English American: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

English American
English Americans.JPG
Notable English Americans:
William Byrd II · George Washington · Ben Franklin · Betsy Ross · Francis Scott Key · Frances Folsom · Laura Ingalls · Ernest Hemingway · Cary Grant · Bill Gates · Justin Timberlake · Britney Spears
Total population
English
27,516,394 Americans
9.0% of the US population (2008)
[1]
Regions with significant populations
Throughout entire United States

Plurality in Utah, Vermont [2]and Maine

Religion

Episcopalian, Methodist, Baptist, Mormon, Congregationalism, Other Protestant, Roman Catholic, etc.

Related ethnic groups

Americans, English people, English Canadians, Britons, British Americans (Scottish Americans, Scots-Irish Americans, Welsh Americans) ,Irish Americans, Cornish Americans

English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo-Americans, although this may have a wider linguistic meaning) are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England. According to American Community Survey in 2008 data, Americans reporting English ancestry made up an estimated 9.0% of the total U.S. population,[1] and form the third largest European ancestry group after German Americans and Irish Americans. However, demographers regard this as an undercount as the index of inconsistency is high, and many, if not most, people from English stock have a tendency to identify simply as Americans[3][4][5][6] or, if of mixed European ancestry, nominate a more recent and differentiated ethnic group.[7] Anyone whose family has been in this country more than 100 years most probably has English blood. This includes African Americans, 70% of whom have white blood, most of it English. [8]

In the 1980 United States Census, over 49 million (49,598,035) Americans claimed English ancestry, at the time around 26.34% of the total population and largest reported group which, even today, would make them the largest ethnic group in the United States. This outnumbered the population of England at the time.[9][10]

In 1982, an opinion poll organization showed respondents a card listing a number of ethnic groups and asked, "Thinking both of what they have contributed to this country and have gotten from this country, for each one tell me whether you think, on balance, they've been a good or a bad thing for this country". The English were the top ethnic group with 66% saying they were a good thing for the United States, followed by the Irish at 62%.[11]

The overwhelming majority of the Founding Fathers of America were of English extraction, including Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, John Adams, James Madison[12] and Thomas Jefferson.

As with most immigrant groups, the English later sought economic prosperity and began migrating in large numbers without state support, particularly in the 19th century.[13]

Contents

Number of English Americans

Map of England highlighted in red.
Advertisements

1775 estimates

According to the United States Historical Census Data Base (USHCDB) (2002), the ethnic populations in the American Colonies of 1775 were:

Populations in the American Colonies of 1775 [14][15]
Ancestry Percentage
English 48.7%
African 20.0%
Scots-Irish 7.8 %
German 6.9%
Scottish 6.6 %
Dutch 2.7%
French 1.4%
Swedish 0.6%
Other 5.3%
Note - If the Scottish and Ulster Scots
(known as Scots-Irish) are added together they form 14.4%.

1790 Census

The ancestry of the 3.9 million population in 1790 has been estimated by various sources by sampling last names in the very first United States official census and assigning them a country of origin. The results indicate that people of English ancestry made up about 47.5% of the total United States population with 80.7% of the population being of European heritage.[16]

2000 Census

1790 U.S Ancestry
Based on Evaluated census figures[17]
2000 U.S Ancestry
from the official U.S census[17]
Ancestry group Number
(1790 estimate)
% of
total
Ancestry Number
(2000 count)
% of
total
British (Total) 2,500,000 62.5 British (Total)
36,564,465 12.9
English 1,900,000 47.5 German 42,885,162 15.2
African 750,000 19.0 African 36,419,434 12.9
Scotch-Irish 320,000 8.0 Irish 30,594,130 10.9
German 280,000 7.0 English 24,515,138 8.7
Irish 200,000 5.0 Mexican 20,640,711 7.3
Scottish 160,000 4.0 Italian 15,723,555 5.6
Welsh 120,000 3.0 French 10,846,018 3.9
Dutch 100,000 2.5 Hispanic 10,017,244 3.6
French 80,000 2.0 Polish 8,977,444 3.2
Native American 50,000 1.0 Scottish 4,890,581 1.7
Spanish 20,000 0.5 Dutch 4,542,494 1.6
Swedish or other 20,000 0.5 Norwegian 4,477,725 1.6
Total 3,929,326 [18] 100 Scotch-Irish 4,319,232 1.5

In the 2000 census, 24.5 million Americans reported English ancestry, 8.7% of the total U.S. population. This estimate is probably a serious undercount by over 30 million given that, in the 1980 census, around 50 million citizens claimed to be of at least partial English ancestry. In 1980, 23,748,772 Americans claimed wholly English ancestry and another 25,849,263 claimed English along with another ethnic ancestry.[19] 80 million people in the 2000 census were listed under 'other ancestries' and 20 million as 'American.' Thus, the number of people who could be classified, if they so wish, as English Americans in the United States is more likely to be at least 60-80 million.

