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Enver Hoxha


In office
November 8, 1941 – April 11, 1985
Succeeded by Ramiz Alia

Born 16 October 1908(1908-10-16)
Ergiri (today Gjirokastër), Yanya Province, Ottoman Empire
Died 11 April 1985 (aged 76)
Tirana, Albania
Nationality Albanian
Political party Party of Labour of Albania
Spouse(s) Nexhmije Hoxha
Children Ilir Hoxha
Sokol Hoxha
Pranvera Kolaneci
Religion None (Atheist)

About this sound Enver Halil Hoxha (pronounced [ɛnˈvɛɾ ˈhɔdʒa], 16 October 1908 – 11 April 1985) was the Communist leader of Albania from the end of World War II until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania. He served as Prime Minister of Albania from 1944 to 1954, Minister of Defense (1944–1953) and Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1946 to 1953.

Hoxha's leadership was characterized by isolation from the mid 1970s onwards and his proclaimed firm adherence to anti-revisionist Marxist-Leninism. After his break with Maoism in the late 1970s and early 1980s, numerous Maoist parties declared themselves Hoxhaist. The International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations (Unity & Struggle) is the most well known collection of these parties today.

Contents

Biography

Hoxha's house where he grew up in Gjirokastër

Hoxha was born in Gjirokastër, a city in southern Albania that has been home to many prominent families. He was the son of a Bektashi[1] Tosk cloth merchant who traveled widely across Europe and the United States of America, and the major influence on Enver during these years was his uncle, Hysen Hoxha ([hyˈsɛn ˈhɔdʒa]). Hysen Hoxha was a militant who campaigned vigorously for the independence of Albania, which occurred when Enver was four years old. Enver took to these ideas very strongly, especially after King Zog came to power in 1928. At age 16 he helped found and became secretary of the Students Society of Gjirokastër, which protested against the monarchist government. After the Society was closed down by the government, he left his hometown and moved to Korçë, continuing his studies in a French high school. Here he learned French history, literature and philosophy. In this city he read for the first time the Communist Manifesto allegedly given to him by a worker named Koçi Bako, though this has never been substantiated by any independent source.

In 1930, Hoxha went to study at the University of Montpellier in France on a state scholarship given to him by the Queen Mother for the faculty of natural sciences. He attended the lessons and the conferences of the Association of Workers organized by the French Communist Party, but he soon dropped out because he wanted to pursue a degree in either philosophy or law. After a year, not having much interest in biology he left Montepellier to go to Paris, hoping to continue his university studies. He took courses in the faculty of philosophy at the Sorbonne and, in the Marxist environment of the French capital, he collaborated with L'Humanité, writing articles on the situation in Albania under the pseudonym Lulo Malessori, and getting involved in the Albanian Communist Group under the tutelage of Llazar Fundo, who also taught him law.[2] He soon dropped out once more and from 1934 to 1936 he was a secretary at the Albanian consulate in Brussels, attached to the personnel office of Queen Mother Sadijé. He was dismissed after the consul discovered that his employee had deposited Marxist materials and books in his office. He returned to Albania in 1936 and became a grammar school teacher in Korçë. As a result of his extensive education, Hoxha was fluent in French and had a working knowledge of Italian, Serbian, English and Russian. As a leader, he would often reference Le Monde and the International Herald Tribune.[3]

Hoxha was dismissed from his teaching post following the 1939 Italian invasion for refusing to join the Albanian Fascist Party. He opened a tobacco shop in Tirana called Flora where soon a small communist group started gathering. Eventually the government closed it down.

Partisan life

On 8 November 1941, the Communist Party of Albania (later renamed the Albanian Party of Labour in 1948) was founded. Hoxha was chosen as one of seven members of the provisional Central Committee. After the September 1942 Conference at Pezë, the National Liberation Front was founded, whose purpose was to unite the anti-Fascist Albanians regardless of ideology or class.

By March 1943, the first National Conference of the Communist Party elected him formally as First Secretary. During the war, the Soviet Union's role was negligible, which makes Albania the only nation occupied during World War II whose independence was not determined by a great power.[4] On 10 July 1943, the Albanian partisan groups were organized in regular units of companies, battalions and brigades and named Albanian National Liberation Army. The General Headquarter was created with Spiro Moisiu as the commander and Enver Hoxha as political commissary. Communist partisans in Yugoslavia had a much more practical role, helping to plan attacks and exchanging supplies, but communication between them and the Albanians was limited and letters would often arrive late, sometimes well after a plan had been agreed upon by the National Liberation Army without consultation from the Yugoslav partisans. In August, a secret meeting was held at Mukje between the Balli Kombëtar (National Front), which was both anti-Communist and anti-Fascist, and the Communist Party. The result of this was an agreement to fight together against the Italians. In order to encourage the Balli Kombëtar to sign, a Greater Albania was agreed to, which included Kosovo (part of Yugoslavia) and Çamëria (part of Greece).

A situation soon developed however when the Yugoslav Communists disagreed with the goal of a Greater Albania and asked the Communists in Albania to withdraw their agreement. According to Hoxha, Josip Broz Tito had agreed that "Kosovo was Albanian" but that Serbian opposition made transfer an unwise option.[5] After the Albanian Communists repudiated the Greater Albania agreement, the Balli Kombëtar condemned the Communists, who in turn accused the Balli Kombëtar of siding with the Italians. The Balli Kombëtar, however, lacked support from the people. After judging the communists as an immediate threat to the country, the Balli Kombëtar sided with the Germans, fatally damaging its image among those fighting the Fascists. The Communists quickly added to their ranks many of those disillusioned with the Balli Kombëtar and took center stage in the fight for liberation.

The Permet National Congress held during that time called for a "new democratic Albania for the people." King Zog was prohibited from visiting Albania ever again, which further increased the Communists control. The Anti-Fascist Committee for National Liberation was founded, with Hoxha as its chairman. On 22 October, the Committee became the provisional government of Albania after a meeting in Berat and Hoxha was chosen as interim Prime Minister. Tribunals were set up to try alleged war criminals who were designated "enemies of the people" and were presided over by Koçi Xoxe.

