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England
Flag Royal Standard
MottoDieu et mon droit  (French)
"God and my right"[1][2]
AnthemNone (de jure)
God Save the Queen, Jerusalem, Land of Hope and Glory (de facto)
Location of  England  (inset — orange)
in the United Kingdom (camel)

in the European continent  (white)

Capital
(and largest city)
London
51°30′N 0°7′W / 51.5°N 0.117°W / 51.5; -0.117
Official language(s) English (de facto)
Recognised regional languages Cornish
Ethnic groups (2007
[3][4])
88.2% White, 5.7% South Asian, 2.8% Black, 1.7% Mixed race, 0.8% Chinese, 0.7% Other
Demonym English
Government Constitutional monarchy
 -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II
 -  Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Gordon Brown MP
Legislature Parliament of the United Kingdom
Area
 -  Total 130,395 km2 
50,346 sq mi 
Population
 -  2008 estimate 51,446,000 
 -  2001 census 49,138,831 
 -  Density 395/km2 
1,023/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $1.9 trillion 
 -  Per capita US$38,000 
GDP (nominal) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $2.2 trillion 
 -  Per capita $44,000 
Currency Pound sterling (GBP)
Time zone GMT (UTC0)
 -  Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Internet TLD .uk4
Calling code 44
Patron saint Saint George
1 English is established by de facto usage.
3 National Statistics: 2008 Population Estimates.
4 Assigned on a UK basis, not constituent country.
.England (en-us-England.ogg /ˈɪŋɡlənd/ ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.^ Thistle Charing Cross Map The Strand London, United Kingdom WC2N 5HX $332.39 Charing Cross is part of the Guoman collection of hotels.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[5][6][7] .It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west and the North Sea to the east, with the English Channel to the south separating it from continental Europe.^ The main tributaries of the Thames from the north, to east and west of those described, are not covered, nor is any tributary of importance from the south entirely concealed.

^ The English Channel separates the British Isles from France on the south, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, and the southern tip of Norway to the east.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are actually two distinct systems, north and south of the Thames, having separate outfall works on the north and south banks of the river, at Barking and Crossness.

.Most of England comprises the central and southern part of the island of Great Britain in the North Atlantic.^ Voters in Great Britain decided that their most ridiculous law was one that makes it illegal to die in the Houses of Parliament.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a set of islands off the north-west coast of Europe.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Great Britain includes England, Wales and Scotland.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.The country also includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.^ England includes the Isles of Scilly.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.The area now called England has been settled by people of various cultures for about 35,000 years,[8] but it takes its name from the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries.^ The issue of releasing names of people who sign referendums and initiatives surfaced earlier this year in the fight over the new 'everything but marriage' law that expands rights for gay domestic partners in Washington state."
  • Great Britain Hub | Great Britain Gay Blog Report | Towleroad, News Daily for Gay Guys. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.towleroad.com [Source type: General]

^ During the 8th century, when a more settled condition of life became possible, the trade and commerce of London increased in volume and prosperity.

^ In the year 4,000 A.D., when Pluto is hollowed out and millions of people are living inside,” said an amateur astronomer, “the name of Venetia Burney may be the only thing that Great Britain is remembered for.” .
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.England became a unified state in AD 927, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world.^ During the 8th century, when a more settled condition of life became possible, the trade and commerce of London increased in volume and prosperity.

^ Whether this will continue to be the case in the 21st century, if a significant population decline occurs alongside a more rapidly aging population, remains to be seen.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law—the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world—developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations.^ The Scottish have a tradition of Calvinism and Presbyterianism, the Northern Irish of Orange Protestantism, the Welsh of Chapel Christianity and Methodism, and the English as loyal but convenient subjects of Anglicanism in the tenets of the Church of England.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Developers in England were about to start construction on Dickens World , a $113 million theme park that will offer an Ebenezer Scrooge ride and Dickens characters on ice .
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The permissive society continued into the 1970s and early 1980s, until, like many other countries, the fear of AIDS changed the sexual behavior of many in the mid-1980s.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation.^ The Industrial Revolution developed not long after England became the world's strongest naval and trading power in the eighteenth century.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Over the last 3 centuries Cornwall has gone from being on the leading edge of the industrial revolution to being one of the poorest regions of Europe receiving objective one funding from the EU as a result.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The 18th century in England was distinguished by a strengthening of the parliamentary system and technical and entrepreneurial innovations that produced the Industrial Revolution.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .England's Royal Society laid the foundations of modern experimental science.^ The Royal Institution, Albemarle Street, was founded in 1799, maintains a library and laboratories and promotes research in connexion with the experimental sciences.

[12]
England's terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. .However, there are uplands in the north (for example, the mountainous Lake District, Pennines, and Yorkshire Dales) and in the south west (for example, Dartmoor and the Cotswolds).^ The main tributaries of the Thames from the north, to east and west of those described, are not covered, nor is any tributary of importance from the south entirely concealed.

^ In the south and north-west the typical London clay is the principal formation.

^ As long as there was no bridge to join the north and south banks of the Thames the great object of Roman rule remained unfulfilled.

.London, England's capital, is the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures.^ Editors: Neil McKenna and Linda Semple, BM Perversions, London WC1N 3XX United Kingdom (published three times a year).
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Londinium Towers Map 97 Mansell Street London, United Kingdom E1 8AP $157.32 Londinium Tower is located to the east of London city- close to Tower Bridge and the Tower of London.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ England, the heart of the United Kingdom, has a population of close to 50 million people.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[note .1] England's population is about 51 million, around 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, and is largely concentrated in London, the South East and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East and Yorkshire, which developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century.^ In July 2002, the United Kingdom had an estimated population of 60 million.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ England, the heart of the United Kingdom, has a population of close to 50 million people.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the south and north-west the typical London clay is the principal formation.

Meadowlands and pastures are found beyond the major cities.
.The Kingdom of England—which after 1284 included Wales—was a sovereign state until 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain.^ Years after the Great Potato Famine began that Britain loosened its land-ownership requirements for Irish voters: 5 .
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Political action was taken in 1993 to prevent satellite programming of pornographic material from Red Hot Dutch into the United Kingdom.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bills were killed by the action of the Registration Act for England and Wales, which came into operation July 1, 1837.

[13] .In 1800, Great Britain was united with Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.^ The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a set of islands off the north-west coast of Europe.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Holyhead and Great North Roads, uniting at Barnet, enter London by branches through' Hampstead and through Highgate, between the Old North and Edgware roads.

^ Cannizaro House Map West Side London, United Kingdom SW19 4UE $258.75 Cannizaro House has become one of the most desirable destinations in South West London.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

.In 1922 the Irish Free State was established as a separate dominion, but the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act in 1927 reincorporated into the kingdom six Irish counties to officially create the current United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.^ Britain and the United States bombed Iraq again.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Iran criticized Australia, Bahrain, Britain, France, Italy, and the United States for carrying out a practice naval exercise in the Persian Gulf, then announced ten days of “Great Prophet II” war games.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Years after the Great Potato Famine began that Britain loosened its land-ownership requirements for Irish voters: 5 .
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

Etymology

.The name "England" is derived from the Old English word Englaland, which means "land of the Angles". The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in England during the Early Middle Ages.^ Portion of the words in Webster's New World Dictionary memorized by one non- English -speaking Thai Scrabble champ: 2/3 .
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Old word (derived from the Hispanic Americans who used "homes" as a label for others) that means friend or companion.

^ The word derives from the old show, The Lone Ranger.

The Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea.[14] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first known use of "England" to refer to the southern part of the island of Great Britain occurs in 897, and its modern spelling was first used in 1538.[15]
The earliest attested mention of the name occurs in the 1st century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used.[16] .The etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars; it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape.^ A derivation is suggested from the disputed territory of Alsace , pointing the contrast between this lawless district and the adjacent Temple, the home of the law itself.

[17] .How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe which was less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons.^ Britain held the men for less than a day before releasing them.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Britain approved rules allowing researchers to clone human embryos; German officials called such practices “ cannibalism .” Cheap Chinese pigskin miniskirts were appearing in malls all over America.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Some people use it as a term to describe someone who smokes a lot of weed.

[18]
An alternative name for England is Albion. The name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. .The earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo:[19] "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.^ In this, the earliest period of Saxon history recorded, there appears to be no relic of the Christianity of the Britons, which at one time was well in evidence.

In it are two very large islands called Britannia; these are Albion and Ierne".[19] The word Albion (Ἀλβίων) or insula Albionum has two possible origins. .It either derives from the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover, which is the first view of Britain from the European Continent.^ Referring to one's continent of ethnic origin Example: What is your continentality, Asian or African or maybe European?
  • SlangSite.com - The Slang Dictionary 3 February 2010 18:26 UTC www.slangsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until about 10,000 years ago, Britain was connected to the European continent by a land bridge that made it convenient for peoples to migrate back and forth.
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[20] .An alternative origin is suggested by the ancient merchant's handbook Massaliote Periplus which mentions an "island of the Albiones".[21] Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity.^ Original slang to mean a virgin, but now more commonly used to describe something in pristine condition.
  • SlangSite.com - The Slang Dictionary 3 February 2010 18:26 UTC www.slangsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh Lloegr, which is derived from Arthurian legend.

History

Prehistory and antiquity

Sun shining through row of upright standing stones with other stones horizontally on the top.
Stonehenge, a Neolithic monument
.The oldest proto-human bones discovered in the area date from 700,000 years ago.^ Until about 10,000 years ago, Britain was connected to the European continent by a land bridge that made it convenient for peoples to migrate back and forth.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite the new obstacle, people continued migrating, as the Celts did to the isles some 2,500 to 3,000 years ago.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The discovery, of Homo erectus remains, was made in what is today Norfolk and Suffolk.[23] .Modern humans first arrived in the area around 35,000 years ago;[8] but due to the tough conditions of the Last Ice Age, known specifically in this area as the Devensian glaciation,[24] they fled from Britain to the mountains of southern Europe.^ In 1994, prosecution of around 2,000 cases of indecent assault on females under 16 years of age were initiated and around 65% of those charged were found guilty.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Britain's honorary astronomer royal estimated the odds of an apocalypse to be 50 percent, up from 20 percent 100 years ago.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Until about 10,000 years ago, Britain was connected to the European continent by a land bridge that made it convenient for peoples to migrate back and forth.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Only large mammals such as mammoths, bison and woolly rhinoceros remained.[8] .Roughly 11,000 years ago, when the ice sheets began to recede, humans repopulated the area; genetic research suggests they came from the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula.^ Shortly after this they came to London and settled in Holborn near L i ncoln's Inn, where they remained for more than fifty years.

^ Until about 10,000 years ago, Britain was connected to the European continent by a land bridge that made it convenient for peoples to migrate back and forth.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite the new obstacle, people continued migrating, as the Celts did to the isles some 2,500 to 3,000 years ago.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] .The sea level was lower than now, and Britain was connected by land to both Ireland and Eurasia.^ Until about 10,000 years ago, Britain was connected to the European continent by a land bridge that made it convenient for peoples to migrate back and forth.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A low-level street dealer (lower on the social scale than a fixer ), who very rarely traffics in expensive items.
  • Shadowslang Glossary 3 February 2010 18:26 UTC www.intercom.net [Source type: Academic]

As the seas rose, it was separated from Ireland 9,000 years ago and from Eurasia half a century later.[26]
Beaker culture arrived around 2500 BC, and the making of food vessels constructed out of clay and copper was introduced.[27] It was during this time that major Neolithic monuments such as Stonehenge and Avebury were constructed. By heating together tin and copper, both of which were in abundance in the area, the Beaker culture people were able to make bronze, and later iron from iron ores. They were able to spin and weave sheep's wool, from which they made clothing.[27]
Painting of woman, with outstretched arm, in white dress with red cloak and helmet, with other human figures to her right and below her to the left.
Boudica led an uprising against the Roman Empire.
During the Iron Age, Celtic culture, deriving from the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, arrived from Central Europe. .The development of iron smelting allowed the construction of better ploughs, advancing agriculture (for instance, with Celtic fields), as well as the production of more effective weapons.^ We have invested heavily in our product, in systems which allow us to be more effective at providing you with a more .
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[27] Brythonic was the spoken language during this time. .Society was tribal; according to Ptolemy's Geographia there were around 20 different tribes in the area, however earlier divisions are unknown because the Britons were not literate.^ However, there will be a different entrance in the hotel during this time.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ There are, however, some differences between couples who are married and those who are living together without being married.
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^ There is, however, some evidence in favour of the supposition that the wall was built at a much earlier date.

.Like other regions on the edge of the Empire, Britain had long enjoyed trading links with the Romans.^ Younger people were more likely to report sexual practices other than vaginal intercourse, as were those in long-term relationships.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the first time in a long time that I have been single in the summer, and I likewise have been greatly enjoying delving into the arts and many other summertime delights.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Julius Caesar of the Roman Republic attempted to invade twice in 55 BC; although largely unsuccessful, he managed to set up a client king from the Trinovantes.^ At the beginning of the 5th century the Roman legions left Britain, and the Saxon Chronicle gives the exact date, stating that never since A.D. 409 " have the Romans ruled in Britain "- the chronicler setting down the Roman sway at 470 winters and dating from Julius Caesar's invasion.

.The Romans conquered Britain in AD 43 during the reign of Emperor Claudius, and the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire as Britannia province.^ England became part of the Roman Empire in 43 of the Common Era.
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^ During the centuries when Britain was occupied by the Romans (A.D. 43-409) there was ample time for cities to grow up from small beginnings, to overflow their borders and to be more than once rebuilt.

[28] .The best known of the native tribes who attempted to resist were the Catuvellauni led by Caratacus.^ The Cadogan Hotel is perhaps best known for its association with Oscar Wilde who was arrested in room 118 in 1895.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

Later, an uprising led by Boudica, queen of the Iceni, resulted in her death at the Battle of Watling Street.[29] .This era saw a Greco-Roman high culture prevail with the introduction of law and order, Roman architecture, personal hygiene, sewage systems, education, many agricultural items, and silk.^ Sadly, like many Americans we had been sucked into the depressing world of Law & Order.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A person with technical skills of a high order (eg.
  • Shadowslang Glossary 3 February 2010 18:26 UTC www.intercom.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Person who uses the internet dating systems to meet and date numerous people Example: Kyle has meet so many women on the internet he has been labeled a computer pimp.
  • SlangSite.com - The Slang Dictionary 3 February 2010 18:26 UTC www.slangsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] In the 3rd century, Emperor Septimius Severus died at York, where Constantine was subsequently proclaimed emperor.[30] .Christianity was first introduced around this time, though there are traditions linked to Glastonbury claiming an introduction through Joseph of Arimathea, while others claim through Lucius of Britain.^ A claim has been set up for Thomas Legge , mayor for the second time in 1354, that he was the first lord mayor, but there is positively no authority whatever for this claim, although it is boldly stated that he;was createdlord mayor by Edward III. in this year.

