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The Watt steam engine, a major driver in the industrial revolution, underscores the importance of engineering in modern history. This model is on display at the main building of the ETSIIM in Madrid, Spain

Engineering is the discipline, art and profession of acquiring and applying technical, scientific, and mathematical knowledge to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that safely realize a desired objective or invention.

The American Engineers' Council for Professional Development (ECPD, the predecessor of ABET[1]) has defined engineering as follows:

[T]he creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design; or to forecast their behavior under specific operating conditions; all as respects an intended function, economics of operation and safety to life and property.[2][3][4]

One who practices engineering is called an engineer, and those licensed to do so may have more formal designations such as Professional Engineer, Chartered Engineer, Incorporated Engineer, or European Engineer. The broad discipline of engineering encompasses a range of more specialized subdisciplines, each with a more specific emphasis on certain fields of application and particular areas of technology.

Contents

History

Offshore wind turbines represent a modern multi disciplinary engineering problem.

The concept of engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental inventions such as the pulley, lever, and wheel. Each of these inventions is consistent with the modern definition of engineering, exploiting basic mechanical principles to develop useful tools and objects.

The term engineering itself has a much more recent etymology, deriving from the word engineer, which itself dates back to 1325, when an engine’er (literally, one who operates an engine) originally referred to “a constructor of military engines.”[5] In this context, now obsolete, an “engine” referred to a military machine, i. e., a mechanical contraption used in war (for example, a catapult). The word “engine” itself is of even older origin, ultimately deriving from the Latin ingenium (c. 1250), meaning “innate quality, especially mental power, hence a clever invention.”[6]

Later, as the design of civilian structures such as bridges and buildings matured as a technical discipline, the term civil engineering[4] entered the lexicon as a way to distinguish between those specializing in the construction of such non-military projects and those involved in the older discipline of military engineering (the original meaning of the word “engineering,” now largely obsolete, with notable exceptions that have survived to the present day such as military engineering corps, e.g., the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Ancient era

The Pharos of Alexandria, the pyramids in Egypt, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Acropolis and the Parthenon in Greece, the Roman aqueducts, Via Appia and the Colosseum, Teotihuacán and the cities and pyramids of the Mayan, Inca and Aztec Empires, the Great Wall of China, among many others, stand as a testament to the ingenuity and skill of the ancient civil and military engineers.

The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep.[4] As one of the officials of the Pharaoh, Djosèr, he probably designed and supervised the construction of the Pyramid of Djoser (the Step Pyramid) at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630-2611 BC.[7] He may also have been responsible for the first known use of columns in architecture[citation needed].

Ancient Greece developed machines in both the civilian and military domains. The Antikythera mechanism, the first known mechanical computer)[8][9] and the mechanical inventions of Archimedes are examples of early mechanical engineering. Some of Archimedes' inventions as well as the Antikythera mechanism required sophisticated knowledge of differential gearing or epicyclic gearing, two key principles in machine theory that helped design the gear trains of the Industrial revolution, and are still widely used today in diverse fields such as robotics and automotive engineering.[10]

Chinese, Greek and Roman armies employed complex military machines and inventions such as artillery which was developed by the Greeks around the 4th century B.C.,[11] the trireme, the ballista and the catapult. In the Middle Ages, the Trebuchet was developed.

Renaissance era

The first electrical engineer is considered to be William Gilbert, with his 1600 publication of De Magnete, who was the originator of the term "electricity".[12]

The first steam engine was built in 1698 by mechanical engineer Thomas Savery.[13] The development of this device gave rise to the industrial revolution in the coming decades, allowing for the beginnings of mass production.

With the rise of engineering as a profession in the eighteenth century, the term became more narrowly applied to fields in which mathematics and science were applied to these ends. Similarly, in addition to military and civil engineering the fields then known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering.

Modern era

Electrical engineering can trace its origins in the experiments of Alessandro Volta in the 1800s, the experiments of Michael Faraday, Georg Ohm and others and the invention of the electric motor in 1872. The work of James Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz in the late 19th century gave rise to the field of Electronics. The later inventions of the vacuum tube and the transistor further accelerated the development of Electronics to such an extent that electrical and electronics engineers currently outnumber their colleagues of any other Engineering specialty.[4]

The inventions of Thomas Savery and the Scottish engineer James Watt gave rise to modern Mechanical Engineering. The development of specialized machines and their maintenance tools during the industrial revolution led to the rapid growth of Mechanical Engineering both in its birthplace Britain and abroad.[4]