After liberation from the fascist occupation on 29 November 1944, several Albanian partisan divisions crossed the border into German-occupied Yugoslavia, where they fought alongside Tito's partisans and the Soviet Red Army in a joint campaign which succeeded in driving out the last pockets of German resistance. Marshal Tito, during a Yugoslavian conference in later years, thanked Hoxha for the assistance that the Albanian partisans had given during the War for National Liberation (Lufta Nacionalçlirimtare). Albanians celebrate their independence day on November 28 (which is the date on which they declared their independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912), while in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia the National Liberation festivity date is 29 November. The Democratic Front succeeded the National Liberation Front in August 1945 and the first elections in post-war Albania were held on 2 December. The Front was the only legal political organization allowed to stand in the elections, and the government reported that 93% of Albanians voted for it.[6]

Early leadership

The sacrifices of our people were very great. Out of a population of one million, 28,000 were killed, 12,600 wounded, 10,000 were made political prisoners in Italy and Germany, and 35,000 made to do forced labour, of ground; all the communications, all the ports, mines and electric power installations were destroyed, our agriculture and livestock were plundered, and our entire national economy was wrecked.
—Enver Hoxha[7]

Hoxha declared himself a Marxist-Leninist and strongly admired the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. During the period of 1945–1950, the government adopted policies which were intended to consolidate power. The Agrarian Reform Law was passed in August 1945. It confiscated land from beys and large landowners giving it without compensation to peasants. 52% of all land was owned by large landowners before the law was passed; it declined to 16% after the laws passage.[8] Illiteracy, which was 90-95% in rural areas in 1939 went down to 30% by 1950 and by 1985 it was equal to that of the United States of America.[9] The State University of Tirana was established in 1957, which was the first of its kind in Albania. The Medieval Gjakmarrja (blood feud) was banned. Malaria, the most widespread disease,[10] was successfully fought through advances in health care and through the draining of swamplands. By 1985 a case had not been heard of in the past twenty years whereas previously Albania had the greatest number of patients infected in Europe.[11] A case of syphilis had not been recorded for 30 years.[11] In order to solve the Gheg-Tosk divide, books were written in the Tosk dialect, and a majority of the Party came from southern Albania where the Tosk dialect is spoken.

By 1949 the United States and British intelligence organizations were working with King Zog and the mountain men of his personal guard. They recruited Albanian refugees and émigrés from Egypt, Italy, and Greece; trained them in Cyprus, Malta, and the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany); and infiltrated them into Albania. Guerrilla units entered Albania in 1950 and 1952, but they were killed or captured by Albanian security forces. Kim Philby, a Soviet double agent working as a liaison officer between the British intelligence service and the United States Central Intelligence Agency, had leaked details of the infiltration plan to Moscow, and the security breach claimed the lives of about 300 infiltrators.[12]

Relations with Yugoslavia

At this point, relations with Yugoslavia had begun to change. The roots of the change began on October 20, 1944 at the Second Plenary Session of the Communist Party of Albania. The Session concerned the problems that the new Albanian government would face following Albania's independence. However, the Yugoslav delegation led by Velimir Stoinić accused the party of "sectarianism and opportunism" and blamed Hoxha for these errors. He also stressed the view that the Yugoslav Communist partisans spearheaded the Albanian partisan movement. Anti-Yugoslav members of the Albanian Communist Party had begun to think that this was a plot by Tito who intended to destabilize the Party. Koçi Xoxe, Sejfulla Malëshova and others who supported Yugoslavia were looked upon with deep suspicion. Tito's position on Albania was that it was too weak to stand on its own and would do better as a part of Yugoslavia. Hoxha alleged that Tito had made it his goal to get Albania into Yugoslavia, firstly by creating the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Aid in 1946. Although the treaty was seen as beneficial to both sides, over time Albania began to feel that it was heavily slanted towards Yugoslav interests, much like the Italian agreements with Albania under Zog that made the nation dependent upon Italy.

The first issue was that the Albanian lek became revalued in terms of the Yugoslav dinar as a customs union was formed and Albania's economic plan was decided more by Yugoslavia.[13] Albanian economists H. Banja and V. Toçi stated that the relationship between Albania and Yugoslavia during this period was exploitative and that it constituted attempts by Yugoslavia to make the Albanian economy an "appendage" to the Yugoslav economy.[14]

Hoxha then began to accuse Yugoslavia of misconduct:

We [Albania] were expected to produce for the Yugoslavs all the raw materials which they needed. These raw materials were to be exported to the metropolis Yugoslavia to be processed there in Yugoslav factories. The same applied to the production of cotton and other industrial crops, as well as oil, bitumen, asphalt, chrome, etc. Yugoslavia would supply its 'colony', Albania, with exorbitantly priced consumer goods, including even items such as needles and thread, and would provide us with petrol and oil, as well as glass for the lamps in which we burn the fuel extracted from our subsoil, processed in Yugoslavia and sold to us at high prices.... The aim of the Yugoslavs was, therefore, to prevent our country from developing either its industry or its working class, and to make it forever dependent on Yugoslavia.
—Enver Hoxha[15]

Joseph Stalin gave advice to Hoxha and stated that Yugoslavia was attempting to annex Albania. "We did not know that the Yugoslavs, under the pretext of 'defending' your country against an attack from the Greek fascists, wanted to bring units of their army into the PRA [People's Republic of Albania]. They tried to do this in a very secret manner. In reality, their aim in this direction was utterly hostile, for they intended to overturn the situation in Albania."[16] By June 1947, the Central Committee of Yugoslavia began publicly condemning Hoxha, accusing him of talking an individualistic and anti-Marxist line. When Albania responded by making agreements with the Soviet Union to purchase a supply of agricultural machinery, Yugoslavia said that Albania could not enter into any agreements with other countries without Yugoslav approval.[17] Koçi Xoxe tried to stop Hoxha from improving relations with Bulgaria, reasoning that Albania would be more stable with one trading partner rather than with many. Nako Spiru, an anti-Yugoslav member of the Party, condemned Xoxe and Xoxe condemned him. With no one coming to Spiru's defense, he viewed the situation as hopeless and feared that Yugoslav domination of his nation was imminent, which caused him to commit suicide in November.[17]

