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Enflurane: Wikis


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Systematic (IUPAC) name
CAS number 13838-16-9
ATC code N01AB04
PubChem 3226
DrugBank APRD00234
Chemical data
Formula C 3H2ClF5O 
Mol. mass 184.492 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability  ?
Protein binding 97%
Metabolism  ?
Half life  ?
Excretion  ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.  ?
Legal status
Routes  ?

Enflurane (2-chloro-1,1,2,-trifluoroethyl-difluoromethyl ether) is a halogenated ether that was commonly used for inhalational anesthesia during the 1970s and 1980s. Developed by Ross Terrell in 1963, it was first used clinically in 1966.

Enflurane is a structural isomer of isoflurane. It vaporizes readily, but is a liquid at room temperature.

Physical properties

Property Value
Boiling point at 1 atm 56.5 °C
MAC 1.68
Vapor pressure at 20 °C 22.9 kPa (172 mm Hg)
Blood: Gas Partition Coefficient 1.9
Oil: Gas Partition Coefficient 98

Side Effects

Clinically, enflurane produces a dose-related depression of myocardial contractility with an associated decrease in myocardial oxygen consumption. Between 2% and 5% of the inhaled dose is oxidised in the liver, producing fluoride ions and difluoromethoxy-difluoroacetic acid. This is significantly higher than the metabolism of its structural isomer isoflurane.

Enflurane also lowers the threshold for seizures and should especially not be used on people with epilepsy. It is also known to cause malignant hyperthermia.

Relaxes the uterus in pregnant women.

Enflurane and Methoxyflurane have a nephrotoxic effect and cause acute renal failure usually by its nephrotoxic metabolite. By G. Edward Morgan, Maged S. Mikhail, Michael J. Murray, C. Philip Larson; clinical anaesthesiology third edition,142.

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