Chemical Engineering, like its counterpart Mechanical Engineering, developed in the nineteenth century during the Industrial Revolution.[4] Industrial scale manufacturing demanded new materials and new processes and by 1880 the need for large scale production of chemicals was such that a new industry was created, dedicated to the development and large scale manufacturing of chemicals in new industrial plants.[4] The role of the chemical engineer was the design of these chemical plants and processes.[4]

Aeronautical Engineering deals with aircraft design while Aerospace Engineering is a more modern term that expands the reach envelope of the discipline by including spacecraft design.[14] Its origins can be traced back to the aviation pioneers around the turn of the century from the 19th century to the 20th although the work of Sir George Cayley has recently been dated as being from the last decade of the 18th century. Early knowledge of aeronautical engineering was largely empirical with some concepts and skills imported from other branches of engineering.[15]

Only a decade after the successful flights by the Wright brothers, the 1920s saw extensive development of aeronautical engineering through development of World War I military aircraft. Meanwhile, research to provide fundamental background science continued by combining theoretical physics with experiments.

The first PhD in engineering (technically, applied science and engineering) awarded in the United States went to Willard Gibbs at Yale University in 1863; it was also the second PhD awarded in science in the U.S.[16]

In 1990, with the rise of computer technology, the first search engine was built by computer engineer Alan Emtage.

Main branches of engineering

Engineering, much like other science, is a broad discipline which is often broken down into several sub-disciplines. These disciplines concern themselves with differing areas of engineering work. Although initially an engineer will be trained in a specific discipline, throughout an engineer's career the engineer may become multi-disciplined, having worked in several of the outlined areas. Historically the main Branches of Engineering are categorized as follows:[14][17]

With the rapid advancement of technology many new fields are gaining prominence and new branches are developing such as materials engineering, computer engineering, software engineering, nanotechnology, tribology, molecular engineering, mechatronics, etc. These new specialties sometimes combine with the traditional fields and form new branches such as mechanical engineering and mechatronics and electrical and computer engineering. A new or emerging area of application will commonly be defined temporarily as a permutation or subset of existing disciplines; there is often gray area as to when a given sub-field becomes large and/or prominent enough to warrant classification as a new "branch." One key indicator of such emergence is when major universities start establishing departments and programs in the new field.

For each of these fields there exists considerable overlap, especially in the areas of the application of sciences to their disciplines such as physics, chemistry and mathematics.

Methodology

Design of a turbine requires collaboration of engineers from many fields

Engineers apply the sciences of physics and mathematics to find suitable solutions to problems or to make improvements to the status quo. More than ever, engineers are now required to have knowledge of relevant sciences for their design projects, as a result, they keep on learning new material throughout their career.

If multiple options exist, engineers weigh different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best matches the requirements. The crucial and unique task of the engineer is to identify, understand, and interpret the constraints on a design in order to produce a successful result. It is usually not enough to build a technically successful product; it must also meet further requirements.

Constraints may include available resources, physical, imaginative or technical limitations, flexibility for future modifications and additions, and other factors, such as requirements for cost, safety, marketability, productibility, and serviceability. By understanding the constraints, engineers derive specifications for the limits within which a viable object or system may be produced and operated.

Problem solving

Engineers use their knowledge of science, mathematics, and appropriate experience to find suitable solutions to a problem. Engineering is considered a branch of applied mathematics and science. Creating an appropriate mathematical model of a problem allows them to analyze it (sometimes definitively), and to test potential solutions.

Usually multiple reasonable solutions exist, so engineers must evaluate the different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best meets their requirements. Genrich Altshuller, after gathering statistics on a large number of patents, suggested that compromises are at the heart of "low-level" engineering designs, while at a higher level the best design is one which eliminates the core contradiction causing the problem.

Engineers typically attempt to predict how well their designs will perform to their specifications prior to full-scale production. They use, among other things: prototypes, scale models, simulations, destructive tests, nondestructive tests, and stress tests. Testing ensures that products will perform as expected.

Engineers as professionals take seriously their responsibility to produce designs that will perform as expected and will not cause unintended harm to the public at large. Engineers typically include a factor of safety in their designs to reduce the risk of unexpected failure. However, the greater the safety factor, the less efficient the design may be.

The study of failed products is known as forensic engineering, and can help the product designer in evaluating his or her design in the light of real conditions. The discipline is of greatest value after disasters, such as bridge collapses, when careful analysis is needed to establish the cause or causes of the failure.

Computer use

A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around the Space Shuttle during re-entry.