At the Eighth Plenum of the Central Committee of the Party which lasted from February 26-March 8, 1948, Xoxe was implicated in a plot to isolate Hoxha and consolidate his [Xoxe's] own power. He accused Hoxha of being responsible for the decline in relations with Yugoslavia, and stated that a Soviet military mission should be expelled in favor of a Yugoslav counterpart. Hoxha managed to remain firm and his support had not declined. When Yugoslavia publicly broke with the Soviet Union, Hoxha's support base grew stronger. Then, on July 1, 1948, Tirana called on all Yugoslav technical advisors to leave the country and unilaterally declared all treaties and agreements between the two countries null and void. Xoxe was expelled from the party and on June 13, 1949 he was executed by a firing squad.[18]

Relations with the Soviet Union

After the break with Yugoslavia, Hoxha aligned himself with the Soviet Union, for which he had a great admiration. From 1948–1960, $200 million in Soviet aid would be given to Albania for technical & infrastructural expansion. Albania was admitted on February 22, 1949, to the Comecon and Albania remained important both as a way to both put pressure on Yugoslavia and serve as a pro-Soviet force in the Adriatic Sea. A submarine base was built on the island of Sazan near Vlorë, posing a possible threat to the United States' Sixth Fleet. Relations continued to remain close until the death of Stalin on March 5, 1953. His death was met with national mourning in Albania. Hoxha assembled the entire population in the capital's largest square, requested that they kneel, and made them take a two-thousand word oath of "eternal fidelity" and "gratitude" to their "beloved father" and "great liberator" to whom the people owed "everything."[19] Under Nikita Khrushchev, Stalin's successor, aid was reduced and Albania was encouraged to adopt Khrushchev's specialization policy. Under this policy, Albania would develop its agricultural output in order to supply the Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact nations while these nations would be developing specific resource outputs of their own, which would in theory strengthen the Warsaw Pact by greatly reducing the lack of certain resources that many of the nations faced. However, this also meant that Albanian industrial development, which was stressed heavily by Hoxha, would have to be significantly reduced.[20]

From May 16 – June 17, 1955, Bulganin and Mikoyan visited Yugoslavia and Khrushchev renounced the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Communist bloc. Khrushchev also began making references to Palmiro Togliatti's polycentrism theory. Hoxha had not been consulted on this and was offended. Yugoslavia began asking for Hoxha to rehabilitate the image of Koçi Xoxe, which Hoxha steadfastly rejected. In 1956 at the Twentieth Party Congress of the Soviet Communist Party, Khrushchev condemned the cult of personality that had been built up around Stalin and also accused him of many grave mistakes. Khrushchev then announced the theory of peaceful coexistence, which angered Hoxha greatly. The Institute of Marxist-Leninist Studies, led by Hoxha's wife Nexhmije, quoted Lenin: "The fundamental principle of the foreign policy of a socialist country and of a Communist party is proletarian internationalism; not peaceful coexistence."[21] Hoxha now took a more active stand against perceived revisionism.

Unity within the Albanian Party of Labour began to decline as well, with a special delegate meeting held at Tirana in April, 1956, composed of 450 delegates having unexpected results. The delegates "criticized the conditions in the party, the negative attitude toward the masses, the absence of party and socialist democracy, the economic policy of the leadership, etc." while also calling for discussions on the cult of personality and the Twentieth Party Congress.[22]

Hoxha called for a resolution which would uphold the current leadership of the Party. The resolution was accepted, and all of the delegates who had spoken out were expelled from the party and imprisoned. Hoxha stated that this was yet another of many attempts to overthrow the leadership of Albania which had been organized by Yugoslavia. This incident further consolidated Hoxha's power, effectively making Khrushchev-esque reforms nearly impossible. In the same year, Hoxha went to the People's Republic of China, then enduring the Sino-Soviet Split, and met with Mao Zedong. Relations with China improved, as evidenced by Chinese aid to Albania being 4.2% in 1955 before the visit, and rising to 21.6% in 1957.[23] In an effort to keep Albania in the Soviet sphere, increased aid was given but the Albanian leadership continued to move closer towards China. Relations with the Soviet Union remained at the same level until 1960, when Khrushchev met with Sophocles Venizelos, a left-wing Greek politician. Khrushchev sympathized with the concept of an autonomous Greek North Epirus and hoped to use Greek claims to keep the Albanian leadership in line with Soviet interests.[24]

Especially shameless was the behavior of that agent of Mao Zedong, Enver Hoxha. He bared his fangs at us even more menacingly than the Chinese themselves. After his speech, Comrade Dolores Ibárruri [a Spanish Communist], an old revolutionary and a devoted worker in the Communist movement, got up indignantly and said, very much to the point, that Hoxha was like a dog who bites the hand that feeds it.
—Nikita Khrushchev[25]

Relations with the Soviet Union began to decline rapidly. A hardline policy was adopted and the Soviets reduced aid shipments, specifically grain, at a time when Albania needed them due to flood-induced famine. In July 1960, a plot to overthrow the government was discovered. It was to be organized by Soviet-trained Rear Admiral Teme Sejko. After this, the two pro-Soviet members of the Party, Liri Belishova and Koço Tashko, were both expelled, with a humorous incident involving Tashko pronouncing tochka (Russian for "full stop").[26]

In August, the Party's Central Committee sent a letter of protest to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, stating the displeasure of having an anti-Albanian Soviet Ambassador in Tirana. The Fourth Congress of the Party held from February 13–20, 1961, was the last meeting that the Soviet Union or other East European nations would attend in Albania. During the congress, the Soviet Union was condemned while China was praised. Mehmet Shehu stated that while many members of the Party were accused of tyranny, this was a baseless charge and unlike the Soviet Union, Albania was composed of genuine Marxists. The Soviet Union retaliated by threatening "dire consequences" if the condemnations were not retracted. Days later, Khrushchev and Antonin Novotny, President of Czechoslovakia (which was Albania's largest source of aid besides the Soviets) threatened to cut off economic aid. In March, Albania was not invited to attend the meeting of the Warsaw Pact nations (Albania had been one of its founding members in 1955) and in April all Soviet technicians were withdrawn from the nation. In May nearly every Soviet troop from at Oricum Sea base was withdrawn, leaving to Albanians 4 submarines and other military equipment.

