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Enterococcus faecalis
Enterococcus faecalis as viewed through a scanning electron microscope
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Lactobacillales
Family: Enterococcaceae
Genus: Enterococcus
Species: E. faecalis
Binomial name
Enterococcus faecalis
(Orla-Jensen 1919)
Schleifer & Kilpper-Bälz 1984

Enterococcus faecalis – formerly classified as part of the Group D Streptococcus system – is a Gram-positive commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals.[1] It is among the main constituents of some probiotic food supplements.[2] A commensal organism like other species in the genus Enterococcus, E. faecalis can cause life-threatening infections in humans, especially in the nosocomial (hospital) environment, where the naturally high levels of antibiotic resistance found in E. faecalis contribute to its pathogenicity.[1]

Contents

Physiology

E. faecalis is a non-motile microorganism and facultatively anaerobic; it ferments glucose without gas production, and does not produce a catalase reaction with hydrogen peroxide. It can produce a pseudocatalase reaction if grown on blood agar. The reaction is usually weak. E. faecalis displays gamma hemolysis (γ-hemolysis). It produces a reduction of litmus milk, but does not liquefy gelatin. Growth of nutrient broth is consistent with being facultatively anaerobic.

Pathogenesis

E. faecalis can cause endocarditis, as well as bladder, prostate, and epididymal infections; nervous system infections are less common.[1][3]

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Antibacterial resistance

Enterococcus faecalis

E. faecalis is resistant to many commonly used antimicrobial agents (aminoglycosides, aztreonam, cephalosporins, clindamycin, the semi-synthetic penicillins nafcillin and oxacillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). Resistance to vancomycin is also becoming more common.[4][5] Exposure to cephalosporin is a particularly important risk factor for colonization and infection with enterococci.

Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) are usually treated with linezolid. It is recommended, even by official medicinecitation needed, uses of Propolis. More scientific studies have shown a successful role in killing this type of bacteria.

Historical

Prior to 1984, enterococci were members of the genus Streptococcus: thus E. faecalis was known as Streptococcus faecalis.[6]

References

  1. ^ a b c Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 294––5. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9.  
  2. ^ E.g. ThreeLac and FiveLac: see [1].
  3. ^ Pelletier LL (1996). Microbiology of the Circulatory System. in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?highlight=Lancefield&rid=mmed.section.5077.  
  4. ^ Amyes SG (May 2007). "Enterococci and streptococci". Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 29 Suppl 3: S43–52. doi:10.1016/S0924-8579(07)72177-5. PMID 17659211. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0924-8579(07)72177-5.  
  5. ^ Courvalin P (January 2006). "Vancomycin resistance in gram-positive cocci". Clin. Infect. Dis. 42 Suppl 1: S25–34. doi:10.1086/491711. PMID 16323116. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/491711?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dncbi.nlm.nih.gov.  
  6. ^ Schleifer KH; Kilpper-Balz R (1984). "Transfer of Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus faecium to the genus Enterococcus nom. rev. as Enterococcus faecalis comb. nov. and Enterococcus faecium comb. nov". Int. J. Sys. Bacteriol. 34: 31–34.  

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

Translingual

Noun

Enterococcus faecalis

  1. A particular species of aerobic, gram-positive bacteria.

Synonyms

  • E. faecalis (abbreviation)
  • Streptococcus faecalis (former name)

External links


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Superregnum: Bacteria
Regnum: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Classis: Bacilli
Ordo: Lactobacillales
Familia: Enterococcaceae
Genus: Enterococcus
Species: Enterococcus faecalis
Strain: Enterococcus faecalis subsp. liquefaciens - Enterococcus faecalis V583 - Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF - Enterococcus faecalis TX0104 - Enterococcus faecalis HH22 - Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29200 - Enterococcus faecalis TX1322 - Enterococcus faecalis TUSoD Ef11 - Enterococcus faecalis T1 - Enterococcus faecalis T2 - Enterococcus faecalis T3 - Enterococcus faecalis T8 - Enterococcus faecalis T11 - Enterococcus faecalis X98 - Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 4200 - Enterococcus faecalis DS5 - Enterococcus faecalis CH188 - Enterococcus faecalis Merz96 - Enterococcus faecalis HIP11704 - Enterococcus faecalis E1Sol - Enterococcus faecalis JH1 - Enterococcus faecalis Fly1 - Enterococcus faecalis D6 - Enterococcus faecalis AR01/DG -

References


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