^ Beavers were re-introduced to the British countryside for the first time in 500 years by a millionaire beaver enthusiast.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ For these three situations, there is no time limit; in other cases, the limit is the end of the 24th week of pregnancy.
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[31] By 410, as their Empire declined, the Romans had left the island, to defend their frontiers in continental Europe.[29]

Middle Ages

Studded and decorated metallic mask of human face.
A 7th century ceremonial helmet from the Kingdom of East Anglia, found at Sutton Hoo
.Following the Roman retreat, Britain was left open to invasion by pagan, seafaring warriors such as Saxons and Jutes who gained control in areas around the south east.^ These two were the chief Roman cities in Britain, one in the north and the other in the south.

^ At the beginning of the 5th century the Roman legions left Britain, and the Saxon Chronicle gives the exact date, stating that never since A.D. 409 " have the Romans ruled in Britain "- the chronicler setting down the Roman sway at 470 winters and dating from Julius Caesar's invasion.

^ The reception is open 24 hours a day by the helpful multilingual staff who are happy to provide guests with maps, guides and information about the surrounding area.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[32] The advance was contained for a while after the Britons' victory at the Battle of Mount Badon. The Sub-Roman Brythonic kingdoms in the north, later known collectively by British bards as the Hen Ogledd, were also gradually conquered by Angles during the 6th century. Reliable contemporary accounts from this period are scarce, as is archaeological evidence, giving rise to its description as a Dark Age. .There are various conflicting theories on the extent and process of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain; Cerdic, founder of the Wessex dynasty, may have been a Briton.^ York was conquered and occupied by the Saxons, and there not only are the results of English settlement clear but all records of Roman government were destroyed.

^ There are, further, " settlements " where members of the various bodies may reside in order to devote themselves to philanthropical work; and these include clubs, recreation rooms and other institutions for the use of the poor.

[33] .Nevertheless, by the 7th century a coherent set of Anglo-Saxon petty kingdoms known as the Heptarchy had emerged in southern and central Britain: Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Sussex, and Wessex.^ It is also peaceful despite its central location with additional rooms and suites in an 18th century carriage house and the Stafford Mews, which is set around a pretty courty .
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Essex seems seldom to have held an inde pendent position, for when London first appears as connected with the East Saxons the real power was in the hands of the king of Kent.

^ At the beginning of the 5th century the Roman legions left Britain, and the Saxon Chronicle gives the exact date, stating that never since A.D. 409 " have the Romans ruled in Britain "- the chronicler setting down the Roman sway at 470 winters and dating from Julius Caesar's invasion.

[34]
Christianity was introduced in the south by Augustine from Rome and in the north by Aidan from Ireland. This reintroduced Christianity, which was lost after the founding of the Heptarchy.[35] The title Bretwalda, meaning "Lord of the Britons", denoted the most influential kingship.[36] Northumbria and Mercia were the most dominant forces early on.[37] .However, following Viking conquests in the north and east, and the imposition of Danelaw, the premier English kingdom became Wessex under Alfred the Great.^ These extend over a great area north of Newgate Street and east of Farringdon Road.

^ In 871 the chronicler affirms that Alfred fought nine great battles against the Danes in the kingdom south of the Thames, and that the West Saxons made peace with them.

His grandson Athelstan unified England in 927, although this was only cemented after Edred defeated the Viking Eric Bloodaxe. King Cnut the Great briefly incorporated England into an empire which also included Denmark and Norway.[38] However the Wessex dynasty was restored under Edward the Confessor.
Painting of figures, on foot and horseback with swords and bows. In the background are water and buildings.
The Battle of Agincourt was fought on Saint Crispin's Day and concluded with an English victory against a larger French army in the Hundred Years' War.
.England was conquered in 1066 by an army led by William the Conquerer from the Duchy of Normandy, a fief of the Kingdom of France.^ In 1066, Duke William led the Norman conquest of Britain, bringing continental feudalism and the French language, essential elements in later English culture.
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[39] .The Normans themselves originated from Scandinavia and had settled in Normandy a few centuries earlier.^ Architectural remains of earlier date than the Norman period are very few, and of historical rather than topographical importance.

[39] .They introduced feudalism and maintained power through barons, who set up castles across England.^ I love that you blog and that everyone wants to set you up with someone they know.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Percentage of Britons who say they would give up sex to live to 100: 40 .
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Tougher immigration and asylum legislation, and the Identity Cards Act, setting up a national identity register, were introduced as part of the same 2006 package against terrorism.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

[39] .The spoken language of the new aristocratic elite was Norman French, which would have considerable influence on the English language.^ (I would like to give credit to Ms. Schantz, my English teacher for coming up with this marvel to the English language.
  • SlangSite.com - The Slang Dictionary 3 February 2010 18:26 UTC www.slangsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The House of Plantagenet from Anjou inherited the English throne under Henry II, adding England to the budding Angevin Empire of fiefs the family had inherited in France including Aquitaine.[40] .They reigned for three centuries, proving noted monarchs such as Richard I, Edward I, Edward III and Henry V.^ Here Richard III. was acclaimed king, and the mansion was used by Henry VII. and Henry VIII. Its name is kept in a wharf and a ward of the City.

^ The Bills of Mortality of the 16th and 17th centuries are of more value, and they have been considered and revised by such able statisticians as John Graunt and Sir William Petty .

[40] .The period saw changes in trade and legislation, including the signing of the Magna Carta, an English legal charter used to limit the sovereign's powers by law and protect the privileges of freemen.^ The guarantee of fair laws and ‘equality' before the law (for the nobility) was established in the Magna Carta in 1215.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1215, the nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta, guaranteeing the rights of the people and the rule of law, and setting the stage for the development of a parliamentary system of government.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DPSP 2010 - The 10th International Conference on Developments in Power System Protection 2010 – Managing the Change .
  • United Kingdom Conferences, Conventions, Trade Shows and Meetings 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.allconferences.com [Source type: Reference]

[39] Catholic monasticism flourished, providing philosophers and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded with royal patronage. .The Principality of Wales became a Plantagenet fief during the 13th century[41] and the Lordship of Ireland was gifted to the English monarchy by the Pope.^ Dulwich College originated in the foundation of the College of God's Gift by Edward Alleyn in 1626, and is now constituted as one of the principal English public schools.

^ During the 8th century, when a more settled condition of life became possible, the trade and commerce of London increased in volume and prosperity.

.During the 14th century, the Plantagenets and House of Valois both claimed to be legitimate claimants to House of Capet and with it France—the two powers clashed in the Hundred Years' War.^ It was not until two centuries afterwards that the second Cistercian house in the immediate neighbourhood of London was founded.

^ Defeat in the Hundred Years War with France (1338-1453) was followed by a long civil war, the War of the Roses (1455-1485).
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[42] The Black Death epidemic hit England, starting in 1348, it eventually killed up to half of England's inhabitants.[43][44] .From 1453 to 1487 civil war between two branches of the royal family occurred—the Yorkists and Lancastrians—known as the Wars of the Roses.^ In the middle of the period occurred the civil wars, and then the fire which changed the whole aspect of London.

[45] .Eventually it led to the Yorkists losing the throne entirely to a Welsh noble family the Tudors, a branch of the Lancastrians headed by Henry Tudor who invaded with Welsh and Breton mercenaries, gaining victory at the Battle of Bosworth Field where the Yorkist king Richard III was killed.^ Here Richard III. was acclaimed king, and the mansion was used by Henry VII. and Henry VIII. Its name is kept in a wharf and a ward of the City.

^ After the death of Henry III. (1272) the country had to wait for their new king, who was then in the Holy Land.

[46]

Early Modern

The Tudor period would prove to be eventful.[47] The Renaissance reached England through Italian courtiers, who reintroduced artistic, educational and scholary debate from classical antiquity.[47] During this time England began to develop naval skills, including inventing the theodolite and exploring to the West.[47] The catalyst for such explorations, was the Ottoman Empire's control of the Mediterranean Sea, which blocked off trade with the East for the Christian states of Europe.[47]
.Henry VIII broke from communion with the Catholic Church, over issues relating to divorce, under the Acts of Supremacy in 1534 which proclaimed the monarch head of the Church of England.^ The English Bill of Rights required the monarch to embrace Protestantism and this was further enshrined in the 1707 Act of Union of Scotland and England.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The undertakings of the three dock companies mentioned above were transferred to and vested in the Port Authority, an equivalent amount of port stock created under the act being issued to each.

.Contrary to much of European Protestantism, the roots of the split were more political than theological.^ British people are more depressed than other Europeans, researchers found.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Women are now much more aware of their rights, and have higher expectations in terms of how they are treated at work than in the past.
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[note .2] Tudor also legally incorporated his ancestral land Wales into the Kingdom of England with the 1535–1542 acts.^ The bills were killed by the action of the Registration Act for England and Wales, which came into operation July 1, 1837.

^ The United Kingdom, composed of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, faces the northwestern edge of Europe.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ban on fox hunting went into effect in England and Wales and was expected to be widely ignored.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

There were internal religious conflicts during the reigns of Henry's daughters; Mary I and Elizabeth I. The former attempted to bring the country back to Catholicism, while the later broke from it again more forcefully asserting the supremacy of Anglicanism.[47]
.An English fleet under Francis Drake defeated an invading Spanish Armada during the Elizabethan period.^ While European countries were racked by wars, English culture and a strong economy flourished under the powerful Tudor monarchy and a long period of domestic peace.
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Competing with Spain, the first English colony in the Americas was founded by explorer Walter Raleigh in 1585 and named Virginia.[47] .With the East India Company, England also competed with the Dutch and French to the East.^ London Bridge, constructed in 1886 by the East and West India Docks Company (65 acres).

[47] .The nature of the island was changed, when the Stuart King of Scotland, from a kingdom which was previously a long time rival, inherited the throne of England—creating a personal union under James I in 1603.[49][50] He styled himself King of Great Britain, despite having no basis in English law.^ Scotland became part of England in 1603 when James VI of Scotland became James I of England.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A struggle between Parliament and the Stuart kings, a bloody civil war (1642-1649), and establishment of a republic under the Puritans, ended with the restoration of the monarchy in 1688.
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^ Hey Zach, great to hear you're having a good time.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51]
Painting of seated male figure, with long black hair wearing a white cape and britches.
The English Restoration restored the monarchy under King Charles II and peace after the English Civil War.
.Based on conflicting political, religious and social positions, there was an English Civil War between the supporters of Parliament and those of king Charles I, known as Roundheads and Cavaliers respectively.^ A struggle between Parliament and the Stuart kings, a bloody civil war (1642-1649), and establishment of a republic under the Puritans, ended with the restoration of the monarchy in 1688.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This equality confers certain rights and privileges in respect of education, worship, social welfare, and democratic political rights.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are, however, some differences between couples who are married and those who are living together without being married.
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.This was an interwoven part of the wider multifacited Wars of the Three Kingdoms, involving Scotland and Ireland.^ The United Kingdom, composed of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, faces the northwestern edge of Europe.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Official statistics have been collected by separate organizations in England and Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, but uniform data have not been gathered for the three groupings.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While 16 years is legally the lowest age for marriage in the United Kingdom, parental consent is required up to the age of 18 in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, but not in Scotland.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced with the Commonwealth. .Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector in 1653, a period of personal rule followed.^ The present legislation in England and Wales follows the House of Lords Ruling in the Gillick case of 1985.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52] .By the time of Cromwell's death, England had largely grown weary of Puritan rule, many wanted to patch up old wounds and so Charles II was invited to return as monarch in 1660 with the Restoration.^ A 68-year-old grandmother in England was the runner-up for “txt laureate” for writing a love poem to her husband.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Really liked the Frou Frou song "Let go", and ended up buying that CD, which I can listen to many times over when working.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ London has not grown up along formal lines; nor is any large part of it laid out according to the conceptions of a single generation.

[53] It was now constitutionally established that King and Parliament should rule together, though in practice this was not fully cemeted until the following century.[53] .With the founding of the Royal Society, science and the arts were encouraged.^ The Royal Institution, Albemarle Street, was founded in 1799, maintains a library and laboratories and promotes research in connexion with the experimental sciences.

^ The Society of Arts, John Street, Adelphi, was established in 1754 for the encouragement of arts, manufactures and commerce.

[53]
.The Great Fire of London in 1666 gutted the capital but it was rebuilt shortly after.^ The architect to whom, after the great fire of 1666, the opportunity fell of leaving the marks of his influence upon London was Sir Christopher Wren .

^ Gresham's Exchange was destroyed in the great fire of 1666; and the subsequent building was similarly destroyed in 1838.

^ The Act of Parliament " for rebuilding the city of London " passed after the great fire, gave the coup de grace to the carpenters as house-builders.

[54] In Parliament two factions had emerged—the Tories and Whigs. The former were royalists while the latter were classical liberals. .Though the Tories initially supported Catholic king James II, some of them, along with the Whigs deposed him at the Revolution of 1688 and invited Dutch prince William III to become monarch.^ Even though you still have some king of link with then i have to say they have lost their minds...
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some English people, especially in the north were Jacobites and continued to support James and his sons. .After the parliaments of England and Scotland both agreed,[55] the two countries joined in political union, to create the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707.[49] To accommodate the union, institutions such as the law and national church of each remained separate.^ Voters in Great Britain decided that their most ridiculous law was one that makes it illegal to die in the Houses of Parliament.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Britain will join an international criminal court that will have jurisdiction over war crimes , genocide , and crimes against humanity; the United States still refuses to join the court, which fifteen countries have joined to date.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The United Kingdom, composed of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, faces the northwestern edge of Europe.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56]

Late Modern and contemporary

A stone factory stands against a vivid blue sky, its reflection mirrored in the waters below.
Saltaire, West Yorkshire, is a model mill town from the Industrial Revolution, and a World Heritage Site.
.Under the newly formed Kingdom of Great Britain, output from the Royal Society and other English initiatives combined with the Scottish Enlightenment to create innovations in science and engineering.^ Doctors and nurses initially trained in one or the other discipline are entering into programs of combined training, or at least improving their appreciation and understanding of the other discipline.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four major cultural and ethnic components constitute the United Kingdom, the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, and the English themselves.
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^ This company combines with the Metropolitan District to form the Inner Circle line, which has stations close to all the great railway termini north of the Thames.