On November 7, 1961, Hoxha made a speech in which he called Khrushchev a "revisionist, an anti-Marxist and a defeatist." Hoxha portrayed Stalin as the last Communist leader of the Soviet Union and began to stress Albania's independence.[27] By November 11, the USSR and every other Warsaw Pact nation broke relations with Albania. Albania was unofficially excluded (by not being invited) from both the Warsaw Pact and Comecon. The Soviet Union had also attempted to claim control of the Vlorë port due to a lease agreement; the Albanian Party then passed a law prohibiting any other nation from owning a port through lease or otherwise.

Later rule

As Hoxha's leadership continued he took on an increasingly theoretical stance. He would write criticisms based both on current events at the time and on theory; most notably his condemnations of Maoism post-1978. One major achievement under Hoxha was the advancement of women's rights. Albania had been one of the most, if not the most, patriarchal countries in Europe. The Code of Lekë, which regulated the status of women, states that "A woman is known as a sack, made to endure as long as she lives in her husband's house."[28] Women were not allowed to inherit anything from their parents and discrimination was even made in the case of death.

...the dead woman to be opened up, in order to see whether the fetus is a boy or a girl, If it is a boy, the murderer must pay 3 purses [a set amount of local currency] for the woman's blood and 6 purses for the boy's blood; if it is a girl, aside from the three purses for the murdered woman, 3 purses must also be paid for the female child.
—Code of Lekë Dukagjini[29]

Women were absolutely forbidden from getting a divorce, and the parents were obliged to return the daughter to the husband or else suffer shame from the entire tribe which could even culminate into a generations-long blood feud. During World War II, the Albanian Communists encouraged women to join the partisans[30] and following the war, women were encouraged to take up menial jobs due to education being out of most women's reach. In 1938, 4% worked in various sectors of the economy. In 1970 this was 38% and in 1982 46%.[31] During the Cultural and Ideological Revolution (discussed below), women were encouraged to take up all jobs, including government posts, which resulted in 40.7% of the People's Councils and 30.4% of the People's Assembly seated by women, including two women in the Central Committee; all by 1985.[32] In 1978, 15.1 times as many females attended 8 Year schools as in 1938 and 175.7 times as many females attended secondary schools as in 1938. 101.9 times as many women attended higher schools in 1978 as in 1957.[33]

The entire party and country should hurl into the fire and break the neck of anyone who dared trample underfoot the sacred edict of the party on the defense of women's rights.
—Enver Hoxha, 1967[34]

In 1969, direct taxation was abolished[35] and during this period the quality of schooling and health care continued to improve. An electrification campaign was begun in 1960 and the entire nation was expected to have electricity by 1985. Instead, it achieved this on October 25, 1970, making it one of the first nations with complete electrification.[36] During the Cultural & Ideological Revolution of 1967–1968 the military changed from traditional Communist army tactics and began to adhere to Maoist people's war, which included the abolition of military ranks, which were not fully restored until 1991.[37]

...the health service is free of charge for all and has been extended to the remotest villages. In 1960 we had one doctor per every 3,360 inhabitants, in 1978 we had one doctor per every 687 inhabitants, and this despite the rapid growth of the population. The natural increase of the population in our country is 3.5 times higher than the annual average of European countries, whereas mortality in 1978 was 37% lower than the average level of mortality in the countries of Europe, and the average life expectancy in our country has risen, from about 38 years in 1938 to 69 years. That is, for each year of the existence of our people's state power, the average life expectancy has risen by about 11 months. That is what socialism does for man! Is there a loftier humanism than socialist humanism, which, in 35 years, doubles the average life expectancy of the whole population of the country?
—Mehmet Shehu, November 28, 1979 speech[38]
Pill boxes in Albania built during Hoxha's rule to avert possible external invasion. Over half a million were built.

Hoxha's legacy also included a complex of 750,000 one-man concrete bunkers across a country of 3 million inhabitants, to act as look-outs and gun emplacements along with chemical weapons.[39] The bunkers were built strong and mobile, with the intention that they could be easily placed by a crane or a helicopter in a previously dug hole. The types of bunkers vary from machine gun pillboxes, beach bunkers, to naval underground facilities, and even Air Force Mountain and underground bunkers.

Hoxha's internal policies were true to Stalin's paradigm which he admired, and the personality cult developed in the 1970s organized around him by the Party also bore a striking resemblance to that of Stalin. At times it even reached an intensity similar to the personality cult surrounding Kim Il Sung (which Hoxha condemned[40]) with Hoxha being portrayed as a genius commenting on virtually all facets of life from culture to economics to military matters. Each schoolbook required one or more quotations from him on the subjects being studied.[41] The Party honored him with titles such as Supreme Comrade, Sole Force and Great Teacher.

Hoxha's governance was also distinguished by his encouragement of a high birthrate policy. For instance a woman that would give birth to an above-average amount children would be given the government award of Heroine Mother (in Albanian: Nënë Heroinë) along with cash rewards.[42] Abortion was also banned except in the case of rape or danger to the mother's life. As a result, the population of Albania tripled from 1 million in 1944 to around 3 million in 1985. The policy continued under Alia's government (1985-1991) and the population rose from 3 million to 3.3 million during those 6 years.

Relations with China

A Cultural Revolution Poster promoting relations between Enver Hoxha and Chairman Mao. The Caption at the bottom reads, "Long Live the great Union between the Parties of Albania and China!" A meeting between the two leaders, however, never really occurred

In Albania's Third Five Year Plan, China promised a loan of $125 million to build twenty-five chemical, electrical and metallurgical plants called for under the Plan. However, the nation had a difficult transition period, as Chinese technicians were of a lower quality than Soviet ones and the distance between the two nations, plus the poor relations Albania had with its neighbors, further complicated matters. Unlike Yugoslavia or the U.S.S.R., China had the least influence economically on Albania during Hoxha's leadership. The previous fifteen years (1946–1961) had at least 50% of the economy under foreign commerce.[43] By the time the 1976 Constitution prohibited foreign debt, aid and investments, Albania had basically become self-sufficient although it was lacking in modern technology. Ideologically, Hoxha found Mao's initial views to be in line with Marxism-Leninism. Mao condemned Khrushchev's alleged revisionism and was also critical of Yugoslavia. Aid given from China was interest-free and did not have to be repaid until Albania could afford to do so. China never intervened in what Albania's economic output should be, and Chinese technicians worked for the same wages as Albanian workers, unlike Soviet technicians who sometimes made more than three times the pay of Hoxha.[44] Albanian newspapers were reprinted in Chinese newspapers and on radio. Finally, Albania led the movement to give the People's Republic of China a seat in the United Nations, an effort made successful in 1971 and thus replacing the Republic of China's seat.

