, and be transported by the blood to a distant organ to exert its specific function.^ These hormones are released into the blood stream and exert their action by stimulating other organs in the body.
  • UCSF Department Of Medicine | Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism | Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism Home 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC endocrine.medicine.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, excreted hormones can be superior to blood data because they represent average values pooled over time, rather than a single point-in time measure.
  • Conservation Endocrinology - National Zoo| FONZ 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC nationalzoo.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hormones they produce help maintain and control such brain and body functions as growth and development, energy levels, metabolism, reproduction, and the way we respond to our surrounding.
  • Endocrinology | Cooper University Hospital - South Jersey, New Jersey & Philadelphia 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cooperhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

.This definition holds for most "classical" hormones, but there are also paracrine mechanisms (chemical communication between cells within a tissue or organ), autocrine signals (a chemical that acts on the same cell), and intracrine signals (a chemical that acts within the same cell).^ Autocrine and Paracrine signals in the mammary gland .

^ Cells communicate with each other by chemical signals.
  • Human Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The endocrine system regulates the release of hormones that influence almost every function of our bodies, from cell development to organ function to moods.
  • Diagnoses, treatment and management of endocrine disorders 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.childrens.com [Source type: News]

[1] .A neuroendocrine signal is a "classical" hormone that is released into the blood by a neurosecretory neuron (see article on Neuroendocrinology).^ These hormones are released into the blood stream and exert their action by stimulating other organs in the body.
  • UCSF Department Of Medicine | Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism | Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism Home 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC endocrine.medicine.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hormones are molecules that communicate signals from one type of cells to another via the blood stream.
  • What is an Endocrinologist? Marina Johnson M.D., F.A.C.E. defines her specialty 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.drmarinajohnson.com [Source type: Academic]

^ His research interests include 1) hypothalamic control of growth hormone secretion by growth hormone - releasing hormone and somatostatin 2) neuroendocrine and adipocyte control of intermediary metabolism by the peptides leptin, resistin, and ghrelin.
  • Staff - Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism, and Nutrition 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC musom.marshall.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Hormones act by binding to specific receptors in the target organ.^ The endocrine glands release hormones into the bloodstream, where they have an effect on specific target tissues.
  • Endocrinology Overview 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.froedtert.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hormones are chemicals that are produced by various tissues in the body and travel through the circulatory system to produce an effect on one or several target organs.
  • Endocrinology - eXtension 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.extension.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Binding of the hormone to the receptor activates a G protein associated with the cytoplasmic C-terminal This initiates the production of a "second messenger" .
  • Human Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

As Baulieu notes, a receptor has at least two basic constituents:
.
  • a recognition site, to which the hormone binds
  • an effector site, which precipitates the modification of cellular function.^ This is the sequence of events: The hormone binds to a site on the extracellular portion of the receptor.
    • Human Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Another factor that can change the total hormone concentration is binding site competition.
    • Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.utmb.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Several medicines such as NSAIDs, Furosemide, Pheneytoin, and Carbamazepine can displace thyroid hormone from its binding site, and can eventually result in a lower total serum hormone concentration.
    • Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.utmb.edu [Source type: Academic]

    [2]
.Between these is a "transduction mechanism" in which hormone binding induces allosteric modification that, in turn, produces the appropriate response.^ These hormones in turn control gametogenesis, gonadal steroidogenesis, puberty, menopause, menstrual cycles, and fertility.
  • Pamela Mellon - Department of Reproductive Medicine 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC repromed.ucsd.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These hormones boost heart rate, increase respiration and increase the availability of glucose in the blood, thus enabling the "fight or flight" response.
  • Endocrinology Help Center | Information, Patient Testimonials and a Directory of Endocrinologists 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.empowereddoctor.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ovaries These are a pair of organs (about an inch-and-a-half long) in women that produce eggs and female sex hormones.
  • Endocrinology - Treatments/Programs 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.csmc.edu [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Chemical classes of hormones

Amine hormones: norepinephrine and triiodothyronine
Steroid hormones: cortisol and vitamin D3
Griffin and Ojeda identify three different classes of hormone based on their chemical composition:[3]

