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Enschede
—  Municipality  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Coordinates: 52°13′12″N 6°53′47″E / 52.22°N 6.89639°E / 52.22; 6.89639
Country Netherlands
Province Overijssel
Area (2006)
 - Total 142.75 km2 (55.1 sq mi)
 - Land 141.09 km2 (54.5 sq mi)
 - Water 1.67 km2 (0.6 sq mi)
Population (32 May, 2009)
 - Total 156,109
 Density 1,108/km2 (2,869.7/sq mi)
  Source: CBS, Statline.
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

About this sound Enschede , also known as Eanske in the local dialect of Twents, is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands in the province of Overijssel and in the Twente region. The municipality of Enschede consisted of the city of Enschede until 1935, when the rural municipality of Lonneker, which completely surrounded the city, was annexed after the rapid industrial expansion of Enschede which began in the 1860s and involved the building of railways and the digging of the Twentekanaal.

Contents

Population centres

History

Pre-industrialisation

The early history of Enschede is largely unknown, but a settlement existed around the Old Marketplace in early medieval times. The name of this settlement is mentioned as Anescede or Enscede meaning either "near the border" (with Bentheim) or "near the Es" and sported a church, a marketplace and a fortified aristocratic house.

Enschede was granted city rights around 1300 which were confirmed in 1325 by Bisshop Jan III van Diest and henceforth was allowed to protect itself with a wall. Because a stone wall was too expensive (since stone had to be imported), Enschede had a system of ditches, palisades and hedges instead, which is still reflected in the street-names Noorder-hagen and Zuiderhagen (North Hedge and South Hedge, respectively). The city plan of this era is still recognisable in the street-pattern.

Because the medieval city was largely built of wood and stone houses were the exception, fire was a constant risk and a series of fires in 1517, 1750 and again on 7 May 1862 earned the people from Enschede the nickname Brandstichters (arsonists).

Raadhuisstraat in Enschede, with the Grote Kerk in the background

Industrialisation

The last fire coincided with the start of the growth of the city into a large production center of textiles, originally as a cottage industry, but since the start of the 19th century on an industrial scale, especially the manufacture of bombazijn (a mixture of cotton and linen) proved an export hit.

The industrialisation stimulated a large increase in population, which at first was rather chaotic. The names of the slums (like De Krim and Sebastopol) are still notorious, although they have long since been torn down. In 1907 the laissez faire mentality was dropped and Enschede was the first city in the Netherlands to draw up an official expansion-plan, incorporating the (surrounding) municipality of Lonneker.

World War II

During the Second World War Enschede was one of the first Dutch cities to be captured by the Germans, being the city closest to Germany. Resistance members helped many of the Jews from Enschede to hide on farms in the vicinity. Out of approximately 1300 Jews in Enschede, 500 were saved (38.5%), compared to less than 20% in the rest of the Netherlands. This high survival rate is attributed to three members of the Jewish Council of Enschede, Sig Menco, Gerard Sanders and Isidoor Van Dam who took the initiative, against the advice of the Jewish Council of Amsterdam, of urging their community to go into hiding and not to answer the call-up of the Germans for "labour in the East". They were in a position to support these directions to their flock since they had access to funds, to power in the community and to a well-developed underground movement headed by a prominent Protestant minister, Leendert Overduin (Yad Vashem). Due to carelessness the resistance group was betrayed by an infiltrator and all its members were killed by German soldiers while gathered in a basement. The Germans threw in some grenades, a few days before the allied troops liberated the city. Even though "De ondergrondse" (the resistance, litt. the underground) was the main resistance group, many other citizens risked their lives, for example by rescuing allied pilots who where shot down while on bombing missions. Because it was close to Germany (only a few kilometers from the town of Gronau in Germany) and housed a German command center, Enschede was frequently bombed by allied troops, aiming for the German command center or mistaking Enschede for a German city. Enschede was liberated on 1 April 1945 by Allied, mainly Canadian, troops.

