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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

English people
21 English people.png
1st row: Alfred the GreatOliver CromwellWilliam ShakespeareMichael PalinGeorgiana CavendishWalter RaleighSting

2nd row: Elizabeth I of EnglandBobby MooreMargaret ThatcherDavid BeckhamHarold GodwinsonKate WinsletCharles Dickens

3rd row: Pope Adrian IVDaniel CraigIsaac NewtonGeorge HarrisonJane AustenDamon AlbarnGeorge Stephenson

Total population
90,000,000 worldwide (inc. census figures that permit claiming multiple ancestry)
Regions with significant populations
 England 45.26 million (estimate) [1]
 United States 27,516,394 a [2]
 Canada 6,570,015 b [3]
 Australia 6,358,880 c [4]
 New Zealand 44,202 - 281,895 [5]
Languages

English

Religion

Traditionally Christianity, mostly Anglicanism, but also non-conformists (see History of the Church of England) and also Roman Catholics (see Catholic Emancipation). Agnostics, atheist as well as other religions. (see Religion in England).

Footnotes
a English American, b English Canadian, c English Australian

The English (from Old English: Englisc) are a nation and ethnic group native to England, who speak English. The English identity as a people is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Anglecynn.

The largest single English population live in England, the largest country of the United Kingdom. They are a mixture of several genetically similar peoples. Germanic tribes that settled in the area, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Frisians, who founded what was to become England (from the Old English Engla-lond), the earlier Britons (or Brythons) and the later Vikings and Normans.

Contents

Definitions

Writing about the English may be complicated because England has historically been settled by waves of invaders and immigrants at different periods in history, and has also spread its influence, and its populace, worldwide. Hence, the English can be considered to be an ethnic group that shares a belief in their common descent from a mass migration of Germanic peoples (usually referred to as Anglo-Saxons) during the sub-Roman period. Historian Catherine Hills describes what she calls the "national origin myth" of the English:

The arrival of the Anglo-Saxons ... is still perceived as an important and interesting event because it is believed to have been a key factor in the identity of the present inhabitants of the British Isles, involving migration on such a scale as to permanently change the population of south-east Britain, and making the English a distinct and different people from the Celtic Irish, Welsh and Scots ....this is an example of a national origin myth ... and shows why there are seldom simple answers to questions about origins.[6]

English ethnicity

It is difficult to clearly define the origins of the English, owing to the close interactions between the English and their neighbours in the British Isles, and the peoples that have added to England's population at different periods. The conventional view of English origins is that the English are primarily descended from the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes that migrated to Great Britain following the end of the Roman occupation of Britain, with assimilation of later migrants such as the Vikings and Normans. This version of history is considered by some historians and geneticists as simplistic or even incorrect. The Celts, particularly their use of Brythonic languages such as Cornish, Cumbric, and Welsh), held on for several centuries in parts of England such as Cornwall, Devon, Cumbria, Northumberland, the West Midlands (particularly Herefordshire and Shropshire), Cheshire, Lancashire, and parts of Yorkshire (particularly West Yorkshire). However, the notion of the Anglo-Saxon English has traditionally been important in defining English identity and distinguishing the English from their Celtic neighbours, such as the Scots, Welsh and Irish.

A popular interest in English identity is evident in the recent reporting of scientific and sociological investigations of the English, in which their complex results are heavily simplified. In 2002, the BBC used the headline "English and Welsh are races apart" to report a genetic survey of test subjects from market towns in England and Wales,[7] while in September 2006, The Sunday Times reported that a survey of first names and surnames in the UK had identified Ripley in Derbyshire as "the 'most English' place in England with 88.58% of residents having an English ethnic background".[8] The Daily Mail printed an article with the headline "We're all Germans! (and we have been for 1,600 years)".[9] In all these cases, the conclusions of these studies have been exaggerated or misinterpreted, with the language of race being employed by the journalists.[10]

Anglo-Celtic

In addition, several recent books, including those of Stephen Oppenheimer and Brian Sykes, have argued that the recent genetic studies in fact do not show a clear dividing line between the English and their 'Celtic' neighbours, but that there is a gradual clinal change from west coast Britain to east coast Britain. They suggest that the majority of the ancestors of British peoples were the original palaeolithic settlers of Great Britain, and that the differences that exist between the east and west coasts of Great Britain though not large, are deep in prehistory, mostly originating in the upper palaeolithic and Mesolithic (15,000-7,000 years ago). Furthermore, Oppenheimer states that genetic testing has proven that 75% of the British and Irish population could, if needed, trace their genes back to the last ice-age, 15,000 years ago.[11]

Oppenheimer also claims that Celtic split from Indo-European earlier than previously suspected, some 6000 years ago, while English split from Germanic before the Roman period. Oppenheimer believes that a Germanic language that became English was spoken by the tribes of what is now England long before the arrival of the Anglo-Saxon and also discounts the view that the people of the area were ever Celtic.[12][13]

Patricia Greenhill studied people in Canada with English heritage, and found that they did not think of themselves as "ethnic", but rather as "normal" or "mainstream", an attitude Greenhill attributes to the cultural dominance of the English in Canada.[14]

English nationality

Although England is no longer an independent nation state, but rather a constituent country within the United Kingdom, the English may still be regarded as a "nation" according to the Oxford English Dictionary's definition: a group united by factors that include "language, culture, history, or occupation of the same territory".[15]

The concept of an 'English nation' is older than that of the 'British nation' and the 1990s witnessed a revival in English self-consciousness.[16] This is linked to the expressions of national self-awareness of the other British nations of Wales and Scotland  — which take their most solid form in the new devolved political arrangements within the United Kingdom  — and the waning of a shared British national identity with the growing distance between the end of the British Empire and the present.[17][18][19]

While prescriptions of English national identity can involve beliefs in common descent, most political English nationalists do not consider Englishness to be dependent upon kinship[20][21].

Recent migrants to England have assumed a solely British or English identity, while others have developed dual or hyphenated identities.[22] Use of the word "English" to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office of National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their perceived national identity. They found that while 58% of white people described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British".[23]

Relationship to Britishness

It is unclear how many British people consider themselves English. In the 2001 UK census, respondents were invited to state their ethnicity, but while there were tick boxes for 'Irish' and for 'Scottish', there were none for 'English' or 'Welsh', who were subsumed into the general heading 'White British'.[24] Following complaints about this, the 2011 census will "allow respondents to record their English, Welsh, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other identity."[25]

Another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words "English" and "British" to be used interchangeably. In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say "English, I mean British". He notes that this slip is normally made only by the English themselves and by foreigners: "Non-English members of the United Kingdom rarely say 'British' when they mean 'English'". Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of England's dominant position with the UK, it is also "problematic for the English [...] when it comes to conceiving of their national identity. It tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles".[26]

In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote,

"When the Oxford History of England was launched a generation ago, "England" was still an all-embracing word. It meant indiscriminately England and Wales; Great Britain; the United Kingdom; and even the British Empire. Foreigners used it as the name of a Great Power and indeed continue to do so. Bonar Law, a Scotch Canadian, was not ashamed to describe himself as "Prime Minister of England" [...] Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of "England" except for a geographic area brings protests, especially from the Scotch."[27]