Amines

Amines, such as norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine, are derived from single amino acids, in this case tyrosine. .Thyroid hormones such as 3,5,3’-triiodothyronine (T3) and 3,5,3’,5’-tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine, T4) make up a subset of this class because they derive from the combination of two iodinated tyrosine amino acid residues.^ Thyroid hormone is formed by organification of iodine to the tyrosine residues of thyroglobulin.
  • Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.utmb.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Once the iodine is in the thyroid cell, it is then organified and linked to a tyrosine residue attached to thyroglobulin.
  • Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.utmb.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ AACE Clincial Practice Guidelines Position statements and practice guidelines for endocrine conditions, such as hypogonadism, thyroid nodule, use of growth hormone.
  • Medical Matrix - Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

Peptide and protein

.Peptide hormones and protein hormones consist of three (in the case of thyrotropin-releasing hormone) to more than 200 (in the case of follicle-stimulating hormone) amino acid residues and can have molecular weights as large as 30,000. All hormones secreted by the pituitary gland are peptide hormones, as are leptin from adipocytes, ghrelin from the stomach, and insulin from the pancreas.^ The pancreas is located behind the stomach and secretes insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and other hormones.
  • Endocrinology Services at the UConn Health Center 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC health.uchc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The pituitary gland, in turn, is controlled by hormones secreted by the hypothalamus in the brain.
  • Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.rush.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Its function is to control release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary.
  • Pamela Mellon - Department of Reproductive Medicine 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC repromed.ucsd.edu [Source type: Academic]

Steroid

Steroid hormones are converted from their parent compound, cholesterol. .Mammalian steroid hormones can be grouped into five groups by the receptors to which they bind: glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, androgens, estrogens, and progestagens.^ Common causes of binding protein and thyroid hormone decrease include androgen or anabolic steroid use and late liver disease.
  • Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.utmb.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Low Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin, Total Testosterone, and Symptomatic Androgen Deficiency Are Associated with Development of the Metabolic Syndrome in Nonobese Men .
  • Endocrinology - Reproductive Endocrinology : eClips Consult 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC eclips.consult.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Relation to Circulating Androgens, Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin, and Luteinizing Hormone in Young Men .
  • Endocrinology - Reproductive Endocrinology : eClips Consult 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC eclips.consult.com [Source type: Academic]

History and key discoveries of endocrinology

The study of endocrinology began in China. The Chinese were isolating sex and pituitary hormones from human urine and using them for medicinal purposes by 200 BC[4]. .They used many complex methods, such as sublimation.^ Endocrine problems are typically complex because they involve many systems and structures within your child’s body.
  • Pediatric Endocrinology - Golisano Children's Hospital at Strong - Rochester NY 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.stronghealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They know how to treat conditions that are often complex and involve many systems within your body.
  • The Endocrine System: What is an Endocrinologist? 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.hormone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It encompasses the assessment of patients with such disorders and the use of laboratory methods for diagnosis and monitoring of therapy.
  • Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.oiucm.org [Source type: Academic]

[4] Eventually, when Berthold noted that castrated cockerels did not develop combs and wattles or exhibit overtly male behaviour, European endocrinology began (however, it should be noted that the Chinese anticipated the science by over 1500 years.) [5] He found that replacement of testes back into the abdominal cavity of the same bird or another castrated bird resulted in normal behavioural and morphological development, and he concluded (erroneously) that the testes secreted a substance that "conditioned" the blood that, in turn, acted on the body of the cockerel. In fact, one of two other things could have been true: that the testes modified or activated a constituent of the blood or that the testes removed an inhibitory factor from the blood. It was not proven that the testes released a substance that engenders male characteristics until it was shown that the extract of testes could replace their function in castrated animals. Pure, crystalline testosterone was isolated in 1935.[6]
.Although most of the relevant tissues and endocrine glands had been identified by early anatomists, a more humoral approach to understanding biological function and disease was favoured by classical thinkers such as Aristotle, Hippocrates, Lucretius, Celsus, and Galen, according to Freeman et al.,[7] and these theories held sway until the advent of germ theory, physiology, and organ basis of pathology in the 19th century.^ Endocrinology Reference at UCLA Documents that outline the normal and abnormal physiology, differential diagnosis, signs and symptoms, complications, and treatment of the most common endocrine conditions.
  • Medical Matrix - Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Describe the major theories for the mechanism of hormone action and list those hormones that are identified predominantly with each of these mechanisms.