This paved the way for the establishment of the British Empire, which became the largest in history.[53] .Domestically it drove the Industrial Revolution, a period of profound change in the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of England, resulting in industrialised agriculture, manufacture, engineering and mining, as well as new and pioneering road, rail and water networks to facilitate their expansion and development.^ It is easily accessible by all transport networks whether Rail, Road or River.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[53] The opening of northwest England's Bridgewater Canal in 1761 ushered in the canal age in Britain.[57][58] In 1825 the world's first permanent steam locomotive-hauled passenger railway—the Stockton and Darlington Railway—opened to the public.[57]
.During the Industrial Revolution, many workers moved from England's countryside to new and expanding urban industrial areas to work in factories, for instance at Manchester and Birmingham, dubbed "Warehouse City" and "Workshop of the World" respectively.^ Any area of urban decay in a major city.
  • Shadowslang Glossary 3 February 2010 18:26 UTC www.intercom.net [Source type: Academic]

^ It also recommended a new offense for the sexual exploitation of adults to include an offense for anybody in England and Wales who recruits people for sex work anywhere in the world.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, many women receive reduced unemployment benefits and pensions because they have not had to pay full contributions during their working lives and have had career breaks.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59][60] .England maintained relative stability throughout the French Revolution; William Pitt the Younger was British Prime Minister for the reign of George III.^ President George W. Bush apologized to British Prime Minister Tony Blair for improperly shipping bombs to Israel via Scotland .
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ President Barack Obama, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown, and French President Nicolas Sarkozy revealed that Iran had a secret uranium-enrichment facility.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ British Prime Minister Tony Blair said that he was disgusted with Iran's treatment of 15 Royal Navy hostages.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.During the Napoleonic Wars, Napoleon Bonaparte planned to invade from the south-east.^ Newly declassified documents revealed that during the Cold War British scientists planned to bury ten nuclear land mines in Germany .
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

However this failed to manifest and the Napoleonic forces were defeated by the British at sea by Lord Nelson and on land by the Duke of Wellington.[53] .The Napoleonic Wars fostered a concept of Britishness and a united national British people, shared with the Scots and Welsh.^ At a literary festival in Wales, British columnist George Monbiot attempted a citizen's arrest of John Bolton, former U.S. ambassador to the United Nations , on charges of war crimes, but was obstructed by security guards.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Sir Christopher Meyer, the former British ambassador to the United States, said that the Iraq war was inspiring acts of terrorism : “God,” he said, “it does not look good.” .
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Members of the British government said that the bombings on the London tube were not related to the war in Iraq , but only 28 percent of British people agreed.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[61]
A cuboid granite cenotaph, flanked by red wreaths.
The Cenotaph at Whitehall is a memorial to members of the British Armed Forces who died during the two World Wars.
.London became the largest and most populous metropolitan area in the world during the Victorian era, and trade within the British Empire—as well as the standing of the British military and navy—was prestigious.^ Located in the heart of the most Victorian area in London, the Citadines in South Kensington is in one of the most attractive areas of London.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ London, the capital, has a population of about seven million; Birmingham, the second largest city, has a population of about a million.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LONDON, the capital of England and of, the British Empire , and the greatest city in the world, lying on each side of the river Thames 50 m.

[62] Political agitation at home from radicals such as the Chartists and the suffragettes enabled legislative reform and universal suffrage.[53] .Power shifts in east-central Europe led to World War I; thousands of English soldiers died in trenches fighting for the United Kingdom as part of the Allies.^ Londinium Towers Map 97 Mansell Street London, United Kingdom E1 8AP $157.32 Londinium Tower is located to the east of London city- close to Tower Bridge and the Tower of London.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Pornographic videotapes are now obtainable through mail order, both within the United Kingdom and from Europe.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Second World War demonstrated that Britain did not have enough power to protect its empire, especially its Asian colonies, some of which were invaded and occupied by Japan.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

[62] .Two decades later, in World War II, the United Kingdom again fought for the Allies.^ Between the two world wars, medical professionals began to perceive masturbation as a harmless sexual behaviour.
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^ Forty firefighters in the United Kingdom carried out a two-hour rescue operation to bring a sheep down from a ledge.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The post-World War II decline in gonorrhea cases was because of the arrival of penicillin and the reactionary morality of the 1950s.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Winston Churchill was the wartime Prime Minister.[63] Developments in warfare technology saw many cities damaged by air-raids during The Blitz.[63] Following the war the British Empire experienced rapid decolonisation, as well as a series of technological innovations—automobiles became the primary means of transport and Whittle's development of the jet engine led to wider air travel.[63]
.Since the 20th century there has been significant population movement to England, mostly from other parts of the British Isles, but also from the Commonwealth, particularly the Indian subcontinent.^ There have been docks at Rotherhithe since the middle of the 17th century.

^ In the 18th century other parts of the town were more largely built upon.

^ Whether this will continue to be the case in the 21st century, if a significant population decline occurs alongside a more rapidly aging population, remains to be seen.
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[64] .Since the 1970s there has been a large move away from manufacturing and an increasing emphasis on the service industry.^ Increased educational opportunities have enabled women to enter professional life, a process that has increased since the 1970s, although few women rise above middle-management level.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are also increasing moves to work to prevent and treat sexual abuse in people with learning disabilities (Craft 1993).
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^ The number of cases involving sexual harassment brought to the Industrial Tribunal in Britain under the Sex Discrimination Act has been steadily increasing since 1986.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65] .As part of the United Kingdom, the area joined a common market initiative called the European Economic Community which became the European Union.^ Historically, the whole area of sexuality for people with disabilities has been seen as problematic and negative within the United Kingdom.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scottish King James VI became King James I of England in 1603 but Scotland retained its own parliament until 1707, when the United Kingdom of Great Britain was established.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thistle Charing Cross Map The Strand London, United Kingdom WC2N 5HX $332.39 Charing Cross is part of the Guoman collection of hotels.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

.Since the late 20th century the administration of the United Kingdom has moved towards devolved governance in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.^ The United Kingdom, composed of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, faces the northwestern edge of Europe.
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^ The newly developed administrations for Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland, and their Government Offices, are also considering what action set out in the Report could be applied in the light of the particular circumstances present in each country.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While 16 years is legally the lowest age for marriage in the United Kingdom, parental consent is required up to the age of 18 in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, but not in Scotland.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66] .England and Wales continues to exist as a legal entity within the United Kingdom.^ England, the heart of the United Kingdom, has a population of close to 50 million people.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The legal situation for lesbians and gay men in the United Kingdom is not a positive one.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The support and financial availability for research within the United Kingdom remains limited.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67] Devolution has stimulated a greater emphasis on a more English-specific identity and patriotism.[68][69] .There is no devolved English government, but an attempt to create a similar system on a sub-regional basis was rejected by referendum.^ York was conquered and occupied by the Saxons, and there not only are the results of English settlement clear but all records of Roman government were destroyed.

[70]

Governance

Politics

.As part of the United Kingdom, the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy.^ The issue of date rape has started to make an impression in the United Kingdom, although it does not constitute a specific offense as such.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Political action was taken in 1993 to prevent satellite programming of pornographic material from Red Hot Dutch into the United Kingdom.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are fewer cases of infectious syphilis per year in men in England (194 cases in 1994) than there are clinics in the United Kingdom, 230.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There has not been a Government of England since 1707, when the Acts of Union 1707, putting into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union, joined England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.^ The bills were killed by the action of the Registration Act for England and Wales, which came into operation July 1, 1837.

^ Percentage change since last year in the number of deaths in Britain due to the human form of mad cow disease : +175 .
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The ban on fox hunting went into effect in England and Wales and was expected to be widely ignored.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[55] Before the union England was ruled by its monarch and the Parliament of England. .Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, although other countries of the United Kingdom have devolved governments.^ England, the heart of the United Kingdom, has a population of close to 50 million people.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The issue of date rape has started to make an impression in the United Kingdom, although it does not constitute a specific offense as such.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United Kingdom, composed of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, faces the northwestern edge of Europe.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[71] .In the House of Commons which is the lower house of the British Parliament based at the Palace of Westminster, there are 529 Members of Parliament for constituencies in England, out of the 646 total.^ The British House of Commons voted to outlaw fox hunting with dogs after pro-hunting protesters broke into the chamber and insulted the rural affairs minister.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Besides the Bank of England there are many banking houses; and the name of Lombard Street, commemorating the former money dealers of Lombardy , is especially associated with them.

^ The Houses of Parliament, with Westminster Abbey and St Margaret's Church, complete the finest group of buildings which London possesses; a group essentially Gothic, for the Houses of Parliament, completed in 1867 from the designs m .

[72]
.In the United Kingdom general election, 2005 the Labour Party had the most MPs elected in England with 284, while the Conservative Party had 194 MPs elected although they received a larger percentage of the popular vote than any other party with 35.7%.^ General, for other than education .

^ England, the heart of the United Kingdom, has a population of close to 50 million people.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The issue of date rape has started to make an impression in the United Kingdom, although it does not constitute a specific offense as such.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73] .The third largest party are the Liberal Democrats who had 47 MPs elected.^ Britain's Labour Party suffered huge losses in local elections and came in third behind the Tories and the Liberal Democrats.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The third-party Liberal Democrats said the proposals were welcome but long overdue.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Respect and Health Concern each have one MP, and there is an Independent Labour member originally elected for Labour.^ The Board of Trade and the County Council must each, under the act, consult with representatives of labour as to the appointment of one of the members, in order that labour may be represented on the Port Authority.

[73] .The two largest parties are led by Gordon Brown for Labour and David Cameron for the Conservatives.^ Britain's Labour Party defeated the Tories; William Hague, the Conservative leader, resigned.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.As the United Kingdom is a member of the European Union, there are elections held regionally in England to decide who is sent as Members of the European Parliament.^ In Edward IV.'s reign the elections of mayor, sheriffs and other officers and members of parliament were transferred to liverymen.

^ Britain's Home Office declared that people who subvert the vital interests of the United Kingdom can be stripped of their citizenship.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The citizens did not dispute the right of election by the kingdom but they held that that election did not necessarily include the choice of London.

.The 2009 European Parliament election saw the regions of England elect the following MEPs: twenty-three Conservatives, ten Labour, nine United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP), nine Liberal Democrats, two Greens and two British National Party (BNP).^ Cornwall Council's Feb 2003 MORI Poll showed 55% in favor of a democratically-elected, fully-devolved regional assembly for Cornwall, (this was an increase from 46% in favor in a 2002 poll).
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of Britain's colonies won independence during the following two decades and most joined the Commonwealth as their last political link with Britain.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Regional units within the United Kingdom have facilities to record interview sessions on video of children being asked open questions about the alleged abuse.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74]
.Since devolution, in which other countries of the United Kingdom—Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland—each have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues, there has been debate about how to counterbalance this in England.^ There are three sets of legislation for the UK, for England and Wales, for Scotland and for Northern Ireland.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a set of islands off the north-west coast of Europe.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Angles, Saxons and Jutes were also present, and the Celts withdrew to the peripheries, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Cornwall and the Isle of Man.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.Originally it was planned that various regions of England would be devolved, but following the proposal's rejection by the North East in a referendum, this has not been carried out.^ Various works of a more or less imperfect character were carried out, such as the bridging over in 1637 of the Drainage.

^ Had all his schemes been followed out, ` that influence would have extended beyond architecture alone.

^ Evelyn's plan differed from Wren's chiefly in proposing a street from the church of St Dunstan's in the East to the cathedral, and in having no quay or terrace along the river.

[70]
.One major issue is the West Lothian question, in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legislation affecting only England, while English MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on devolved matters.^ There are three sets of legislation for the UK, for England and Wales, for Scotland and for Northern Ireland.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Well before the West Lothian was the Cornish question.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Birth statistics: Historical series of statistics from registration of births in England and Wales 1837-1983 (Series FM1, no.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[75] .This when placed in the context of England being the only country of the United Kingdom not to have free cancer treatment, prescriptions, residential care for the elderly and free top-up university fees,[76] has led to a steady rise in English nationalism.^ The Capital Hotel & Apartments Map Basil Street London, United Kingdom SW3 1AT $452.36 With one of the best restaurants in London, The Capital Hotel and Apartments is a quietly dignified, yet friendly bastion of English good taste, conveniently placed in a quiet residential street in Knightsbridge.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ The Lakeland, Florida , English swan population, which is descended from swans given to the city by the Queen of England in 1957, was being eaten by alligators at three times the normal rate.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The walled city of London was a distinct political unit, although it owed a certain allegiance to that one of the kingdoms around it which was the most powerful for the time being.

[77] .Some have suggested the creation of a devolved English parliament,[78] while others have proposed simply limiting voting on legislation which only affects England to English MPs.^ The only other ecclesiastical building to be specially mentioned is Lambeth Palace, opposite to the Houses of Parliament across the Thames.

^ British Conservative MP Hugh Walpole delivered a speech in Parliament against the creation of a permanent president of the European Council, a position said to be coveted by Blair.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[79]

Law

The English law legal system, developed over the centuries, is the foundation of many legal systems throughout the Anglosphere.[80] .Despite now being part of the United Kingdom, the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales continued as a separate legal system to the one used in Scotland as part of the Treaty of Union.^ The Church of England and Catholic bishops of England and Wales will now join forces to fight any intervention by the European Commission to win back the ground lost by the Government."
  • Great Britain Hub | Great Britain Gay Blog Report | Towleroad, News Daily for Gay Guys. 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.towleroad.com [Source type: General]

^ England, the heart of the United Kingdom, has a population of close to 50 million people.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The legal situation for lesbians and gay men in the United Kingdom is not a positive one.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The general essence of English law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedentstare decisis—to the facts before them.^ English law was applied to Wales from 1535.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This, however, is not the opinion of Mr Round,who,as before stated, is inclined to believe that the body of dchevins became in course of time the Court of Common Council.

^ Surely it is time the Duke and Duchy of Cornwall be made subject to equality before the law and the UK begin, after over six centuries, to pay for the maintenance of the heir to the throne.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

[81]
.The court system is headed by the Supreme Court of Judicature, consisting of the Court of Appeal, the High Court of Justice for civil cases and the Crown Court for criminal cases.^ The chief courts for the trial of criminal cases are the Central Criminal Court and the Court of Quarter-sessions.

[82] .The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the highest court for criminal and civil cases in England and Wales, it was created in 2009 after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords.^ Criminal Court, taking the place of the provincial Courts.