In 1860, an estimated 11 million or almost 35% of the population of the United States was wholly or primarily of English ancestry. The population has increased by almost ten times the numbers in 1860. As with any ethnicity, Americans of English descent may choose to identify themselves as just 'American ethnicity' if their ancestry has been in the United States for many generations or if, for the same reason, they are unaware of their lineage.

English expatriates

In total, there are estimated to be around 678,000 British born expatriates in the United States with the majority of these being English. Modern England is an increasingly diverse nation, and a significant minority are not indigenous English.[20] By American definition there are around 540,000 English people of any race in the United States, 40,000 Asian English, 20,000 Black English people and approximately 10,000 people of a mixed background.[21]

Distribution

English Americans are found in large numbers throughout America, particularly in the Northeast and West. According to the 2000 US census, the 10 states with the largest populations of self reported English Americans are

The 10 states with the highest percentages of self reported English ancestry are:

English was the highest reported European ancestry in the states of Maine, Vermont and Utah; joint highest along with German in the Carolinas.

Maps

Population density in the United States.
Population by state.
Percentages by U.S. State.

On the left, a map showing the population density of Americans who declared English ancestry in the census. Dark blue and purple colours indicate a higher density: highest in the east and west (see also Maps of American ancestries). Center, a map showing the population of English Americans by state. On the right, a map showing the percentages of English Americans by state.

History

Early settlement and colonization

The red and pink areas of the map show land over which the British claimed authority in 1775

The earliest English settlers in America inhabited the Elizabethan era Anglican Colony and Dominion of Virginia and Puritan New England, named by John Smith (explorer) for the unsettled New Albion; these were two thirds of Virginia, which also originally included Bermuda, which became nucleus of the British West Indies. The former two have largely influenced formation of the South and the Northeast. Due to their joint-stock company charter explicitly stating that settlements from each should not approach within 100 miles of one another, subdivision resulted in the foundation of newer colonies such as the Catholic Province of Maryland and Quaker Province of Pennsylvania, expressly settled for the freedom of religion in America, as it did not exist in Anglican and Puritan England. These two have largely influenced formation of the Federal government of the United States in Washington, D.C. and outward from the Mid-Atlantic States, the Midwest; Maryland and Pennsylvania respectively.

There were also Dutch and Swedish immigrants, who were allowed to move in by neglect to settle fast enough the claims made by Queen Elizabeth (who had a Dutch protectorate governed by the Puritan Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, relative of Lady Jane Grey and of Anne Bradstreet, an influential Pilgrim; Protestant William III of England was Dutch as well and had a feud with his uncle & father-in-law Catholic James II of England, who had conquered the Dutch settlement for himself and added it to New England), similar to the French presence in Canada due to failures by the Tudor era English government to occupy Newfoundland following John Cabot's discovery for Henry VII of England. England itself seized upon the failure of France to seriously follow up on the claims of Francis I of France made by Giovanni da Verrazzano. England was preoccupied with the English Reformation and France was preoccupied by the French Wars of Religion. The Low Countries is where English exiles have usually gone to, for either religious or political reasons, since the Pale of Calais was English. Both the pro-Mary I of England Catholic Douay-Rheims Bible and the pro-Edward VI of England Puritan Marian exiles had English connections there. Sweden was where Church of Scotland Covenanters went to fight on behalf of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in the Thirty Years' War and this is why their settlement had connections with the Stuart Scottish settlements of the Carolinas on the Great Wagon Road and also Nova Scotia in Canada, sharing together the same log cabin tradition.

