Enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle: Wikis

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Simplified chart showing the progression of European emission standards for Diesel cars.
Simplified chart showing the progression of European emission standards for Gasoline cars. Note that until Euro 5, there were no PM limits.

European emission standards define the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles sold in EU member states. The emission standards are defined in a series of European Union directives staging the progressive introduction of increasingly stringent standards.

Currently, emissions of Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Total hydrocarbon (THC), Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) are regulated for most vehicle types, including cars, lorries, trains, tractors and similar machinery, barges, but excluding seagoing ships and aeroplanes. For each vehicle type, different standards apply. Compliance is determined by running the engine at a standardised test cycle. Non-compliant vehicles cannot be sold in the EU, but new standards do not apply to vehicles already on the roads. No use of specific technologies is mandated to meet the standards, though available technology is considered when setting the standards. New models introduced must meet current or planned standards, but minor lifecycle model revisions may continue to be offered with pre-compliant engines.

In the early 2000s, Australia began harmonising Australian Design Rule certification for new motor vehicle emissions with Euro categories. Euro III was introduced on 1 January 2006 and is progressively being introduced to align with European introduction dates.

Also see the EU-mandated European on-board diagnostics.

Contents

CO2 emission

Within the European Union, road transport is responsible for about 20% of all CO2 emissions, with passenger cars contributing about 12%.[1]

The target fixed at Kyoto Protocol was an 8% reduction of emissions in all sectors of the economy compared to 1990 levels by 2008-2012.

Relative CO2 emissions from transport have risen rapidly in recent years, from 21% of the total in 1990 to 28% in 2004,[1][2][3] but currently there are no standards for CO2 emission limits for pollution from vehicles.

EU transport emissions of CO2 currently account for about 3.5% of total global CO2 emissions.

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Obligatory labelling

The purpose of Directive 1999/94/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 13 December 1999 relating to the availability of consumer information on fuel economy and CO2 emissions in respect of the marketing of new passenger cars[4] is to ensure that information relating to the fuel economy and CO2 emissions of new passenger cars offered for sale or lease in the Community is made available to consumers in order to enable consumers to make an informed choice.

In the United Kingdom, the initial approach was deemed ineffective. The way the information was presented was too complicated for consumers to understand. As a result, car manufacturers in the United Kingdom voluntarily agreed to put a more “consumer-friendly,” colour-coded label displaying CO2 emissions on all new cars beginning in September 2005, with a letter from A (<100 CO2 g/km ) to F ( 186+ CO2 g/km) . The goal of the new “green label” is to give consumers clear information about the environmental performance of different vehicles.[5]

Other EU member countries are also in the process of introducing consumer-friendly labels.

Non-existent obligatory vehicle emission limits

The CO2 emissions generated by vehicles are nowadays subject to a voluntary agreement (in this differ from the obligatory limits in the U.S. CAFE legislation) between the EU and the automanufacturers (see ACEA agreement). The ultimate EU target with voluntary agreements are to contribute, is to reach an average CO2 emission (as measured according to Commission Directive 93/116/EC) [n 1][6] of 120 g/km for all new passenger cars by 2012.

However, as it becomes increasingly clear that the agreement will not deliver (having achieved only 160 g/km in 2005, from 186 g/km in 1995) lawmakers have started considering regulation.

In late 2005, the European Parliament[7] passed a resolution in support for mandatory CO2 emission standards to replace current voluntary commitments by the auto manufacturers and labelling.

In late 2006, in response to a new report, by the European Federation for Transport and Environment[8] documenting lack of progress on the voluntary targets, the European Commission announced that it was working on a proposal for legally-binding limit CO2 emissions from cars.[9] According to the mentioned European Federation for Transport and Environment study, Fiat is the best performer in Europe.

On 7 February 2007 the European Commission published its key draft proposal (COM 2007 0019) EC legislation to limit average CO2 emissions from the European fleet of cars to 120 g CO2/km. Some people interpreted this as meaning that all manufacturers would have to average 120 g for their fleet, but this is not the case. Some volume manufacturers of smaller cars such as Fiat, Renault and Peugeot-Citroen are already quite close to the target whilst smaller volume manufacturers of higher emissions cars such as BMW, Mercedes, Audi, Saab and Porsche are a long way from reaching this target. Not surprisingly the French and Italian manufacturers want a blanket target whereas the German manufacturers feel a blanket target would destroy their industries.[citation needed]

The environmental group T&E insists on the need for a longer-term target that doubles fuel efficiency of new cars over the next decade, 80 g/km by 2020.[10] It says new-car emissions from European producers slipped to 160 grammes per kilometre (g/km) on average last year (reduced only 0.2 percent in 2006), still way off a voluntary goal of 140 g/km by 2008.