^ Rape is an offense under the Sexual Offences Act 1956 and there has been a threefold increase in the number of cases in which proceedings have started in the courts in England and Wales over the last decade.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ England, the heart of the United Kingdom, has a population of close to 50 million people.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[83] .A decision of the highest appeal court in England and Wales, the Supreme Court, is binding on every other court in the hierarchy, which follow its directions.^ The present legislation in England and Wales follows the House of Lords Ruling in the Gillick case of 1985.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[84]
.Crime increased between 1981–1995, though since then there has been 42% fall in crime for the period 1995–2006.[85] The prison population doubled over the same period, giving it the highest incarceration rate in Western Europe at 147 per 100,000.[86] Her Majesty's Prison Service reporting to the Ministry of Justice, manages most prisons, housing over 80,000 convicts.^ U.S. forces dropped over 100,000 yellow ration packets into Afghanistan , where there are thought to be 7.5 million people facing starvation.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The most hectic part of living there was the driving, especially since I got a rockin boat of a van to drive.
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^ The medieval period closed with the accession of the Tudor dynasty, and from that time the population of London continued to increase, in spite of attempts by the government to prevent it.

[86]

Regions, counties, and districts

.
Gr.^ London County Council, which besides these divisions shows " Water London," the London main drainage area, and the Central Criminal Court district.

^ Geographically and culturally, the main island of the British Isles has three regional entities, England, Scotland, and Wales.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Manc.
The subdivisions of England consist of as many as four levels of subnational division controlled through a variety of types of administrative entites. .They have been created for the purposes of local government in England.^ The wealthier metropolitan parishes became discontented with the form of local government to which they remained subject, and in 1897 Kensington and Westminster petitioned to be created boroughs by the grant of charters under the Municipal Corporation Acts.

^ The Local Government Act of 1888 dealt with the metropolis for non-administrative purposes as it did for administrative, that is to say, as a separate county.

.The highest tier of local government are the nine regions of EnglandNorth East, North West, Yorkshire and the Humber, East Midlands, West Midlands, East, South East, South West, and Greater London.^ In the south and north-west the typical London clay is the principal formation.

^ The main tributaries of the Thames from the north, to east and west of those described, are not covered, nor is any tributary of importance from the south entirely concealed.

^ By the Local Government Act of 1888 the citizens of London were deprived of all right of jurisdiction over the county of Middlesex, which had been expressly granted by various charters.

.These were created in 1994 as Government Offices, used by the British Government to deliver a wide range of policies and programmes regionally.^ The area offers a wide range of shops- restaurants- pubs and wine bars- as well as healthcare- leisure facilities and an extensive programme of arts- entertainment and events.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ (These words were created and used extensively at Cal State University, San Francisco, in the early 1990s.
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^ British scientists succeeded in making marijuana soluble, which could enable a wide array of medical uses for the drug.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[87] They are used for electing Members of the European Parliament on a regional basis.
.After devolution began to take place in other parts of the United Kingdom it was planned that referendums for the regions of England would take place for their own regional assemblies as a counterweight.^ England, the heart of the United Kingdom, has a population of close to 50 million people.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dukes Map 35 St. James Place London, United Kingdom $442.53 Dukes is a discreet London classic hotel which has been welcoming guests for over 100 years.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ The Pelham Hotel Map 15 Cromwell Place London, United Kingdom SW7 2LA $452.36 The Pelham Hotel is a member of Design Hotels.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

London accepted in 1998—the London Assembly was created two years later. However, the proposal was rejected by the northern England devolution referendums, 2004 in the North East, further referendums were cancelled.[70] .There are plans to abolish the remaining regional assemblies in 2010 and transfer their functions to respective Regional Development Agencies and new system of Local Authority Leaders’ Boards.^ The County Council was created a local education authority, and given control of secular education in both board and voluntary schools.

^ There is no doubt that new avenues for dialogue, criticism, expressed resentments, and outright dismissal of the religious developments will exist.
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^ Collaborative action with new mechanisms to coordinate action at both the national and local levels and ensure that the strategy is on track (until now, there has not been an agency or individual prepared to take responsibility for tackling the problem as a whole).
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[88]
.Below the regional level all of England is divided into one of 48 ceremonial counties.^ To fraternize below one's social level (ie.
  • Shadowslang Glossary 3 February 2010 18:26 UTC www.intercom.net [Source type: Academic]

[89] .These counties are used primarily as a geographical frame of reference and have developed gradually since the Middle Ages, with some established as recently as 1974.[90] Each has a Lord Lieutenant and High Sheriff; these posts are used to represent the British monarch locally.^ ThruVision, a British firm, unveiled a surveillance camera, developed using research into dying stars, that can see through people's clothes.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ British scientists working with negative index metamaterials said that they were developing a technique that could someday be used to capture a rainbow.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ You get some really bizarre posts, I wonder if you actually read these.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[89] .Outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly, England is also divided into 83 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties; these correspond to areas used for the purposes of local government[91] and may consist of a single district or be divided into several.^ Greater London outside the county).

^ Metropolitan borough councils have to obtain the sanction of the Local Government Board to loans for baths, washhouses, public libraries, sanitary conveniences and certain other purposes under the Public Health Acts; for cemeteries the sanction of the Treasury is required, and for all other purposes that of the London County Council; poor law authorities, the metropolitan asylums board, the metropolitan water board and the central (unemployed) body require the sanction of the Local Government Board the receiver for the metropolitan police district that of the Home Office , and the London County Council that of parliament and the Treasury.

^ A retaliatory raid, taking company men into non-corp areas, usually against a street-gang/samurai.
  • Shadowslang Glossary 3 February 2010 18:26 UTC www.intercom.net [Source type: Academic]

.There are six metropolitan counties which are based on the most heavily urbanised areas and do not have county councils.^ The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.

^ The Metropolitan police area, or " Greater London," however, embraces the whole of Middlesex, with parts of the other three counties and of Hertfordshire .

^ On the formation of the London County Council there were thirteen tramway companies in existence.

[91] .In these areas the principle authorities are the councils of the subdivisions, the metropolitan boroughs.^ Besides these authorities, the London County Council, the Board of Trade, the Admiralty, the Metropolitan and City Police, police of riparian boroughs, Kent and Essex Fisheries Commissioners, all the dock companies and others played some part in the government and public services of the port.

^ The metropolitan borough councils make one general rate, which includes the amount necessary to meet their own expenditure, as well as to meet the demands of the various precepting authorities.

^ The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.

.27 non-metropolitan "shire" counties have a county council and are divided into districts, each with a district council.^ Thus the Lord Mayor and aldermen possess judicial authority, and the police of London are divided into two separate bodies, the Metropolitan and the City Police (see PoLicE).

^ The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.

^ London County Council 1 pp y y (4), the City of London and the City of Westminster (2 each), the other Metropolitan boroughs (1 each), the county councils of Middlesex, Hertfordshire, Essex, Kent and Surrey (1 each), borough of West Ham (2), various groups of other boroughs and urban districts, and the Thames and the Lea Conservancies.

.They are typically, though not always, found in more rural areas.^ They typically are just one notch better than a meter-maid and can usually be found with a well-waxed moustache and a small man complex.
  • SlangSite.com - The Slang Dictionary 3 February 2010 18:26 UTC www.slangsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British women have the largest breasts in Europe , a study found, though they are not the fattest .
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.The remaining non-metropolitan counties are of a single district and usually correspond to large towns or counties with low populations; they are known as unitary authorities.^ The Metropolitan Board of Works was also given certain powers of supervision over the vestries and district boards, and superseded the commissioners of sewers as authority for main drainage.

^ Their population is also largely occupied in local manufacturing establishments; while numerous towns on either bank of the lower Thames share in the industries of the port of London.

^ The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.

.Greater London has a different system for local governance, with thirty-two London boroughs and the City of London covering a small area at the core, which is governed by the City of London Corporation.^ The City Corporation exercises a control over the majority of the London markets, which dates from the close of the 14th century, when dealers were placed under the governance of the mayor and aldermen.

^ Within the confines of Greater London the chalk which forms the basement of this area appears at the surface in isolated patches about Greenwich, while its main line approaches within 10 m.

^ The Metropolitan police area, or " Greater London," however, embraces the whole of Middlesex, with parts of the other three counties and of Hertfordshire .

[92] .At the most localised level, much of England is divided into civil parishes with councils; they do not exist in Greater London.^ Thus the Lord Mayor and aldermen possess judicial authority, and the police of London are divided into two separate bodies, the Metropolitan and the City Police (see PoLicE).

^ Powers under the Tramways Act of 1870 were given to the council, enabling it to acquire possession of these undertakings, and within the county of London they have been for the most part so acquired, and are worked by the council.

^ At the close of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century a large number of electric light companies came into existence, and some of the metropolitan borough councils, and local authorities within Greater London, also undertook the supply.

[93]

Geography

Landscape and rivers

.Geographically England comprises the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly.^ In the Isle of Wight, England , authorities were looking for Toga, a three-month-old Jackass penguin that they believe was stolen so that it could be given as a Christmas present.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Geographically and culturally, the main island of the British Isles has three regional entities, England, Scotland, and Wales.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United Kingdom of Great Britain also includes the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man, Gibraltar (between Spain and Africa), the British West Indies and Bermuda in the Caribbean, the Falkland Islands and dependencies in the South Atlantic, and Pitcairn Island in the Pacific Ocean.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is bordered by two fellow countries of the United Kingdom—to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales.^ Forty firefighters in the United Kingdom carried out a two-hour rescue operation to bring a sheep down from a ledge.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a set of islands off the north-west coast of Europe.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Kingdom, composed of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, faces the northwestern edge of Europe.
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.England is closer to the European Continent than any other part of mainland Britain.^ Until about 10,000 years ago, Britain was connected to the European continent by a land bridge that made it convenient for peoples to migrate back and forth.
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^ British people are more depressed than other Europeans, researchers found.
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Number of European countries with a lower adult literacy rate than that of England : 2 .
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

.It is separated from France by a 34-kilometre (21 mi)[94] sea gap, though the two countries are connected by the Channel Tunnel near Folkestone.^ The English Channel separates the British Isles from France on the south, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, and the southern tip of Norway to the east.
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[95][96] As England is on an island, is it surrounded by the water of the Irish Sea, North Sea and Atlantic Ocean.
.The most important rivers in England, because of their ports of London, Liverpool, and Newcastle, are the tidal rivers Thames, Mersey and Tyne.^ The sinking of the " Princess Alice " in 1878 was a serious blow to the London Steamboat Company, which collapsed, and was succeeded by the River Thames Steamboat Navigation Company, which went into liquidation in 1887.

^ We have somewhat fully described this historical incident here because it has an important bearing on the history of London, and shows also the small importance of the districts outside the walls at that period.

^ The chief authorities concerned in the government of the Port of London till 1909 were: I. Thames Conservancy.

[97] .The tides raise the level of water in their estuaries and enable ships to enter the ports.^ Increased educational opportunities have enabled women to enter professional life, a process that has increased since the 1970s, although few women rise above middle-management level.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In spite of all this, after fighting obstinately both by land and by water, the Danes had to raise the siege of London and take the ships to the river Orwell.

At 354 kilometres (220 mi), the Severn is the longest river flowing through England. It empties into the Bristol Channel and is notable for its Severn Bore tidal waves, which can reach 2 metres (6.6 ft) in height.[97] .However, the longest river entirely in England is the Thames, which is 346 kilometres (215 mi) in length.^ LONDON, the capital of England and of, the British Empire , and the greatest city in the world, lying on each side of the river Thames 50 m.

^ A red-bellied piranha was found dead in a boat moored on the Thames River in England .
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[98] There are many lakes in England but the majority are in the aptly named Lake District; the largest of which is Lake Windermere, it is known by the nickname "Queen of Lakes".[97]
Green hills with trees in the foreground.
Terrain of Dartmoor, Devon
.In geological terms, the Pennines, known as the "backbone of England", are the oldest range of mountains the country, originating from the end of the Paleozoic Era around 300 million years ago.^ A 511-million-year-old crab was found in England .
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

[99] The total length of the Pennines is 400 kilometres (250 mi), peaking at Cross Fell in Cumbria.[97] The material of which they are composed is mostly sandstone and limestone, but also coal. There are karst landscapes in calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire. The Pennine landscape is high moorland in upland areas, indented by fertile valleys of the region's rivers.[97] They contain three national parks, the Yorkshire Dales, Northumberland, and the Peak District. The highest point in England, at 978 metres (3,209 ft), is Scafell Pike in Cumbria.[97] Straddling the border between England and Scotland are the Cheviot Hills.
.The English Lowlands are to the south of the Pennines, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills, Chiltern Hills, North and South Downs—where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover.^ The Thames formed the natural barrier on the south, but the Romans do not appear to have been content with this protection, for they built a wall here in addition, which remained for several centuries.

[97] The granitic Southwest Peninsula in the West Country provides upland moorland, such as Dartmoor and Exmoor, which flourish with a mild climate; both are national parks.[97]

Climate

.England has a temperate maritime climate meaning that it is mild with temperatures not much lower than 0 °C (32 °F) in winter and not much higher than 32 °C (90 °F) in summer.^ Women are now much more aware of their rights, and have higher expectations in terms of how they are treated at work than in the past.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[100] The weather is damp relatively frequently and is subject to change. .The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English coast, while July is normally the warmest month.^ The average temperature of the hottest month, July, is 64° 4 F. of the coldest, January, 37° 9; and the mean annual 50 0.4.

Months with mild to warm weather with least rainfall are May, June, September and October.[100]
The biggest influences on the climate of England comes from the proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, its northern latitude and warming of the waters around the Gulf Stream.[100] .England receives quite a significant proportion of rainfall during the year, with autumn and winter being the wettest time—geographically the Lake District receives more rain than anywhere else in the country.^ Fred is a dynamic youth communicator with more than 18 years of inner-city ministry experience, and the founder of UrbNet, a National Network of Urban Youth Workers.

^ Shortly after this they came to London and settled in Holborn near L i ncoln's Inn, where they remained for more than fifty years.