These Anglo-European migrations indicate why German Americans were also integrated in Americana, as the British Royal Family came from and continued to rule the Kingdom of Hanover and their toponymy is reflected in Georgia (U.S. state), as well as New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Alberta and the Northwest Territories (once known as Rupert's Land) in Canada. Despite the voyage of Cabot, English colonists knew themselves as "Americans" chronologically before "Canadians", since the latter country was founded by elements of the American population who were either politically attached to the Georgians, or were interested in the spoils of war with French Canada (before called "Quebec", a description which included the Great Lakes, as separate from the Mississippi River-centered French Louisiana), in the Second Hundred Years' War. Anglo-Spanish ties dating at least as far back as Queen Mary Tudor and her husband Philip II of Spain (if not Mary's mother, Catherine of Aragon, or John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster) influenced American sentiment and policy towards annexation of Spanish and Mexican territories, which is why Mexican Americans eventually became citizens. They were also co-monarchs of Southern Italy, from whence priests catered to the English and Irish Catholics and most Italian Americans today source their heritage there. Also, one of the famous First Families of Virginia, was Taliaferro (anglicized Toliver). Thus, statewide majority ancestries of Americans largely owe their place in America, due to the English component, save for Japanese Americans, whose country did not have significant relations with England as the others, during the time of founding the USA—although it was Italian navigators who charted the early, Catholic claims for England and other preeminent colonial nations and their attempt by sailing West, was to reach places such as Japan. English colonial government also resulted in, after the most significant chapter was concluded in the French and Indian War (Royal Proclamation of 1763), the first Indian Reserve (1763) (eponym of Indiana), model of Jeffersonian plans for Indian removal to the Wild West, originally in Oklahoma's Indian Territory.

English immigration after 1776

English-born population in the
United States 1850-1990 [22]
Year Population
1990 405,588
1980 442,499
1970 458,114
1960 528,205
1950 809,563
1940 //
1930 //
1920 813,853
1910 877,719
1900 840,513
1890 908,141
1880 662,676
1870 550,924
1860 431,692
1850 278,675

An estimated 3.5 million English emigrated to the USA after 1776[23] English settlers provided a steady and substantial influx throughout the nineteenth century. The first wave of increasing English immigration began in the late 1820s and was sustained by unrest in the United Kingdom until it peaked in 1842 and declined slightly for nearly a decade. Most of these were small farmers and tenant farmers from depressed areas in rural counties in southern and western England and urban laborers who fled from the depressions and from the social and industrial changes of the late 1820s-1840s. While some English immigrants were drawn by dreams of creating model utopian societies in America, most others were attracted by the lure of new lands, textile factories, railroads, and the expansion of mining.

A number of English settlers moved to United States from Australia in 1850s (then a British political territory), when California Gold Rush boomed; these included the so-called “Sydney Ducks” (see Australian Americans).

During the last years of 1860s, annual English immigration increased to over 60,000 and continued to rise to over 75,000 per year in 1872, before experiencing a decline. The final and most sustained wave of immigration began in 1879 and lasted until the depression of 1893. During this period English annual immigration averaged more than 80,000, with peaks in 1882 and 1888.[citation needed] The building of America's transcontinental railroads, the settlement of the great plains, and industrialization attracted skilled and professional emigrants from England. Also, cheaper steamship fares enabled unskilled urban workers to come to America, and unskilled and semiskilled laborers, miners, and building trades workers made up the majority of these new English immigrants. While most settled in America, a number of skilled craftsmen remained itinerant, returning to England after a season or two of work.[citation needed] Groups of English immigrants came to America as missionaries for the Salvation Army and to work with the activities of the Evangelical and Mormon Churches.

The depression of 1893 sharply decreased English immigration, and it stayed low for much of the twentieth century. This decline reversed itself in the decade of World War II when over 100,000 English (18 percent of all European immigrants) came from England. In this group was a large contingent of war brides who came between 1945 and 1948. In these years four women emigrated from England for every man.[citation needed] In the 1950s, English immigration increased to over 150,000.and rose to 170,000 in the 1960s[24]. While differences developed, it is not surprising that English immigrants had little difficulty in assimilating to American life. The American resentment against the policies of the British government[citation needed]as rarely transferred to English settlers who came to America in the first decades of the nineteenth century.

Throughout American history, English immigrants and their descendants have been prominent in every level of government and in every aspect of American life. Eight of the first ten American presidents and more than that proportion of the 42 presidents, as well as the majority of sitting congressmen and congresswomen, are descended from English ancestors. The descendants of English expatriates are so numerous and so well integrated in American life that it is impossible to identify all of them. While they are the third largest ethnic nationality identified in the 1990 census, they retain such a pervasive representation at every level of national and state government that, on any list of American senators, Supreme Court judges, governors, or legislators, they would constitute a plurality if not an outright majority.[25]

Political involvement

Colonial period

John Trumbull's famous painting, Declaration of Independence. Two Red Ensigns, one British flag, and one English flag can be seen upon the wall.
.

