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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hatred (or hate) is an intense feeling of dislike. It may occur in a wide variety of contexts, from hatred of inanimate objects or animals, to hatred of other people, entire groups of people, people in general, existence, or everything; themselves (misanthropy; self-loathing).

Contents

Philosophical views

Philosophers have offered many influential definitions of hatred. René Descartes viewed hate as an awareness that something is bad combined with an urge to withdraw from it. Baruch Spinoza defined hate as a type of pain that is due to an external cause. Aristotle viewed hate as a desire for the annihilation of an object that is incurable by time. Finally, David Hume believed that hate is an irreducible feeling that is not definable at all.[1]

Psychological views

In psychology, Sigmund Freud defined hate as an ego state that wishes to destroy the source of its unhappiness.[2] More recently, the Penguin Dictionary of Psychology defines hate as a "deep, enduring, intense emotion expressing animosity, anger, and hostility towards a person, group, or object."[3] Because hatred is believed to be long-lasting, many psychologists consider it to be more of an attitude or disposition than a temporary emotional state.

Neurological research

The neural correlates of hate have been investigated with an fMRI procedure. In this experiment, people had their brains scanned while viewing pictures of people they hated. The results showed increased activity in the medial frontal gyrus, right putamen, bilaterally in the premotor cortex, in the frontal pole, and bilaterally in the medial insula of the human brain. The researchers concluded that there is a distinct pattern of brain activity that occurs when people are experiencing hatred.[4]

Legal issues

A hate crime (also known as a "bias-motivated crime") generally refers to criminal acts which are seen to have been motivated by hatred of one or more of the listed conditions. Incidents may involve physical assault, damage to property, bullying, harassment, verbal abuse or insults, or offensive graffiti or letters (hate mail).[5] Those who commit hate crimes target victims because of their perceived membership in a certain social group, usually defined by racial group, religion, sexual orientation, disability, class, ethnicity, nationality, age, gender, gender identity, or political affiliation.[6]

Hate speech is speech perceived to disparage a person or group of people based on their social or ethnic group,[7] such as race, gender, age, ethnicity, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability, language ability, ideology, social class, occupation, appearance (height, weight, skin color, etc.), mental capacity, and any other distinction that might be considered by some as a liability. The term covers written as well as oral communication and some forms of behaviors in a public setting. It is also sometimes called antilocution and is the first point on Allport's scale which measures prejudice in a society. In many countries, deliberate use of hate speech is a criminal offence prohibited under incitement to hatred legislation.

See also

References

  1. ^ Royzman, E. B., Drake , C. & [Michael Jackson], P. (2005). From Plato to Putnam: Four ways to think about hate. In The Psychology of Hate by Sternberg, R.
  2. ^ Freud, S. (1915). The instincts and their vicissitudes.
  3. ^ Reber, A.S., & Reber, E. (2002). The Penguin dictionary of psychology. New York: Penguin Books.
  4. ^ Zeki, S.; Romaya, J.P. (October 2008). "Neural Correlates of Hate". PLoS ONE 3 (10): e3556. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003556. http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0003556;jsessionid=0C68BB34FD6B6212E02B082F9B250990. 
  5. ^ Hate crime, Home Office
  6. ^ Stotzer, R.: Comparison of Hate Crime Rates Across Protected and Unprotected Groups, Williams Institute, 2007–06. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  7. ^ Dictionary.com: Hate speech

Further reading

  • The Psychology of Hate by Robert Sternberg (Ed.)
  • Hatred: The Psychological Descent into Violence by Willard Gaylin
  • Why We Hate by Jack Levin
  • The Big Bash Theory by Waqas Bashir
  • The Psychology of Good and Evil: Why Children, Adults, and Groups Help and Harm Others by Ervin Staub
  • Prisoners of Hate: The Cognitive Basis of Anger, Hostility, and Violence by Aaron T. Beck
  • Becoming Evil: How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing by James Waller

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki


deep-rooted hatred. "I will put enmity between thee and the woman, between thy seed and her seed" (Gen. 3:15). The friendship of the world is "enmity with God" (James 4:4; 1 John 2:15, 16). The "carnal mind" is "enmity against God" (Rom. 8:7). By the abrogation of the Mosaic institutes the "enmity" between Jew and Gentile is removed. They are reconciled, are "made one" (Eph. 2:15, 16).

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

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