As with all modern scientific and technological endeavors, computers and software play an increasingly important role. As well as the typical business application software there are a number of computer aided applications (Computer-aided technologies) specifically for engineering. Computers can be used to generate models of fundamental physical processes, which can be solved using numerical methods.

One of the most widely used tools in the profession is computer-aided design (CAD) software which enables engineers to create 3D models, 2D drawings, and schematics of their designs. CAD together with Digital mockup (DMU) and CAE software such as finite element method analysis or analytic element method allows engineers to create models of designs that can be analyzed without having to make expensive and time-consuming physical prototypes.

These allow products and components to be checked for flaws; assess fit and assembly; study ergonomics; and to analyze static and dynamic characteristics of systems such as stresses, temperatures, electromagnetic emissions, electrical currents and voltages, digital logic levels, fluid flows, and kinematics. Access and distribution of all this information is generally organized with the use of Product Data Management software.[18]

There are also many tools to support specific engineering tasks such as Computer-aided manufacture (CAM) software to generate CNC machining instructions; Manufacturing Process Management software for production engineering; EDA for printed circuit board (PCB) and circuit schematics for electronic engineers; MRO applications for maintenance management; and AEC software for civil engineering.

In recent years the use of computer software to aid the development of goods has collectively come to be known as Product Lifecycle Management (PLM).[19]

Engineering in a social context

Engineering is a subject that ranges from large collaborations to small individual projects. Almost all engineering projects are beholden to some sort of financing agency: a company, a set of investors, or a government. The few types of engineering that are minimally constrained by such issues are pro bono engineering and open design engineering.

By its very nature engineering is bound up with society and human behavior. Every product or construction used by modern society will have been influenced by engineering design. Engineering design is a very powerful tool to make changes to environment, society and economies, and its application brings with it a great responsibility. Many List of engineering societies have established codes of practice and codes of ethics to guide members and inform the public at large.

Engineering projects can be subject to controversy. Examples from different engineering disciplines include the development of nuclear weapons, the Three Gorges Dam, the design and use of Sport utility vehicles and the extraction of oil. In response, some western engineering companies have enacted serious corporate and social responsibility policies.

Engineering is a key driver of human development.[20] Sub-Saharan Africa in particular has a very small engineering capacity which results in many African nations being unable to develop crucial infrastructure without outside aid. The attainment of many of the Millennium Development Goals requires the achievement of sufficient engineering capacity to develop infrastructure and sustainable technological development.[21]

All overseas development and relief NGOs make considerable use of engineers to apply solutions in disaster and development scenarios. A number of charitable organizations aim to use engineering directly for the good of mankind:

Cultural presence

Engineering is a well respected profession. For example, in Canada it ranks as one of the public's most trusted professions.[22]

Sometimes engineering has been seen as a somewhat dry, uninteresting field in popular culture, and has also been thought to be the domain of nerds. For example, the cartoon character Dilbert is an engineer. One difficulty in increasing public awareness of the profession is that average people, in the typical run of ordinary life, do not ever have any personal dealings with engineers, even though they benefit from their work every day. By contrast, it is common to visit a doctor at least once a year, the chartered accountant at tax time, and, occasionally, even a lawyer.

This has not always been so - most British school children in the 1950s were brought up with stirring tales of 'the Victorian Engineers', chief amongst whom were the Brunels, the Stephensons, Telford and their contemporaries.

In science fiction engineers are often portrayed as highly knowledgeable and respectable individuals who understand the overwhelming future technologies often portrayed in the genre. The Star Trek characters Montgomery Scott, Geordi La Forge, Miles O'Brien, B'Elanna Torres, and Charles Tucker III are famous examples.

Occasionally, engineers may be recognized by the "Iron Ring"--a stainless steel or iron ring worn on the little finger of the dominant hand. This tradition began in 1925 in Canada for the Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer as a symbol of pride and obligation for the engineering profession. Some years later in 1972 this practice was adopted by several colleges in the United States. Members of the US Order of the Engineer accept this ring as a pledge to uphold the proud history of engineering.

A Professional Engineer's name may be followed by the post-nominal letters PE or P.Eng in North America. In much of Europe a professional engineer is denoted by the letters IR, while in the UK and much of the Commonwealth the term Chartered Engineer applies and is denoted by the letters CEng.

Licensing and certification

In most Western countries, certain engineering tasks, such as the design of bridges, electric power plants, and chemical plants, must be approved by a licensed Professional Engineer or a Chartered Engineer or an Incorporated Engineer.