^ As an adult, I use way more stamps than I ever did in the 22 years before now.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[100] .Since weather recording records began, the highest temperature received was 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) on 10 August 2003 at Brogdale in Kent,[101] while the lowest was −26.1 °C (−15 °F) on 10 January 1982 in Edgmond, Shropshire.^ August 15, 2003 .
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ August 26, 2003 .
  • Great Britain (Harper's Magazine) 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ By 1977, the crude birthrate had fallen to 11.5 and the total fertility rate to 1.66, the lowest levels since records began, and any further measures to discourage parenthood were viewed as inappropriate.
  • CCIES at The Kinsey Institute: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 February 2010 4:27 UTC www.kinseyinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[102]
Climate data for England
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 7
(45)
7
(45)
9
(48)
12
(54)
15
(59)
18
(64)
21
(70)
21
(70)
18
(64)
14
(57)
10
(50)
7
(45)
13
(55)
Average low °C (°F) 1
(34)
1
(34)
2
(36)
4
(39)
6
(43)
9
(48)
11
(52)
11
(52)
9
(48)
7
(45)
4
(39)
2
(36)
6
(43)
Precipitation mm (inches) 84
(3.31)
60
(2.36)
67
(2.64)
57
(2.24)
56
(2.2)
63
(2.48)
54
(2.13)
67
(2.64)
73
(2.87)
84
(3.31)
84
(3.31)
90
(3.54)
838
(32.99)
Source: Met Office[103] 19 February 2008

Major conurbations

.The Greater London Urban Area is by far the largest metropolitan area in England[104] and one of the busiest cities in the world.^ Located in the heart of the most Victorian area in London, the Citadines in South Kensington is in one of the most attractive areas of London.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Within the confines of Greater London the chalk which forms the basement of this area appears at the surface in isolated patches about Greenwich, while its main line approaches within 10 m.

^ On the Thames below London Bridge, London appears in the aspect of one of the world's great ports, with extensive docks and crowded shipping .

.It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom besides England itself.^ Londinium Towers Map 97 Mansell Street London, United Kingdom E1 8AP $157.32 Londinium Tower is located to the east of London city- close to Tower Bridge and the Tower of London.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ The delicate state of community relations was revealed in a 2007 survey, which found that Britons were more suspicious of Muslim communities than the populations of any other EU state.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Apex City Of London Hotel Map 1 Seething Lane London, United Kingdom EC3N 4AX $344.19 Urban glamour meets contemporary comfort at the Apex City of London Hotel.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[104] Other urban areas of considerable size and influence tend to be in northern England or the English Midlands.[104] .There are fifty settlements which have been designated city status in England, while the wider United Kingdom has sixty-six.^ Londinium Towers Map 97 Mansell Street London, United Kingdom E1 8AP $157.32 Londinium Tower is located to the east of London city- close to Tower Bridge and the Tower of London.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ The Pelham Hotel Map 15 Cromwell Place London, United Kingdom SW7 2LA $452.36 The Pelham Hotel is a member of Design Hotels.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Apex City Of London Hotel Map 1 Seething Lane London, United Kingdom EC3N 4AX $344.19 Urban glamour meets contemporary comfort at the Apex City of London Hotel.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

While many cities in England are quite large in size, such as Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, Newcastle, Bradford, Nottingham and others, a large population is not necessarily a prerequisite for a settlement to be afforded city status.[105] .Traditionally the status was afforded to towns with diocesan cathedrals and so there are smaller cities like Wells, Ely, Ripon, Truro and Chichester.^ I'm from the windy city -well........when I travel I actually tell people I'm from Chicago rather than saying I'm in a town called Schaumburg cuz then people would be like "where's Schaumburg" then I have to give a whole schpeel about it and it's just much easier to say Chicago.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[105] According to the Office for National Statistics the ten largest, continuous built-up urban areas are;[104]
Rank Urban Area Population Localities Major localities
1 Greater London Urban Area 8,278,251 67 Greater London, divided into the City of London and 32 London boroughs including Croydon, Barnet, Ealing, Bromley[106]
2 West Midlands Urban Area 2,284,093 22 Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Dudley, Walsall
3 Greater Manchester Urban Area 2,240,230 57 Manchester, Salford, Bolton, Stockport, Oldham
4 West Yorkshire Urban Area 1,499,465 26 Leeds, Bradford, Huddersfield, Wakefield
5 Tyneside 879,996 25 Newcastle, North Shields, South Shields, Gateshead, Jarrow
6 Liverpool Urban Area 816,216 8 Liverpool, St Helens, Bootle, Huyton-with-Roby
7 Nottingham Urban Area 666,358 15 Nottingham, Beeston and Stapleford, Carlton, Long Eaton
8 Sheffield Urban Area 640,720 7 Sheffield, Rotherham, Chapeltown, Mosborough
9 Bristol Urban Area 551,066 7 Bristol, Kingswood, Mangotsfield, Stoke Gifford
10 Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton 461,181 10 Brighton, Worthing, Hove, Littlehampton, Shoreham, Lancing

Economy

Nighttime photograph of illuminated buildings and bridge, with their lights reflected in the water.
.
The City of London is the world's largest financial centre.
^ City Hotel Map 12-20 Osborn Street London, United Kingdom E1 6TE $314.69 City Hotel has a prime location in London, Europe's busiest financial centre.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ At the heart of the city*s business hub the Hilton London Canary Wharf hotel has 9 meeting rooms for 12-400 people as well as a business centre and Executive Lounge.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ We're also just 200 metres from Newbury Park underground station for direct links to central London and the City financial district.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[107][108]
.England's economy is one of the largest in in the world, with an average GDP per capita of £22,907.[109] Usually regarded as a mixed market economy, it has adopted many free market principles in contrast to the Rhine Capitalism of Europe, yet maintains an advanced social welfare infrastructure.^ The hotel's many amenities include meeting facilities and banqueting suites, the Piccadilly Health Club, a Jacuzzi, and one of London's largest indoor swimming pools.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ One who learns gradually or not as quick as the average person usually used as an insult.

^ This is one of Europe's largest first class hotels, offering an extensive range of accommodation and conference rooms.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[110] .The official currency in England is the pound sterling, also known as the GBP. Taxation in England is quite competitive when compared to much of the rest of Europe—as of 2009 the basic rate of personal tax is 20% on taxable income up to £37,400, and 40% on any additional earnings above that amount.^ Cindy's gone totally crackerbarrel since she broke up with Zeppo, she's put on at least 40 pounds.
  • SlangSite.com - The Slang Dictionary 3 February 2010 18:26 UTC www.slangsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[111]
The economy of England is the largest part of the UK's economy,[109] which has the 18th highest GDP PPP per capita in the world. England is a leader in the chemical and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace, the arms industry, and the manufacturing side of the software industry. .London, home to the London Stock Exchange, the UK's main stock exchange and the largest in Europe, is England's financial centre—100 of Europe's 500 largest corporations are based in London.^ City Hotel Map 12-20 Osborn Street London, United Kingdom E1 6TE $314.69 City Hotel has a prime location in London, Europe's busiest financial centre.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ We are walking distance from ExCeL Exhibition Centre (West) and just minutes from the financial district of Canary Wharf & the City of London.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Conveniently located near by the main financial institutions of the city, it is accessible from Stanstead and London City Airports, and a short taxi from central London.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[112] .London is the largest financial centre in Europe, and as of 2009 is also the largest in the world.^ City Hotel Map 12-20 Osborn Street London, United Kingdom E1 6TE $314.69 City Hotel has a prime location in London, Europe's busiest financial centre.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ We are walking distance from ExCeL Exhibition Centre (West) and just minutes from the financial district of Canary Wharf & the City of London.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ AddHotel('107128', ' The Hempel ', ' Starting At: $391.39 Step from the centre of London and into The Hempel world, a destination suspended in time and space.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[113]
A silver coloured car.
Aston Martin is a well known English automobile company.
The Bank of England, founded in 1694 by Scottish banker William Paterson, is the UK's central bank. .Originally instituted to act as private banker to the Government of England, it carried on in this role as part of the United Kingdom—since 1946 it has been a state-owned institution.^ KINGSWAY HALL HOTEL Map Great Queen street London, United Kingdom WC2B 5BX $332.39 Situated in the heart of London's Cosmopolitan Covent Garden, Kingsway Hall is one of the few remaining privately owned hotels.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Thistle Charing Cross Map The Strand London, United Kingdom WC2N 5HX $332.39 Charing Cross is part of the Guoman collection of hotels.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ The Regency Hotel Map 100 Queen's Gate London, United Kingdom SW7 5AG $204.55 Privately owned hotel with courteous and helpful staff ensuring the highest standard of personal attention.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[114] .The Bank has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in England and Wales, although not in other parts of the United Kingdom.^ Thistle Charing Cross Map The Strand London, United Kingdom WC2N 5HX $332.39 Charing Cross is part of the Guoman collection of hotels.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

Its Monetary Policy Committee has devolved responsibility for managing the monetary policy of the country and setting interest rates.[115]
England is highly industrialised, but since the 1970s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy.[65] Tourism has become a significant industry, attracting millions of visitors to England each year. .The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals, automobiles—although many English marques are now foreign-owned, such as Rolls-Royce, Lotus, Jaguar and Bentleycrude oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea Oil along with Wytch Farm, aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages.^ Now part of NH Hotels, this elegant hotel is one of the few properties left in London that still retains its own character.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[116] Agriculture is intensive and highly mechanised, producing 60% of food needs with only 2% of the labour force.[117] .Two thirds of production is devoted to livestock, the other to arable crops.^ To be chewbaccaed: when the third person in a group is forced to walk behind the other two, who are walking shoulder-to-shoulder.
  • SlangSite.com - The Slang Dictionary 3 February 2010 18:26 UTC www.slangsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[118]

Infrastructure

Red two-storey vehicle with windows on each level.
A Routemaster double-decker bus in London
The Department for Transport is the government body responsible for overseeing transport in England. .There are several motorways in England, one of the most important trunk roads is the A1 Great North Road, stretching across the country from London to Newcastle.^ Located in the heart of the most Victorian area in London, the Citadines in South Kensington is in one of the most attractive areas of London.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Situated in one of London's most coveted locations, overlooking the Royal Mews.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ AddHotel('38301', ' Kensington House Hotel ', ' Starting At: $237.98 The Kensington House Hotel is one of London*s most delightful discoveries.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[119] The longest motorway in England is the M6, stretching from Rugby to the North West up to the Anglo-Scottish border.[119] .There are other major roads; the M1 from London to Leeds, the M25 which encircles London, the M60 which encircles Manchester, the M4 from London to South Wales, the M62 from Liverpool to Manchester and East Yorkshire and the M5 from Birmingham to Bristol and the South West.^ Cannizaro House Map West Side London, United Kingdom SW19 4UE $258.75 Cannizaro House has become one of the most desirable destinations in South West London.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ The Best Western Lodge Hotel is ideally located in the heart of South West London, close to Wimbledon, Chelsea and the River Thames.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Easy direct road from and to London Heathrow Airport, or take direct underground or Heathrow Express to Paddington Station then underground or taxi from there.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[119]
Bus transport across the country is common, major companies include National Express, Arriva and Go-Ahead Group. The red double-decker buses in London have become a symbol of England. .There is a rapid rail network in two English cities; the London Underground and the Tyne and Wear Metro, the latter in Newcastle, Gateshead and Sunderland.^ Victoria British Rail and Underground Stations - 2 minute walk to Victoria Coach Station and Buckingham Palace - 10 minutes to Westminster Abbey, Big Ben, and London Eye.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Easy direct road from and to London Heathrow Airport, or take direct underground or Heathrow Express to Paddington Station then underground or taxi from there.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ A short walk from both Kings Cross and St Pancras stations offering London Underground services, national and international rail travel by the Eurostar.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[120] There are tram networks, such as; Blackpool, Manchester Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram and Midland Metro.[120]
Light from sunset reflected over buildings and gray concrete.
.
London Heathrow Airport has more international passenger traffic than any other airport in the world.
^ Ideally located 6 miles west of Central London and 6 miles from Heathrow Airport .
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Our first new build, the contemporary Ramada London Heathrow Hotel is a hassle-free three miles from London Heathrow Airport.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Easy direct road from and to London Heathrow Airport, or take direct underground or Heathrow Express to Paddington Station then underground or taxi from there.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[121]
.Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world, with the system originating there in 1825.[122] Much of Britain's 16,116 kilometres (10,014 mi) of rail network lies in England, covering the country extensively.^ It is easily accessible by all transport networks whether Rail, Road or River.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[123] These lines are mostly single, double or quadruple track, though there are narrow gauge lines. There is rail transport access to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the Channel Tunnel which was completed in 1994.
.There are air transport facilities in England connected the public to numerous international locations, the largest airport is London Heathrow Airport which in terms of passenger volume in the busiest in Europe and one of busiest in the world.^ Ideally located 6 miles west of Central London and 6 miles from Heathrow Airport .
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Crowne Plaza Hotel LONDON-EALING Map WESTERN AVENUE HANGER LANE London, United Kingdom W5 1HG $87.61 The Crowne Plaza London Ealing is ideally located on the Hanger Lane Gyratory System close to Wembley (3 miles) and Heathrow Airport (12 miles) and with easy access to Central London by car or public transport.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ City Hotel Map 12-20 Osborn Street London, United Kingdom E1 6TE $314.69 City Hotel has a prime location in London, Europe's busiest financial centre.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[121] .Other large airports include Manchester Airport, London Stansted Airport, Luton Airport and Birmingham International Airport.^ From the hotel there is easy access to Central London, Wembley, Heathrow Airport and Luton Airport.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[121] .By sea there is ferry transport, both for internal and external trips, some of the most common links are to Ireland, the Netherlands and Belgium.^ Excellent transport links make getting around the capital simple, with Pimlico and Victoria stations both a few minutes away.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ The Belgravia Mews is a perfect choice for both business and leisure visitors to London with excellent transport links to all parts of this great city.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Athos Travel in nearby destinations Ireland Hotels France Hotels Belgium Hotels Netherlands Hotels Norway Hotels Portugal Hotels Spain Hotels Denmark Hotels Germany Hotels Iceland Hotels .
  • A - UNITED-KINGDOM.com - United Kingdom Hotels & United Kingdom Apartments, Accommodation in United Kingdom 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.a-united-kingdom.com [Source type: General]