As the earliest colonists of the United States, settlers from England and their descendants often held positions of power and made or helped make laws [26], often because many had been involved in government back in England[27]. In the original 13 colonies, most laws contained elements found in the English common law system.[28]

The Founding Fathers

The lineage of most of the Founding Fathers was English. Such persons include Samuel Adams[29]. Others signatories of the Declaration of Independence, such as Robert Morris were English born [30]. Of the "Committee of Five" (the group delegated to draft the Declaration of Independence), John Adams of Massachusetts, Benjamin Franklin [31] of Pennsylvania, Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, and Roger Sherman of Connecticut had English roots. The United States Declaration of Independence was written primarily by Thomas Jefferson.

Sense of identity

Americans of English heritage are often seen as simply "American" due to the many cultural ties between the two countries and their impact on the American population which has hardly disappeared. This is due to the fact that the non-English population did not arrive in full force overnight and implemented early on.[32] Cultural identity such as being Protestant, having Thanksgiving, playing Baseball and speaking the language of their ancestors is celebrated without realising and are taken as American traditions. They are seen as an invisible ethnic group, due to the length of time their ancestors may have been in the United States with the founding colonists being English people. There is little or no celebration of the English Patron Saint St. George's Day other than the Boy Scouts of America.

English influence in the United States

English language

English language distribution in the United States.

The English have contributed greatly to American life. Today, English is the most commonly spoken language in the U.S where it is estimated that one third of all native speakers of English live.[33] English was inherited from British colonization, and it is spoken by the vast majority of the population. It serves as the de facto official language: the language in which government business is carried out. According to the 1990 census, 94% of the U.S. population speak only English.[34] Adding those who speak English "well" or "very well" brings this figure to 96%.[34] Only 0.8% speak no English at all as compared with 3.6% in 1890. American English is different from British English in terms of spelling (a classic example being the dropped "u" in words such as color/colour), grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation and slang usage. The differences are not usually a barrier to effective communication between an American English and a British English speaker, but there are certainly enough differences to cause occasional misunderstandings, usually surrounding slang or region dialect differences.

Some states, like California, have amended their constitutions to make English the only official language, but in practice, this only means that official government documents must at least be in English, and does not mean that they should be exclusively available only in English. For example, the standard California Class C driver's license examination is available in 32 different languages.

American cultural icons

American cultural icons, apple pie, baseball, and the American flag.

Much of American culture also shows influences from English culture.

American flag

Cuisine

  • Apple pie - New England was the first region to experience large scale colonization in the early 17th century, beginning in 1620, and it was dominated by East Anglian Calvinists, better known as the Puritans. Baking was a particular favorite of the New Englanders and was the origin of dishes today seen as quintessentially "American", such as apple pie and the baked Thanksgiving turkey.[35] "As American As Apple Pie" is a well known phrase used to imply everything that is All-American.

Harvest festivals

The First Thanksgiving at Plymouth, Massachusetts by English Pilgrims in 1621.
  • Thanksgiving - The first Thanksgiving was celebrated by English settlers to give thanks to God for helping the Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony survive the brutal winter.[36] The modern Thanksgiving holiday traces its origins from a 1621 celebration at the Plymouth Plantation, where the Plymouth settlers held a harvest feast after a successful growing season. William Bradford is credited as the first to proclaim what the American cultural event is generally referred to as the "First Thanksgiving".

Music

Another area of cultural influence are American Patriotic songs:

Before 1931, other songs served as the hymns of American officialdom.

Motorcycle maker

Sports

  • Baseball - English lawyer William Bray recorded a game of baseball on Easter Monday 1755 in Guildford, Surrey; Bray's diary was verified as authentic in September 2008.[44][45] This early form of the game was apparently brought to North America by English immigrants. The first appearance of the term that exists in print was in "A Little Pretty Pocket-Book" in 1744, where it is called Base-Ball. Today, Rounders which has been played in England since Tudor times holds a similarity to Baseball. Although, literary references to early forms of "base-ball" in England pre-date use of the term "rounders".[46]

Beverages

John PembertonCoca-Cola logo.svg

Two of the world's most famous soft drinks were invented by Americans of English descent. Pemberton and Alderton are both English surnames.