Engineering licensure in the United States remains largely optional for the vast majority of practicing engineers not directly working on projects deemed to implicate "public health and safety" (this typically covers civil engineers and government contractors). This is known as the "industry exemption." And even for such public-safety projects, it is often sufficient for only the supervising engineer to have a license.

Consequently, a relatively small minority of engineers in the United States are actually licensed; this is of growing concern to some engineering organizations who believe licensure is important for maintaining the status of engineering as an elite and learned profession like medicine and law. However, becoming a "Registered Professional Engineer" or "P.E." is still often pursued as a professional credential for prestige, even when not actually required for particular employment.

Licensure in most states is generally attainable through combination of education, pre-examination (Fundamentals of Engineering Exam), examination (Professional Engineering Exam), and engineering experience (typically in the area of 5+ years). In the United States, each state tests and licenses Professional Engineers. Currently most states do not license by specific engineering discipline, but rather provide generalized licensure, and trust engineers to use professional judgment regarding their individual competencies; this is the favored approach of the professional societies. Despite this, however, at least one of the examinations required by most states is actually focused on a particular discipline; candidates for licensure typically choose the category of examination which comes closest to their respective expertise.

In much of Europe and the Commonwealth professional accreditation is provided by Engineering Institutions, such as the Institution of Civil Engineers from the UK. The engineering institutions of the UK are some of the oldest in the world, and provide accreditation to many engineers around the world.

In the UK, the term "engineer" can be applied to non-degreed professions such as draftsmen, machinists, mechanics, and technicians. In the US, the term practical engineer sometimes applies to technicians where specific experience and training are valued for detailed applications. It is generally a requirement in the United States to have at least a Bachelor of Science degree in an engineering discipline or related applied science to be considered an engineer and practice as such.

In Canada the profession in each province is governed by its own engineering association. For instance, in the Province of British Columbia an engineering graduate with 4 or more years of experience in an engineering-related field will need to be registered by the Association for Professional Engineers and Geoscientists (APEGBC) [23] in order to become a Professional Engineer and be granted the professional designation of P.Eng.

The federal US government, however, supervises aviation through the Federal Aviation Regulations administrated by the Dept. of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. Designated Engineering Representatives approve data for aircraft design and repairs on behalf of the Federal Aviation Administration.

Even with strict testing and licensure, engineering disasters still occur. Therefore, the Professional Engineer, Chartered Engineer, or Incorporated Engineer adheres to a strict code of ethics. Each engineering discipline and professional society maintains a code of ethics, which the members pledge to uphold.

Refer also to the Washington accord for international accreditation details of professional engineering degrees.

Relationships with other disciplines

Science

Scientists study the world as it is; engineers create the world that has never been.
Bioreactors for producing proteins, NRC Biotechnology Research Institute, Montréal, Canada

There exists an overlap between the sciences and engineering practice; in engineering, one applies science. Both areas of endeavor rely on accurate observation of materials and phenomena. Both use mathematics and classification criteria to analyze and communicate observations.

Scientists are expected to interpret their observations and to make expert recommendations for practical action based on those interpretations[citation needed]. Scientists may also have to complete engineering tasks, such as designing experimental apparatus or building prototypes. Conversely, in the process of developing technology engineers sometimes find themselves exploring new phenomena, thus becoming, for the moment, scientists.

In the book What Engineers Know and How They Know It,[24] Walter Vincenti asserts that engineering research has a character different from that of scientific research. First, it often deals with areas in which the basic physics and/or chemistry are well understood, but the problems themselves are too complex to solve in an exact manner.

Examples are the use of numerical approximations to the Navier-Stokes equations to describe aerodynamic flow over an aircraft, or the use of Miner's rule to calculate fatigue damage. Second, engineering research employs many semi-empirical methods that are foreign to pure scientific research, one example being the method of parameter variation.

As stated by Fung et al. in the revision to the classic engineering text, Foundations of Solid Mechanics:

"Engineering is quite different from science. Scientists try to understand nature. Engineers try to make things that do not exist in nature. Engineers stress invention. To embody an invention the engineer must put his idea in concrete terms, and design something that people can use. That something can be a device, a gadget, a material, a method, a computing program, an innovative experiment, a new solution to a problem, or an improvement on what is existing. Since a design has to be concrete, it must have its geometry, dimensions, and characteristic numbers. Almost all engineers working on new designs find that they do not have all the needed information. Most often, they are limited by insufficient scientific knowledge. Thus they study mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and mechanics. Often they have to add to the sciences relevant to their profession. Thus engineering sciences are born."[25]

Medicine and biology

Leonardo da Vinci, seen here in a self-portrait, has been described as the epitome of the artist/engineer.[26] He is also known for his studies on human anatomy and physiognomy

The study of the human body, albeit from different directions and for different purposes, is an important common link between medicine and some engineering disciplines. Medicine aims to sustain, enhance and even replace functions of the human body, if necessary, through the use of technology.