[124] .Travel by waterways such as rivers, canals, docks is common with around 7,100 km (4,400 mi) of navigable waterways in England, half of which is owned by British Waterways.^ British food, state of the art 45 seat screening room, converting into a party space with its own private bar for 100.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[124] The Thames is the major waterway in England, with imports and exports focused at the Port of Tilbury, one of the UK's three major ports.[124]
Red brick building partially obscured by trees.
Local NHS surgeries, such as this facility in Dorchester, Dorset, are available throughout England.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly funded healthcare system in England responsible for providing the majority of healthcare in the country. The NHS began on 5 July 1948, putting into effect the provisions of the National Health Service Act 1946. It was based on the findings of the Beveridge Report, prepared by economist and social reformer William Beveridge.[125] .The NHS is largely funded from general taxation including National Insurance payments,[126] it provides most services at no additional cost though there are extra charges associated with eye tests, dental care, prescriptions and aspects of personal care.^ Public areas including Restaurant and Bar,providing an excellent food and beverage service.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ With three-star accommodation from double, twin, family and quad rooms, we have everything a person needs for their stay, and we even include a Full English buffet at no extra cost!
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Astons provides guests with a number of excellent free services including- linen and daily maid service with fresh towels.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[127]
The government department responsible for the NHS is the Department of Health, headed by the Secretary of State for Health, who sits in the British Cabinet. .Most of the expenditure of the Department of Health is spent on the NHS—£98.6 billion was spent in 2008–2009.[128] In recent years the private sector has been increasingly used to provide more NHS services despite opposition by doctors and trade unions.^ Our hotel has the feel of a private residence, yet provides the service and facilities of a modern, international hotel.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[129] .The average life expectancy of people in England is 77.5 years for males and 81.7 years for females, the highest of the four countries of the United Kingdom.^ The United Kingdom is an amazingly diverse country.
  • A - UNITED-KINGDOM.com - United Kingdom Hotels & United Kingdom Apartments, Accommodation in United Kingdom 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.a-united-kingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ The United Kingdom is the country of five o'clock tea, porridge, whisky, and fogs.
  • A - UNITED-KINGDOM.com - United Kingdom Hotels & United Kingdom Apartments, Accommodation in United Kingdom 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.a-united-kingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ The United Kingdom consists of Great Britain (England, Wales, and Scotland) and Northern Ireland.
  • A - UNITED-KINGDOM.com - United Kingdom Hotels & United Kingdom Apartments, Accommodation in United Kingdom 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.a-united-kingdom.com [Source type: General]

[130]

Demography

Population

Map of England with regions shaded in different shades of blue.
The non-metropolitan counties and unitary authorities of England, colour-coded to show population.
.With over 51 million inhabitants, England is the most populous country of the United Kingdom, accounting for 84% of the combined total.^ The United Kingdom is an amazingly diverse country.
  • A - UNITED-KINGDOM.com - United Kingdom Hotels & United Kingdom Apartments, Accommodation in United Kingdom 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.a-united-kingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ The United Kingdom is the country of five o'clock tea, porridge, whisky, and fogs.
  • A - UNITED-KINGDOM.com - United Kingdom Hotels & United Kingdom Apartments, Accommodation in United Kingdom 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.a-united-kingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Cannizaro House Map West Side London, United Kingdom SW19 4UE $258.75 Cannizaro House has become one of the most desirable destinations in South West London.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[131] England taken as a unit and measured against international states has the fourth largest population in the European Union and would be the 25th largest country by population in the world.[132] With a density of 395 people per square kilometre, it would be the second most densely populated country in the European Union after Malta.[133][134]
The English people are a British people[3]—genetic evidence suggests that 75–95% descend in the paternal line from prehistoric settlers who originally came from the Iberian Peninsula.[135][136][137] There is a significant Norse element, as well as a 5% contribution from Angles and Saxons,[135] though other geneticists place the Norse-Germanic estimate up to half.[138][139] .Over time various cultures have been influential—Prehistoric, Brythonic,[140] Roman, Anglo-Saxon,[141] Norse Viking,[142] Gaelic cultures, as well as a large influence from Normans.^ Romans, Saxons, and Vikings have all penetrated York’s ancient walls, and remains of each civilization are still perfectly preserved today.
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.There is an English diaspora in former parts of the British Empire; especially the United States, Canada, Australia, Chile, South Africa and New Zealand.^ Example: Canada, much like the United States, is increasingly heading towards a pseudo-democracy where the corporarchy continues to subvert real democracy.
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[note 3] Since the late 1990s, English people have migrated to Spain.[147][148]
Pie chart with main body in blue and multiple smaller segments in other colours.
2007 estimates of ethnic groups in England
.At the time of the Domesday Book, compiled in 1086, more than 90% of the English population of about two million lived in the countryside.^ CLICK HERE to read an excerpt from our new book and find out more about where this slang comes from.

^ A very minor dizziness that lasts for no more than two minutes.
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^ I miss the Delacorte on a summer day, sitting in line and talking to people whose lives were far more interesting than mine.
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[149] By 1801 the population had grown to 8.3 million, and by 1901 had grown to 30.5 million.[150] .Due to the economic prosperity in South East England there are many economic migrants from the other parts of the United Kingdom.^ Londinium Towers Map 97 Mansell Street London, United Kingdom E1 8AP $157.32 Londinium Tower is located to the east of London city- close to Tower Bridge and the Tower of London.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Cannizaro House Map West Side London, United Kingdom SW19 4UE $258.75 Cannizaro House has become one of the most desirable destinations in South West London.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ The country comprises the island of Great Britain, the north-east part of the island of Ireland and many small islands.
  • A - UNITED-KINGDOM.com - United Kingdom Hotels & United Kingdom Apartments, Accommodation in United Kingdom 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.a-united-kingdom.com [Source type: General]

[3] There has been significant Irish migration, with 25% of English people having Irish ancestry.[151] The European population totals at 89.90%, including Germans[151] and Poles.[3]
.Other people from much further afield in the former British colonies have arrived since the 1950s—5.30% of people living in England have migrated from the Indian subcontinent, mostly India and Pakistan.^ I live in India, by the way, and the big co-incidence is that Garden State [which I still haven't seen fully!!:(] is coming on at 4.30 today.
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[3][151] 2.30% of the population are black, mostly from the Caribbean.[3][151] There is a significant number of Chinese and British Chinese.[3][151] As of 2007, 22% of primary school children in England were from ethnic minority families.[152] About half of the population increase between 1991–2001 was due to foreign-born immigration.[153] .Debate over immigration is politically prominent,[154] according to a Home Office poll 80% of people want to cap it.^ But I'm not sure if other people will want them , and God knows I don't want to put more helpless animals in danger of not having a loving home.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[155] The ONS has projected that the population will grow by six million between 2004 and 2029.[156]

Language

The English-speaking world. Countries in dark blue have a majority of native speakers. Countries in light blue have English as an official language, de jure or de facto. English is also one of the official languages of the European Union.[157]
As its name suggests, the English language, today spoken by hundreds of millions of people around the world, originated as the language of England, where it remains the principal tongue today. An Indo-European language in the Anglo-Frisian branch of the Germanic family, it is closely related to Scots.[158] After the Norman conquest, the Old English language was displaced and confined to the lower social classes as Norman French and Latin were used by the aristocracy.
.By the 17th century, English came back into fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling.^ To show off or display skill with great intensity "Man I can't wait to get back on the court I'm a go hard on all of y'all."

^ Bookoo originated from the french word 'beaucoup' which means much or many.

.During the English Renaissance, many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins.^ Bookoo originated from the french word 'beaucoup' which means much or many.

[159] Modern English has extended this custom of flexibility, when it comes to incorporating words from different languages. Thanks in large part to the British Empire, the English language is the world's unofficial lingua franca.[160]
English language learning and teaching is an important economic activity, and includes language schooling, tourism spending, and publishing. .There is no legislation mandating an official language for England,[161] but English is the only language used for official business.^ There are three sets of legislation for the UK, for England and Wales, for Scotland and for Northern Ireland.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Welsh, Scottish and Manx Gaelic are now official languages for Wales, Scotland and the Isle of Man along with English.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.Despite the country's relatively small size, there are many distinct regional accents, and individuals with particularly strong accents may not be easily understood everywhere in the country.^ MANY fans out there, so much to do and such, there would be a small chance for that.
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^ The country comprises the island of Great Britain, the north-east part of the island of Ireland and many small islands.
  • A - UNITED-KINGDOM.com - United Kingdom Hotels & United Kingdom Apartments, Accommodation in United Kingdom 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.a-united-kingdom.com [Source type: General]

Cornish, which died out as a community language in the 18th century, is being revived,[162][163][164][165] and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.[166] .It is spoken by 0.1% of people in Cornwall,[167] and is taught to some degree in several primary and secondary schools.^ I have enjoyed acting for several years now, and I have been in many school, community, and some regional theatre shows.
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[168][169] .State schools teach students a second language, usually French, German or Spanish.^ Hi Zach I'm a french student and I just arrived in the Garden State to study for a year !
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[170] .Due to immigration, it was reported in 2007 that around 800,000 school students spoke a foreign language at home,[152] the most common being Punjabi and Urdu.^ It's infamous around the U.S. as being a bad area that scares most people.

^ Main languages: English, Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Bengali, Chinese, Gujarati, Urdu, Punjabi.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

[171]

Education

Universities and learning institutions

.The body responsible for state education in general up to the age of 19, in the United Kingdom is the Department for Children, Schools and Families—this body directly controls state schools in England.^ Apex City Of London Hotel Map 1 Seething Lane London, United Kingdom EC3N 4AX $344.19 Urban glamour meets contemporary comfort at the Apex City of London Hotel.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Threadneedles, The City's Boutique Hotel Map 5 Threadneedles Street London, United Kingdom EC2R 8AY $344.19 Threadneedles is the first luxury boutique hotel in the City's Square Mile.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Scottish King James VI became King James I of England in 1603 but Scotland retained its own parliament until 1707, when the United Kingdom of Great Britain was established.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

[172] Funded through taxation state-run schools are attended by approximately 93% of English schoolchildren.[173] There is a minority of faith schools, mostly Church of England or Catholic Church. .Between three and four is nursery school, four and eleven is primary school, and eleven to sixteen is secondary school, with an option for a two-year extension to attend sixth form college.^ Hell, I did not even know that the show existed until this year, probably because I have been raising three kids alone, working two to three jobs, and going to school full time.
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Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive, there are selective intake grammar schools, to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven plus exam. Around 7.2% of English schoolchildren attend private schools, which are funded by private sources.[174] Standards are monitored by regular inspections of state-funded schools by the Office for Standards in Education and of private schools by the Independent Schools Inspectorate.[175]
After finishing compulsory education, pupils take a GCSE examination, following which they may decide to continue in further education and attend a further education college. .Students normally enter universities in the United Kingdom from 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree.^ Comfort Inn Victoria Map 18 - 24 Belgrave Road London, United Kingdom SWIV 1QF $177.10 Comfortable rooms.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

.England has more than 90 state-funded universities, which are monitored by the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills.^ I recently went to Virginia Beach which is the east coast...and i found that i liked it a lot more than the 5 midwest states i have lived in.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[176] Students are generally entitled to student loans for maintenance.[note 4] The first degree offered to undergraduates is the Bachelor's degree, which usually takes three years to complete. Students are then eligible for a postgraduate degree, a Master's degree, taking one year, or a Doctorate degree, which takes three.
England has a history of promoting education, and its top institutions are internationally respected.[177] The most acclaimed English universities are Oxford and Cambridge. .These two "ancient universities" have many common features and are nowadays known as Oxbridge.^ Beautifully decorated throughout, and retaining many original Georgian features, The Academy boasts cosy lounges, roaring fires and even two private gardens.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

The King's School, Canterbury and The King's School, Rochester are the oldest schools in the English-speaking world.[178] .Many of England's more well-known schools, such as Winchester College, Eton College, St Paul's School, Rugby School, and Harrow School are fee-paying institutions.^ (Paul is a very well-known performer with Cirque du Soleil.
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^ Popular London attractions such as St Paul*s Cathedral London Dungeon the National Gallery and for sports fans Arsenal football ground are nearby.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ The Holiday Inn London Kings Cross provides easy access to key tourist attractions such as Oxford Street, Covent Garden, The British Museum, St Pauls Cathedral and Sadlers Wells Theatre .
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[179]

Science, engineering and innovation

Torso of man with long white hair and dark coloured jacket
Sir Isaac Newton is one of the most influential figures in the history of science.
Prominent English figures from the field of science and mathematics include Sir Isaac Newton, Michael Faraday, Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle, Joseph Priestley, J. J. Thomson, Charles Babbage, Charles Darwin, Stephen Hawking, Christopher Wren, Alan Turing, Francis Crick, Joseph Lister, Tim Berners-Lee, Andrew Wiles and Richard Dawkins. .Experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by John Wilkins, first secretary of the Royal Society in 1668.[180] As birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, England was home to many significant inventors during the late 18th and early 19th century.^ In the early 20th Century, this exclusive area of London was home to the famous Bloomsbury .
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Capturing the gracious style and hospitality of an early 19th century residence, visitors are greeted as honoured guests as if in a private home.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

.Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel, best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway, a series of famous steamships, and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering.^ Australia, and although u may be too busy to actually read this, just thought i'd let you know that u are one of the great modern actors of this day and age.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[181]
Inventions and discoveries of the English include; the first industrial spinning machine, the first computer and the first modern computer, the World Wide Web along with HTTP and HTML, the first successful human blood transfusion, the vacuum cleaner, the lawnmower, the seat belt, the hovercraft, the electric motor, the microphone, steam engines, and theories such as the Darwinian theory of evolution and atomic theory.[182] Newton developed the ideas of universal gravitation, Newtonian mechanics, and infinitesimal calculus, and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity. .Other inventions include the iron plate railway, the thermosiphon, tarmac, the rubber band, the mousetrap, "cat's eye" road safety device, joint development of the light bulb, steam locomotives, the seed drill, the jet engine and many modern techniques and technologies used in precision engineering.^ The Amsterdam comprises of 27 recently refurbished modern rooms and suite apartments all attractively and elegantly furnished using light pastel colors and fabrics many have attractive rose beige wooden floors every room and suite .
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[182]

Religion

.Christianity is the most widely practised religion in England, as it has been since the Early Middle Ages, although it was first introduced much earlier, in Gaelic and Roman times.^ I remember thinking it was one of the first times in ages that i had laughed out loud during a film!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After watching that episode I thought about how much my family and friends have given me and for the first time felt like maybe I'll be able to get through this.
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^ So, I didnt watch it to much, then a night, there was nothing on, and I fell in love with the show the first time I watched it.
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It continued through Early Insular Christianity, and today about 71.6% of English people identify as Christians.[183] .The largest form practiced in the present day is Anglicanism,[184] dating from the 16th century Reformation period, with the 1536 split from Rome over Henry VIII wanting to divorce Catherine of Aragon, the religion regards itself as both Catholic and Reformed.^ After the seeming of 6 days of downloading the comments below to this page I would think you are Henry the VIII himself.
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There are High Church and Low Church traditions, and some Anglicans regard themselves as Anglo-Catholics, after the Tractarian movement. The monarch of the United Kingdom is the head of the Church, acting as its Supreme Governor. It has the status of established church in England. .There are around 26 million adherents to the Church of England and they form part of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as the symbolic worldwide head.^ I used this when my teenagers acted like they had their heads up their asses.
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[185] .Many cathedrals and parish churches are historic buildings of significant architectural importance, such as Westminster Abbey, York Minster, Durham Cathedral and Salisbury Cathedral.^ This London five-star hotel is a historic building, delicately renovated to preserve many of the original features.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

Painting of man in armour on white horse fighting black dragon to his left.
Saint George, the patron saint of England
The second largest Christian practice is the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, which traces its formal, corporate history in England to the 6th century with Augustine's mission and was the main religion on the entire island for around a thousand years. Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation, the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.5 million members (most of whom are English).[186]
There has been one Pope from England to date, Adrian IV; while saints Bede and Anslem are regarded as Doctors of the Church. A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third largest and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley.[187] It gained popularity in the mill towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire, and amongst tin miners in Cornwall.[188] There are other non-conformist minorities, such as Baptists, Quakers, Congregationalists, Unitarians and the Salvation Army.[189]
The patron saint of England is Saint George, he is represented in the national flag, as well as the Union Flag as part of a combination.[190][190] .There are many other English and associated saints, some of the best known include; Cuthbert, Alban, Wilfrid, Aidan, Edward the Confessor, John Fisher, Thomas More, Petroc, Piran, Margaret Clitherow and Thomas Becket.^ I hope we can see a lot more of you and I hope we'll meet some day ;-) With the best wishes, me :-P .
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And there are many more kind things we want to say to you, but there isn't enough space.
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^ I cant wait till season 7 is finished filming and I hope there are many more, you never know!!!!
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[191] There are non-Christian religions practiced. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since 1070.[192] They were expelled from England in 1290 following the Edict of Expulsion, only to be allowed back in 1656.[192]
.Especially since the 1950s Eastern religions from the former British colonies have began to appear, due to foreign immigration; Islam is the most common of these accounting for around 3.1% in England.^ The most hectic part of living there was the driving, especially since I got a rockin boat of a van to drive.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[183] .Hinduism, Sikhism and Buddhism are next in number adding up to 2% combined,[183] introduced from India and South East Asia.^ Keep up with the funniez :) Hope you get your cute little butt down to South Africa soon - maybe for your next holiday!!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[183] Around 14.6% claim to have no religion.[183] Prior to the rise of Christianity—Celtic, Roman, Anglo-Saxon and Norse mythology was practised.