However, although Taylor believed this blurring effect was dying out, in his 1999 book The Isles, Norman Davies lists numerous examples in history books of "British" still being used to mean "English" and vice versa.[28] Writer Paul Johnson has suggested that like most dominant groups, the English have only demonstrated interest in their ethnic self-definition when they were feeling oppressed.[29]

History of English identity

Antiquity

The term "English" is not used to refer to the earliest inhabitants of the area that would become England - Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers, Celtic Britons, and Roman colonists,[30]; the same applies to the "Irish", "Welsh" and "Scots". This is because up to and during the Roman occupation of Britain, the region now called England was not a distinct country; all the native inhabitants of Britain spoke Brythonic languages and were regarded as Britons (or Brythons) divided into many tribes. The word "English" refers to a heritage that began with the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th century, who settled lands already inhabited by Romano-British tribes. That heritage then comes to include later arrivals, including Scandinavians, Normans, as well as those Romano-Britons who still lived in England.[30]

Early Middle Ages

"The Arrival of the First Ancestors of Englishmen out of Germany into Britain": a fanciful image of the Anglo-Saxon migration, an event central to the English national myth. From A Restitution of Decayed Intelligence by Richard Verstegan (1605)

The first people to be called 'English' were the Anglo-Saxons, a group of closely related Germanic tribes that began migrating to eastern and southern Great Britain, from southern Denmark and northern Germany, in the 5th century AD, after the Romans had withdrawn from Britain. The Anglo-Saxons gave their name to England (Angle-land) and to the English.

Reconstruction of an Anglo-Saxon burial chamber at Sutton Hoo, East Anglia

The Anglo-Saxons arrived in a land that was already populated by people commonly referred to as the 'Romano-British'—the descendants of the native Brythonic-speaking population that lived in the area of Britain under Roman rule during the 1st-5th centuries AD. The multi-ethnic nature of the Roman Empire meant that small numbers of other peoples may have also been present in England before the Anglo-Saxons arrived. There is archaeological evidence, for example, of an early North African presence in a Roman garrison at Aballava, now Burgh-by-Sands, in Cumbria; a fourth-century inscription says that the Roman military unit Numerus Maurorum Aurelianorum ("unit of Aurelian Moors") from Muretania (Morocco) was stationed there.[31]

The exact nature of the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons and their relationship with the Romano-British is a matter of debate. Traditionally, it was believed that a mass invasion by various Anglo-Saxon tribes largely displaced the indigenous British population in southern and eastern Great Britain (modern day England with the exception of Cornwall). This was supported by the writings of Gildas, the only contemporary historical account of the period, describing slaughter and starvation of native Britons by invading peoples (aduentus Saxonum).[32] Added to this was the fact that the English language contains no more than a handful of words borrowed from Brythonic sources (although the names of some towns, cities, rivers etc do have Brythonic or pre-Brythonic origins, becoming more frequent towards the west of Britain).[33] However, this view has been re-evaluated by some archaeologists and historians since the 1960s, and more recently supported by genetic studies,[13] who see only minimal evidence for mass displacement. Archaeologist Francis Pryor has stated that he "can't see any evidence for bona fide mass migrations after the Neolithic."[34] While the historian Malcolm Todd writes "It is much more likely that a large proportion of the British population remained in place and was progressively dominated by a Germanic aristocracy, in some cases marrying into it and leaving Celtic names in the, admittedly very dubious, early lists of Anglo-Saxon dynasties. But how we identify the surviving Britons in areas of predominantly Anglo-Saxon settlement, either archaeologically or linguistically, is still one of the deepest problems of early English history."[35]

In a survey of the genes of British and Irish men, even those British regions that were most genetically similar to (Germanic speaking) continental regions were still more genetically British than continental: "When included in the PC analysis, the Frisians were more 'Continental' than any of the British samples, although they were somewhat closer to the British ones than the North German/Denmark sample. For example, the part of mainland Britain that has the most Continental input is Central England, but even here the AMH+1 frequency, not below 44% (Southwell), is higher than the 35% observed in the Frisians. These results demonstrate that even with the choice of Frisians as a source for the Anglo-Saxons, there is a clear indication of a continuing indigenous component in the English paternal genetic makeup."[36]

Vikings and the Danelaw

From about AD 800 waves of Danish Viking assaults on the coastlines of the British Isles were gradually followed by a succession of Danish settlers in England. At first, the Vikings were very much considered a separate people from the English. This separation was enshrined when Alfred the Great signed the Treaty of Alfred and Guthrum to establish the Danelaw, a division of England between English and Danish rule, with the Danes occupying northern and eastern England.[37] However, Alfred's successors subsequently won military victories against the Danes, incorporating much of the Danelaw into the nascent kingdom of England. Danish invasions continued into the 11th century, and there were both English and Danish kings in the period following the unification of England (for example, Æthelred II (978–1013 and 1014–1016) was English but Cnut (1016–1035) was Danish).

Gradually, the Danes in England came to be seen as 'English'. They had a noticeable impact on the English language: many English words, such as dream, take, they and them are of Old Norse origin,[38] and place names that end in -thwaite and -by are Scandinavian in origin.[39]

English unification

Southern Great Britain in AD 600 after the Anglo-Saxon settlement, showing England's division into multiple petty kingdoms.

The English population was not politically unified until the 10th century. Before then, it consisted of a number of petty kingdoms which gradually coalesced into a Heptarchy of seven powerful states, the most powerful of which were Mercia and Wessex. The English nation state began to form when the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms united against Danish Viking invasions, which began around 800 AD. Over the following century and a half England was for the most part a politically unified entity, and remained permanently so after 959.

The nation of England was formed in 937 by Athelstan of Wessex after the Battle of Brunanburh,[40][41] as Wessex grew from a relatively small kingdom in the South West to become the founder of the Kingdom of the English, incorporating all Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and the Danelaw.[42]

Norman and Angevin rule

King Harold II of England (right) at the Norman court, from the Bayeux Tapestry

The Norman conquest of England during 1066 brought Anglo-Saxon and Danish rule of England to an end, as the new Norman elite almost universally replaced the Anglo-Saxon aristocracy and church leaders. After the conquest, "English" normally included all natives of England, whether they were of Anglo-Saxon, Scandinavian or Celtic ancestry, to distinguish them from the Norman invaders, who were regarded as "Norman" even if born in England, for a generation or two after the Conquest.[43] The Norman dynasty ruled England for 87 years until the death of King Stephen in 1154, when the succession passed to Henry II, House of Plantagenet (based in France), and England became part of the Angevin Empire until 1399.