Modern medicine can replace several of the body's functions through the use of artificial organs and can significantly alter the function of the human body through artificial devices such as, for example, brain implants and pacemakers.[27][28] The fields of Bionics and medical Bionics are dedicated to the study of synthetic implants pertaining to natural systems.

Conversely, some engineering disciplines view the human body as a biological machine worth studying, and are dedicated to emulating many of its functions by replacing biology with technology. This has led to fields such as artificial intelligence, neural networks, fuzzy logic, and robotics. There are also substantial interdisciplinary interactions between engineering and medicine.[29][30]

Both fields provide solutions to real world problems. This often requires moving forward before phenomena are completely understood in a more rigorous scientific sense and therefore experimentation and empirical knowledge is an integral part of both.

Medicine, in part, studies the function of the human body. The human body, as a biological machine, has many functions that can be modeled using Engineering methods.[31]

The heart for example functions much like a pump,[32] the skeleton is like a linked structure with levers,[33] the brain produces electrical signals etc.[34] These similarities as well as the increasing importance and application of Engineering principles in Medicine, led to the development of the field of biomedical engineering that uses concepts developed in both disciplines.

Newly emerging branches of science, such as Systems biology, are adapting analytical tools traditionally used for engineering, such as systems modeling and computational analysis, to the description of biological systems.[31]

Art

There are connections between engineering and art;[35] they are direct in some fields, for example, architecture, landscape architecture and industrial design (even to the extent that these disciplines may sometimes be included in a University's Faculty of Engineering); and indirect in others.[35][36][37][38]

The Art Institute of Chicago, for instance, held an exhibition about the art of NASA's aerospace design.[39] Robert Maillart's bridge design is perceived by some to have been deliberately artistic.[40] At the University of South Florida, an engineering professor, through a grant with the National Science Foundation, has developed a course that connects art and engineering.[36][41]

Among famous historical figures Leonardo Da Vinci is a well known Renaissance artist and engineer, and a prime example of the nexus between art and engineering.[26][42]

Other fields

In Political science the term engineering has been borrowed for the study of the subjects of Social engineering and Political engineering, which deal with forming political and social structures using engineering methodology coupled with political science principles.