^ Goals -- The major goal is acquiring an understanding of current theories of mechanisms of endocrine functions and their implications for both basic knowledge and its application in modern medicine.

In medieval Persia, Avicenna (980-1037) provided a detailed account on diabetes mellitus in The Canon of Medicine (c. .1025), "describing the abnormal appetite and the collapse of sexual functions and he documented the sweet taste of diabetic urine."^ Diabetes mellitus Metabolic diseases Disorders of physical growth, sexual maturation, thyroid function, adrenal function, pituitary function, and calcium and phosphorous metabolism.

Like Aretaeus of Cappadocia before him, Avicenna recognized a primary and secondary diabetes. .He also described diabetic gangrene, and treated diabetes using a mixture of lupine, trigonella (fenugreek), and zedoary seed, which produces a considerable reduction in the excretion of sugar, a treatment which is still prescribed in modern times.^ Learning objectives : At the end of this session, participants will be able to: - Describe the association between PCOS and diabetes - Discuss treatment options for insulin resistance of PCOS Bibliographic references : 1.
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

.Avicenna also "described diabetes insipidus very precisely for the first time", though it was later Johann Peter Frank (1745-1821) who first differentiated between diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.^ Learning objectives : At the end of this session, participants will be able to: - Describe the association between PCOS and diabetes - Discuss treatment options for insulin resistance of PCOS Bibliographic references : 1.
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

[8]
In the 12th century, Zayn al-Din al-Jurjani, another Muslim physician, provided the first description of Graves' disease after noting the association of goitre and exophthalmos in his Thesaurus of the Shah of Khwarazm, the major medical dictionary of its time.[9][10] Al-Jurjani also established an association between goitre and palpitation.[8] .The disease was later named after Irish doctor Robert James Graves,[11] who described a case of goiter with exophthalmos in 1835. The German Karl Adolph von Basedow also independently reported the same constellation of symptoms in 1840, while earlier reports of the disease were also published by the Italians Giuseppe Flajani and Antonio Giuseppe Testa, in 1802 and 1810 respectively,[12] and by the English physician Caleb Hillier Parry (a friend of Edward Jenner) in the late 18th century.^ Journal of Endocrinological Investigation Publishes original articles, reviews, editorials, and case reports.
  • Medical Matrix - Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Endocrine Practice Publishes original articles, reviews, and illustrated case reports for practicing endocrinologists.
  • Medical Matrix - Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Our Top Doctors database contains the names of over 20,000 doctors who were mentioned most often.
  • Endocrinologists in Washington DC Area 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.checkbook.org [Source type: General]

[13]
.In 1902 Bayliss and Starling performed an experiment in which they observed that acid instilled into the duodenum caused the pancreas to begin secretion, even after they had removed all nervous connections between the two.^ It is connected to the hypothalamus via two nervous tracts, the tuberohypophysial tract and the supra-optico-hypophysial tract.
  • Endocrinology (Dec.1999) 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.utmb.edu [Source type: Academic]

[14] The same response could be produced by injecting extract of jejunum mucosa into the jugular vein, showing that some factor in the mucosa was responsible. .They named this substance "secretin" and coined the term hormone for chemicals that act in this way.^ Hormones also control the way you respond to your surroundings, and they help to provide the proper amount of energy and nutrition your body needs to function.
  • The Endocrine System: What is an Endocrinologist? 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.hormone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved several bio-identical hormone substances; estradiol and progesterone molecules are chemically derived and synthesized in a laboratory.
  • Tags: endocrinology - The Wiley Protocol 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.thewileyprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They produce hormones active substances which affect different organs and systems .
  • Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.vita.bg [Source type: Academic]