Various contemporary sources suggest that within fifty years of the invasion most of the Normans outside the royal court had switched to English, with Anglo-Norman remaining the prestige language of government and law largely out of social inertia. For example, Orderic Vitalis, a historian born in 1075 and the son of a Norman knight, said that he learned French only as a second language. Anglo-Norman continued to be used by the Plantagenet kings until Edward I came to the throne.[44] Over time the English language became more important even in the court, and the Normans were gradually assimilated, until, by the 14th Century, both rulers and subjects regarded themselves as English and spoke the English language.[45]

Despite the assimilation of the Normans, the distinction between 'English' and 'French' survived in official documents long after it had fallen out of common use, in particular in the legal phrase Presentment of Englishry (a rule by which a hundred had to prove an unidentified murdered body found on their soil to be that of an Englishman, rather than a Norman, if they wanted to avoid a fine). This law was abolished in 1340.[46]

In the United Kingdom

Since the 18th century, England has been one part of a wider political entity covering all or part of the British Isles, which today is called the United Kingdom. Wales was annexed by England by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, which incorporated Wales into the English state.[47] A new British identity was subsequently developed when James VI of Scotland became James I of England as well, and expressed the desire to be known as the monarch of Britain.[48] In 1707, England formed a union with Scotland by passing an Act of Union in March 1707 that ratified the Treaty of Union. The Parliament of Scotland had previously passed its own Act of Union, so the United Kingdom of Great Britain was born on May 1st, 1707. In 1801, another Act of Union formed a union between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. About two thirds of the Irish population (those who lived in 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland), left the United Kingdom in 1922, to form the Irish Free State. The remainder became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Throughout the history of the UK, the English have been dominant in population and political weight. As a consequence, notions of 'Englishness' and 'Britishness' are often very similar. At the same time, after the 1707 Union, the English, along with the other peoples of the British Isles, have been encouraged to think of themselves as British rather than identifying themselves by the smaller constituent nations.[49]

Recent migration

Although England has not been successfully conquered since the Norman conquest nor extensively settled since, it has been the destination of varied numbers of migrants at different periods from the seventeenth century. While some members of these groups maintain a separate ethnic identity, others have assimilated and intermarried with the English. Since Oliver Cromwell's resettlement of the Jews in 1656, there have been waves of Jewish immigration from Russia in the nineteenth century and from Germany in the twentieth.[50] After the French king Louis XIV declared Protestantism illegal in 1685 with the Edict of Fontainebleau, an estimated 50,000 Protestant Huguenots fled to England.[51] Due to sustained and sometimes mass emigration from Ireland, current estimates indicate that around 6 million people in the UK have at least one grandparent born in Ireland.[52]

There has been a black presence in England since at least the 16th century due to the slave trade and an Indian presence since the mid 19th century because of the British Raj.[53] Black and Asian proportions have grown in England as immigration from the British Empire and the subsequent Commonwealth of Nations was encouraged due to labour shortages during post-war rebuilding.[54] In 2006, an estimated 591,000 migrants arrived to live in the UK for at least a year,[55] while 400,000 people emigrated from the UK for a year or more.[56][57] The largest group of arrivals was people from the Indian subcontinent.[58] While one result of this immigration has been incidents of racial tension, such as the Brixton and Bradford riots, there has also been considerable intermarriage; the 2001 census recorded that 1.31% of England's population call themselves "Mixed",[59] and The Sunday Times reported in 2007 that mixed race people are likely to be the largest ethnic minority in the UK by 2020.[60]

Recent resurgence

The late 1990s saw a resurgence of English national identity, spurred by devolution in the 1990s of some powers to the Scottish Parliament, National Assembly for Wales and the Northern Ireland Assembly. As England lacks its own devolved parliament, its laws are created only in the UK parliament, giving rise to the "West Lothian question", a reference to the situation in which a law affecting only England can be voted for or against by a Scottish MP.[61] Consequently, groups such as the Campaign for an English Parliament are calling for the creation of a devolved English Parliament, claiming that there is now a discriminative democratic deficit against the English. A rise in English self-consciousness has resulted, with increased use of the English flag.[16]

The England Society was formed in 2005 to promote Englishness as a cultural and civic notion rather than a political or religious one. The Society promotes itself via a number of campaigns, mostly web-based and has a membership as of October 2008 of around 800 registered members.

Opinion polls show support for a devolved English parliament from about two thirds of the residents of England as well as support from both Welsh and Scottish nationalists.[62][63][64] Conversely, the English Democrats gained just 14,506 votes in the 2005 UK general election. However, in the 2009 mayoral elections Peter Davies of the English Democrats became mayor of Doncaster.[65]

English ancestry abroad

English diaspora

From the earliest times English people have left England to settle in other parts of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, but it is not possible to identify their numbers, as British censuses have historically not invited respondents to identify themselves as English.[66] However, the census does record place of birth, revealing that 8.08% of Scotland's population,[67] 3.66% of the population of Northern Ireland[68] and 20% of the Welsh population were born in England.[69] Similarly, the census of the Republic of Ireland does not collect information on ethnicity, but it does record that there are over 200,000 people living in Ireland who were born in England and Wales.[6]

Map showing the population density of United States citizens who claim some English ancestry in the census. Dark red and brown colours indicate a higher density: highest in the northeast as well as Utah and surrounding areas. (see also Maps of American ancestries).

English emigrant and ethnic descent communities are found across the world, and in some places, settled in significant numbers. Substantial populations descended from English colonists and immigrants exist in the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand.

In the 2000 United States Census, 24,509,692 Americans described their ancestry as wholly or partly English. In addition, 1,035,133 recorded British ancestry.[70] In the 1980 United States Census 50 million Americans claimed English ancestry.[71]

In the 2006 Canadian Census, 'English' was the most common ethnic origin (ethnic origin refers to the ethnic or cultural group(s) to which the respondent's ancestors belong[72]) recorded by respondents; 6,570,015 people described themselves as wholly or partly English, 16% of the population.[73] On the other hand people identifying as Canadian but not English may have previously identified as English before the option of identifying as Canadian was available.[74]

In Australia, the 2006 Australian Census recorded 6,298,945 people who described their ancestry, but not ethnicity, as 'English'. 1,425,559 of these people recorded that both their parents were born overseas.

Significant numbers of people with at least some English ancestry also live in Scotland and Wales, as well as in Ireland, Chile, Argentina, New Zealand, and South Africa.

Since the 1980s there have been increasingly large numbers of English people, estimated at over 3 million, permanently or semi-permanently living in Spain and France, drawn there by the climate and cheaper house prices.[citation needed]

Culture

The culture of England is sometimes difficult to separate clearly from the culture of the United Kingdom,[75] so influential has English culture been on the cultures of the British Isles and, on the other hand, given the extent to which other cultures have influenced life in England.