See also

References

  1. ^ ABET History
  2. ^ Science, Volume 94, Issue 2446, pp. 456: Engineers' Council for Professional Development
  3. ^ Engineers' Council for Professional Development. (1947). Canons of ethics for engineers
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Engineers' Council for Professional Development definition on Encyclopaedia Britannica (Includes Britannica article on Engineering)
  5. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  6. ^ Origin: 1250–1300; ME engin < AF, OF < L ingenium nature, innate quality, esp. mental power, hence a clever invention, equiv. to in- + -genium, equiv. to gen- begetting; Source: Random House Unabridged Dictionary, Random House, Inc. 2006.
  7. ^ Barry J. Kemp, Ancient Egypt, Routledge 2005, p. 159
  8. ^ "The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project", The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project. Retrieved 2007-07-01 Quote: "The Antikythera Mechanism is now understood to be dedicated to astronomical phenomena and operates as a complex mechanical "computer" which tracks the cycles of the Solar System."
  9. ^ Wilford, John. (July 31, 2008). Discovering How Greeks Computed in 100 B.C.. New York Times.
  10. ^ Wright, M T. (2005). "Epicyclic Gearing and the Antikythera Mechanism, part 2". Antiquarian Horology 29 (1 (September 2005)): 54–60. 
  11. ^ Britannica on Greek civilization in the 5th century Military technology Quote: "The 7th century, by contrast, had witnessed rapid innovations, such as the introduction of the hoplite and the trireme, which still were the basic instruments of war in the 5th." and "But it was the development of artillery that opened an epoch, and this invention did not predate the 4th century. It was first heard of in the context of Sicilian warfare against Carthage in the time of Dionysius I of Syracuse."
  12. ^ Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 2000, CD-ROM, version 2.5.
  13. ^ Jenkins, Rhys (1936). Links in the History of Engineering and Technology from Tudor Times. Ayer Publishing. pp. 66. ISBN 0836921674. 
  14. ^ a b Imperial College: Studying engineering at Imperial: Engineering courses are offered in five main branches of engineering: aeronautical, chemical, civil, electrical and mechanical. There are also courses in computing science, software engineering, information systems engineering, materials science and engineering, mining engineering and petroleum engineering.
  15. ^ Van Every, Kermit E. (1986). "Aeronautical engineering". Encyclopedia Americana. 1. Grolier Incorporated. pp. 226. 
  16. ^ Wheeler, Lynde, Phelps (1951). Josiah Willard Gibbs - the History of a Great Mind. Ox Bow Press. ISBN 1-881987-11-6. 
  17. ^ University of Edinburgh Welcome to Chemical Engineering, which is celebrating 50 years this academic year, is part of the School of Engineering and Electronics (SEE), which includes the other three main engineering disciplines of electrical and electronic engineering, civil engineering and mechanical engineering.
  18. ^ Arbe, Katrina (2001.05.07). "PDM: Not Just for the Big Boys Anymore". ThomasNet. http://news.thomasnet.com/IMT/archives/2001/05/pdm_not_just_fo.html. 
  19. ^ Arbe, Katrina (2003.05.22). "The Latest Chapter in CAD Software Evaluation". ThomasNet. http://news.thomasnet.com/IMT/archives/2003/05/the_latest_chap.html. 
  20. ^ PDF on Human Development
  21. ^ MDG info pdf
  22. ^ Leger Marketing (2006). Sponsorship effect seen in survey of most-trusted professions: pollster. http://www.canada.com/montrealgazette/news/story.html?id=b7647f97-f370-451e-9506-2f116da2c6a1&k=38584&p=2. , pg. 2, The occupations most-trusted by Canadians, according to a poll by Leger Marketing... Engineering 88 per cent of respondents...
  23. ^ APEGBC - Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of BC
  24. ^ Vincenti, Walter G. (1993). What Engineers Know and How They Know It: Analytical Studies from Aeronautical History. Johns Hopkins University Press. 
  25. ^ Classical and Computational Solid Mechanics, YC Fung and P. Tong. World Scientific. 2001. 
  26. ^ a b Bjerklie, David. “The Art of Renaissance Engineering.” MIT’s Technology Review Jan./Feb.1998: 54-9. Article explores the concept of the “artist-engineer”, an individual who used his artistic talent in engineering. Quote from article: Da Vinci reached the pinnacle of “artist-engineer”-dom, Quote2: “It was Leonardo da Vinci who initiated the most ambitious expansion in the role of artist-engineer, progressing from astute observer to inventor to theoretician.” (Bjerklie 58)
  27. ^ Ethical Assessment of Implantable Brain Chips. Ellen M. McGee and G. Q. Maguire, Jr. from Boston University
  28. ^ IEEE technical paper: Foreign parts (electronic body implants).by Evans-Pughe, C. quote from summary: Feeling threatened by cyborgs?
  29. ^ Institute of Medicine and Engineering: Mission statement The mission of the Institute for Medicine and Engineering (IME) is to stimulate fundamental research at the interface between biomedicine and engineering/physical/computational sciences leading to innovative applications in biomedical research and clinical practice.
  30. ^ IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology: Both general and technical articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering...
  31. ^ a b Royal Academy of Engineering and Academy of Medical Sciences: Systems Biology: a vision for engineering and medicine in pdf: quote1: Systems Biology is an emerging methodology that has yet to be defined quote2: It applies the concepts of systems engineering to the study of complex biological systems through iteration between computational and/or mathematical modelling and experimentation.
  32. ^ Science Museum of Minnesota: Online Lesson 5a; The heart as a pump
  33. ^ Minnesota State University emuseum: Bones act as levers
  34. ^ UC Berkeley News: UC researchers create model of brain's electrical storm during a seizure
  35. ^ a b Lehigh University project: We wanted to use this project to demonstrate the relationship between art and architecture and engineering
  36. ^ a b National Science Foundation:The Art of Engineering: Professor uses the fine arts to broaden students' engineering perspectives
  37. ^ MIT World:The Art of Engineering: Inventor James Dyson on the Art of Engineering: quote: A member of the British Design Council, James Dyson has been designing products since graduating from the Royal College of Art in 1970.
  38. ^ University of Texas at Dallas: The Institute for Interactive Arts and Engineering
  39. ^ Aerospace Design: The Art of Engineering from NASA’s Aeronautical Research
  40. ^ Princeton U: Robert Maillart's Bridges: The Art of Engineering: quote: no doubt that Maillart was fully conscious of the aesthetic implications...
  41. ^ quote:..the tools of artists and the perspective of engineers..
  42. ^ Drew U: user website: cites Bjerklie paper