The end of the industrial age

In the 1970s the textile production in Enschede came to a halt, due to fierce competition from mainly the Far East. This had a profound effect on the populace. Enschede became one of the poorest municipalities in the Netherlands and (de facto) went bankrupt. Large areas of industrial wasteland came to mark the city.

With the support of the national government, this property was acquired and rebuilt. The city center was rendered a car-free zone, the importance of Enschede as a Euregional Centre was stimulated and Enschede managed to rise from the ashes (for once not literally).

Fireworks disaster

Monument commemorating the 2000 Template:Fireworks disaster. The inscription says, "The vanished house between heaven and earth."

On 13 May 2000, a fireworks storage in Enschede exploded, destroying the entire neighborhood of Roombeek and killing 23 people, including 4 firemen. This catastrophe is known in the Netherlands as the Vuurwerkramp (fireworks disaster). In 2001 a referendum confirmed the proposal of the city council to expand the built-up area into the Usseler Es, an area of historic cultural significance and of geological importance, as it was here that the Usselo horizon was discovered.

Large scale construction and renovation activities in the city center have been ongoing for several years.

Economy

The city is a former centre of textile production. When this industry left the area for cheaper production centers in South-East Asia, Enschede became one of the poorest municipalities in the Netherlands. The biggest challenge of the city is to prevent higher educated (wealthy) citizens from moving to the west (Randstad). Decades of renovation work in the city center have been carried out with the goal of making Enschede more attractive to this group.

Het ei van Ko (Ko's egg) fountain

Modern shopping centers and department stores that until recently were only found in much larger cities have been opened. Enschede is host to many yearly festivals and the Old Market Square is often the venue for events, live music and other activities on the weekend. After some hesitation on the part of the city council, Enschede was able to host Roze Zaterdag in the summer of 2004 which was a huge success. This not only gave the local economy a boost, but also drew positive attention to Enschede's gay community, the largest in the east of the Netherlands.

In many aspects, Enschede is admittedly trying to present itself as the Amsterdam of the east. In reality Enschede has more in common with Berlin. Like the German capital Enschede has a troubled urban economy, but is still home to a vibrant artistic scene. Also the city's laid-back attitude, by some attributed to the relatively low economic activity of its inhabitants (labour participation was about 57% in 2006) and the large numbers of students, artists and (semi-) government employees, make for a 'Berlinesque' athmosphere.

The proximity to Germany has, historically, been another major factor in the city's economic activity, ranging from the smuggling of coffee and tobacco in the 19th and 20th century, to large numbers of Germans, who visit the city's shops and (especially) the weekly markets. Therefore, most natives of Enschede speak German more or less fluently.

The city is co-operating with the nearby municipalities of Almelo, Borne and Hengelo as Netwerkstad Twente. A draft law plan to merge Enschede with Hengelo and Almelo was defeated in parliament under the influence of opposition from the other towns.

The world famous Grolsch beer is brewed in Enschede.

Research, education and health care

The Universiteit Twente (Twente University), a university with mostly technical studies, is located in Enschede. It's one of the three technical universities in the Netherlands (besides Delft University of Technology and Eindhoven University of Technology). The Universiteit Twente is also the only large campus university in the Netherlands.

A shelf cloud associated with a heavy or severe thunderstorm over Enschede, Netherlands

The university has courses in pure technical studies such as Applied Physics, Applied Mathematics, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Informatics/Computer Science and Industrial Engineering and also offers courses in Communication, Psychology, Economical Sciences, Business, Public Administration, Applied Medicine and Biomedical Technology; the latter attract a broader public. Since 2006, the programme of European Studies has been added to the university's offerings.

Enschede is also home to one of the three campuses of Saxion University of Applied Sciences (Saxion Hogeschool Enschede), a polytechnical school offering internationally recognized Bachelor's degrees and Master's degrees in a wide range of fields, including engineering, economics and health care. The other campuses are located in Deventer and Apeldoorn.