Institutions and politics

See also

References

  1. ^ The CIA World Factbook reports that in the 2001 UK census 92.1% of the UK population were in the White ethnic group, and that 83.6% of this group are in the English ethnic group. The UK Office for National Statistics reports a total population in the UK census of 58,789,194. A quick calculation shows this is equivalent to 45,265,093 people in the English ethnic group; however, this number may not represent a self-defined ethnic group because the 2001 census did not in fact offer "English" as an option under the 'ethnicity' question (the CIA's figure was presumably arrived at by calculating the number of people in England who listed themselves as "white").
  2. ^ Census 2008 ACS Ancestry estimates
  3. ^ (Ethnic origin) The 2006 Canadian Census gives 1,367,125 respondents stating their ethnic origin as English as a single response, and 5,202,890 including multiple responses, giving a combined total of 6,570,015.
  4. ^ (Ancestry) The Australian Bureau of Statistics reports 6,358,880 people of English ancestry in the 2001 Census.[1].
  5. ^ (Ethnic origin) The 2006 New Zealand census reports 44,202 people (based on pre-assigned ethnic categories) stating they belong to the English ethnic group. The 1996 census used a different question to both the 1991 and the 2001 censuses, which had "a tendency for respondents to answer the 1996 question on the basis of ancestry (or descent) rather than 'ethnicity' (or cultural affiliation)" and reported 281,895 people with English origins; See also the figures for 'New Zealand European'.
  6. ^ Hills, Catherine (2003) "The Origins of the English" p. 18. Duckworth Debates in Archaeology. Duckworth. London. ISBN 0 7156 3191 8
  7. ^ "English and Welsh are Races Apart", BBC, 30 June 2002
  8. ^ "Found: Migrants with the Mostest", Robert Winnett and Holly Watt, The Sunday Times, 10 June 2006
  9. ^ Julie Wheldon. We're all Germans! (and we have been for 1,600 years), The Daily Mail, 19 July 2006
  10. ^ The BBC article claims a 50-100% "wipeout" of "indigenous British" by Anglo-Saxon "invaders", while the original article (Y Chromosome Evidence for Anglo-Saxon Mass Migration Michael E. Weale et al., in Molecular Biology and Evolution 19 [2002]) claims only a 50-100% "contribution" of "Anglo-Saxons" to the current Central English male population, with samples deriving only from central England; the conclusions of this study have been questioned in Cristian Capelli, et al., A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles Current Biology, 13 (2003). The Times article reports Richard Webber's OriginsInfo database, which does not use the word 'ethnic' and acknowledges that its conclusions are unsafe for many groups; see "Investigating Customers Origins", OriginsInfo.
  11. ^ A United Kingdom? Maybe NY Times
  12. ^ http://www.omniglot.com/blog/?p=516
  13. ^ a b Oppenheimer, S. (2006). The Origins of the British: A Genetic Detective Story: Constable and Robinson, London. ISBN 978-1-84529-158-7.
  14. ^ Pauline Greenhill, Ethnicity in the Mainstream: Three Studies of English Canadian Culture in Ontario (McGill-Queens, 1994) - page reference needed
  15. ^ "Nation", sense 1. The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edtn., 1989'.
  16. ^ a b Krishan Kumar, The Rise of English National Identity (Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp. 262-290.
  17. ^ Krishan Kumar. The Making of English National Identity, Cambridge University Press, 2003
  18. ^ English nationalism 'threat to UK', BBC, Sunday, 9 January 2000
  19. ^ The English question Handle with care, the Economist 1 November 2007
  20. ^ 'Introduction', The Campaign for an English Parliament
  21. ^ Andrea Levy, "This is my England", The Guardian, February 19, 2000.
  22. ^ "Ethnic minorities feel strong sense of identity with Britain, report reveals" Maxine Frith The Independent 8 January 2004. [2]; Hussain, Asifa and Millar, William Lockley (2006) Multicultural Nationalism Oxford University Press p149-150 [3]; CONDOR Susan; GIBSON Stephen; ABELL Jackie. (2006) "English identity and ethnic diversity in the context of UK constitutional change" Ethnicities 6:123-158 abstract; "Asian recruits boost England fan army" by Dennis Campbell, The Guardian 18 June 2006. [4]; "National Identity and Community in England" (2006) Institute of Governance Briefing No.7. [5]
  23. ^ "78 per cent of Bangladeshis said they were British, while only 5 per cent said they were English, Scottish or Welsh", and the largest percentage of non-whites to identify as English were the people who described their ethnicity as "Mixed" (37%).'Identity', National Statistics, 21 Feb, 2006
  24. ^ Scotland's Census 2001: Supporting Information (PDF; see p. 43); see also Philip Johnston, "Tory MP leads English protest over census", Daily Telegraph 15 June, 2006.
  25. ^ 'Developing the Questionnaires', National Statistics Office.
  26. ^ Krishan Kumar, The Making of English National Identity (Cambridge UP, 2003), pp.1-2.
  27. ^ A.J.P. Taylor, English History, 1914-1945 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965), p. v.
  28. ^ Norman Davies, The Isles, [page reference needed]
  29. ^ Quoted by Kumar, Making, p.266.
  30. ^ a b Simpson, John; Weiner, Edmund (1989-03-30). The Oxford English Dictionary: second edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. English. ISBN 0198611862. http://www.oed.com. 
  31. ^ The archaeology of black Britain, Channel 4, accessed 21 December 2009.
  32. ^ Gildas, The Ruin of Britain &c. (1899). pp. 4-252. The Ruin of Britain
  33. ^ celtpn
  34. ^ Britain BC: Life in Britain and Ireland before the Romans by Francis Pryor, p. 122. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-00-712693-X.
  35. ^ Todd, Malcolm. "Anglo-Saxon Origins: The Reality of the Myth", in Cameron, Keith. The nation: myth or reality?. Intellect Books, 1994, accessed December 21, 2009.
  36. ^ Capelli, C., N. Redhead, J. K. Abernethy, F. Gratrix, J. F. Wilson, T. Moen, T. Hervig, M. Richards, M. P.H. Stumpf, P. A. Underhill, P. Bradshaw, A. Shaha, M. G. Thomas, N. Bradman and D. B. Goldstein A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles Current Biology, 13 (2003).
  37. ^ The Age of Athelstan by Paul Hill (2004), Tempus Publishing. ISBN 0-7524-2566-8
  38. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary by Douglas Harper (2001), List of sources used. Retrieved 10 July 2006.
  39. ^ The Adventure of English, Melvyn Bragg, 2003. Pg 22
  40. ^ Athelstan (c.895 - 939): Historic Figures: BBC - History. Retrieved 30 October 2006.
  41. ^ The Battle of Brunanburh, 937AD by h2g2, BBC website. Retrieved 30 October 2006.
  42. ^ A. L. Rowse, The Story of Britain, Artus 1979 ISBN 0-297-83311-1
  43. ^ OED, 2nd edition, s.v. 'English'.
  44. ^ England — Plantagenet Kings
  45. ^ BBC - The Resurgence of English 1200 - 1400
  46. ^ OED, s.v. 'Englishry'.
  47. ^ Liberation of Ireland: Ireland on the Net Website. Retrieved 23 June 2006.
  48. ^ A History of Britain: The British Wars 1603-1776 by Simon Schama, BBC Worldwide. ISBN 0-563-53747-7.
  49. ^ The English, Jeremy Paxman 1998
  50. ^ EJP looks back on 350 years of history of Jews in the UK: European Jewish Press. Retrieved 21 July 2006.
  51. ^ Meredith on the Guillet-Thoreau Genealogy
  52. ^ More Britons applying for Irish passports by Owen Bowcott The Guardian, 13 September 2006. Retrieved 9 January 2006.
  53. ^ Black Presence, Asian and Black History in Britain, 1500-1850: UK government website. Retrieved 21 July 2006.
  54. ^ Postwar immigration The National Archives Accessed October 2006
  55. ^ "Half a million migrants pour into Britain in a year". http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/news/news.html?in_article_id=494235&in_page_id=1770. 
  56. ^ "Record numbers seek new lives abroad". http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/this_britain/article3166418.ece. 
  57. ^ "Indians largest group among new immigrants to UK". http://www.aol.in/news/story/2007042004189012000001/index.html. 
  58. ^ "1,500 migrants enter UK a day". http://www.thesun.co.uk/article/0,,2-2006510002,00.html. 
  59. ^ Resident population: by ethnic group, 2001: Regional Trends 38, National Statistics.
  60. ^ Jack Grimston, "Mixed-race Britons to become biggest minority", The Sunday Times, 21 January 2007.
  61. ^ An English Parliament...
  62. ^ Poll shows support for English parliament The Guardian, 16 January 2007
  63. ^ Fresh call for English Parliament BBC 24 October 2006.
  64. ^ Welsh nod for English Parliament BBC 20 December 2006
  65. ^ http://www.doncaster.gov.uk/mayor/index.asp
  66. ^ Scotland's Census 2001: Supporting Information (PDF; see p. 43)
  67. ^ Scottish Census Results Online Browser, accessed November 16, 2007.
  68. ^ Key Statistics Report, p. 10.
  69. ^ Country of Birth: Proportion Born in Wales Falling, National Statistics, 8 January 2004.
  70. ^ US Census 2000 data, table PHC-T-43.
  71. ^ Shifting Identities - statistical data on ethnic identities in the US, American Demographics, December 1, 2001
  72. ^ Ethnic Origin Statistics Canada
  73. ^ Staff. Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data, Statistics Canada, 2006.
  74. ^ According to Canada's Ethnocultural Mosaic, 2006 Census, (p.7) "...the presence of the Canadian example has led to an increase in Canadian being reported and has had an impact on the counts of other groups, especially for French, English, Irish and Scottish. People who previously reported these origins in the census had the tendency to now report Canadian."
  75. ^ Krishnan Kumar - The Making of English Identity