Further reading

  • Dorf, Richard, ed (2005). The Engineering Handbook (2 ed.). Boca Raton: CRC. ISBN 0849315867. 
  • Billington, David P. (1996-06-05). The Innovators: The Engineering Pioneers Who Made America Modern. Wiley; New Ed edition. ISBN 0-471-14026-0. 
  • Petroski, Henry (1992-03-31). To Engineer is Human: The Role of Failure in Successful Design. Vintage. ISBN 0-679-73416-3. 
  • Petroski, Henry (1994-02-01). The Evolution of Useful Things: How Everyday Artifacts-From Forks and Pins to Paper Clips and Zippers-Came to be as They are. Vintage. ISBN 0-679-74039-2. 
  • Lord, Charles R. (2000-08-15). Guide to Information Sources in Engineering. Libraries Unlimited. doi:10.1336/1563086999. ISBN 1-563-08699-9. 
  • Vincenti, Walter G. (1993-02-01). What Engineers Know and How They Know It: Analytical Studies from Aeronautical History. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-80184588-2. 
  • Hill, Donald R. (1973-12-31) [1206]. The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices: Kitáb fí ma'rifat al-hiyal al-handasiyya. Pakistan Hijara Council. ISBN 969-8016-25-2. 

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to School:Engineering article)

From Wikiversity

WELCOME TO THE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING and TECHNOLOGY !

Part of Engineering and Technology
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School of Engineering

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Engineering is the application of scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems. Engineers use imagination, judgment and reasoning to apply science, technology, mathematics, and practical experience. The result is the design, production, and operation of useful objects or processes.

A school is a large organizational structure which can contain various departments and divisions. The departments and divisions should be listed in the departments and divisions section. The school should not contain any learning resources. The school can contain projects for developing learning resources.

For specific questions, why not consult the Engineering Help Desk? We also have an engineering specific discussion portal to help get those technical details straight or just enjoy shooting the breeze with other technically interested people.

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Divisions and Departments

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Divisions and Departments of the School exist on pages in "topic" namespace. Start the name of departments with the "Topic:" prefix; departments reside in the Topic: namespace. Departments and divisions link to learning materials and learning projects. Divisions can link subdivisions or to departments. For more information on schools, divisions and departments look at the Naming Conventions.

To add additional Divisions or Departments within the School of Engineering, edit the list of "Topic:" namespaces on the Engineering Template.

The list of Engineering Departments below has been restructured under popularly established major engineering branches and the new "Tree" categorization system has been implemented. Please edit all Engineering pages to reflect these changes.

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School news and current events

  • November 9, 2007 - Began using the Template:Engineering-list.
  • Aug 4, 2007 - Reformat of main page.
  • Jan 2007 - School founded!
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Learning Resources

Pre-Engineering Curriculum

An education in Engineering is built upon a foundation of mathematics and sciences. Every engineering discipline shares these fundamental studies at its core and every engineering student should be proficient in them:

  • Mathematics
  1. Primary and Secondary Mathematics
  2. Calculus
  3. Linear Algebra
  4. Differential Equations
  • Physical Science
  1. Basic Biology (for some disciplines)
  2. Basic Chemistry
  3. Basic and Levels 1 & 2 Physics

The Engineering Curriculum

The education of an engineering student must encompass the studies prescribed by the chosen discipline of study, yet will additionally require study of topics related to all disciplines and required in nearly every engineering field:

  • General Engineering
  1. Introduction to Technical Writing
  2. Introduction to Computer Science
  3. Computer Aided Design
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Active participants

The histories of Wikiversity pages indicate who the active participants are. If you are an active participant in this school, you can list your name here (this can help small schools grow and the participants communicate better; for large schools it is not needed).

See: List of participants

  1. abhishek mishra 21:01, 22 January 2007 (UTC)kishu
  2. Markemark1005 16:34, 22 February 2007 (UTC)
  3. Dionysios (talk), a Participant in the Wikiversity School of Advanced General Studies, Date: 2007-04-25 (April 25, 2007) Time: 1239301 UTC
  4. Chocoman 31 August,2007
  5. Gustable - 03:47, 17 December 2008 (UTC)
  6. Theornamentalist 01:07, 25 January 2009 (UTC)
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Research projects/Questions

  • Unmanned aerial systems
  • If you read news sites like Physorg.com there are many stories of breakthrough technologies. It seems however, that these breakthrough technologies just don't appear on the market or take several years to do so. Why do these technologies take so long to appear? Why do these technologies sometimes not appear? Do these news sites hype the story to present an unrealistic picture of the technology or is there some obstacle that prevents these technologies from appearing on the market? What could be done to increase the speed at which these technologies enter the market?
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Wikipedia articles

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Open source software

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External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Subject:Engineering article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

< Major Subjects

Books in this subject area deal with engineering: the discipline and profession of acquiring and applying technical, scientific, and mathematical knowledge in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that safely realize a desired objective.

