Enterprise engineering: Wikis

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Enterprise engineering, related to systems engineering and software engineering, is the "discipline concerning the design and the engineering of enterprises, regarding both their business and organization".[1]

Contents

Overview

In theory and practice two types of enterprise engineering have emerged. A more general connected to engineering and the management of enterprises, and a more specific related to software engineering, enterprise modeling and enterprise architecture.

In the field of engineering a more general enterprise engineering emerged, defined as "the application of engineering principles to the management of enterprises".[2] This field "encompasses the application of knowledge, principles, and disciplines related to the analysis, design, implementation and operation of all elements associated with an enterprise. In essence this is an interdisciplinary field which combines systems engineering and strategic management as it seeks to engineer the entire enterprise in terms of the products, processes and business operations. The view is one of continuous improvement and continued adaptation as firms, processes and markets develop along their life cycles. This total systems approach encompasses the traditional areas of research and development, product design, operations and manufacturing as well as information systems and strategic management".[2] This fields is related to engineering management, operations management, service management and systems engineering.

In the context of software development a specific field of enterprise engineering has emerged, which "deals with the modelling and integration of various organizational and technical parts of business processes".[3] In the context of information systems development it has been the area of activity in the organization of the systems analysis, and an extension of the scope of Information Modelling. [4] It can also be viewed as the extension and generalization of the systems analysis and systems design phases of the software development process.[5] Here Enterprise modelling can be part of the early, middle and late information system development life cycle. Explicit representation of the organizational and technical system infrastructure is being created in order to understand the orderly transformations of existing work practices.[5] This field is also called Enterprise architecture, or defined with Enterprise Ontology as being two major parts of Enterprise architecture[1].

Enterprise engineering methods

Within the area of enterprise engineering formal methodologies, methods and techniques are designed, tested and extensively used in order to offer organizations reusable business process solutions:

  • Computer Integrated Manufacturing Open Systems Architecture (CIMOSA) methodology[6]
  • Integrated DEFinition (IDEF) methodology[7]
  • Petri Nets[8]
  • Unified Modeling Language (UML) or Unified Enterprise Modeling Language (UEML)[9][10]
  • Enterprise Function Diagrams (EFD)

These methodologies/techniques and methods are all more or less suited in modeling the enterprise and its underlying processes.

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Computer Integrated Manufacturing Open Systems Architecture

CIMOSA provides templates and interconnected modeling constructs to encode business, people and IT aspects of enterprise requirements. This is done from multiple perspectives: Information view, Function view, Resource view and Organization view. These constructs can further be used to structure and facilitate the design and implementation of detailed IT systems.

The division in different views makes it a clarifying reference for enterprise and software engineers. It shows information needs for different enterprise functionalities (activities, processes, operations) and corresponding resources. In this way it can easily be determined which IT-system will fulfill the information needs in a certain activity and process.

Integrated DEFinition

IDEF is a modeling language, which was first developed for the modeling of manufacturing systems. It was already being used by the U.S. Airforce in 1981. Initially it had 4 different notations to model an enterprise from a certain viewpoint. These were IDEF0, IDEF1, IDEF2 and IDEF3 for functional, data, dynamic and process analysis respectively. In the past decades a number of tools and techniques for the integration of the notations are developed in an incremental way.

IDEF clearly shows how a business process flows through a variety of decomposed business functions with corresponding information inputs, outputs and actors. Like CIMOSA, it also uses different enterprise views. Moreover, IDEF can be easily transformed into UML-diagrams for the further development of IT systems. These positive characteristics make it a powerful method for the development of Functional Software Architectures.

Petri Nets

Petri Nets are known tools to model manufacturing systems[11]. They are highly expressive and provide good formalisms for the modeling of concurrent systems. The most advantageous properties are that of simple representation of states, concurrent system transitions and capabilities to model the duration of transitions.

Petri Nets therefore can be used to model certain business processes with corresponding state and transitions or activities within and outputs. Moreover, Petri Nets can be used to model different software systems and transitions between these systems. In this way programmers use it as a schematic coding reference.

In recent years a number of attempts have shown that Petri Nets can contribute to the development of business process integration. One of these is the Model Blue methodology, which is developed by IBM Chinese Research Laboratory and outlines the importance of model driven business integration as an emerging approach for building integrated platforms.[12] A mapping between their Model Blue business view and an equivalent Petri Net is also shown, which indicates that their research closes the gap between business and IT. However, instead of Petri Nets they rather use their own Model Blue IT view, which can be derived from their business view through a transformation engine.