The International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (known by its abbreviation ITC) is famous for its MSc, Master's, Diploma and PhD courses in Geo-Information Science for developing countries. Students from all over the world attend the ITC.

Enschede also has a conservatory and an academy of arts and design.

The Medisch Spectrum Twente (MST) hospital is one of the largest top-clinical hospitals of the Netherlands and features important tertiary care departments, fulfilling a supraregional role. It includes a level I trauma center as well. The hospital is strongly involved in higher medical education, with up to 300 medical students following their internships in the hospital at any given time, closely working together with the University of Twente's Technical Medicine program training a new type of technically specialized doctors.

Transportation

Enschede is a terminus station of the NS railway lines from the west.

To the east there is a line to Gronau, Germany, which has two more stations in the Netherlands: Enschede De Eschmarke and Glanerbrug. The line is served by:

There is no track connection between the two systems. The through line had been retained for eventual NATO use during the Cold War even after through passenger service was ended (September 1981), although it was left in serious disrepair in later years. With the renewal of service to Germany (May 2001) the track was severed; there is a gap of about 30 centimeters between them [1].

There is also Enschede Drienerlo railway station, near the football stadium.

See also de:Bild:Dortmund-Gronau-Enschede.gif and railway services in Nordrhein-Westfalen 407 and 412.

Enschede has a combined regional civil airport, Enschede Airport, and Airbase Twenthe of the Royal Netherlands Air Force. The latter was closed in 2007; the former was closed in 2008. Enschede is situated at the south-east terminus of the Twentekanaal.

Culture

There are several museums in Enschede, among them the Rijksmuseum Twenthe for art. A museum of natural history and a museum dedicated to the history of the textiles industry, both closed in January 2007, have merged, and have reopened in April 2008 in new premises on a new location under the name Twentse Welle (Wave of Twente). The new location is situated in Roombeek, where a fireworks disaster took place in 2000. The new museum is located partly in an renovated old textile factory, in reference to Enschede's textile history, and partly in a adjourning new building, designed by the Amsterdam-based firm SeARCH (project architect: Bjarne Mastenbroek).

Sports

  • Enschede is well-known for its local association football club, FC Twente.
  • The oldest marathon of the Netherlands, and the second oldest of Europe, is the Enschede Marathon.
  • The Student Rowing Club D.R.V. Euros has produced several national champions and one Olympic Champion.
  • The female Fieldhockeyers of EHV play in the second highest competition, "Overgangsklasse", of the Netherlands.
  • DOS-WK plays in the highest competition of korfball, the 'Korfbal League'.
  • Enschede (Old Church to University) is the final stage of the Batavierenrace, a footrace relay beginning in Nijmegen, contested mostly by university student teams and claimed to be the largest relay races in the world, with 8000 participants.

Twin towns

  • United States Palo Alto, USA, since 1980
  • People's Republic of China Dalian, People.s Republic of China, since 2009

Notable people born in Enschede

See also People from Enschede

See also

References

External links

Literature

  • Alfred Hagemann/Elmar Hoff (Hg.): Insel der Träume. Musik in Gronau und Enschede (1895-2005), Klartext-Verlag, Essen 2006.

Coordinates: 52°13′12″N 6°53′47″E / 52.22°N 6.89639°E / 52.22; 6.89639


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Enschede is a town in the Netherlands. On May 13, 2000, a fireworks storage in Enschede exploded, destroying an entire neighborhood and killing 23 people, including 4 firemen. This catastrophe is known in the Netherlands as the Vuurwerkramp , Dutch for fireworks disaster.

Get in

By train

From elsewhere in the Netherlands, Enschede is easily accessible by train from all major Dutch cities, and can be reached from smaller cities with at most one or two transfers. The journey time from Amsterdam is approximately two hours. An excellent (train only) travel planner is available at Nationale Spoorwegen [1]. If you need to use a connecting bus or ferry from within the Netherlands, use 9292OV [2].