Toxic emission: stages and legal framework

The stages are typically referred to as Euro 1, Euro 2, Euro 3, Euro 4 and Euro 5 fuels for Light Duty Vehicle standards. The corresponding series of standards for Heavy Duty Vehicles use Roman, rather than Arabic numerals (Euro I, Euro II, etc.)

The legal framework consists in a series of directives, each amendments to the 1970 Directive 70/220/EEC.[11] Here is a summary list of the standards, when they come into force, what they apply to, and which EU directives provide the definition of the standard.

  • Euro 1 (1993):
    • For passenger cars - 91/441/EEC.[12]
    • Also for passenger cars and light trucks - 93/59/EEC.
  • Euro 2 (1996) for passenger cars - 94/12/EC (& 96/69/EC)
    • For motorcycle - 2002/51/EC (row A)[13] - 2006/120/EC
  • Euro 3 (2000) for any vehicle - 98/69/EC[14]
    • For motorcycle - 2002/51/EC (row B)[15] - 2006/120/EC
  • Euro 4 (2005) for any vehicle - 98/69/EC (& 2002/80/EC)
  • Euro 5 (2008/9) and Euro 6 (2014) for light passenger and commercial vehicles - 2007/715/EC[16]

These limits supersede the original directive on emission limits 70/220/EEC.

The classifications for vehicle types are defined by:[17]

  • Commission Directive 2001/116/EC of 20 December 2001, adapting to technical progress Council Directive 70/156/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the type-approval of motor vehicles and their trailers[18][19]
  • Directive 2002/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 March 2002 relating to the type-approval of two or three-wheeled motor vehicles and repealing Council Directive 92/61/EEC

In the area of fuels, the 2001 Biofuels Directive requires that 5.75% of all transport fossil fuels (petrol and diesel) should be replaced by biofuels by 31 December 2010, with an intermediate target of 2% by the end of 2005. However, MEPS have since voted to lower this target in the wake of new scientific evidence about the sustainability of biofuels and the impact on food prices. In a vote in Strasbourg, the European parliament’s environment committee supported a plan to curb the EU target for renewable sources in transport to 4% by 2015. They also said that a thorough review would be required in 2015 before the EU could progress to an 8-10% mark by 2020.

Emission standards for passenger cars

Exhaust gasses whilst highly harmful, are far less toxic than they were years ago.

Emission standards for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles are summarised in the following tables. Since the Euro 2 stage, EU regulations introduce different emission limits for diesel and gasoline vehicles. Diesels have more stringent CO standards but are allowed higher NOx emissions. Gasoline-powered vehicles are exempted from particulate matter (PM) standards through to the Euro 4 stage, but vehicles with direct injection engines will be subject to a limit of 0.005 g/km for Euro 5 and Euro 6. A particulate number standard (P) or (PN) is part of Euro 5 and 6, but is not final. The standard is to be defined as soon as possible and at the latest upon entry into force of Euro 6.[16]

All dates listed in the tables refer to new type approvals. The EC Directives also specify a second date — one year later — which applies to first registration (entry into service) of existing, previously type-approved vehicle models.

European emission standards for passenger cars (Category M*), g/km

Tier Date CO THC NMHC NOx HC+NOx PM P***
Diesel
Euro 1† July 1992 2.72 (3.16) - - - 0.97 (1.13) 0.14 (0.18) -
Euro 2 January 1996 1.0 - - - 0.7 0.08 -
Euro 3 January 2000 0.64 - - 0.50 0.56 0.05 -
Euro 4 January 2005 0.50 - - 0.25 0.30 0.025 -
Euro 5 September 2009 0.500 - - 0.180 0.230 0.005 -
Euro 6 (future) September 2014 0.500 - - 0.080 0.170 0.005 -
Petrol (Gasoline)
Euro 1† July 1992 2.72 (3.16) - - - 0.97 (1.13) - -
Euro 2 January 1996 2.2 - - - 0.5 - -
Euro 3 January 2000 2.3 0.20 - 0.15 - - -
Euro 4 January 2005 1.0 0.10 - 0.08 - - -
Euro 5 September 2009 1.000 0.100 0.068 0.060 - 0.005** -
Euro 6 (future) September 2014 1.000 0.100 0.068 0.060 - 0.005** -
* Before Euro 5, passenger vehicles > 2500 kg were type approved as light commercial vehicles N1-I
** Applies only to vehicles with direct injection engines
*** A number standard is to be defined as soon as possible and at the latest upon entry into force of Euro 6
† Values in brackets are conformity of production (COP) limits

Emission standards for light commercial vehicles

European emission standards for light commercial vehicles ≤1305 kg (Category N1-I), g/km