Unified Modeling Language

UML is a broadly accepted modeling language for the development of software systems and applications. The, so called, “object oriented community” also tries to use UML for enterprise modeling purposes. They emphasize the use of enterprise objects or business objects from which complex enterprise systems are made. A collection of these objects and corresponding interactions between them can represent a complex business system or process. Where Petri Nets focus on the interaction and states of objects, UML focuses more on the business objects themselves. Sometimes these are called the “enterprise building blocks”, which includes resources, processes, goals, rules and metamodels.[13] Despite the fact that UML in this way can be used to model an integrated software system it has been argued that the reality of business can be modeled with a software modeling language. In reaction the object oriented community makes business extensions for UML and adapts the language. UEML is derived from UML and is proposed as a business modeling language. The question remains if this business transformation is the right thing to do. It was earlier said that UML in combination with other “pure’ business methods can be a better alternative.

Enterprise Function Diagrams

EFD is a used modeling technique for the representation of enterprise functions and corresponding interactions. Different business processes can be modeled in these representations through the use of “function modules” and triggers. A starting business process delivers different inputs to different functions. A process flowing through all the functions and sub-functions creates multiple outputs. Enterprise Function Diagrams hereby give a very easy-to-use and detailed representation about a business process and corresponding functions, inputs, outputs and triggers. In this way EFD has many similarities with IDEF0 diagrams, which also represent in a hierarchical way business processes as a combination of functions and triggers. Difference is that an EFD places the business functions in an organization hierarchical perspective, which outlines the downstream of certain processes in the organization. On the contrary, IDEF0 diagrams show responsibilities of certain business functions through the use of arrows. Also, IDEF0 has a clear representation of inputs and outputs of every (sub)function.

EFD possibly could be used as a business front-end to a software modeling language like UML. The major resemblance with IDEF as a modeling tool indicates that it can be done. However, more research is needed to improve the EFD technique in such a way that formal mappings to UML can be made.[14] about the complementary use of IDEF and UML has contributed to the acceptance of IDEF as business-front end. A similar study should be done with EFD and UML.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Jan Dietz (2006). Enterprise Ontology - Theory and Methodology. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
  2. ^ a b Enterprise Engineering Research at Royal Holloway led by Dr Alan Pilkington, Ver 9.08. Accessed 4 November 2008.
  3. ^ Vernadat, F.B. (1996) Enterprise Modeling and Integration: Principles and Applications. Chapman & Hall, London, ISBN 0-412-60550-3.
  4. ^ J A Bubenko (1993). "Extending the Scope of Information Modelling". In: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on the Deductive Approach to Information Systems and Databases, Costa Brava, Catalonia. 1993.
  5. ^ a b Gustas, R and Gustiene, P (2003) "Towards the Enterprise engineering approach for Information system modelling across organisational and technical boundaries", in: Proceedings of the fifth International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, vol. 3, Angers, France, 2003, pp. 77-88.
  6. ^ Beekman, (1989); European Committee for Standardization, ECN TC310 WG1, 1994
  7. ^ U.S. Airforce (1981); ICAM architecture part 1, Ohio, Air Force Materials Laboratory, Wright-Patterson
  8. ^ Peterson J.L. (1981); Petri net theory and the modeling of systems, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice Hall.
  9. ^ # Marshall, C. (2000); Enterprise Modelling with UML, ISBN 0-201-43313-3, Addison-Wesley, MA.
  10. ^ Vernadat F.B.; A vision for future work of the task force (IFAC-IFIP).
  11. ^ Silva, M. and Valette, R. (1989); Petri nets and Flexible manufacturing. Lecture Notes on Computer Science, 424, 374–417.
  12. ^ Zhu et al. (2004); Model-driven business process integration and management: A case study with the Bank SinoPac regional service platform, IBM Corporation, Res. & Dev. Vol. 48 No. 5/6.
  13. ^ Eriksson & Penker (1998); UML Toolkit, Wiley, New York.
  14. ^ Kim & Weston & Hodgson & Lee (2002); The complementary use of IDEF and UML. Information system engineering, Deajon University South Korea, Computers & Industrial Engineering 50, 35–56.

Further reading

  • Jan L.G. Dietz (2008) (eds.). Advances in enterprise engineering I : 4th International Workshop CIAO! and 4th International Workshop EOMAS, held at CAiSE 2008, Montpellier, France, June 16-17, 2008. Proceedings.
  • Cheng Hsu (2007) (eds.) Service enterprise integration : an enterprise engineering perspective.
  • Duane W. Hybertson (2009). Model-oriented systems engineering science : a unifying framework for traditional and complex systems.
  • Feltus, Christophe; Petit, Michael; Vernadat, François. (2009). Refining the Notion of Responsibility in Enterprise Engineering to Support Corporate Governance of IT , Proceedings of the 13th IFAC Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing (INCOM'09), Moscow, Russia

Enterprise engineering, is a subdiscipline of systems engineering in that it applies the knowledge and methods of systems engineering to the design of enterprises. It considers the design of the business, which encompasses the business, information, and organization".[1][2][3]

Contents

Overview

In theory and practice two types of enterprise engineering have emerged. A more general connected to engineering and the management of enterprises, and a more specific related to software engineering, enterprise modeling and enterprise architecture.