From Germany, direct trains (ending in Enschede) are available from Gronau, Dortmund, and Münster. To reach Enschede from Berlin, a stopover is available in Hengelo (a small city about 10 minutes by train from Enschede). Further guidance is available at Die Bahn [3].

By car

There is a large parking garage underneath the marketsquare in the center of the city, the H.J. van Heekplein , which provides approximately 2000 parking spaces for visitors arriving by car.

Alternatively, there is a cheaper park and ride solution available at the recently (2008) expanded P+R Zuiderval . Frequent busses travel from here direct to the city center (approximately 5 minutes by bus). This is especially useful if you are arriving in Enschede via the highway, as the lot is just off the highway exit.

  • Rijksmuseum Twenthe, Lasondersingel 129-131., (, fax: +31 (0)53 4359002, phone: +31 (0)53 438675), [4]. Tu-Su 11AM-5PM. Large collection of 18th century art along with contemporary art. €4/2,50/Free (Adults/seniors & students/children 18 and under).  edit
  • Museum Twentse Welle, Het Rozendaal 11. phone: +31 (0)53 4807680. A new museum set in the heart of the modern quarter Roombeek, which was destroyed in the Fireworks Disaster of 2000, Twentse Welle tells the story of mankind in Twente, the region in which Enschede is situated. While there are a number of exhibits that are visually appealing to speakers of any language, the museum, unlike many in the Netherlands, has information about its exhibits only in Dutch and German.

Learn

International Institute for Geo-Information and Earth Observation (known as ITC) is the most known educational/training center in Geoghraphic Information System and Remote Sensing. Also located is the University of Twente. Other educational institutes include Saxion Hoge School and many schools for children. More information at (http://cms3.enschede.nl/)

Buy

Enschede wishes to profile itself as the place to be in the eastern Netherlands when it concerns shopping. The large square, the Van Heeksplein, has therefor been severly modernised in recent years and been made the 'shopping-centre' of the city. Large stores such as V&D and De Bijenkorf are situated at it, as well as many clothingstores such as H&M, WE and C&A. Many other shops can be found throughout the city centre. On Tuesdays and saterdays there is a large market at the Van Heekplein, which attracts quite a lot of Germans, as well as the locals of course.

Eat

Lots of bars and restaurants are located at the 'Oude Markt' (Old Market). The first weekend of September this square is the stage of the 'Proefeet', an event on which restaurants sell small samples of their best food in order to win a grand price.

Drink

As Enschede has a university and is the largest town in the eastern Netherlands it has a fair amount of bars and cafes. The Old Market (Dutch: Oude Markt) is the location of many bars and bistros which have large terasses, making it the perfect location for a drink on a warm summer night. The oldest pub in Enschede is Het Bolwerk, in the Bolwerkstraat, where one can drink a wide variety of beers and spirits, with the shocking exception of the Enschede-brewed Grolsch. While the hipper crowds turn to places like Lunatik and Central Park, the alternative scene spends their saterday night in Atak, where one can see a wide variety of customers from hippies to gothics to hard-core-metal-lovers.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ENSCHEDE, a town in the province of Overysel, Holland, near the Prussian frontier, and a junction station 5 m. by rail S.E. of Hengelo. Pop. (5900) 23,141. It is important as the centre of the flourishing cotton-spinning and weaving industries of the Twente district; while by the railway via Gronau and Koesfeld to Dortmund it is in direct communication with the Westphalian coalfields. Enschede possesses several churches, an industrial trade school, and a large park intended for the benefit of the working classes. About two-thirds of the town was burnt down in 1862.


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Simple English

Enschede is a city in the east of the Netherlands. It has about 140,000 inhabitants. May 13, 2000 there was a huge destruction by an accident in a factory for fireworks. Twenty-three people were killed, while almost a thousand people were injured. Thousands of people lost their homes.








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