Coca-Cola was formulated at the Eagle Drug and Chemical Company, a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia by John Pemberton, originally as a coca wine called Pemberton's French Wine Cocoa.[48][49]

The first sales were at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886.[50] It was initially sold as a patent medicine for five cents[51] a glass at soda fountains, which were popular in the United States at the time due to the belief that carbonated water was good for the health.[52] Pemberton claimed Coca-Cola cured many diseases, including morphine addiction, dyspepsia, neurasthenia, headache, and impotence. Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of the same year in the Atlanta Journal.[53]

Dr Pepper is a soft drink and was invented in the 1880s by pharmacist Charles Alderton in Waco, Texas, and first made in 1885. Charles Courtice Alderton was born in Brooklyn, New York to English parents who was later sent to England to be educated.[54][55] It is the oldest of the major brand soft drinks in America.[56]

English family names

Of the top ten family names in the United States, eight have English origins or possible mixed British heritage, the other two being of Spanish origin. This is the first time two surnames of non-British origin have been in the top 10 most common family names. Many African Americans have their origins in slavery (i.e. slave name). Many of them came to bear the surnames of their former owners. Many freed slaves either created family names themselves or adopted the name of their former master. According to 2000 U.S. Census data, the top ten surnames in the United States are:[57]

Name Rank - 2000 Rank - 1990[58] Number Surname Origin
Smith 1 1 2,376,207 England
Johnson 2 2 1,857,160 England
Williams 3 3 1,534,042 England
Brown 4 5 1,380,145 England
Jones 5 4 1,362,755 England, Wales
Miller 6 7 1,127,803 Scotland, England
Davis 7 6 1,072,335 England
García 8 18 858,289 Spain
Rodríguez 9 22 804,240 Spain
Wilson 10 8 783,051 Scotland, England

English place names in the United States

There are many places in the United States named after places in England as a result of the many English settlers and explorers. these include New York (after York[59]), New Hampshire (after Hampshire[60]), Manchester[61], Boston[62], Southampton[63], Gloucester and the region of New England. In addition, some places were named after the English royal family. The name Virginia was first applied by Queen Elizabeth I (the "Virgin Queen") and Sir Walter Raleigh in 1584.[64] , the Carolinas were named after King Charles I and Maryland named so for his wife, Queen Henrietta Maria (Queen Mary).[65]

Architecture

Architecture such as the United States Capitol building in Washington, D.C. which was first designed by English-educated American Architect William Thornton. Also, many American college campuses, such as Yale, Princeton University, and the University of Delaware, have Gothic or Georgian looks.

Law

The American legal system also has its roots in English law.[66] For example, elements of the Magna Carta were incorporated into the United States constitution[67]. English law prior to the revolution is still part of the law of the United States, and provides the basis for many American legal traditions and policies. After the revolution, English law was again adopted by the now independent American States.[68]

Presidents of English Descent

A number of the Presidents of the United States have English Ancestry.[69] The extent of English Heritage varies in the presidents with earlier presidents being predominantly of colonial English Yankee stock. Later US Presidents ancestry can often be traced to ancestors from multiple nations in Europe, including England.