.Von Mering and Minkowski made the observation in 1889 that removing the pancreas surgically led to an increase in blood sugar, followed by a coma and eventual death—symptoms of diabetes mellitus.^ Diabetes Patients with diabetes have too much sugar in their blood.
  • The Endocrine System: What is an Endocrinologist? 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.hormone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Diabetes Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) Thyroid diseases Metabolic disorders, such as high/low calcium or high/low sodium Over and under production of hormones Menopause Osteoporosis .
  • Lakeshore Endocrinology - Holy Family Memorial 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.hfmhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hyperthyroidism: Symptoms of increased metabolism due to excess thyroid hormone in the blood.
  • Definitions of Endocrinology Terms 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.endocrineweb.com [Source type: General]

In 1922, Banting and Best realized that homogenizing the pancreas and injecting the derived extract reversed this condition.[15] The hormone responsible, insulin, was not discovered until Frederick Sanger sequenced it in 1953.
Neurohormones were first identified by Otto Loewi in 1921.[16] He incubated a frog's heart (innervated with its vagus nerve attached) in a saline bath, and left in the solution for some time. The solution was then used to bathe a non-innervated second heart. If the vagus nerve on the first heart was stimulated, negative inotropic (beat amplitude) and chronotropic (beat rate) activity were seen in both hearts. This did not occur in either heart if the vagus nerve was stimulated. The vagus nerve was adding something to the saline solution. The effect could be blocked using atropine, a known inhibitor to heart vagal nerve stimulation. Clearly, something was being secreted by the vagus nerve and affecting the heart. The "vagusstuff" (as Loewi called it) causing the myotropic effects was later identified to be acetylcholine and norepinephrine. Loewi won the Nobel Prize for his discovery.
.Recent work in endocrinology focuses on the molecular mechanisms responsible for triggering the effects of hormones.^ Molecular Endocrinology Peer-reviewed, research papers related to molecular endocrinology and molecular mechanisms by which hormones and related compounds regulate function.
  • Medical Matrix - Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Endocrinology is the study of the regulatory mechanisms of the body including the role of hormones and their effect on cell function.
  • Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.utmb.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ping Song, PhD , Assistant Professor of Research, Section of Endocrinology & Diabetes , "Molecular Mechanisms for Carotid Stenosis in Response to Vascular Injury" .
  • OUHSC - Endocrinology Event Calendar 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC w3.ouhsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

The first example of such work being done was in 1962 by Earl Sutherland. Sutherland investigated whether hormones enter cells to evoke action, or stayed outside of cells. He studied norepinephrine, which acts on the liver to convert glycogen into glucose via the activation of the phosphorylase enzyme. He homogenized the liver into a membrane fraction and soluble fraction (phosphorylase is soluble), added norepinephrine to the membrane fraction, extracted its soluble products, and added them to the first soluble fraction. Phosphorylase activated, indicating that norepinephrine's target receptor was on the cell membrane, not located intracellularly. He later identified the compound as cyclic AMP (cAMP) and with his discovery created the concept of second-messenger-mediated pathways. He, like Loewi, won the Nobel Prize for his groundbreaking work in endocrinology.[17]

Endocrinology as a profession

.Although every organ system secretes and responds to hormones (including the brain, lungs, heart, intestine, skin, and the kidney), the clinical specialty of endocrinology focuses primarily on the endocrine organs, meaning the organs whose primary function is hormone secretion.^ Explain the impact of hormonal rhythms on endocrine function.

These organs include the pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, ovaries, testes, and pancreas.
An endocrinologist is a doctor who specializes in treating disorders of the endocrine system, such as diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and many others (see list of diseases below).

Work

.The medical specialty of endocrinology involves the diagnostic evaluation of a wide variety of symptoms and variations and the long-term management of disorders of deficiency or excess of one or more hormones.^ Medically speaking, endocrinology involves the diagnosis and management of these illnesses.
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In this clinic they gain experience in the evaluation and managment of pediatric and adolescent endocrine problems including diabetes mellitus, delayed or precocious puberty, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, hypopituitarism, Turner's syndrome, thyroid disorders and Cushing's disease.