Bibliography


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

English

Alfred the Great • W. Shakespeare • G. Stephenson • D. Albarn
Elizabeth I • N. Gwyn • J. Austen • K. Winslet
</tr>
</tr>
Total population</tr>

ca. 90 million (estimate) </tr>

Regions with significant populations</tr> United Kingdom
45.26 million (estimate) [1] </tr>
28,410,295 [2]
 Australia 6,358,880 [3]
Template:Country data Canada 5,978,875 [4]
Template:Country data New Zealand 44,202 - 281,895 [5]
Template:Country data Argentina ~100,000 [6]
Language(s)</tr>

English (especially English English)</tr>

Religion(s)</tr>

Christianity (Anglicanism, Roman Catholicism and other minority denominations), and other faiths. Increasingly secularised since the late 20th century; with about a fifth claiming no religion.[7]</tr>

The English (from Old English Ænglisc) are a nation and ethnic group native to England and who speak English. The largest single population of English people reside in England — the largest constituent country of the United Kingdom.[8]

Contents

Definitions

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) states that the earliest recorded sense of the word 'English' is "Of or belonging to the group of Teutonic peoples collectively known as the Angelcynn [...] comprising the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, who settled in Britain during the 5th c.". However, the OED continues that

With the incorporation of the Celtic and Scandinavian elements of the population into the ‘English’ people, the adj. came in the 11th c. to be applied to all natives of ‘England’, whatever their ancestry. But for a generation or two after the Norman Conquest, the descendants of the invaders, though born in England, continued to be regarded as ‘French’, so that the word English, as applied to persons, was for a time restricted to those whose ancestors were settled in England before the Conquest."[9]

Today, the word can be used to refer to an 'English nation' comprising anyone who considers themselves English and are considered English by most other people (see civic nationalism). However, this definition is not shared by all writers, some of whom (wrongly) perceive the English more exclusively as an "Anglo-Saxon", or at least a "white" ethnic group that shares a common ancestry.

The English as an ethnic group

It is unclear how many people in the UK consider themselves ethnically English. In the 2001 UK census, respondents were invited to state their ethnicity, but while there were tick boxes for 'Irish' and for 'Scottish', there were none for 'English' or 'Welsh', who were subsumed into the general heading 'White British'.[10] Following complaints about this, the 2011 census will "allow respondents to record their English, Welsh, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other identity"[11]; "English" will be listed as a subcategory of "White".[12]

Some people see important ethnic differences between those with long-standing English ancestry and those whose ancestors arrived in England more recently: for example in Sarah Kane's play Blasted the character Ian boasts "I'm not an import", contrasting himself with the children of immigrants: "they have their kids, call them English, they're not English, born in England don't make you English".[13]

A complication is England's dominant position within the United Kingdom, which has resulted in the terms 'English' and 'British' often being used interchangeably.[14] Relatedly, studies of people with English ancestry have shown that they tend not to regard themselves as an ethnic group, even when they live in other countries. Patricia Greenhill studied people in Canada with English heritage, and found that they did not think of themselves as "ethnic", but rather as "normal" or "mainstream", an attitude Greenhill attributes to the cultural dominance of the English in Canada.[15] Writer Paul Johnson has suggested that like most dominant groups, the English have only demonstrated interest in their self-definition when they were feeling oppressed.[16]

Despite these complexities, the notion of English ethnic distinctiveness has been highlighted in sensationalized and generally inaccurate reporting of scientific and sociological studies. In 2002, the BBC used the headline "English and Welsh are races apart" to report a genetic survey of test subjects from market towns in England and Wales,[17]

The English as a nation

The phrase, "the English people", can also be used more inclusively to discuss the English as a "nation" rather than an ethnic group, using the OED's definition of "nation" as a group united by factors that include "language, culture, history, or occupation of the same territory", rather than ancestral ties alone.[18]

The concept of an 'English nation' (as opposed to a British one) has become increasingly popular after the devolution process in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland resulted in those three nations having semi-independent political and legal systems. Although England itself still lacks self-government, the 1990s witnessed a rise in English self-consciousness .[19] While there can be an ethnic component to expressions of English national identity, most political English nationalists do not consider Englishness to be genetic. For example, the English Democrats Party states that "We do not claim Englishness to be purely ethnic or purely cultural, but it is a complex mix of the two. We firmly believe Englishness is a state of mind",[20] while the Campaign for an English Parliament says, "The people of England includes everyone who considers this ancient land to be their home and future regardless of ethnicity, race, religion or culture".[21].

In an article for The Guardian, novelist Andrea Levy (born in London to Jamaican parents) calls England a separate country "without any doubt" and asserts that she is "English. Born and bred, as the saying goes. (As far as I can remember, it is born and bred and not born-and-bred-with-a-very-long-line-of-white-ancestors-directly-descended-from-Anglo-Saxons.)" Arguing that "England has never been an exclusive club, but rather a hybrid nation", she writes that "Englishness must never be allowed to attach itself to ethnicity. The majority of English people are white, but some are not ... Let England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland be nations that are plural and inclusive."[22]

However, this use of the word "English" is complicated by the fact that most non-white people in England have a greater allegiance to Britain as a whole than to England. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office of National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their perceived national identity. They found that while 58% of white people described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British". For example, "78 per cent of Bangladeshis said they were British, while only 5 per cent said they were English, Scottish or Welsh", and the largest percentage of non-whites to identify as English were the people who described their ethnicity as "Mixed" (37%).[23]

History

English people
Culture
Music
Language
Cuisine
Dance
Religion
People
Distribution
(United States • Canada • Africa • Australia)

Overview

The term 'English people' is not normally used to refer to the earliest inhabitants of England: Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers, Celtic Britons, and Roman colonists. Instead it refers to a heritage that begins with the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th century who settled lands already inhabited by Romano-British tribes. That heritage then comes to include later arrivals, including Scandinavians, Normans, and other groups, as well as those Romano-Britons who still lived in England.[24]

The Anglo-Saxons and previous inhabitants

The first people to be called 'English' were the Anglo-Saxons, who are believed to originate from Germanic tribes that migrated to England from southern Denmark and northern Germany in the 5th century AD after the Romans retreated from Britain. The Anglo-Saxons gave their name to England (Angle-land) and to the English people.