During this period, Albania became the second largest producer of chromium in the world, which was considered an important export for Albania. Strategically, the Adriatic Sea was also attractive to China, and the Chinese leadership had hoped to gain more allies in Eastern Europe with the help of Albania, although this failed. Zhou Enlai visited Albania in January 1964. On January 9, "The 1964 Sino-Albanian Joint Statement" was signed in Tirana.[45]

Both [Albania and China] hold that the relations between socialist countries are international relations of a new type. Relations between socialist countries, big or small, economically more developed or less developed, must be based on the principles of complete equality, respect for territorial sovereignty and independence, and non-interference in each other's internal affairs, and must also be based on the principles of mutual assistance in accordance with proletarian internationalism. It is necessary to oppose great-nation chauvinism and national egoism in relations between socialist countries. It is absolutely impermissible to impose the will of one country upon another, or to impair the independence, sovereignty and interests of the people, of a fraternal country on the pretext of 'aid' or 'international division of labour.'
—Treaty Text[46]

Like Albania, China defended the "purity" of Marxism by attacking both "U.S. imperialism" as well as "Soviet and Yugoslav revisionism", both equally as part of a "dual adversary" theory. Yugoslavia was viewed as a "special detachment of U.S. imperialism" and a "saboteur against world revolution." These views however began to change in China, which was one of the major issues Albania had with the alliance.[47] Also unlike Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, the Sino-Albanian alliance lacked "...an organizational structure for regular consultations and policy coordination, and was characterized by an informal relationship conducted on an ad hoc basis." Mao made a speech on November 3, 1966 which claimed that Albania was the only Marxist-Leninist state in Europe and that "an attack on Albania will have to reckon with great People's China. If the U.S. imperialists, the modern Soviet revisionists or any of their lackeys dare to touch Albania in the slightest, nothing lies ahead for them but a complete, shameful and memorable defeat."[48] Likewise, Hoxha stated that "You may rest assured, comrades, that come what may in the world at large, our two parties and our two peoples will certainly remain together. They will fight together and they will win together."[49]

China entered into a four-year period of relative diplomatic isolation following the Cultural Revolution and at this point relations between China and Albania reached their zenith. On August 20, 1968, the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia was condemned by Albania, as was the Brezhnev doctrine. Albania then officially withdrew from the Warsaw Pact on September 5. Relations with China began to deteriorate on July 15, 1971, when United States' President Richard Nixon agreed to visit China to meet with Zhou Enlai. Hoxha felt betrayed and the government was in a state of shock. On August 6 a letter was sent from the Central Committee of the Albanian Party of Labour to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, calling Nixon a "frenzied anti-Communist."

We trust you will understand the reason for the delay in our reply. This was because your decision came as a surprise to us and was taken without any preliminary consultation between us on this question, so that we would be able to express and thrash out our opinions. This, we think, could have been useful, because preliminary consultations, between close friends, determined co-fighters against imperialism and revisionism, are useful and necessary, and especially so, when steps which, in our opinion, have a major international effect and repercussion are taken.

...Considering the Communist Party of China as a sister party and our closest co-fighter, we have never hidden our views from it. That is why on this major problem which you put before us, we inform you that we consider your decision to receive Nixon in Beijing as incorrect and undesirable, and we do not approve or support it. It will also be our opinion that Nixon's announced visit to China will not be understood or approved of by the peoples, the revolutionaries and the communists of different countries.

—Enver Hoxha[50]

The result was a 1971 message from the Chinese leadership stating that Albania could not depend on an indefinite flow of further Chinese aid and in 1972 Albania was advised to "curb its expectations about further Chinese contributions to its economic development."[51] By 1973, Hoxha wrote in his diary Reflections on China that the Chinese leaders:

...have cut off their contacts with us, and the contacts which they maintain are merely formal diplomatic ones. Albania is no longer the 'faithful, special friend'...They are maintaining the economic agreements though with delays, but it is quite obvious that their 'initial ardor' has died.
—Enver Hoxha[52]

In response, trade with COMECON (although trade with the Soviet Union was still blocked) and Yugoslavia grew. Trade with Third World nations was $0.5 million in 1973, but $8.3 million in 1974. Trade rose from 0.1% to 1.6%.[53] Following Mao's death on September 9, 1976, Hoxha remained optimistic about Sino-Albanian relations, but in August 1977, Hua Guofeng, the new leader of China, stated that Mao's Three Worlds Theory would become official foreign policy. Hoxha viewed this as a way for China to justify having the U.S. as the "secondary enemy" while viewing the Soviet Union as the main one, thus allowing China to trade with the U.S. "...the Chinese plan of the 'third world' is a major diabolical plan, with the aim that China should become another superpower, precisely by placing itself at the head of the 'third world' and 'non-aligned world.'"[54] From August 30-September 7, 1977, Tito visited Beijing and was welcomed by the Chinese leadership. At this point, the Albanian Party of Labour had declared that China was now a revisionist state akin to the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia, and that Albania was the only Marxist-Leninist state on earth.

The Chinese leaders are acting like the leaders of a 'great state.' They think, 'The Albanians fell out with the Soviet Union because they had us, and if they fall with us, too, they will go back to the Soviets,' therefore they say, 'Either with us or the Soviets, it is all the same, the Albanians are done for.' But to hell with them! We shall fight against all this trash, because we are Albanian Marxist-Leninists and on our correct course we shall always triumph!
—Enver Hoxha[55]

On July 13, 1978, China announced that it was cutting off all aid to Albania. For the first time in modern history, Albania did not have an ally.