^ In addition to clinical practice, our staff is also involved in the teaching and training of a new generation of endocrinology physicians and also participates in a variety of research and scientific activities.
  • Endocrinology and Metabolism Institute -- Cleveland Clinic 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: Academic]

.The diagnosis and treatment of endocrine diseases are guided by laboratory tests to a greater extent than for most specialties.^ Molecular and cellular background leads into a descriptive analysis of disease states and their diagnosis and treatment.
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Learning objectives : The participant will gain background knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in the normal and disease states of bone metabolism; as well as the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases.
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

Many diseases are investigated through excitation/stimulation or inhibition/suppression testing. This might involve injection with a stimulating agent to test the function of an endocrine organ. .Blood is then sampled to assess the changes of the relevant hormones or metabolites.^ The t 1/2 of the peptide in plasma is about 10 min and there is doubt as to whether it functions as a hormone or whether the blood concentration changes merely reflect ‘spillage’ of the peptide into the circulation.
  • Cardiovascular and renal endocrinology -- Endocrinology -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

An endocrinologist needs extensive knowledge of clinical chemistry and biochemistry to understand the uses and limitations of the investigations.
.A second important aspect of the practice of endocrinology is distinguishing human variation from disease.^ The resource covers the broad area of Clinical Endocrinology, emphasizing clinical endocrine practice, including endocrine disease manifestations, testing procedures, and diagnostic criteria.
  • Medical Matrix - Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thyroid Disease Manager A comprehensive review of all aspects of human thyroid physiology and physiopathology.
  • Medical Matrix - Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Summary : In this presentation we will review the condition of Graves Disease in pregnancy, and some important new articles impacting endocrinology.
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

Atypical patterns of physical development and abnormal test results must be assessed as indicative of disease or not. Diagnostic imaging of endocrine organs may reveal incidental findings called incidentalomas, which may or may not represent disease.
.Endocrinology involves caring for the person as well as the disease.^ Learning objectives : The participant will gain background knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in the normal and disease states of bone metabolism; as well as the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases.
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

.Most endocrine disorders are chronic diseases that need life-long care.^ Jonathan M. Lubens, MD Lakeshore Endocrinology provides care for a wide variety of endocrine disorders, including: .
  • Lakeshore Endocrinology - Holy Family Memorial 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.hfmhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nurses in this field provide care and support to children and their families relating to diseases of the endocrine system, the various glands that secrete directly into the blood or lymph.
  • http://www.discovernursing.com/jnj-specialtyID_266-dsc-specialty_detail.aspx 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.discovernursing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Utilize information technology to optimize patient care, life-long learning and other activities.
  • Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.oiucm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some of the most common endocrine diseases include diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism and the metabolic syndrome.^ Other areas include neuroendocrinology, thyroid disease and metabolic bone disease.
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CME on Diabetes is a website built to transmit top-level CME conferences given by international experts in endocrinology, insulin resistance, prediabetes, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease..
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

.Care of diabetes, obesity and other chronic diseases necessitates understanding the patient at the personal and social level as well as the molecular, and the physician–patient relationship can be an important therapeutic process.^ Establish therapeutic relationships with patients and families.
  • Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.oiucm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Pediatrics : Acute, chronic and well care of complex pediatric specialty patients.
  • Physician Pediatrics Endocrinology Jobs | Indeed.com 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.indeed.com [Source type: News]

^ Consultative practice only Physician referral required Patient must have primary care physician Consultations and Services Diabetes Thyroid Hyperthyroid , hypothyroid , goiter, nodules, thyroid cancer and fine needle aspiration .

.Apart from treating patients, many endocrinologists are involved in clinical science and medical research, teaching, and hospital management.^ Medically speaking, endocrinology involves the diagnosis and management of these illnesses.
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

Training

There are roughly 4,000 endocrinologists in the United States.[citation needed] .Endocrinologists are specialists of internal medicine or pediatrics.^ The lecture content is specifically intended for endocrine subspecialty residents, although pediatric endocrinology and internal medicine residents, medical students, and clinical faculty are encouraged to attend.

^ Seeking a BE/BC Endocrinologist to join two Internal Medicine Physicians and seven Endocrinologists.

^ Internal Medicine/Pediatrics .