However, the Anglo-Saxons arrived in a land that was already populated by people commonly referred to as the 'Romano-British', the descendants of the native Brythonic-speaking Celtic population that lived in the area of Britain under Roman rule during the 1st-5th centuries AD. Furthermore, the multi-ethnic nature of the Roman Empire meant that other peoples were also present in England before the Anglo-Saxons arrived: for example, archaeological discoveries suggest that North Africans may have had a limited presence (popular historians sometimes refer to these people as "black",Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag Historian Malcolm Todd writes

"It is much more likely that a large proportion of the British population remained in place and was progressively dominated by a Germanic aristocracy, in some cases marrying into it and leaving Celtic names in the, admittedly very dubious, early lists of Anglo-Saxon dynasties. But how we identify the surviving Britons in areas of predominantly Anglo-Saxon settlement, either archaeologically or linguistically, is still one of the deepest problems of early English history."[25]

Geneticists have explored the relationship between Anglo-Saxons and Britons by studying the Y-chromosomes of men in present day English towns. In 2002, a study by Weale et al found a considerable genetic difference between test subjects from market towns in England and Wales, and that the English subjects were, on average closer genetically to the Frisians of the Netherlands than they were to their Welsh neighbours. This conclusion seemed to indicate that the Anglo-Saxons purged England of its previous inhabitants.[26] A 2006 study led by Mark Thomas used computer simulations to find a possible reason for the divergence between these finds and the archaeological record. They concluded that the likeliest explanation was that the Anglo-Saxons operated an apartheid-like system, preventing intermarriage between Britons and Anglo-Saxons and asserting political dominance.[27]

Other geneticists tell a different story. A follow-up study to Weale et al in 2003 by Christian Capelli et al complicated Weale's conclusions, indicating that different parts of England received different levels of intrusion from outsiders: while central and eastern England experienced a high level of intrusion from continental Europe (the study could not distinguish Germans from Danes and Frisians), southern England did not and the population there appears to be largely descended from the indigenous Britons (the scientists acknowledge that this conclusion is "startling"). The 2003 study also noted that the transition between England and Wales is more gradual than the earlier study suggested. [28] Stephen Oppenheimer, basing his arguments on the findings of the 2003 study, has argued that the majority of English people, much like the other populations within the British Isles, have some genetic relationship to the original hunter-gatherers who settled Britain between 15,000 and 7,500 years ago, after the last Ice Age. [29]

The Danish Vikings and the unification of the English

Southern Great Britain in AD 600 after the Saxon settlement, showing England's division into multiple petty kingdoms.

The English population was not politically unified until the ninth century. Before then, it consisted of a number of petty kingdoms which gradually coalesced into a Heptarchy of seven powerful states, the most powerful of which were Mercia and Wessex. The English nation state began to form when the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms united against Danish Viking invasions, which began around 800 AD. Over the following century and a half England was for the most part a politically unified entity, and remained permanently so after 959.

At first, the Vikings were very much considered a separate people from the English. This separation was enshrined when Alfred the Great signed the Treaty of Alfred and Guthrum to establish the Danelaw, a division of England between English and Danish rule, with the Danes occupying northern and eastern England.[30] However, Alfred's successors subsequently won military victories against the Danes, incorporating much of the Danelaw into the nascent kingdom of England.

The nation of England was formed in 937 by Athelstan of Wessex after the Battle of Brunanburh,[31][32] Danish invasions continued into the 11th century, and there were both English and Danish kings in the period following the unification of England (for example, Ethelred the Unready was English but Canute the Great was Danish).

Gradually, the Danes in England came to be seen as 'English'. They had a noticeable impact on the English language: many English words, such as dream are of Old Norse origin[33], and place names that include thwaite and by are Scandinavian in origin.[34]

Normans and Angevins

The Norman Conquest of 1066 brought Anglo-Saxon and Danish rule of England to an end, as the new Norman elite almost universally replaced the Anglo-Saxon aristocracy and church leaders. After the conquest, the term "English people" normally included all natives of England, whether they were of Anglo-Saxon, Scandinavian or Celtic ancestry, to distinguish them from the Norman invaders, who were regarded as "French" even if born in England, for a generation or two after the Conquest.[35] The Norman dynasty ruled England for 87 years until the death of King Stephen in 1154, when the succession passed to Henry II, of the French House of Plantagenet, and England became part of the Angevin Empire until 1399.

The Norman aristocracy used Anglo-Norman as the language of the court, law and administration. It continued to be used by the Plantagenet kings. However, over time the English language became more important even in the court, and the French were gradually assimilated into the English people, until, by the late 1200s, both rulers and subjects regarded themselves as English and spoke the English language.

Despite the assimilation of the French, the distinction between 'English' and 'French' survived in official documents long after it had fallen out of common use, in particular in the legal phrase Presentment of Englishry (a rule by which a hundred had to prove an unidentified murdered body found on their soil to be that of an Englishman, rather than a Norman, if they wanted to avoid a fine).[36]

The English and Britain

Main articles: United Kingdom and English nationalism

Since the 16th century, England has been one part of a wider political entity covering all or part of the British Isles, which is today called the United Kingdom. Wales was annexed by England by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, which incorporated Wales into the English state.[37] A new British identity was subsequently developed when James I became King of both England and Scotland and expressed the desire to be known as the monarch of Britain.[38] In 1707, England formed a union with Scotland by the passage of the Acts of Union 1707 in both the Scottish and English parliaments, creating the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801 another Act of Union formed a union between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. About two thirds of Irish population, (those who lived in 26 of the 34 counties of Ireland) left the United Kingdom in 1922 to form the Irish Free State, and the remainder became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Throughout the history of the UK, the English have been dominant in terms of population and political weight. As a consequence, the notions of 'Englishness' and 'Britishness' are often very similar. At the same time, after the 1707 Union, the English, along with the other peoples of the British Isles, have been encouraged to think of themselves as British rather than identifying themselves by the smaller constituent nations.[39]

However, the late 1990s saw a resurgence of English national identity, spurred by devolution in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, which has given semi-independence to those countries. As England lacks its own devolved parliament, its laws are created only in the UK parliament, giving rise to the "West Lothian question", a hypothetical situation in which a law affecting only England could be voted for or against by a Scottish MP.[40] Consequently, groups such as the Campaign for an English Parliament are calling for the creation of a devolved English Parliament, claiming that there is now a discriminative democratic deficit against the English. This resurgence of English nationalism sometimes has an ethnic dimension; for example, the England First Party advocates "Reformation of the ethnic infrastructure of the English parliament" to create "an individual parliament with its own indigenous race of MPs."[41]

Later immigrants

See also: Immigration to the United Kingdom, Immigration to the United Kingdom, Demographics of England.

