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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In this Japanese name, the family name is Enomoto.
Enomoto Takeaki
榎本 武揚

In office
15 December 1868 – 27 June 1869
Vice President Matsudaira Taro
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Position abolished

Born 25 August 1836(1836-08-25)
Edo, Tokugawa
Died 26 August 1908 (aged 72)
Tokyo, Japan
Political party Independent
Military service
Allegiance Tokugawa
Empire of Japan
Service/branch Imperial Japanese Navy
Years of service 1874–1908
Rank Vice Admiral
Battles/wars Boshin War
Battle of Hakodate
Naval Battle of Hakodate Bay

Viscount Enomoto Takeaki (榎本 武揚 ?, 5 October 1836-26 October 1908) was a Japanese Navy admiral faithful to the Tokugawa Shogunate who fought against the new Meiji government until the end of the Boshin War, but later served in the government as one of the founders of the Imperial Japanese Navy.



Enomoto around 19, before leaving for Europe

Early life

Enomoto was born as a member of a samurai retainer family of the Tokugawa clan in the Shitaya district of Edo (modern Taito, Tokyo). Enomoto started learning Dutch in the 1850s, and after Japan's "opening" by Commodore Matthew Perry in 1854, he studied at the Tokugawa bakufu's Naval Training Center in Nagasaki and at the Tsukiji Warship Training Center in Edo.

At the age of 26, Enomoto was sent to the Netherlands to study western techniques in naval warfare and to procure western technologies. He stayed in Europe from 1862 to 1867, and became fluent in both the Dutch and English languages.

Enomoto returned to Japan onboard the battleship Kaiyō Maru, a steam warship purchased from the Netherlands by the Shogunal government. During his stay in Europe, Enomoto had realized that the telegraph would be an important means of communication in the future, and started planning a system to connect Edo and Yokohama. Upon his return, Enomoto was promoted to Kaigun Fukusosai (海軍副総裁 ?), the second highest rank in the Tokugawa Navy, at the age of 31. He also received the court title of Izumi-no-kami (和泉守 ?).

Meiji Restoration

Part of the fleet of Enomoto Takeaki off Shinagawa in 1868. From right to left: Kaiten, Kaiyō Maru, Kanrin Maru, Chōgei and Mikaho. Both Banryū and Chiyodagata, are absent

During the Meiji restoration, after the surrender of Edo in 1868 during the Boshin War to forces loyal to the new Meiji government, Enomoto refused to deliver up his warships, and escaped to Hakodate in Hokkaidō with the remainder of the Tokugawa Navy and a handful of French military advisers and their leader Jules Brunet. His fleet of eight steam warships was the strongest in Japan at the time.

Enomoto hoped to create an independent country under the rule of the Tokugawa family in Hokkaidō, but the Meiji government refused to accept partition of Japan. On 25 December, the Tokugawa loyalists declared the foundation of the Republic of Ezo and elected Enomoto as president.

The next year, the Meiji government forces invaded Hokkaidō and defeated Enomoto's forces in the Naval Battle of Hakodate. On 18 May 1869, the Republic of Ezo collapsed, and Hokkaidō came under the rule of the central government headed by the Meiji Emperor.

As a Meiji politician

After his surrender, Enomoto was arrested, accused of high treason and imprisoned. However, the leaders of the new Meiji government (largely at the insistence of Kuroda Kiyotaka) pardoned Enomoto in 1872, realizing that his various talents and accumulated knowledge could be of use. Enomoto became one of the very few former Tokugawa loyalists who made the transition to the new ruling elite, as politics at the time was dominated by men from Chōshū and Satsuma, who had a strong bias against outsiders in general, and former Tokugawa retainers in particular. However, Enomoto was an exception, and rose quickly within the new ruling clique, to a higher status than any other member of the former Tokugawa government.

Enomoto Takeaki during his later years

In 1874, Enomoto was given the rank of vice-admiral in the fledgling Imperial Japanese Navy. The following year, he was sent to Russia as a special envoy to negotiate the Treaty of St. Petersburg. The successful conclusion of the treaty was very well received in Japan and further raised Enomoto's prestige within the ruling circles, and the fact that Enomoto had been chosen for such an important mission was seen as evidence of reconciliation between former foes in the government.

In 1880, Enomoto became Navy Minister (海軍卿 ?). In 1885, his diplomatic skills were again called upon to assisting Ito Hirobumi in concluding the Convention of Tientsin with Qing China. Afterwards, Enomoto held a series of high posts in the Japanese government. He was Japan's first Minister of Communications (1885-1888) after the introduction of the cabinet system in 1885. He was also Minister of Agriculture and Commerce in 1888 and again from 1894-1897, Minister of Education from 1889-1890 and Foreign Minister from 1891-1892.

In 1887, Enomoto was ennobled the rank of viscount under the kazoku peerage system, and was selected as a member of the Privy Council.

Enomoto was especially active in promoting Japanese emigration through settler colonies in the Pacific Ocean and South and Central America. In 1891, he established - against the will of the cabinet of Matsukata Masayoshi - a 'section for emigration' in the Foreign Ministry, with the task of encouraging emigration and finding new potential territories for Japanese settlement overseas. Two years later, after leaving the government, Enomoto also helped to establish a private organization, the 'Colonial Association', to promote external trade and emigration.

Enomoto died in 1908 at the age of 72. His grave is at the temple of Kichijo-ji in Tokyo.

See also


  • Kamo, Giichi. Enomoto Takeaki. Chuo Koronsha ISBN 4-12-201509-X (Japanese)
  • Yamamoto, Atsuko. Jidai o shissoshita kokusaijin Enomoto Takeaki: Raten Amerika iju no michi o hiraku. Shinzansha (1997).ISBN 4-7972-1541-0 (Japanese)
  • Hane, Mikiso. Modern Japan: A Historical Survey. Westview Press (2001). ISBN 0-8133-3756-9
  • Hillsborough, Romulus. Shinsengumi: The Shogun's Last Samurai Corps. Tuttle Publishing (2005). ISBN 0-8048-3627-2
  • Jansen, Marius B. Emergence of Meiji Japan, The (Cambridge History of Japan). Cambridge University Press (2006) ISBN 0-521-48405-7
  • Keene, Donald. Dawn to the West. Columbia University Press; 2Rev Ed edition (1998). ISBN 0-231-11435-4
  • Ravina, Mark. The Last Samurai: The Life and Battles of Saigo Takamori. Whiley (2003). ISBN 0-471-08970-2
Political offices
New creation President of Ezo
Position abolished


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