  1. George Washington, 1st President 1789-97 (great-grandfather, John Washington from Purleigh, Essex, England.[70])
  2. John Adams, 2nd President 1797-1801 (great-great-grandfather, Henry Adams born 1583 Barton St David, Somerset, England, immigrated to Boston, Massachusetts.[71][72])
  3. Thomas Jefferson, 3rd President 1801–1809 (Maternal English ancestry from William Randolph.)
  4. James Madison, 4th President 1809-17[73]
  5. James Monroe, 5th President 1817-25
  6. John Quincy Adams, 6th President 1825-29 (Henry Adams born 1583 Barton St David, Somerset, England.[71][72])
  7. William Harrison, 9th President 1841-1841 [74]
  8. John Tyler, 10th President 1841-1845 [75]
  9. Zachary Taylor, 12th President 1849-50
  10. Millard Fillmore, 13th President 1850-1853 [76]
  11. Franklin Pierce, 14th President 1853-1857 [77]
  12. Abraham Lincoln, 16th President 1861-65 (Samuel Lincoln baptised 1622 in Hingham, Norfolk, England, died in Hingham, Massachusetts.[78][79])
  13. Andrew Johnson, 17th President 1865-1869 [80]
  14. Ulysses S. Grant, 18th President 1869-77
  15. Rutherford Hayes, 19th President 1877-1881 [81]
  16. James A. Garfield, 20th President 1881-81 [82]
  17. Chester A. Arthur, 21st President 1881-85
  18. Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th President 1885-89, 1893–97
  19. Benjamin Harrison, 23rd President 1889-93
  20. William McKinley, 25th President 1897-1901
  21. Theodore Roosevelt, 16th President 1901-1909 [83]
  22. William Taft, 27th President 1909-1913 [84]
  23. Warren G. Harding, 29th President 1921-23
  24. Calvin Coolidge, 30th President 1923-1929 [85]
  25. Franklin D. Roosevelt 32nd President 1933-45
  26. Harry S. Truman, 33rd President 1945-53
  27. Lyndon B. Johnson, 36th President 1963-69
  28. Richard Nixon, 37th President 1969-74
  29. Gerald Ford, 38th President 1974-77
  30. Jimmy Carter, 39th President 1977-81 (Thomas Carter Sr. emigrated from England to Isle of Wight County, Virginia.[86])
  31. Ronald Reagan, 40th President 1981-1989 [87]
  32. George H. W. Bush, 41st President 1989-93
  33. Bill Clinton, 42nd President 1993-2001
  34. George W. Bush, 43rd President 2001-2009 (Reynold Bush from Messing, Essex, England emigrated in 1631 to Cambridge, Massachusetts.[88])
  35. Barack Obama, 44th President 2009–Present (His mother Ann Dunham's heritage consists mostly of English ancestors.[89])