Culture

Architecture

Many ancient standing stone monuments were erected during the prehistoric period, amongst the best known are Stonehenge, Devil's Arrows, Rudston Monolith and Castlerigg.[193] With the introduction of Ancient Roman architecture there was a development of basilicas, baths, amphitheaters, triumphal arches, villas, Roman temples, Roman roads, Roman forts, stockades and aqueducts.[194] .It was the Romans who founded the first cities and towns such as London, Bath, York, Chester and St Albans.^ The hotel holds the distinction of being London’s first country house hotel, and takes its name from the Sicilian Duke of Cannizaro who lived in the house from 1817.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Threadneedles, The City's Boutique Hotel Map 5 Threadneedles Street London, United Kingdom EC2R 8AY $344.19 Threadneedles is the first luxury boutique hotel in the City's Square Mile.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Located in a quiet enclave surrounded by the best of Mayfair and St. James, this elegant London townhouse has remained an oasis in the heart of the city for over 150 years.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

.Perhaps the best known example is Hadrian's Wall stretching right across northern England.^ The Cadogan Hotel is perhaps best known for its association with Oscar Wilde who was arrested in room 118 in 1895.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[194] Another well preserved example is the Roman Baths at Bath, Somerset.[194]
Early Medieval architecture's secular buildings were simple constructions mainly using timber with thatch for roofing. Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of HibernoSaxon monasticism,[195][196] to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings. After the Norman conquest in 1066 various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion. .Some of the best known medieval castles include the Tower of London, Warwick Castle, Durham Castle and Windsor Castle amongst others.^ Other hotel features include on-site parking, 2 restaurants and 2 bars, a fitness suite, a beauty salon and some of the largest and most flexible meeting space in London.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[197]
Yellow stone tower with two circular turrets which run the height of the building.
The Broadway Tower is a folly, or mock tower, in Worcestershire.
Throughout the Plantagenet era an English Gothic architecture flourished—the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral, Westminster Abbey and York Minster are prime examples.[197] Expanding on the Norman base there was also castles, palaces, great houses, universities and parish churches. Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th century Tudor style; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch, was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically. In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity, synthesised with Christianity appeared—the English Baroque style, architect Christopher Wren was particularly championed.[198]
.Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this.^ Experience this landmark site - consistentlyrated as one of the best London hotels - which combines traditional British design with contemporary style that is unmistakably French.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Example: Our best guess is that she's compusexual, seeing as how she isn't interested in one sex or the other but loves her computer.
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^ Example: If that comedydiot calls me bubba one more time....
  • SlangSite.com - The Slang Dictionary 3 February 2010 18:26 UTC www.slangsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched—in addition to this around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace.^ Literally, for at least 2 1/2 hours each night, in addition to the 1 hour around lunch time...
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only in NYC can a person feel so isolated and alone with so many people around them at the same time.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any way If you like Ny now you should definetly check it out around christmas time.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Since the 1930s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places.[note 5]

Folklore

"Robin shoots with Sir Guy"
Robin Hood illustrated in 1912 by Louis Rhead.
English folklore developed over many centuries. Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions. Common folkloric beings include pixies, giants, elfs, bogeymen, trolls, goblins and dwarves. .While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the tales featuring Offa of Angeln and Weyland Smith,[200] others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham being, perhaps, the best known.^ The Cadogan Hotel is perhaps best known for its association with Oscar Wilde who was arrested in room 118 in 1895.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[201]
.During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore—the Arthurian myth.^ Tasteful traditional English decor is reflected in elegant furnishings, antiques and original works of art throughout the hotel.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[202][203][204] .These were derived from Anglo-Norman, French and Welsh sources,[203] featuring King Arthur, Camelot, Excalibur, Merlin and the Knights of the Round Table such as Lancelot.^ Indigenous linguistic minorities include speakers of Scottish and Irish Gaelic, Welsh, Cornish, Manx, Scots and Ulster-Scots, and of Norman French in the Channel Islands.
  • Minority Rights Group International : United Kingdom : United Kingdom Overview 13 January 2010 11:27 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.These stories are most centrally brought together within Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae.^ Located within walking distance of five underground stations, we are one of the most centrally located hotels around that are able to maintain a peaceful and beautiful surrounding.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[note 6] Another early figure from British tradition, King Cole, may have been based on a real figure from Sub-Roman Britain. Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain, a collection of shared British folklore.
Men in bright red clothing holding sticks in the air.
.Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry, Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.^ Some lady there said I shoulda gone to New York instead..it was kind of strange.
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^ I thought it would be a great story-line for a "Scrubs" episode, how people have just become "data" and not real human beings...
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^ Crowne Plaza London Heathrow is an ideal base to explore Central London, Legoland Windsor, Thorpe Park, Ascot Racecourse, Wembley and Twickenham.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[206] .On 5 November people make bonfires, set off fireworks and eat toffee apples in commemoration of the Gunpowder Plot centred around Guy Fawkes.^ Enjoy the fireworks up in the BIG APPLE, I am sure they will have some sort of BIG DISPLAY! Shalom for now big guy!!!!!
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The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin, is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate. There are various national and regional folk activities, participated in to this day, such as Morris dancing, Maypole dancing, Rapper sword in the North East, Long Sword dance in Yorkshire, Mummers Plays, bottle-kicking in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling at Cooper's Hill.[207] There is no official national costume, but a few are well established such as the Pearly Kings and Queens associated with cockneys, the Royal Guard, the Morris costume and Beefeaters.[208]

Cuisine

A plate of fish and chips, with salad, dip, lemon slices and a glass of water.
Fish and chips is a widely consumed part of English cuisine.
Since the Early Modern Period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach, honesty of flavour, and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce.[209] During the Middle Ages and through the Renaissance period, English cuisine enjoyed an excellent reputation, though a decline began during the Industrial Revolution with the move away from the land and increasing urbanisation of the populace. The French sometimes referred to English people as les rosbifs, as a stereotype to suggest English food is unsophisticated or crude.[210] .The cuisine of England has, however, recently undergone a revival, which has been recognised by the food critics with some good ratings in Restaurant's best restaurant in the world charts.^ Enjoy the best of international cuisine at the Terrace restaurant and bar.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ The immediate area has a comprehensive range of restaurants from Michelin starred French cuisine to the latest in fusion food.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ The hotel offers a modern relaxed atmosphere in The Bar and Restaurant for enjoying the best in International Cuisine.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[211] An early book of English recipes is the Forme of Cury from the royal court of Richard II.[212]
An apple pie on a red table cloth, with green apples next to it.
Apple pie has been consumed in England since the Middle Ages.
Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast; featuring a roasted joint, usually beef, lamb or chicken, served with assorted boiled vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and gravy.[213] .Other prominent meals include fish and chips and the full English breakfast—consisting of bacon, grilled tomatoes, fried bread, black pudding, baked beans, fried mushrooms, sausages and eggs.^ The breakfast is served in Seven Cities and is a Full English Buffet with fresh rolls, preserves, seasonal fr .
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Upgraded rooms available with complimentary full English breakfast.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ A hearty continental or full English breakfast is included in the room rate.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

Various meat pies are consumed such as steak and kidney pie, shepherd's pie, cottage pie, Cornish pasty and pork pie, the later of which is consumed cold.[213]
Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well known stew. Some of the most popular cheeses are Cheddar and Wensleydale. Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries, have been created such as chicken tikka masala and balti. Sweet English dishes include apple pie, mince pies, spotted dick, scones, Eccles cakes, custard and sticky toffee pudding. Common drinks include tea, which became far more widely drunk due to Catherine of Braganza,[214] while alcoholic drinks include wines and English beers such as bitter, mild, stout, and brown ale.[215]

Visual arts

.The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire, Northumberland and Cumbria, but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags.^ This art-deco style hotel features 692 bedrooms including Standard bedrooms, deluxe rooms and Executive bedrooms, plus the most sumptous suites in the W1 area.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[216] With the arrival of Roman culture in the 1st century, various forms of art utilising statues, busts, glasswork and mosaics were the norm. There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough.[217] .During the Early Middle Ages the style was sculpted crosses and ivories, manuscript painting, gold and enamel jewellery, demonstrating a love of intricate, interwoven designs such as in the Staffordshire Hoard discovered in 2009. Some of these blended Gaelic and Anglian styles, such as the Lindisfarne Gospels and Vespasian Psalter.^ Most of these middle aged mums with intense stories & lovely words...well.
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[218] Later Gothic art was popular at Winchester and Canterbury, examples survive such as Benedictional of St. Æthelwold and Luttrell Psalter.[219]
The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein, natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this.[219] Under the Stuarts, Continental artists were influential especially the Flemish, examples from the period include—Anthony van Dyck, Peter Lely, Godfrey Kneller and William Dobson.[219] .The 18th century was a time of significance with the founding of the Royal Academy, a classicism based on the High Renaissance prevailed—Thomas Gainsborough and Joshua Reynolds became two of England's most treasured artists.^ I found this amazing new artist and every time I hear her I am reminded of the Garden State soundtrack.
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^ I wouldn't have necessarily picked you two as being a couple, but most of the time opposites attract, right?!?!
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[219]
.The Norwich School continued the landscape tradition, while the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood with their vivid and detailed style revived the Early Renaissance style—Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and John Everett Millais were leaders.^ The Hotel continues its time-honoured tradition for the exceptional style, service and facilities expected from a 5-star luxury hotel in London.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[219] Prominent amongst twentieth century artists was Henry Moore, regarded as the voice of British sculpture, and of British modernism in general.[220] .Contemporary painters include Lucian Freud, whose work Benefits Supervisor Sleeping in 2008 set a world record for sale value of a painting by a living artist.^ Art works include paintings by Vietnamese artist Anh Quan.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[221]

Literature, poetry and philosophy

A man dressed in grey with a beard, holding a rosary, depicted next to a coat of arms.
Geoffrey Chaucer was an English author, poet and philosopher, best remembered for his unfinished frame narrative The Canterbury Tales.
Early authors wrote in Latin such as Bede and Alcuin.[222] While the period of Old English literature provided the epic poem Beowulf, the secular prose the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle,[223] along with Christian writings such as Judith, Cædmon's Hymn and saintly hagiographies.[222] Following the Norman conquest Latin continued amongst the educated classes, as well as an Anglo-Norman literature.
Middle English literature emerged with Geoffrey Chaucer author of The Canterbury Tales, along with Gower, the Pearl Poet and Langland. Franciscans, William of Ockham and Roger Bacon were major philosophers of the Middle Ages. Julian of Norwich with her Revelations of Divine Love was a prominent Christian mystic. With the English Renaissance literature in the Early Modern English style appeared. .William Shakespeare, whose works include Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, and A Midsummer Night's Dream, remains one of the most championed authors in English literature.^ Toronto this Summer, you should go see midsummer night's dream in High Park (no, that's not where we go to get high), it's on now (June 28th) until Sept 2nd.
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^ After Juliet was satisfied with her work in Hamlet, she found herself on an island, which was deserted, so she left.
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^ Now I just wonder what would happen with Romeo and Juliet if they one night wouldn't die.
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[224]
Marlowe, Spenser, Sydney, Kyd, Donne, Jonson are other established authors of the Elizabethan age.[225] Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes wrote on empiricism and materialism, including scientific method and social contract.[225] Filmer wrote on the Divine Right of Kings. Marvell was the best known poet of the Commonwealth,[226] while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration.
This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, this earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, this other Eden, demi-paradise; this fortress, built by nature for herself. This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England.
Some of the most prominent philosophers from the Enlightenment were Locke, Paine, Johnson and Benthem. More radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism.[228] The poet Alexander Pope with his satirical verse became well regarded. The English played a significant role in romanticismColeridge, Byron, Keats, M Shelley, PB Shelley, Blake and Wordsworth were major figures.[229]
In response to the Industrial Revolution, agrarian writers looked to find a way between liberty and tradition; Cobbett, Chesterton and Belloc were main exponents, while founder of guild socialism, Penty and cooperative movement advocate Cole are somewhat related.[230] Empiricism continued through Mill and Russell, while Williams was involved in analytics. Authors from around the time of the Victorian era include Dickens, the Brontë sisters, Austen, Kipling, Wells, and Underhill.[231] Since then England has continued to produce novelists such as C. S. Lewis, Orwell, Blyton, Christie, Tolkien, and J. K. Rowling.[232]