Tier Date CO THC NMHC NOx HC+NOx PM P
Diesel
Euro 1 October 1994 2.72 - - - 0.97 0.14 -
Euro 2 January 1998 1.0 - - - 0.7 0.08 -
Euro 3 January 2000 0.64 - - 0.50 0.56 0.05 -
Euro 4 January 2005 0.50 - - 0.25 0.30 0.025 -
Euro 5 September 2009 0.500 - - 0.180 0.230 0.005 -
Euro 6 (future) September 2014 0.500 - - 0.080 0.170 0.005 -
Petrol (Gasoline)
Euro 1 October 1994 2.72 - - - 0.97 - -
Euro 2 January 1998 2.2 - - - 0.5 - -
Euro 3 January 2000 2.3 0.20 - 0.15 - - -
Euro 4 January 2005 1.0 0.10 - 0.08 - - -
Euro 5 September 2009 1.000 0.100 0.068 0.060 - 0.005* -
Euro 6 (future) September 2014 1.000 0.100 0.068 0.060 - 0.005* -
* Applies only to vehicles with direct injection engines

European emission standards for light commercial vehicles 1305 kg – 1760 kg (Category N1-II), g/km

Tier Date CO THC NMHC NOx HC+NOx PM P
Diesel
Euro 1 October 1994 5.17 - - - 1.4 0.19 -
Euro 2 January 1998 1.25 - - - 1.0 0.12 -
Euro 3 January 2001 0.80 - - 0.65 0.72 0.07 -
Euro 4 January 2006 0.63 - - 0.33 0.39 0.04 -
Euro 5 (future) September 2010 0.630 - - 0.235 0.295 0.005 -
Euro 6 (future) September 2015 0.630 - - 0.105 0.195 0.005 -
Petrol (Gasoline)
Euro 1 October 1994 5.17 - - - 1.4 - -
Euro 2 January 1998 4.0 - - - 0.6 - -
Euro 3 January 2001 4.17 0.25 - 0.18 - - -
Euro 4 January 2006 1.81 0.13 - 0.10 - - -
Euro 5 (future) September 2010 1.810 0.130 0.090 0.075 - 0.005* -
Euro 6 (future) September 2015 1.810 0.130 0.090 0.075 - 0.005* -
* Applies only to vehicles with direct injection engines

European emission standards for light commercial vehicles >1760 kg max 3500 kg. (Category N1-III & N2), g/km

Tier Date CO THC NMHC NOx HC+NOx PM P
Diesel
Euro 1 October 1994 6.9 - - - 1.7 0.25 -
Euro 2 January 1998 1.5 - - - 1.2 0.17 -
Euro 3 January 2001 0.95 - - 0.78 0.86 0.10 -
Euro 4 January 2006 0.74 - - 0.39 0.46 0.06 -
Euro 5 (future) September 2010 0.740 - - 0.280 0.350 0.005 -
Euro 6 (future) September 2015 0.740 - - 0.125 0.215 0.005 -
Petrol (Gasoline)
Euro 1 October 1994 6.9 - - - 1.7 - -
Euro 2 January 1998 5.0 - - - 0.7 - -
Euro 3 January 2001 5.22 0.29 - 0.21 - - -
Euro 4 January 2006 2.27 0.16 - 0.11 - - -
Euro 5 (future) September 2010 2.270 0.160 0.108 0.082 - 0.005* -
Euro 6 (future) September 2015 2.270 0.160 0.108 0.082 - 0.005* -
* Applies only to vehicles with direct injection engines

Emission standards for lorries and buses

Whereas for passenger cars, the standards are defined in g/km, for lorries (trucks) they are defined by engine power, g/kWh, and are therefore in no way comparable. The following table contains a summary of the emission standards and their implementation dates. Dates in the tables refer to new type approvals; the dates for all type approvals are in most cases one year later (EU type approvals are valid longer than one year).

The official category name is heavy-duty diesel engines, which generally includes lorries and buses.

EU Emission Standards for HD Diesel Engines, g/kWh (smoke in m−1)

Tier Date Test cycle CO HC NOx PM Smoke
Euro I 1992, < 85 kW

ECE R-49

4.5 1.1 8.0 0.612
1992, > 85 kW 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36
Euro II October 1996 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.25
October 1998 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15
Euro III October 1999 EEVs only ESC & ELR 1.0 0.25 2.0 0.02 0.15
October 2000

ESC & ELR

2.1 0.66 5.0 0.10
0.13*
0.8
Euro IV October 2005 1.5 0.46 3.5 0.02 0.5
Euro V October 2008 1.5 0.46 2.0 0.02 0.5
Euro VI January 2013 1.5 0.13 0.5 0.01
* for engines of less than 0.75 dm³ swept volume per cylinder and a rated power speed of more than 3,000 per minute. EEV is "Enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle".