In the field of engineering a more general enterprise engineering emerged, defined as "the application of engineering principles to the management of enterprises".[4] This field "encompasses the application of knowledge, principles, and disciplines related to the analysis, design, implementation and operation of all elements associated with an enterprise. In essence this is an interdisciplinary field which combines systems engineering and strategic management as it seeks to engineer the entire enterprise in terms of the products, processes and business operations. The view is one of continuous improvement and continued adaptation as firms, processes and markets develop along their life cycles. This total systems approach encompasses the traditional areas of research and development, product design, operations and manufacturing as well as information systems and strategic management".[4] This fields is related to engineering management, operations management, service management and systems engineering.

In the context of software development a specific field of enterprise engineering has emerged, which "deals with the modelling and integration of various organizational and technical parts of business processes".[5] In the context of information systems development it has been the area of activity in the organization of the systems analysis, and an extension of the scope of Information Modelling. [6] It can also be viewed as the extension and generalization of the systems analysis and systems design phases of the software development process.[7] Here Enterprise modelling can be part of the early, middle and late information system development life cycle. Explicit representation of the organizational and technical system infrastructure is being created in order to understand the orderly transformations of existing work practices.[7] This field is also called Enterprise architecture, or defined with Enterprise Ontology as being two major parts of Enterprise architecture[1].

Enterprise engineering methods

Within the area of enterprise engineering formal methodologies, methods and techniques are designed, tested and extensively used in order to offer organizations reusable business process solutions:

  • Computer Integrated Manufacturing Open Systems Architecture (CIMOSA) methodology[8]
  • Integrated DEFinition (IDEF) methodology[9]
  • Petri Nets[10]
  • Unified Modeling Language (UML) or Unified Enterprise Modeling Language (UEML)[11][12]
  • Enterprise Function Diagrams (EFD)

These methodologies/techniques and methods are all more or less suited in modeling the enterprise and its underlying processes.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing Open Systems Architecture

CIMOSA provides templates and interconnected modeling constructs to encode business, people and IT aspects of enterprise requirements. This is done from multiple perspectives: Information view, Function view, Resource view and Organization view. These constructs can further be used to structure and facilitate the design and implementation of detailed IT systems.

The division in different views makes it a clarifying reference for enterprise and software engineers. It shows information needs for different enterprise functionalities (activities, processes, operations) and corresponding resources. In this way it can easily be determined which IT-system will fulfill the information needs in a certain activity and process.

Integrated DEFinition

IDEF is a modeling language, which was first developed for the modeling of manufacturing systems. It was already being used by the U.S. Airforce in 1981. Initially it had 4 different notations to model an enterprise from a certain viewpoint. These were IDEF0, IDEF1, IDEF2 and IDEF3 for functional, data, dynamic and process analysis respectively. In the past decades a number of tools and techniques for the integration of the notations are developed in an incremental way.

IDEF clearly shows how a business process flows through a variety of decomposed business functions with corresponding information inputs, outputs and actors. Like CIMOSA, it also uses different enterprise views. Moreover, IDEF can be easily transformed into UML-diagrams for the further development of IT systems. These positive characteristics make it a powerful method for the development of Functional Software Architectures.

Petri Nets

Petri Nets are known tools to model manufacturing systems[13]. They are highly expressive and provide good formalisms for the modeling of concurrent systems. The most advantageous properties are that of simple representation of states, concurrent system transitions and capabilities to model the duration of transitions.

Petri Nets therefore can be used to model certain business processes with corresponding state and transitions or activities within and outputs. Moreover, Petri Nets can be used to model different software systems and transitions between these systems. In this way programmers use it as a schematic coding reference.

In recent years a number of attempts have shown that Petri Nets can contribute to the development of business process integration. One of these is the Model Blue methodology, which is developed by IBM Chinese Research Laboratory and outlines the importance of model driven business integration as an emerging approach for building integrated platforms.[14] A mapping between their Model Blue business view and an equivalent Petri Net is also shown, which indicates that their research closes the gap between business and IT. However, instead of Petri Nets they rather use their own Model Blue IT view, which can be derived from their business view through a transformation engine.