Human Rights

Enver Hoxha in 1971

Certain clauses in the 1976 constitution effectively circumscribed the exercise of political liberties that the government interpreted as contrary to the established order.[56] In addition, the government denied the population access to information other than that disseminated by the government-controlled media. The Sigurimi (Albanian secret police) routinely violated the privacy of persons, homes, and communications and made arbitrary arrests.

Internally, the Sigurimi made sure to replicate the repressive methods of the NKVD, MGB, KGB, and the East German Stasi. Its activities permeated Albanian society to the extent that every third citizen had either served time in labor camps or had been interrogated by Sigurimi officers.[citation needed] To eliminate dissent, the government imprisoned thousands in forced-labour camps or executed them for crimes such as alleged treachery or for disrupting the proletarian dictatorship. Travel abroad was forbidden after 1968 to all but those on official business. West European culture was looked upon with deep suspicion, resulting in arrests and bans on unauthorized foreign material.[57] Art was made to reflect the styles of socialist realism.[58] Beards were banned as unhygienic and to curb the influence of Islam (many Imams and Babas had beards) and the Orthodox faith.[59]

All Albanians were required to obtain permits for the ownership of cars (which did not fall under private property[60]), refrigerators and typewriters among other things.[61] The justice system regularly degenerated into show trials. "...[The defendant] was not permitted to question the witnesses and that, although he was permitted to state his objections to certain aspects of the case, his objections were dismissed by the prosecutor who said, 'Sit down and be quiet. We know better than you.'"[62] In order to lessen the threat of political dissidents and other exiles, relatives of the accused were often arrested, ostracized, and accused of being "enemies of the people."[63]

Torture was often used to obtain confessions:

One émigré, for example, testified to being bound by his hands and legs for one and a half months, and beaten with a belt, fists, or boots for periods of two to three hours every two or three days. Another was detained in a cell one meter by eight meters large in the local police station and kept in solitary confinement for a five-day period punctuated by two beating sessions until he signed a confession, he was taken to Sigurimi headquarters, where he was again tortured and questioned, despite his prior confession, until his three-day trial. Still another witness was confined for more than a year in a three-meter square cell underground. During this time, he was interrogated at irregular intervals and subjected to various forms of physical and psychological torture. He was chained to a chair, beaten, and subjected to electrical shocks. He was shown a bullet that was supposedly meant for him and told that car engines starting within his earshot were driving victims to their executions, the next of which would be his.[64]

"There were six institutions for political prisoners and fourteen labor camps where political prisoners and common criminals worked together. It has been estimated that there were approximately 32,000 people imprisoned in Albania in 1985."[65]

Article 47 of the Albanian Criminal Code stated that to "escape outside the state, as well as refusal to return to the Fatherland by a person who has been sent to serve or has been permitted temporarily to go outside the state" is a crime of treason which is punishable by a minimum sentence of ten years or even death.[66]

An electrically-wired metal fence stands 600 meters to one kilometer from the actual border. Anyone touching the fence not only risks electrocution, but also sets off alarm bells and lights which alert guards stationed at approximately one-kilometer intervals along the fence. Two meters of soil on either side of the fence are cleared in order to check for footprints of escapees and infiltrators. The area between the fence and the actual border is seeded with booby traps such as coils of wire, noise makers consisting of thin pieces of metal strips on top of two wooden slats with stones in a tin container which rattle if stepped on, and flares that are triggered by contact, thus illuminating would-be escapees during the night.[67]

Religion

Albania, being the most predominantly Muslim nation in Europe due to Turkish influence in the region, had, like the Ottoman Empire, identified to an extent religion with ethnicity. In the Ottoman Empire, Muslims were viewed as "Turks," Eastern Orthodox as Greeks and Catholics as "Latins." Hoxha believed this was a serious issue, feeling that it both fueled Greek separatists in North Epirus and also divided the nation in general. The Agrarian Reform Law of 1945 confiscated much of the church's property in the country. Catholics were the earliest religious community to be targeted, since the Vatican was seen as being an agent of Fascism and anti-Communism.[68] In 1946 the Jesuit Order and in 1947 the Franciscans were banned. Decree No. 743 (On Religion) sought a national church and forbade religious leaders from associating with foreign powers.

The Party focused on atheist education in schools. This tactic was effective, primarily due to the high birthrate policy encouraged after the war. During holy periods such as Ramadan or Lent, many forbidden foods (dairy products, meat, etc.) were distributed in schools and factories, and people who refused to eat those foods were denounced. Starting on February 6, 1967, the Party began a new offensive against religion. Hoxha, who had declared a "Cultural and Ideological Revolution" after being partly inspired by China's Cultural Revolution, encouraged communist students and workers to use more forceful tactics to promote atheism, although violence was initially condemned.[69]

According to Hoxha, the surge in anti-religious activity began with the youth. The result of this "spontaneous, unprovoked movement" was the closing of all 2,169 churches and mosques in Albania. State atheism became official policy, and Albania was declared the world's first atheist state. Religiously-based town and city names were changed, as well as personal names. During this period religiously-based names were also made illegal. The Dictionary of People's Names, published in 1982, contained 3,000 approved, secular names. In 1992, Monsignor Dias, the Papal Nuncio for Albania appointed by Pope John Paul II, said that of the three hundred Catholic priests present in Albania prior to the Communists coming to power, only thirty survived.[70] All religious practice and clergymen were outlawed and those religious figures who refused to give up their positions were arrested or forced into hiding.[71]

Cultivating Nationalism

Enver Hoxha had declared during the anti-religious campaign that "the only religion of Albania is Albanianism."[72]

Muzafer Korkuti one of the dominant figures in post-war Albanian archaeology and now Director of the institute of Archaeology in Tirana said this in an interview of July 10, 2002:[73]

"Archaeology is part of the politics which the party in power has and this was understood better than anything else by Enver Hoxha. Folklore and archaeology were respected because they are the indicators of the nation, and a party that shows respect to national identity is listened to by other people; good or bad as this may be."