.Reproductive endocrinologists deal primarily with problems of fertility and menstrual function—often training first in obstetrics.^ Yale Reproductive Endocrinology (RE) is comprised of board certified reproductive endocrinologists who work collaboratively with specially trained nurses, lab technicians, and counselors.
  • Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.yalemds.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Urogynecologic and Reconstructive Surgery Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Obstetrics and Gynecology Gynecologic Oncology Hospitalists Maternal-Fetal (Perinatal) Medicine Education & Training Programs Education & Training Programs .
  • Pamela Mellon - Department of Reproductive Medicine 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC repromed.ucsd.edu [Source type: Academic]

Most qualify as an internist, pediatrician, or gynecologist for a few years before specializing, depending on the local training system. In the U.S. and Canada, training for board certification in internal medicine, pediatrics, or gynecology after medical school is called residency. Further formal training to subspecialize in adult, pediatric, or reproductive endocrinology is called a fellowship. .Typical training for a North American endocrinologist involves 4 years of college, 4 years of medical school, 3 years of residency, and 3 years of fellowship.^ Residents wishing to pursue a career in academic endocrinology and metabolism are encouraged to take a minimum of two years of research training in addition to clinical training in endocrinology and metabolism.
  • Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.oiucm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Endocrinology Lectures at Texas Tech Slideshows of second year medical school physiology coursework.
  • Medical Matrix - Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists.
  • Medical Matrix - Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

.Adult endocrinologists are board certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism.^ Endocrinology is often associated with the study of diabetes and metabolism, or with reproductive medicine.
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Endocrinology Grand Rounds (Adult) WP #1345 @ 8am - Jonea Lim, MD, Fellow, Section of Endocrinology & Diabetes "Endocrine Care for Trans-sexual People" .
  • OUHSC - Endocrinology Event Calendar 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC w3.ouhsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ CME on Diabetes is a website built to transmit top-level CME conferences given by international experts in endocrinology, insulin resistance, prediabetes, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

Professional organizations

.In North America the principal professional organizations of endocrinologists include The Endocrine Society,[18] the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists,[19] the American Diabetes Association,[20] the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society,[21] and the American Thyroid Association.^ Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol.
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Update of guidelines for the use of growth hormone in children: the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrinology Society Drug and Therapeutics Committee.
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Topics include insulin resistance, ovary functioning, intersex states, the adrenals and thyroid, and diagnosis of GHD. Bibliographic references : Induction of puberty in the hypogonadal girl--practices and attitudes of pediatric endocrinologists in Europe.
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

[22]
.In the United Kingdom, the Society for Endocrinology[23] and the British Society for Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes[24] are the main professional organisations.^ European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology, Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society.
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

.The European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology[25] is the largest international professional association dedicated solely to paediatric endocrinology.^ Therefore, under the auspices and through organization of the Drugs and Therapeutics Committee of the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE), an interactive voting session and workshop was held at the 39th ESPE Annual Meeting in Brussels to discuss these topics.
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology, Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society.
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

There are numerous similar associations around the world.

Patient education

.Because endocrinology encompasses so many conditions and diseases, there are many organizations that provide education to patients and the public.^ Yale Endocrinology provides state-of-the art diagnosis and therapy to those with endocrine (hormonal) and metabolic diseases and conditions.
  • Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC yalemds.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Demonstrate ability to provide appropriate support and counsel to a patient and family with chronic endocrine or metabolic disease.
  • Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.oiucm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ National Adrenal Diseases Foundation A non-profit organization dedicated to providing support, information and education to individuals with Addison's disease as well as other diseases of the adrenal glands.
  • Medical Matrix - Endocrinology 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.medmatrix.org [Source type: Academic]

The Hormone Foundation is the public education affiliate of The Endocrine Society and provides information on all endocrine-related conditions. .Other educational organizations that focus on one or more endocrine-related conditions include the American Diabetes Association, National Osteoporosis Foundation, Human Growth Foundation, American Menopause Foundation, Inc., and Thyroid Foundation of America.^ Conditions discussed include osteomalacia, hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, osteoporosis, rickets, pseudohypoparathyroidism and hypocalciuric hypercalcemia.
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We are learning more about the risk factors predisposing to CVD and other complications, and diabetes prevention is now also a major research focus.
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diseases covered include osteomalacia, hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, osteoporosis, rickets, parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP)...
  • Endocrinology: Diabetes, Metabolism, Neuroendocrinology, Thyroid disease.. 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.cmeondiabetes.com [Source type: Academic]