Unified Modeling Language

UML is a broadly accepted modeling language for the development of software systems and applications. The, so called, “object oriented community” also tries to use UML for enterprise modeling purposes. They emphasize the use of enterprise objects or business objects from which complex enterprise systems are made. A collection of these objects and corresponding interactions between them can represent a complex business system or process. Where Petri Nets focus on the interaction and states of objects, UML focuses more on the business objects themselves. Sometimes these are called the “enterprise building blocks”, which includes resources, processes, goals, rules and metamodels.[15] Despite the fact that UML in this way can be used to model an integrated software system it has been argued that the reality of business can be modeled with a software modeling language. In reaction the object oriented community makes business extensions for UML and adapts the language. UEML is derived from UML and is proposed as a business modeling language. The question remains if this business transformation is the right thing to do. It was earlier said that UML in combination with other “pure’ business methods can be a better alternative.

Enterprise Function Diagrams

EFD is a used modeling technique for the representation of enterprise functions and corresponding interactions. Different business processes can be modeled in these representations through the use of “function modules” and triggers. A starting business process delivers different inputs to different functions. A process flowing through all the functions and sub-functions creates multiple outputs. Enterprise Function Diagrams hereby give a very easy-to-use and detailed representation about a business process and corresponding functions, inputs, outputs and triggers. In this way EFD has many similarities with IDEF0 diagrams, which also represent in a hierarchical way business processes as a combination of functions and triggers. Difference is that an EFD places the business functions in an organization hierarchical perspective, which outlines the downstream of certain processes in the organization. On the contrary, IDEF0 diagrams show responsibilities of certain business functions through the use of arrows. Also, IDEF0 has a clear representation of inputs and outputs of every (sub)function.

EFD possibly could be used as a business front-end to a software modeling language like UML. The major resemblance with IDEF as a modeling tool indicates that it can be done. However, more research is needed to improve the EFD technique in such a way that formal mappings to UML can be made.[16] about the complementary use of IDEF and UML has contributed to the acceptance of IDEF as business-front end. A similar study should be done with EFD and UML.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Jan Dietz (2006). Enterprise Ontology - Theory and Methodology. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
  2. ^ Giachetti, R., Design of Enterprise Systems: Theory, Architecture, and Methods, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 2010
  3. ^ Saenz, O., Chen, C., Centeno, M.A., and Giachetti, R.E., Defining enterprise systems engineering, International Journal of Industrial & Systems Engineering, 4(5), (2009) pp. 483-501.
  4. ^ a b Enterprise Engineering Research at Royal Holloway led by Dr Alan Pilkington, Ver 9.08. Accessed 4 November 2008.
  5. ^ Vernadat, F.B. (1996) Enterprise Modeling and Integration: Principles and Applications. Chapman & Hall, London, ISBN 0-412-60550-3.
  6. ^ J A Bubenko (1993). "Extending the Scope of Information Modelling". In: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on the Deductive Approach to Information Systems and Databases, Costa Brava, Catalonia. 1993.
  7. ^ a b Gustas, R and Gustiene, P (2003) "Towards the Enterprise engineering approach for Information system modelling across organisational and technical boundaries", in: Proceedings of the fifth International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, vol. 3, Angers, France, 2003, pp. 77-88.
  8. ^ Beekman, (1989); European Committee for Standardization, ECN TC310 WG1, 1994
  9. ^ U.S. Airforce (1981); ICAM architecture part 1, Ohio, Air Force Materials Laboratory, Wright-Patterson
  10. ^ Peterson J.L. (1981); Petri net theory and the modeling of systems, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice Hall.
  11. ^ # Marshall, C. (2000); Enterprise Modelling with UML, ISBN 0-201-43313-3, Addison-Wesley, MA.
  12. ^ Vernadat F.B.; A vision for future work of the task force (IFAC-IFIP).
  13. ^ Silva, M. and Valette, R. (1989); Petri nets and Flexible manufacturing. Lecture Notes on Computer Science, 424, 374–417.
  14. ^ Zhu et al. (2004); Model-driven business process integration and management: A case study with the Bank SinoPac regional service platform, IBM Corporation, Res. & Dev. Vol. 48 No. 5/6.
  15. ^ Eriksson & Penker (1998); UML Toolkit, Wiley, New York.
  16. ^ Kim & Weston & Hodgson & Lee (2002); The complementary use of IDEF and UML. Information system engineering, Deajon University South Korea, Computers & Industrial Engineering 50, 35–56.

Further reading

  • Jan L.G. Dietz (2008) (eds.). Advances in enterprise engineering I : 4th International Workshop CIAO! and 4th International Workshop EOMAS, held at CAiSE 2008, Montpellier, France, June 16-17, 2008. Proceedings.
  • Cheng Hsu (2007) (eds.) Service enterprise integration : an enterprise engineering perspective.
  • Duane W. Hybertson (2009). Model-oriented systems engineering science : a unifying framework for traditional and complex systems.
  • Feltus, Christophe; Petit, Michael; Vernadat, François. (2009). Refining the Notion of Responsibility in Enterprise Engineering to Support Corporate Governance of IT , Proceedings of the 13th IFAC Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing (INCOM'09), Moscow, Russia

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