Engineering Books Related Subjects
Featured Books
Print-ready Books
PDF Books
Books with Public Collections

Simple English

File:Windmills D1-D4 - Thornton
Engineers from different fields need to work together to make wind turbines at sea
Engineering is the use of science and math to design or make things. People who do engineering are called engineers. They learn engineering by studying at a college or university. Engineers usually design or build things that are sold or given to people. Some engineers also use their skills to solve technical problems. There are different types of engineers that design everything from computers and buildings to watches and websites.

Contents

= What is it?

= Engineering is a big subject. Here are a few of the many types of engineers:

  • Biomedical engineers design and work with medical equipment.
  • Civil engineers work on roads, bridges, buildings and other public structures.
  • Mechanical engineers design machines or things that move, like cars and trains. A mechanical engineer also might help design electricity generating stations, oil refineries, and factories.
  • Chemical engineers use chemicals to make products like drugs and medicines or fertilizers for crops.
  • Electrical engineers work with electricity and design electrical equipment, from small things like radios and computers to large things like the wires that carry electricity across the country.
  • Computer engineers design and build computers and the parts that computers are made of.
  • Software engineers design and write programs for computers.
  • Aerospace engineers design space vehicles or airplanes.
  • Manufacturing engineers design and improve the machines and assembly lines that make things. They work with robots, hydraulics and air-operated devices to help companies work faster and better with fewer mistakes.
  • Nuclear engineers design and build nuclear plants. They also study the characteristic behaviors of certain radioactive or unstable elements.
  • Systems engineers look at how complicated things work and try to make them faster and smarter.
  • Mechatronics engineers build robots and things that are like robots, but not exactly. They do things that are robotic-like.
  • Nanotechnology engineers study very small things, like strings of atoms and how they are put together.

Engineers do not only work with machines. They also work a lot with other people.[needs proof] Many engineering projects are large and very complicated. Often different kinds of engineers work together and help each other. As an example, computer engineers need help from electrical engineers to build a computer. The computer needs programs written by software engineers. The computer could be used by aerospace engineers to control an airplane. An airplane is a big mechanical system with many parts, so a mechanical engineer and a systems engineer are also needed.

Study

Most (but not all) engineers are trained to be very clever. Much of their training involves working within a limited budget and materials.

American Courses

In the United States, most engineers go to a college or university to get an engineering degree. Most people go to school for four years to get a Bachelor's degree in engineering. A Master's Degree is an advanced degree, usually requiring two more years of study after the Bachelors. A person with a Master's degree is eligible to enter a Doctoral program in engineering. A graduate of a Doctoral program is awarded a Doctor of Philosophy degree, which is commonly called a PhD. A PhD in engineering requires three or four years of study after a Master's degree, and includes the completion of a long research report called a dissertation. After having gained enough work experience, one can sit for their Professional Engineer's (PE) License, reinforcing their demonstrated proficiency in their speciality.

British Courses

In the United Kingdom, engineering degrees at universities are either three year BEng (Bachelor of Engineering) or four year MEng (Master of Engineering). In many universities it is common to take only one engineering discipline (e.g. aeronautical or civil engineering) although some universities have a general engineering degree. British universities may also offer Doctoral programs as a doctor of philosophy (PhD) or a doctor of engineering (EngD)

Engineers can also get additional recognition in the form of becoming Chartered. A chartered engineer is one who has his degree or doctorate has been recognised by a group of professionals such as the IET (Institute of Engineering and Technology), IMechE (Institution of Mechanical Engineers) or ICE (Institution of Civil Engineers). Experience and responsibility enables a further step of recognition by becoming a Fellow of these institutions.

French Courses

The best way to become an engineer in France is to take the CPGE (Classe Preparatoire pour les Grandes Ecoles is the French class for engineer's school) for two years and then study for three years in an "Ecole d'Ingénieur" (Engineer's school). You can also study in an IUT (Institut universitaire technologique) for two years, and then study three years in an "Ecole d'Ingénieur".

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