Diseases

See main article at Endocrine diseases
.A disease due to a disorder of the endocrine system is often called a "hormone imbalance", but is technically known as an endocrinopathy or endocrinosis.^ Alterations in the endocrine system in persons with systemic disease.
  • Endocrinology & Metabolism 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.oiucm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Diabetes Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) Thyroid diseases Metabolic disorders, such as high/low calcium or high/low sodium Over and under production of hormones Menopause Osteoporosis .
  • Lakeshore Endocrinology - Holy Family Memorial 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.hfmhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nurses in this field provide care and support to children and their families relating to diseases of the endocrine system, the various glands that secrete directly into the blood or lymph.
  • http://www.discovernursing.com/jnj-specialtyID_266-dsc-specialty_detail.aspx 10 January 2010 17:37 UTC www.discovernursing.com [Source type: Academic]

In popular culture

See also

References

  1. ^ Nussey S, Whitehead S (2001). Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach. Oxford: Bios Scientific Publ.. ISBN 1-85996-252-1. 
  2. ^ Kelly, Paul; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile (1990). Hormones: from molecules to disease. Paris: Hermann. ISBN 2-7056-6030-5. 
  3. ^ Ojeda, Sergio R.; Griffin, James Bennett (2000). Textbook of endocrine physiology (4th ed.). Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513541-5. 
  4. ^ a b Temple, Robert. The Genius of China.pp. 141, 142. ISBN 9781594772177.
  5. ^ Berthold AA. Transplantation der Hoden Arch. Anat. Phsiol. Wiss. Med. 1849;16:42-6.
  6. ^ David K, Dingemanse E, Freud J et al. Uber krystallinisches mannliches Hormon aus Hoden (Testosteron) wirksamer als aus harn oder aus Cholesterin bereitetes Androsteron. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem 1935;233:281.
  7. ^ Freeman ER, Bloom DA, McGuire EJ (2001). "A brief history of testosterone". J. Urol. 165 (2): 371–3. doi:10.1097/00005392-200102000-00004. PMID 11176375. 
  8. ^ a b Nabipour, I. (2003). "Clinical Endocrinology in the Islamic Civilization in Iran". International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 1: 43–45 [44–5]. 
  9. ^ Basedow's syndrome or disease at Who Named It? - the history and naming of the disease
  10. ^ Ljunggren, J. G. (August 10, 1983). "Who was the man behind the syndrome: Ismail al-Jurjani, Testa, Flagani, Parry, Graves or Basedow? Use the term hyperthyreosis instead". Lakartidningen 80 (32-33): 2902. PMID 6355710. 
  11. ^ Robert James Graves at Who Named It?
  12. ^ Giuseppe Flajani at Who Named It?
  13. ^ Hull G (1998). "Caleb Hillier Parry 1755-1822: a notable provincial physician". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 91 (6): 335–8. PMID 9771526. 
  14. ^ Bayliss WM, Starling EH. The mechanism of pancreatic secretion. J Physiol 1902;28:325–352.
  15. ^ Bliss M (1989). "J. J. R. Macleod and the discovery of insulin". Q J Exp Physiol 74 (2): 87–96. PMID 2657840. 
  16. ^ Loewi, O. Uebertragbarkeit der Herznervenwirkung. Pfluger's Arch. ges Physiol. 1921;189:239-42.
  17. ^ Sutherland EW (1972). "Studies on the mechanism of hormone action". Science 177 (47): 401–8. doi:10.1126/science.177.4047.401. PMID 4339614. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=4339614. 
  18. ^ Endo-society.org
  19. ^ AACE.com
  20. ^ Diabetes.org
  21. ^ lwpes.org
  22. ^ Thyroid.org
  23. ^ endocrinology.org
  24. ^ bsped.org.uk
  25. ^ Eurospe.org

External links

Societies and associations


Simple English

Endocrinology is a part of medicine dealing with things wrong with any part of the endocrine system and hormones. Doctors who study endocrinology are called endocrinologists.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 21, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Endocrinology, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message