Although England has not been successfully conquered since the Norman conquest, English ethnic identity remains complex because England has been the destination of several mass emigrations since the seventeenth century. While some members of these groups maintain a separate ethnic identity, others have assimilated or intermarried with the English. Since Oliver Cromwell's resettlement of the Jews in 1656, there have been waves of Jewish immigration from persecution in Russia in the nineteenth century and from Germany in the twentieth.[42] After the French king Louis XIV declared Protestantism illegal in 1685 with the Edict of Fontainebleau, an estimated 50,000 Protestant Huguenots fled to England.[43] Due to sustained and sometimes mass emigration from Ireland, current estimates indicate that around 6 million people in the UK have at least one grandparent born in the Republic of Ireland.[44]

There has been a black presence in England since at least the 16th century due to the slave trade and an Indian presence since the mid 19th century because of the British Raj.[45] Black and Asian proportions have grown in England as immigration from the British Empire and the subsequent Commonwealth of Nations was encouraged due to labour shortages during post-war rebuilding.[46] While one result of this immigration has been racial hatred, there has also been considerable intermarriage; the 2001 census recorded that 1.31% of England's population call themselves "Mixed",[47] and The Sunday Times reported in 2007 that mixed race people are likely to be the largest ethnic minority in the UK by 2020.[48]

Geographic distribution

Further information: English AmericanImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gifEnglish-CanadianImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gifAnglo-AfricanImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif, and English AustralianImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif


From the earliest times English people have left England to settle in other parts of the British Isles, but it is not possible to identify their numbers, as British censuses have historically not invited respondents to identify themselves as English.[49] However, the census does record place of birth, revealing that 8.08% of Scotland's population[50], 3.66% of the population of Northern Ireland[51] and 20% of the Welsh population were born in England.[52] Similarly, the census of the Republic of Ireland does not collect information on ethnicity, but it does record that there are over 200,000 people living in Ireland who were born in England and Wales.[2]

Map showing the population density of United States citizens who claim some English ancestry in the census. Dark red and brown colours indicate a higher density: highest in the northeast as well as Utah and surrounding areas. (see also Maps of American ancestries).

English emigrant and descent communities are found across the world, and in some places, settled in significant numbers. Countries with significant numbers of people of English ancestry or ethnic origin include the United States (particularly Utah, New England, New York, California, Virginia and the Southern States), Australia, Canada, South Africa and New Zealand.

Culture

Contribution to humanity

Further information: List of English peopleImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif


In the opinion of English philologist J. R. R. Tolkien, the early medieval Anglo-Saxon mission to the Frankish Empire was "among our chief contributions to Europe, considering all our history".

The English have played a significant role in the development of the arts and sciences. Prominent individuals have included the scientists and inventors Isaac Newton, Francis Crick, Abraham Darby, Michael Faraday, Charles Darwin, Joseph Swan and Frank Whittle; the poet and playwright William Shakespeare, the novelists Jane Austen, Charles Dickens, Virginia Woolf and George Orwell , the composers Edward Elgar and Benjamin Britten, and the explorer James Cook. English philosophers include Francis Bacon, John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Paine, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill and Bertrand Russell.

English law has also formed the basis for common law legal systems throughout the world.[53]

The rules for many modern sports including football, rugby (union and league), cricket and tennis were first formulated in England.

Language

Countries where English has official or de facto official language status.

English people traditionally speak the English language, a member of the West Germanic language family. The modern English language evolved from Old English, with lexical influence from Norman-French, Latin, and Old Norse. In addition, Welsh is also used by a number of speakers across England, predominantly on the border with Wales although there are also some 50,000 Welsh speakers in the Greater London Area. [54] A third language traditionally spoken is Cornish, a Celtic language originating in Cornwall, currently spoken by about 3,500 people. A fourth language also of the Brythonic Celtic group, Cumbric, used to be spoken in Cumbria in northwest England, but it died out in the 11th century although traces of it can still be found in the Cumbrian dialect. The Cumbric language recontstruction is currently being attempted. Because of the 19th century geopolitical dominance of the British Empire and the post-World War II hegemony of the United States, English has become the international language of business, science, communications, aviation, and diplomacy. English is the native language of roughly 350 million people worldwide, with another 1.5 billion people who speak it as a second language.

Religion

Ever since the break with the Roman Catholic Church in the sixteenth century, the English have predominantly been members of the Church of England, a branch of the Anglican Communion, a form of Christianity with elements of Protestantism and Catholicism. The Book of Common Prayer is the foundational prayer book of the Church of England and replaced the various Latin rites of the Roman Catholic Church.

Today, most English people practising organized religion are affiliated to the Church of England or other Christian denominations such as Roman Catholicism and Methodism (itself originally a movement within the Anglican Church). In the 2001 Census, a little over 37 million people in England and Wales professed themselves to be Christian. Jewish immigration since the seventeenth century means that there is an integrated Jewish English population, mainly in urban areas. 252,000 Jews were recorded in England & Wales in the 2001 Census; however this represents a decline of about 50% over the previous 50 years, caused by emigration and intermarriage. Immigration to Britain from India and Pakistan since the 1950s means that a large number of people living in England practise Islam (818,000), Hinduism (467,000), or Sikhism (301,000); however, the census shows that adherents to these religions are more likely to regard themselves as British than English.[55] The 2001 census also revealed that about seven million people, or 15% of English people, claim no religion. [56]

Sports

There are many sports codified by the English, which then spread worldwide due to trading and the British Empire, including badminton, cricket, croquet, football, field hockey, lawn tennis, rugby league, rugby union, table tennis and thoroughbred horse racing.

England, like the other nations of the United Kingdom, competes as a separate nation in some international sporting events. The English football, cricket and rugby union teams have contributed to an increasing sense of English identity. The England Cricket team actually represents England and Wales[57].

Supporters are more likely to carry the Cross of Saint George flag whereas twenty years ago the British Union Flag would have been the more prominent. In an article in the Daily Mirror on 17 September 2005, Billy Bragg said "Watching the crowd in Trafalgar Square celebrating The Ashes win, I couldn't help but be amazed at how quickly the flag of St George has replaced the Union Flag in the affections of England fans. A generation ago, England games looked a lot like Last Night of the Proms, with the red, white and blue firmly to the fore. Now, it seems, the English have begun to remember who they are."[58].

Symbols

Saint George's Cross, the English flag.

The English flag is a red cross on a white background, commonly called the Cross of Saint George. It was adopted after the Crusades. Saint George, later famed as a dragon-slayer, is also the patron saint of England. The three golden lions or leopards on a red background was the banner of the kings of England derived from their status as Duke of Normandy and is now used to represent the English national football team and the English national cricket team, though in blue rather than gold. The English oak and the Tudor rose are also English symbols, the latter of which is (although more modernised) used by the England national rugby union team.

England has no official anthem; however, the United Kingdom's "God Save the Queen" is widely regarded as England's unofficial national anthem. Other songs are sometimes used, including "Land of Hope and Glory" (used as England's anthem in the Commonwealth Games), "Jerusalem", "Rule Britannia", and "I Vow to Thee".