Notables - See List of English Americans.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Census 2008 ACS Ancestry estimates
  2. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maps_of_American_ancestries
  3. ^ Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural AmericaBy Dominic J. Pulera.
  4. ^ Reynolds Farley, 'The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?', Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3 (August 1991), pp. 414, 421.
  5. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi, 'The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns', Social Science Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44-6.
  6. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Mary C. Waters, 'Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites', Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 487, No. 79 (September 1986), pp. 82-86.
  7. ^ Mary C. Waters, Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990), p. 36.
  8. ^ Ethnicity in the U.S English-Americans part 2
  9. ^ Data on selected ancestry groups.
  10. ^ 1980 United States Census
  11. ^ Ben J. Wattenberg (1985), "Chapter 14. The First Universal Nation", The good news is the bad news is wrong, American Enterprise Institute, p. 77, ISBN 9780671606411, http://books.google.com/books?id=9jho2dEhwh0C&pg=PA74 
  12. ^ http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/madison_james.shtml
  13. ^ English Emigration
  14. ^ Ethnic groups in the U.S in 1775 Census
  15. ^ United States Federal Census
  16. ^ Historical U.S population by race
  17. ^ a b The Source: Gen
  18. ^ U.S 1790 Census
  19. ^ World Culture Encyclopedia
  20. ^ Brits Abroad
  21. ^ English Ethnicity 2005
  22. ^ "Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-born Population of the United States: 1850-1990"
  23. ^ Ethnicity in the U.S English-Americans part 2
  24. ^ [1]
  25. ^ The Laws of Olde England Stateside, Marcus Hampshire
  26. ^ Historians.org
  27. ^ "History of Colonial America". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwbnFG8E. 
  28. ^ The Colonial Period
  29. ^ [2] "Laban Adams belongs to the illustrious family of Henry Adams who came from Devonshire, England, about 1636 and settled in Quincy, Mass. His great great grandson, Samuel Adams, was the "Father of the Great American Revolution,"
  30. ^ UShistory - Robert Morris
  31. ^ Benjamin Franklin Timeline
  32. ^ From many strands: ethnic and racial groups in contemporary América By Stanley Lieberson
  33. ^ Languages Spoken in the United States.
  34. ^ a b Summary Tables on Language Use and English Ability: 2000 (PHC-T-20), U.S. Census Bureau, http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/phc-t20.html, retrieved 2008-02-22 
  35. ^ Fischer, pp. 74, 114, 134–39.
  36. ^ William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation 1620-1647, 85
  37. ^ "John Stafford Smith: Composer of the Star Spangled Banner". http://www.visit-gloucestershire.co.uk/gloucester/smith.htm. 
  38. ^ Star-Spangled Banner origins
  39. ^ Star Spangled Banner
  40. ^ "My country 'tis of thee [Song Collection"]. The Library of Congress. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/loc.natlib.ihas.200000012/default.html. Retrieved 2009-01-20. 
  41. ^ Snyder, Lois Leo (1990). Encyclopedia of Nationalism. Paragon House. p. 13. ISBN 1557781672. 
  42. ^ Tracing the History of a Beloved Hymn
  43. ^ Littleport England and the Harley connection
  44. ^ Baseball 'origin' uncovered videoclip
  45. ^ Base Ball History
  46. ^ Major League Baseball told: Your sport is British, not American
  47. ^ The new American sport history
  48. ^ Coca Cola Inventor was Local Pharmacist, Columbus Ledger
  49. ^ "Coca-Cola  — Our Brands". http://www.coca-cola.co.uk/ourbrands/default.aspx?id=9. Retrieved 2007-02-11. 
  50. ^ "The Chronicle Of Coca-Cola". http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/heritage/chronicle_birth_refreshing_idea.html. Retrieved 2007-11-28. 
  51. ^ Harford, Tim (2007-05-11). "The Mystery of the 5-Cent Coca-Cola: Why it's so hard for companies to raise prices". Slate. http://www.slate.com/id/2165787/. 
  52. ^ "Themes for Coca-Cola Advertising (1886-1999)". http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ccmphtml/colatime1.html. Retrieved 2007-02-11. 
  53. ^ Mark Pendergrast (2000). For God, Country and Coca-Cola. Basic Books. p. 32. ISBN 0-465-05468-4. 
  54. ^ Entrepreneur magazine encyclopedia of entrepreneurs By Anthony Hallett
  55. ^ Made in America: From Levi's to Barbie to Google By Nick Freeth
  56. ^ Oldest of the major brand soft drinks in America
  57. ^ Sam Roberts (2007-11-17). "In U.S. Name Count, Garcias Are Catching Up With Joneses". http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/17/us/17surnames.html. Retrieved 2007-11-18. 
  58. ^ United States Census Bureau (9 May 1995). s:1990 Census Name Files dist.all.last (1-100).
  59. ^ 50 States - NY.
  60. ^ Netstate - New Hampshire.
  61. ^ Manchester History.
  62. ^ Boston History.
  63. ^ Southampton, Massachusetts.
  64. ^ In 1584 Sir Walter Raleigh sent Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe to lead an exploration of what is now the North Carolina coast, and they returned with word of a regional "king" named "Wingina." This was modified later that year by Raleigh and the Queen to "Virginia", perhaps in part noting her status as the "Virgin Queen." Stewart, George (1945). Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: Random House. p. 22. 
  65. ^ Introduction to Maryland
  66. ^ Sources of United States Legal Information
  67. ^ Magna Carta
  68. ^ COMMON LAW V. CIVIL LAW SYSTEMS
  69. ^ Genealogy and Ancestry of Barack Obama and the Other U.S. Presidents, http://genealogyofpresidents.blogspot.com/ 
  70. ^ Irvin Haas (1992). Historic Homes of the American Presidents. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0486267512. http://books.google.com/books?id=p8RBlp8bNpwC. 
  71. ^ a b Henry Adams born 1583 Barton St David, Somerset, England
  72. ^ a b Henry Adams
  73. ^ http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/madison_james.shtml
  74. ^ http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/harrison_william.shtml
  75. ^ http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/tyler_john.shtml
  76. ^ http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/fillmore_millard.shtml
  77. ^ http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/pierce_franklin.shtml
  78. ^ The Ancestry of Abraham Lincoln, James Henry Lea, Robert Hutchinson, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1909, p. 4.
  79. ^ Ancestors of Abraham Lincoln
  80. ^ http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/johnson_andrew.shtml
  81. ^ http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/hayes_rutherford.shtml
  82. ^ http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/garfield_james.shtml
  83. ^ http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/roosevelt_theodore.shtml
  84. ^ http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/taft_william.shtml
  85. ^ http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/coolidge_calvin.shtml
  86. ^ ANCESTRY OF PRESIDENT CARTER
  87. ^ http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/reagan_ronald.shtml
  88. ^ George W Bush, Essex boy
  89. ^ Ancestry of Barack Obama

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message