Efforts were focused on an Illyrian-Albanian continuity issue[74] and appropriating Ancient Greek history as Albanian.[74]

An Illyrian origin of the Albanians (without denying Pelasgian roots[75]) continued to play a significant role in Albanian nationalism,[76] resulting in a revival of given names supposedly of "Illyrian" origin, at the expense of given names associated with Christianity. At first, Albanian nationalist writers opted for the Pelasgians as the forefathers of the Albanians, but as this form of nationalism flourished in Albania under Enver Hoxha, the Pelasgians became a secondary element[75] to the Illyrian theory of Albanian origins, which could claim some support in scholarship.[77] The Illyrian descent theory soon became one of the pillars of Albanian nationalism, especially because it could provide some evidence of continuity of an Albanian presence both in Kosovo and in southern Albania, i.e., areas that were subject to ethnic conflicts between Albanians, Serbs and Greeks.[78]. Under the government of Enver Hoxha, an autochthonous ethnogenesis[74] was promoted and physical anthropologists[74] tried to demonstrate that Albanians were different from any other Indo-European populations, a theory now disproved.[79] Communist-era Albanian archaeologists claimed[74] that ancient Greek poleis, gods, ideas, culture and prominent personalities were wholly Illyrian (example Pyrrhus of Epirus[80] and the region of Epirus[81]). They claimed that the Illyrians were the most ancient people[74][82] in the Balkans and greatly extended the age of the Illyrian language.[74][83] This is continued in post-communist Albania[74] and has spread to Kosovo.[74][84] These nationalist theories have survived largely intact into the present day.[74]

Final years

Hoxha was exhumed in 1992 and informally reburied. The picture shows his second grave.

A new Constitution was decided upon by the Seventh Congress of the Albanian Party of Labour on November 1–7, 1976. According to Hoxha, "The old Constitution was the Constitution of the building of the foundations of socialism, whereas the new Constitution will be the Constitution of the complete construction of a socialist society."[85] Self-reliance was now stressed more than ever. Citizens were encouraged to train in the use of weapons, and this activity was also taught in schools. This was to encourage the creation of quick partisans.[86] Borrowing and foreign investment were banned under Article 26 of the Constitution, which read: "The granting of concessions to, and the creation of foreign economic and financial companies and other institutions or ones formed jointly with bourgeois and revisionist capitalist monopolies and states as well as obtaining credits from them are prohibited in the People's Socialist Republic of Albania."[87]

No country whatsoever, big or small, can build socialism by taking credits and aid from the bourgeoisie and the revisionists or by integrating its economy into the world system of capitalist economies. Any such linking of the economy of a socialist country with the economy of bourgeois or revisionist countries opens the doors to the actions of the economic laws of capitalism and the degeneration of the socialist order. This is the road of betrayal and the restoration of capitalism, which the revisionist cliques have pursued and are pursuing.
—Enver Hoxha[88]

Albania was very poor and backward by European standards and it had the lowest standard of living in Europe.[89] Telephone communication, long established in every household in Albania's neighboring countries, was rare in most areas. Very few Albanians other than higher-echelon party apparatchiks had access to such services despite Communist party claims that telephones were present across Albania.[citation needed] As a result of economic self-sufficiency, Albania had a minimal foreign debt. In 1983, Albania imported goods worth $280 million but exported goods worth $290 million, producing a trade surplus of $10 million.[90]

In 1981, Hoxha ordered the execution of several party and government officials in a new purge. Prime Minister Mehmet Shehu was reported to have committed suicide in December 1981 and was subsequently condemned as a "traitor" to Albania and that he was operating in the service of multiple intelligence agencies. It is generally believed that he was either killed or shot himself during a power struggle or over differing foreign policy matters with Hoxha.[91] Hoxha also wrote a large assortment of books during this period, resulting in over 65 volumes of collected works, condensed into 6 volumes of selected works.[92]

20 February 1991. People of Tirana tearing down and demolishing a statue of Enver Hoxha.
The Enver Hoxha Museum, now since renamed with references to Hoxha removed.

Later, Hoxha withdrew into semi-retirement due to failing health, having suffered a heart attack in 1973 from which he never fully recovered. He turned most state functions over to Ramiz Alia. In his final days he was confined to a wheelchair and was suffering from diabetes, which he had suffered from since 1948, and cerebral ischemia, which he had suffered from since 1983.[93] Hoxha's death on 11 April 1985 left Albania with a legacy of isolation and fear of the outside world. Despite some economic progress made by Hoxha,[94] the country's economy was in stagnation; Albania had been the poorest European country throughout much of the Cold War period. As of the early 21st century, very little of Hoxha's legacy is still in place in today's Albania since the transition to capitalism in 1992.

Family

Enver Hoxha's son, Sokol Hoxha, was the CEO of the Albanian Post and Telecommunication service, and is married to Liliana Hoxha.[95]