Performing arts

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The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea shanties, jigs, hornpipes and dance music. It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. Wynkyn de Worde printed ballads of Robin Hood from the 16th century are an important artefact, as are John Playford's The Dancing Master and Robert Harley's Roxburghe Ballads collections.[233] Some of the best known songs are The Good Old Way, Pastime with Good Company, Maggie May and Spanish Ladies amongst others. Many nursery rhymes are of English origin such as Twinkle Twinkle Little Star, Roses are red, Jack and Jill, Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush and Humpty Dumpty.[234]
Early English composers in classical music include Renaissance artists Thomas Tallis and William Byrd, followed up by Henry Purcell from the Baroque period. .German-born George Frideric Handel became a British subject[235] and spent most of his composing life in London, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, The Messiah, Water Music, and Music for the Royal Fireworks.^ Situated in one of London's most coveted locations, overlooking the Royal Mews.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

There was a revival in the profile of composers from England in the 20th century led by Benjamin Britten, Frederick Delius, Edward Elgar, Gustav Holst, Ralph Vaughan Williams and others.[236] Present-day composers from England include Michael Nyman, best known for The Piano.
.In the field of popular music many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time.^ And just want to wish you and your family friends all the very best for the future and your many endeavours.
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^ Enjoy the time off, the bike and NYC, All the best, vw .
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^ First of all I apologize for my poor english if you find many mistakes in my sentences because I'm just a french fan trying to write in english.
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Acts such as The Beatles, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd, Elton John, Queen, Rod Stewart and The Rolling Stones are among the highest selling recording artists in the world.[237] .Many musical genres have origins or strong associations with England, such as British invasion, hard rock, glam rock, heavy metal, mod, britpop, drum and bass, progressive rock, punk rock, indie rock, gothic rock, shoegazing, acid house, UK garage, trip hop and dubstep.^ I am in many musicals and plays and such.
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[238]
Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury, V Festival, Reading and Leeds Festivals. .The most prominent opera house in England is the Royal Opera House at Covent Gardens.^ Covent Garden Hotel Map 10 Monmouth Street London, United Kingdom WC2H 9HB $570.37 A member of Design HotelsTM. Covent Garden Hotel is directly in the center of Londons theater district, only a short walk to Soho and the Royal Opera house.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[239] .The Proms, a season of orchestral classical music concerts held at the Royal Albert Hall, is a major cultural event held annually.^ It is located just around the corner from the Royal Albert Hall and moments from Kensington Palace.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ All of London's fantastic attractions are here, including: Harrods, Harvey Nichol's, and the King's Road, as well as the major tourist attractions: the Natural History and Science Museums, the Royal Albert Concert Hall, Kensington Palace, Kensington Gardens, and much more.
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^ Located near Royal Albert Hall, Olympia and Earl's Court, The Victoria a .
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[239] The Royal Ballet is one of the world's foremost classical ballet companies, its reputation built on two prominent figures of 20th century dance, prima ballerina Margot Fonteyn and choreographer Frederick Ashton.

Museums, libraries, and galleries

English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. The charity National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty holds a contrasting role. Seventeen of the twenty-five United Kingdom UNESCO World Heritage Sites fall within England.[240] .Some of the best known of these include; Hadrian's Wall, Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites, Tower of London, Jurassic Coast, Saltaire, Ironbridge Gorge, Studley Royal Park and various others.^ Sheraton Park Tower?s opportune location in the heart of London is the perfect place from which to explore London?s many unique areas and attractions.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ InterContinental LONDON PARK LANE Map One Hamilton Place London, United Kingdom WIV 0QY $333.89 Once the site of a royal residence, InterContinental London Park Lane is now the epitome of modern elegance.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Other hotel features include on-site parking, 2 restaurants and 2 bars, a fitness suite, a beauty salon and some of the largest and most flexible meeting space in London.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[241]
.There are many museums in England, but the most notable is London's British Museum.^ Holiday Inn Bloomsbury hotel is also within easy reach of many of London's tourist attractions: The British Museum, Madame Tussauds, London Zoo and the West End theatres , not .
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Visit London attractions like the London Eye and British Museum or take a stroll through Hyde Park on the hotel*s doorstep.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

.Its collection of more than seven million objects[242] is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world,[243] sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present.^ But I'd probably get more cover stories under my belt than Baldo Brit.
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^ Sometimes, I like to see more than one, but I always pay for all of them.
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^ I have written this on a million other blogs but I just have to say it one more time, you all will be dearly missed...
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.The British Library in London is the national library and is one of the world's largest research libraries, holding over 150 million items in all known languages and formats; including around 25 million books.^ I'm one of your italians fans and, thinking to talk in the name of all of them, I say: "You're The Best That Anybody Can Find On This World!!!"
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^ The hotel's many amenities include meeting facilities and banqueting suites, the Piccadilly Health Club, a Jacuzzi, and one of London's largest indoor swimming pools.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ And by the way, Yes NYC is one f the best cities in the world, You could do J.D. goes to New York, and shoot all the season there....
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[244] .The most senior art gallery is the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square, which houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900.[245] The Tate galleries house the national collections of British and international modern art; they also host the famously controversial Turner Prize.^ An excellent choice, whatever the purpose of your visit to London, with Leicester Square, the National Gallery, Co .
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ It is within easy distance of Buckingham Palace, The Houses of Parliament, Big Ben, Westminster Abbey, Trafalgar Square and the Tate Gallery.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Within 1.5 miles you can discover Westminster Abbey, The Houses of Parliament, Downing Street, The Cabinet War Rooms and the Tate Gallery.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[246]

Sports

The interior of an empty stadium as viewed from its upper tier of seating. The seats are a vivid red and the pitch is a vivid green. The pale grey sky is visible through an opening in the ceiling above the pitch.
Inside Wembley Stadium, the most expensive stadium ever built[247]
England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world. Sports originating in England include association football,[248] cricket, rugby union, rugby league, tennis, badminton, squash,[249] rounders,[250] hockey, boxing, snooker, billiards, darts, table tennis, bowls, netball, thoroughbred horseracing and fox hunting. It has helped the development of sailing and Formula One. .Football is the most popular of these sports.^ Popular London attractions such as St Paul*s Cathedral London Dungeon the National Gallery and for sports fans Arsenal football ground are nearby.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

The England national football team, whose home venue is Wembley Stadium, won the FIFA World Cup in 1966, the year the country hosted the competition. At club level England is recognised by FIFA as the birth-place of club football, due to Sheffield FC founded in 1857 being the oldest club.[248] The Football Association is the oldest of its kind, FA Cup and The Football League were the first cup and league competitions respectively. In the modern day the Premier League is the world's most lucrative football league[251] and amongst the elite.[252] The European Cup has been won by Liverpool, Manchester United, Nottingham Forest and Aston Villa, while Arsenal, Chelsea and Leeds United have reached the final.[253]
Men in cricket whites play upon a green grass cricket field amidst a stadium.
England on the way to victory against Australia in the 2009 Ashes series at Lord's Cricket Ground
Cricket is generally thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald.[254] The England cricket team is a composite England and Wales team. .One of the game's top rivalries is The Ashes series between England and Australia, contested since 1882. The finale of the 2009 Ashes was watched by nearly 2 million people, although the climax of the 2005 Ashes was viewed by 7.4 million as it was available on terrestrial television.^ I got lost in the conversation and finally my friend Derek brought me to his house to watch some of the first season since he owns them all.
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[255] England are the current holders of the trophy and are fifth in both Test and One Day International cricket.[256] England has hosted four Cricket World Cups (1975, 1979, 1983, 1999) and the ICC World Twenty20 in 2009. There are several domestic level competitions, including the County Championship in which Yorkshire are by far the most successful club having won the competition 31 times.[257] .Lord's Cricket Ground situated in London is sometimes referred to as the "Mecca of Cricket".[258] William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games.^ Express by Holiday Inn London Stratford is situated in the heart of East London , site of the 2012 LONDON OLYMPICS .
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ The London Marriott Hotel Maida Vale is an ideal location close to Abbey Road Studios, Little Venice, Lord s Cricket Ground,Notting Hill and Westfield Shopping Centre with excellent access to Heathrow Airport.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

.London hosted the Summer Olympic Games in 1908 and 1948, and will host them again in 2012.^ A striking building that glows purple at dusk, Holiday Inn Express London-Newbury Park is a convenient base if you're visiting the 2012 Olympic Games site 5 miles away.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ Express by Holiday Inn London Stratford is situated in the heart of East London , site of the 2012 LONDON OLYMPICS .
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

England competes in the Commonwealth Games, held every four years. Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England. A Grand Prix is held at Silverstone.[259]
The England rugby union team won the 2003 Rugby World Cup, the country was one of the host nations of the competition in the 1991 Rugby World Cup and is set to host the 2015 Rugby World Cup.[260] The top level of club participation is the English Premiership. Leicester Tigers, London Wasps, Bath Rugby and Northampton Saints have had success in the Europe-wide Heineken Cup. In another form of the sport—rugby league which was born in Huddersfield in 1898, the England national rugby league team are ranked third in the world and first in Europe. Since 2008 England has been a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain national rugby league team, which won three World Cups but is now retired. Club sides play in Super League, the present-day embodiment of the Rugby Football League Championship. .Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan Warriors, St Helens, Leeds Rhinos and Huddersfield Giants; the former three have all won the World Club Challenge previously.^ All our Studios and Suites include access to our exclusive and relaxing Club Lounge.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ I love the subway, the dirty (and some clean) streets, I love how they have the best chinese takeout in the world (and how you can get it @ 3AM if you want) and above all I love the people.
  • : : : ZACHBRAFF : : : - Hi there. 18 January 2010 6:33 UTC www.zachbraff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Islamic Finance Conference Opportunities & Challenges in the World of Islamic Finance Leed - UK .
  • United Kingdom Conferences, Conventions, Trade Shows and Meetings 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.allconferences.com [Source type: Reference]

In tennis the Wimbledon Championships are the oldest tennis tournament in the world and is widely considered the most prestigious.[261][262]

National symbols

A red shield tapers to its bottom end; on it are three stylised golden lions with blue claws.
England's coat of arms
The national flag of England, known as St. George's Cross, has been the national flag since the 13th century. Originally the flag was used by the maritime state the Republic of Genoa. The English monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from 1190 onwards, so that English ships could fly the flag as a means of protection when entering the Mediterranean. A red cross acted as a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries. It became associated with Saint George, along with countries and cities, which claimed him as their patron saint and used his cross as a banner.[263] .Since 1606 the St George's Cross has formed part of the design of the Union Flag, a Pan-British flag designed by King James I.^ Kings Cross and Euston stations and 3 min walk from St. Pancras Eurostar station.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ A short walk from both Kings Cross and St Pancras stations offering London Underground services, national and international rail travel by the Eurostar.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

^ The Holiday Inn London Kings Cross provides easy access to key tourist attractions such as Oxford Street, Covent Garden, The British Museum, St Pauls Cathedral and Sadlers Wells Theatre .
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

[190]
There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the Tudor rose, the nation's floral emblem, the White Dragon and the Three Lions featured on the nation's coat of arms. The Tudor rose was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace.[264] It is a syncretic symbol in that it merged the white rose of the Yorkists and the red rose of the Lancastrians—cadet branches of the Plantagenets who went to war over control of the royal house. It is also known as the Rose of England.[265] The oak tree is a symbol of England, representing strength and endurance. The term Royal Oak is used to denote the escape of King Charles II from the grasps of the parliamentarians after his father's execution; he hid in an oak tree to avoid detection before making it safely into exile.
.The national coat of arms of England, featuring three lions dates back to its adoption by Richard the Lionheart from 1198–1340. They are described as gules, three lions passant guardant or and provide one of the most prominent symbols of England; it is similar to the traditional arms of Normandy.^ With 170 luxurious bedrooms and 9 air-conditioned conference and banqueting rooms featuring the most up to date facilities, provides a sophisticated venue for business or social events.
  • London lodging | Lodging in London United Kingdom | LodgingHunt.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC lodginghunt.com [Source type: General]

.England does not have an official designated national anthem, as the United Kingdom as a whole has God Save the Queen.^ The Caesar Hotel Map 26-33 Queens Gardens London, United Kingdom W2 3BD $322.56 Contemporary, different, individual.
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^ The Pelham Hotel Map 15 Cromwell Place London, United Kingdom SW7 2LA $452.36 The Pelham Hotel is a member of Design Hotels.
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^ Boundary Map 2 Boundary Street London, United Kingdom E2 7DD $393.36 Boundary is a member of Design Hotels.
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However, the following are often considered unofficial English national anthems: Jerusalem, Land of Hope and Glory (used for England during the 2002 Commonwealth Games),[266] and I Vow to Thee, My Country. England's National Day is St George's Day, as Saint George is the patron saint of England, it is held annually on 23 April.[267]

Notes

  1. ^ According to the European Statistical Agency, London is the largest Larger Urban Zone which uses conurbations and areas of high population as its definition. A ranking of population within municipal boundaries places London first. However, the University of Avignon in France claims that Paris is first and London second when including the whole urban area and hinterland, that is the outlying cities as well.
  2. ^ As Roger Scruton explains, "The Reformation must not be confused with the changes introduced into the Church of England during the 'Reformation Parliament' of 1529–36, which were of a political rather than a religious nature, designed to unite the secular and religious sources of authority within a single sovereign power: the Anglican Church did not until later make substantial change in doctrine".[48]
  3. ^ For instance, in 1980 around 50 million Americans claimed English ancestry.[143] In Canada there are around 6.5 million Canadians who claim English ancestry.[144] Around 70% of Australians in 1999 denoted their origins as Anglo-Celtic—a category which includes all peoples from Great Britain and Ireland.[145] Chileans of English descent are somewhat of an anomaly in that Chile itself was never part of the British Empire, but today there are around 420,000 people of English origins living there.[146]
  4. ^ Students attending English universities now have to pay tuition fees towards the cost of their education, as do English students who choose to attend university in Scotland. Scottish students attending Scottish universities have their fees paid by the devolved Scottish Parliament.[76]
  5. ^ While people such as Norman Foster and Richard Rogers represent the modernist movement, Prince Charles since the 1980s has voiced strong views against it in favour of traditional architecture and put his ideas into practice at his Poundbury development in Dorset.[199] Architects like Raymond Erith, Francis Johnson and Quinlan Terry continued to practice in the classical style.
  6. ^ These tales may have come to prominence, at least in part, as an attempt by the Norman ruling elite to legitimise their rule of the British Isles, finding Anglo-Saxon history ill-suited to the task during an era when members of the deposed House of Wessex, especially Edgar the Ætheling and his nephews of the Scottish House of Dunkeld, were still active in the isles.[203][205] Also Michael Wood explains; "Over the centuries the figure of Arthur became a symbol of British history—a way of explaining the matter of Britain, the relationship between the Saxons and the Celts, and a way of exorcising ghosts and healing the wounds of the past."[202]

References

Footnotes