Emission standards for Large Goods Vehicles

Euro norm emissions for category N2, EDC, (2000 and up)
Standard Date CO (g/kWh) NOx (g/kWh) HC (g/kWh) PM (g/kWh)
Euro 0 1988-1992 12.3 15.8 2.6 none
Euro I 1992-1995 4.9 9.0 1.23 0.40
Euro II 1995-1999 4.0 7.0 1.1 0.15
Euro III 1999-2005 2.1 5.0 0.66 0.1
Euro IV 2005-2008 1.5 3.5 0.46 0.02
Euro V 2008-2012 1.5 2.0 0.46 0.02
Euro norm emissions for (older) ECE R49 cycle
Standard Date CO (g/kWh) HC (g/kWh) NOx (g/kWh) PM (g/kWh)
Euro 0 1988-1992 11.2 14.4 2.4 none
Euro I 1992-1995 4.5 8.0 1.1 0.36
Euro II 1995-1999 4.0 7.0 1.1 0.15

Enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle

Enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle or EEV is a term used in the European emission standards for the definition of a "clean vehicle" > 3.5 tonne in the category M2 and M3. The standard lies between the levels of Euro V and Euro VI.

Cycle beating

For the emission standards to deliver real emission reductions it is crucial to use a test cycle that reflects real-world driving style. It was discovered that engine manufacturers would engage in what was called 'cycle beating' to optimise emission performance to the test cycle, while emissions from typical driving conditions would be much higher than expected, undermining the standards and public health. In one particular instance, research from two German technology institutes found that for diesel cars no 'real' NOx reductions have been achieved after 13 years of stricter standards.[20]

Electrification

As Europe's requirements for its vehicle fleets head toward a goal of 98 grams of CO2 per kilometer by 2020, Christian Maloney of the German office of consulting group McKinsey & Co. says the only way the automakers can get there and make money is with plug-in vehicles.[21][22]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The application for EC type-approval for a vehicle type with regard to CO2 emissions must be submitted by the manufacturer. CO2 emissions is measured in g/km.

References

  1. ^ a b Europa.eu European Commission plans legislative framework to ensure the EU meets its target for cutting CO2 emissions from cars. Ref: IP/07/155 07/02/2007
  2. ^ BBC News 7 February 2007, EU car CO2 fight only beginning. by Stephen Mulvey
  3. ^ International Herald Tribune. EU to compromise on auto emissions - by Dan Bilefsky, Published: February 6, 2007
  4. ^ 1999/94/EC EC.Europa.eu European Commission > Environment > Air > Transport & Environment > CO2 and Cars Reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles CO2 and Cars. Regulation (EC) No 443/2009
  5. ^ - Resources for the Future, Resources Magazine, Weathervane, One Car At A Time
  6. ^ European Commission Directive 93/116/EC of 17 December 1993 Adapting to technical progress Council Directive 80/1268/EEC relating to the fuel consumption of motor vehicles - Official Journal L 329, 30/12/1993
  7. ^ European Parliament resolution on "Winning the Battle Against Global Climate Change", 16 November 2005
  8. ^ "How clean is your car brand?" Transport and environment, 25 October 2005
  9. ^ "EU to introduce legislation as car makers fail on emission targets" AFP, 3 November 2006
  10. ^ PDF (517  Transport Environment.org Letter from the European Federation for Transport Environment. 02/12/07 - Re: transport and climate change policies in Environment Council of 20 February in Brussels)
  11. ^ Europa.eu * European Commission - The requested page does not exist :-/
  12. ^ 91/441/EEC Access to European Union law 31991L0441 Not a notably concise reference source
  13. ^ 2002/51/EC (row A) - Euro 2 technical name (row A states the year of 2003 in page 8)
  14. ^ Europa.eu Official Journal of the European Communities DIRECTIVE 98/69/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 13 October 1998
  15. ^ 2002/51/EC (row B) - Euro 3 technical name (row B states the year of 2006 in page 8
  16. ^ a b Official Journal of the European Union, REGULATION (EC) No 715/2007 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL, of 20 June 2007 on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6)
  17. ^ Scadplus: Technical Harmonisation For Motor Vehicles
  18. ^ Council Directive 70/156/EEC, about Type-approval of motor vehicles and their trailers
  19. ^ Commission Directive 2001/116/EC of 20 December 2001, adapting to technical progress Council Directive 70/156/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the type-approval of motor vehicles and their trailers
  20. ^ Transport Environment.org Transport & Environment, Bulletin - News from the European Federation for Transport and Environment, No 146, March 2006, WHO adds pressure for stricter Euro-5 standards
  21. ^ Calcars.org The California Cars Initiative. The Ultimate Posting on Plug-In Hybrid Developments: Sep 22, 2009
  22. ^ Evworld.com 03 Sep 2009 McKinsey: EU CO2 Regs Are a Death Sentence to Car Makers -- But There's a Solution ... SYNOPSIS: Consultants McKinsey in Germany says there is only one way for car makers to reach the EU's ambituous CO2 targets: by selling lots of electric cars.

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