See also

References

  1. ^ The CIA World Factbook reports that in the 2001 UK census 92.1% of the UK population were in the White ethnic group, and that 83.6% of this group are in the English ethnic group. The UK Office for National Statistics reports a total population in the UK census of 58,789,194. A quick calculation shows this is equivalent to 45,265,093 people in the English ethnic group. However, this number may not represent a self-defined ethnic group because the 2001 census did not in fact offer "English" as an option under the 'ethnicity' question (the CIA's figure was presumably arrived at by calculating the number of people in England who listed themselves as "white").
  2. ^ (Ethnic origin) The 2000 US census shows 24,515,138 people claiming English ancestry. According to EuroAmericans.net the greatest population with English origins in a single state was 2,521,355 in California, and the highest percentage was 29.0% in Utah. The American Community Survey 2004 by the US Census Bureau estimates 28,410,295 people claiming some English origin.
  3. ^ (Ancestry) The Australian Bureau of Statistics reports 6,358,880 people of English ancestry in the 2001 Census.[1].
  4. ^ (Ethnic origin)2001 Canadian Census gives 1,479,520 respondents stating their ethnic origin as English as a single response, and 4,499,355 including multiple responses, giving a combined total of 5,978,875.
  5. ^ (Ethnic origin) The 2006 New Zealand census reports 44,202 people (based on pre-assigned ethnic categories) stating they belong to the English ethnic group. The 1996 census used a different question to both the 1991 and the 2001 censuses, which had "a tendency for respondents to answer the 1996 question on the basis of ancestry (or descent) rather than 'ethnicity' (or cultural affiliation)" and reported 281,895 people with English origins
  6. ^ Fare of the Country; Teatime: A bit of Britain in Argentina. New York Times. June 23, 1985.
  7. ^ CIA World Factbook]
  8. ^ 10 Downing Street official website. Retrieved 17 August 2007.
  9. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd. edtn (1989).
  10. ^ Scotland's Census 2001: Supporting Information (PDF; see p. 43); see also Philip Johnston, "Tory MP leads English protest over census", Daily Telegraph 15 June, 2006.
  11. ^ 'Developing the Questionnaires', National Statistics Office.
  12. ^ 2007 Census Test; see p. 6.
  13. ^ Sarah Kane, Complete Plays (19**), p. 41.
  14. ^ In The Isles, Norman Davies lists numerous examples in history books of 'British' being used to mean 'English' and vice versa.[page reference needed]
  15. ^ Pauline Greenhill, Ethnicity in the Mainstream: Three Studies of English Canadian Culture in Ontario (McGill-Queens, 1994) - page reference needed
  16. ^ Quoted by Kumar, Making [page reference needed]
  17. ^ "English and Welsh are Races Apart", BBC, 13 (2003). The Times article reports Richard Webber's OriginsInfo database, which does not use the term 'ethnic' and acknowledges that its conclusions are unsafe for many groups; see "Investigating Customers Origins", OriginsInfo.
  18. ^ "Nation", sense 1. The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edtn., 1989'.
  19. ^ Krishan Kumar, The Rise of English National Identity (Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp. 262-290.
  20. ^ English Democrats FAQ
  21. ^ 'Introduction', The Campaign for an English Parliament
  22. ^ Andrea Levy, "This is my England", The Guardian, February 19, 2000.
  23. ^ 'Identity', National Statistics, 21 Feb, 2006
  24. ^ 'English', The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edtn., 1989.
  25. ^ Anglo-Saxon Origins: The Reality of the Myth by Malcolm Todd. Retrieved 01 October 2006.
  26. ^ "English and Welsh are Races Apart", BBC.co.uk, 30 June, 2002
  27. ^ Mark G. Thomas, et al, "Evidence for an Apartheid-like Social Structure in Anglo-Saxon England", Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 2006.. For a summary, see "'Apartheid' society gave edge to Anglo-Saxons, study suggests" , CBC, July 19, 2006.
  28. ^ A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles; Cristian Capelli, Nicola Redhead, Julia K. Abernethy, Fiona Gratrix, James F. Wilson, Torolf Moen, Tor Hervig, Martin Richards, Michael P. H. Stumpf, Peter A. Underhill, Paul Bradshaw, Alom Shaha, Mark G. Thomas, Neal Bradman, and David B. Goldstein Current Biology, Volume 13, Issue 11, Pages 979-984 (2003). Retrieved 6 December 2005.
  29. ^ {{cite journal |last=Oppenheimer |first=Stephen |authorlink=Stephen Oppenheimer|coauthors= |year=2006 |month=October |title=Myths of British Ancestry |journal=Prospect Magazine
  30. ^ The Age of Athelstan by Paul Hill (2004), Tempus Publishing. ISBN 0-7524-2566-8
  31. ^ Athelstan (c.895 - 939): Historic Figures: BBC - History. Retrieved 30 October 2006.
  32. ^ The Battle of Brunanburh, 937AD by h2g2, The Story of Britain, Artus 1979 ISBN 0-297-83311-1
  33. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary by Douglas Harper (2001), List of sources used. Retrieved 10 July 2006.
  34. ^ The Adventure of English, Melvyn Bragg, 2003. Pg 22
  35. ^ OED, 2nd edition, s.v. 'English'.
  36. ^ OED, s.v. 'Englishry'.
  37. ^ Liberation of Ireland: Ireland on the Net Website. Retrieved 23 June 2006.
  38. ^ A History of Britain: The British Wars 1603-1776 by Simon Schama, BBC Worldwide. ISBN 0-563-53747-7.
  39. ^ The English, Jeremy Paxman 1998
  40. ^ An English Parliament...
  41. ^ England First Party: Manifesto.
  42. ^ EJP looks back on 350 years of history of Jews in the UK: European Jewish Press. Retrieved 21 July 2006.
  43. ^ Meredith on the Guillet-Thoreau Genealogy
  44. ^ More Britons applying for Irish passports by Owen Bowcott The Guardian, 13 September 2006. Retrieved 9 January 2006.
  45. ^ Black Presence, Asian and Black History in Britain, 1500-1850: UK government website. Retrieved 21 July 2006.
  46. ^ Postwar immigration The National Archives Accessed October 2006
  47. ^ Resident population: by ethnic group, 2001: Regional Trends 38, National Statistics.
  48. ^ Jack Grimston, "Mixed-race Britons to become biggest minority" The Sunday Times, 21 January, 2007.
  49. ^ Scotland's Census 2001: Supporting Information (PDF; see p. 43)
  50. ^ Scottish Census Results Online Browser, accessed November 16, 2007.
  51. ^ Key Statistics Report, p. 10.
  52. ^ Country of Birth: Proportion Born in Wales Falling, National Statistics, 8 January, 2004.
  53. ^ Common Law by Daniel K. Benjamin, A World Connected' website. Retrieved 16 September 2006.
  54. ^ Welsh (Cymraeg). Omniglot.
  55. ^ Ethnicity and Identity: Religion, National Statistics, 21 March, 2005.; Identity, National Statistics, 21 March, 2005.
  56. ^ 2001 National Census England , Ethnicity and Religion. National Statistics (2001). Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  57. ^ "England Cricket Team Profile". Retrieved on 2006-09-13. 
  58. ^ "The Saturday Soap Box: We have to make Jerusalem England's national anthem", Daily Mirror, 2005-09-17. Retrieved on 2006-11-01. 

Bibliography

  • Krishan Kumar (2003). The Making of English National Identity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521777364. 

External links


<tr><th style="white-space:nowrap;background:#FFEFD6;text-align:right;background:#ddf;">Culture</th><td colspan="1" style="text-align:left;width:100%;font-size:95%;">

Castles · Church of England · Education · National cricket team · The Football Association · Museums · National rugby team · Innovations and discoveries · Cuisine · St George's Day · Anglosphere · Anglophile

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This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at English people. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
Facts about English peopleRDF feed

This article uses material from the "English people" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

English people are British citizen born in England. Most English people speak the English language. Over the years, many English people have moved to other countries, such as the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

The English are one of the nations of the island of Great Britain, which they share with the Scots and the Welsh. They are descended from immigrants from all over Europe, the Caribbean and South Asia amongst other places.









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