English inventions and discoveries: Wikis

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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

English inventions and discoveries are objects, processes or techniques which owe their existence either partially or entirely to a person born in England; in some cases, their Englishness is determined by the fact that they were born in England, of non-English people working in the country. Often, things which are discovered for the first time, are also called "inventions", and in many cases, there is no clear line between the two.

The following is a list of inventions or discoveries often held to be in some way English:

Contents

Agriculture

Astronomy

Chemistry

Communications

Computing

Clock making

Clothing manufacturing

Criminology

Cryptography

Engineering

Food

Household appliances

Industrial processes

Medical

Military

Mining

Musical instruments

Photography

Science

Transport

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Railways

Locomotives

Other railway developments

Roads

Sea

Air

Sport

  • Football - The rules as we know them today were established in 1848 at Cambridge University, Sheffield FC is acknowledged by the FA and FIFA to be the Worlds First and oldest Football Club.
  • Rugby - William Webb Ellis
  • Cricket - the world's second-most popular sport can be traced back to the 13th century
  • Tennis - widely known to have originated in England.
  • Badminton - Modern rules of the game was launched in 1873 at the Badminton House after being imported from India by British soldiers.
  • Boxing - England played a key role in the evolution of modern boxing
  • Darts - a traditional pub game, the numbering layout was devised by Brian Gamlin
  • Table-Tennis - was invented on the dinner tables of Britain as an indoor version of tennis
  • Ping pong - The game has its origins in England, in the 1880s
  • Bowls - has been traced to 13th century England
  • Field hockey - the modern game grew from English public schools in the early 19th century
  • Netball - netball was first played in England in 1895 at Madame Osterburg's College, Invented by Clara Gregory Baer as women's basketball, adopted in England as Netball
  • Rounders - the game originates in England most likely from an older game known as stool ball
  • The Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race, the first race was in 1829 on the River Thames in London
  • Thoroughbred Horseracing - Was first developed in 17th and 18th century England
  • Polo - its roots began in Persia as a training game for cavalry units, the formal codification of the rules of modern Polo as a sport were established in 19th century England
  • The format of Modern Olympics - William Penny Brookes
  • The first Paralympic games competition were held in England in 1948 - Ludwig Guttmann

Miscellaneous

See also

References

  1. ^ "Tiscali encyclopaedia: Seed drill". http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0006239.html.  
  2. ^ Mr. Herschel and Dr. Watson (1781). "Account of a Comet. By Mr. Herschel, F. R. S.; Communicated by Dr. Watson, Jun. of Bath, F. R. S." (PDF). Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 71: 492–501. doi:10.1098/rstl.1781.0056. http://rstl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/71/492.full.pdf+html.  
  3. ^ "Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature: Planet and Satellite Names and Discoverers". http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/append7.html.  
  4. ^ The British Postal Museum & Archive — Rowland Hill’s Postal Reforms
  5. ^ Earnshaw, Iris (November 2003). "The History of Christmas Cards". Inverloch Historical Society Inc.. http://home.vicnet.net.au/~invhs/2004.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-25.  
  6. ^ http://www.emotionscards.com/museum/vals.html
  7. ^ "About TREVOR BAYLIS the inventor of the windup technology". http://windupradio.com/trevor.htm.  
  8. ^ a b "From the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 70, 517-526, 645 (Errata) (1910) By Major-General H. P. Babbage". http://www.fourmilab.ch/babbage/hpb1910.html.  
  9. ^ a b "Turing biography". http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Turing.html.  
  10. ^ "Annals of the History of Computing, Volume 5, Number 3, July 1983 . p239, The Design of Colossus, THOMAS H. FLOWERS". http://www.ivorcatt.com/47c.htm.  
  11. ^ "Frequently asked questions by the Press - Tim BL". http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/FAQ.  
  12. ^ "The Origin and Evolution of the Anchor Clock Escapement". http://www.oocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hall/3934/anchor.html.  
  13. ^ A. R. Hall, "Horology and criticism: Robert Hooke", Studia Copernicana, XVI, Ossolineum, 1978, 261-81
  14. ^ "Longitude clock comes alive". BBC News. 2002-03-11. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1864737.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-03.  
  15. ^ Liber cure Cocorum - A Modern English Translation with Notes, -Based on Richard Morris' transcription of 1862.
  16. ^ Eales, Mary (1985) [1718]. Mrs. Mary Eales's Receipts. London: Prospect Books. ISBN 0-907325-25-4. OCLC 228661650.  
  17. ^ http://www.pancakeology.com/node/5
  18. ^ Mary Bellis (2009-03-06). "Joseph Priestley - Soda Water - Joseph Priestly". Inventors.about.com. http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blJosephPriestley.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-08.  
  19. ^ http://v3.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?CC=FR&NR=579765&KC=&FT=E
  20. ^ "1866." The People's Chronology. Ed. Jason M. Everett. Thomson Gale, 2006. eNotes.com. 2006. 13 May 2007 <http://history.enotes.com/peoples-chronology/year-1866/medicine>
  21. ^ Dalton J, 1798 "Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours: with observations" Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester 5 28-45
  22. ^ "The Oughtred Society: Slide Rule History". http://www.oughtred.org/history-new.shtml.  
  23. ^ Francis Galton (1822–1911) – from Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography
  24. ^ "The day Percy saw the light!". http://www.halifaxtoday.co.uk/mk4custompages/CustomPage.aspx?PageID=39556.  
  25. ^ Frederick Walton : Oxford Biography Index entry

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