See also

References

  1. ^ Biography of Baba Rexheb: "[Enver Hoxha was] from the Gjirokastër area and [he] came from [a family] that [was] attached to the Bektashi tradition. In fact, before Enver set off for France to study fourteen years earlier, his father brought him to seek the blessing of Baba Selim. The baba was not one to refuse the request of a petitioner and made a benediction over the boy."
  2. ^ Hamm, Harry. Albania—China's Beachhead in Europe. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Inc., 1963., p. 84, 93.
  3. ^ A Coming of Age: Albania under Enver Hoxha, James S. O'Donnell, New York 1999, p. 196. He is described as "by far the best-read head of state in Eastern Europe."
  4. ^ Of Enver Hoxha And Major Ivanov, New York Times, April 28, 1985
  5. ^ Nora Beloff, Tito's Flawed Legacy (Boulder: Westview Press, 1985), 192.
  6. ^ The Albanians: An Ethnographic History from Prehistoric Times to the Present Vol. II, Edwin E. Jacques, North Carolina 1995, p. 433. Miranda Vickers. The Albanians: A Modern History. New York: I.B. Tauris, 2000. p. 164.
  7. ^ Enver Hoxha, Selected Works, 1941–1948, vol. I (Tirana: 8 Nëntori Publishing House, 1974, 599-600.
  8. ^ Ramadan Marmullaku, Albania and the Albanians, trans. Margot and Bosko Milosavljević (Hamden, Connn.: Archon Books, 1975, 93-94.
  9. ^ Library of Congress Country Studies
  10. ^ Gjonça, Arjan. Communism, Health, and Lifestyle: The Paradox of Mortality Transition in Albania, 1950-1990. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2001., p. 15. "20.1% of the population was infected."
  11. ^ a b Cikuli, Health Care in the People's Republic of Albania, p. 33.
  12. ^ Jacques, p. 473.
  13. ^ See Nicholas C. Pano, The People's Republic of Albania (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1968), 101.
  14. ^ H. Banja and V. Toçi, Socialist Albania on the Road to Industrialization (Tirana: 8 Nëntori Publishing House, 1979), 66. "...Albania didn't need to create its national industry, but should limit her production to agricultural and mineral raw materials, which were to be sent for industrial processing to Yugoslavia. In other words, they wanted the Albanian economy to be a mere appendage of the Yugoslav economy."
  15. ^ Ranko Petković, "Yugoslavia and Albania," in Yugoslav-Albanian Relations, trans. Zvonko Petnicki and Darinka Petković (Belgrade: Review of International Affairs, 1984, 274-275.
  16. ^ Enver Hoxha, With Stalin (Tirana: 8 Nëntori Publishing House, 1979, 92.
  17. ^ a b O'Donnell, p. 22.
  18. ^ Jacques, p. 467.
  19. ^ The Economist 179 (June 16, 1956): 110.
  20. ^ On the "socialist division of labor" see: The International Socialist Division of Labor (June 7, 1962), German History in Documents and Images.
  21. ^ The Institute of Marxist-Leninist Studies at the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania, 296.
  22. ^ William Griffith, author of Albania and the Sino-Soviet Rift, p. 22
  23. ^ Elez Biberaj, Albania and China (Boulder: Westview Press, 1986), p. 27.
  24. ^ O'Donnell, p. 46.
  25. ^ Khrushchev Remembers, trans. Strobe Talbott (Boston: Little Brown and Co., 1970), 475-476
  26. ^ Albania Challenges Khrushchev Revisionism (New York: Gamma Publishing, 1976), 109-110n. Enver Hoxha stated: "This ridiculous action of Koço Tashko made it quite evident that the text of his contribution had been dictated by an official of the Soviet Embassy and during the translation he had become confused, failing to distinguish between the text and the punctuation marks."
  27. ^ The Institute of Marxist-Leninist Studies at the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania, 359. "...the Albanian people and their Party of Labour will even live on grass if need be, but they will never sell themselves 'for 30 pieces of silver', ... They would rather die honourably on their feet than live in shame on their knees."
  28. ^ Kanuni i Lekë Dukagjinit [The Code of Lekë Dukagjini] (Prishtinë, Kosove: Rilindja, 1972): bk. 3, chap. 5, no. 29, 38.
  29. ^ Kanuni i Lekë Dukagjinit [The Code of Lekë Dukagjini], bk. 10, chap. 22, no. 130, secs. 936-937, 178.
  30. ^ Harilla Papajorgi, Our Friends Ask (Tirana: The Naim Frashëri Publishing House, 1970), 130.
  31. ^ Ksanthipi Begeja, The Family in the People's Socialist Republic of Albania, (Tirana: 8 Nëntori Publishing House, 1984), 61.
  32. ^ Jacques, p. 557.
  33. ^ The Directorate of Statistics at the State Planning Commission, 35 Years of Socialist Albania (Tirana: 8 Nëntori Publishing House, 1981), 129.
  34. ^ Anton Logoreci, The Albanians: Europe's Forgotten Survivors (Boulder: Westview Press, 1977), 158.
  35. ^ An Outline of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania. Tirana: The 8 Nëntori Publishing House, 1978.
  36. ^ Pollo and Puto, The History of Albania, p. 280.
  37. ^ Vickers, p. 224.
  38. ^ Mehmet Shehu, "The Magnificent Balance of Victories in the Course of 35 Years of Socialist Albania", Speech (Tirana: 8 Nëntori Publishing House, 1979), p. 21.
  39. ^ Albania's Chemical Cache Raises Fears About Others - Washington Post, Monday 10 January 2005, Page A01
  40. ^ RADIO FREE EUROPE Research 17 December 1979 quoting Hoxha's Reflections on China Volume II: "In Pyongyang, I believe that even Tito will be astonished at the proportions of the cult of his host, which has reached a level unheard of anywhere else, either in past or present times, let alone in a country which calls itself socialist."
  41. ^ Kosta Koçi, interview with James S. O'Donnell, A Coming of Age: Albania under Enver Hoxha, Tape recording, Tirana, 12 April 1994.
  42. ^ Medals of the World
  43. ^ Elez Biberaj, Albania and China (Boulder: Westview Press, 1986), 40.
  44. ^ Hamm, 45.
  45. ^ Biberaj, 48.
  46. ^ "Sino-Albanian Joint Statement," Peking Review (17 January 1964) 17.
  47. ^ Biberaj, 49.
  48. ^ Hamm, 43.
  49. ^ Biberaj, 58.
  50. ^ Enver Hoxha, Selected Works: 1966–1975, vol. 4 (Tirana: 8 Nëntori Publishing House, 1982), 666-667, 668.
  51. ^ Biberaj, 90.
  52. ^ Enver Hoxha, Reflections on China, vol. 2: (Toronto: Norman Bethune Institute, 1979), 41.
  53. ^ Biberaj, 98.99.
  54. ^ Enver Hoxha, Reflections on China, vol. 2: (Toronto: Norman Bethune Institute, 1979), 656.
  55. ^ Enver Hoxha, Reflections on China, vol. 2. (Toronto: Norman Bethune Institute, 1979), 107
  56. ^ O'Donnell, p. 129.
  57. ^ Dance fever reaches Albania "The former student, now the mayor of Tirana, said that he would cower beneath the bedclothes at night listening to foreign radio stations, an activity punishable by a long stretch in a labour camp. He became fascinated by the saxophone. Yet, as such instruments were considered to be an evil influence and were banned, he had never seen one. "
  58. ^ Keefe, Eugene K. Area Handbook for Albania. Washington, D.C.: The American University (Foreign Area Studies), 1971.
  59. ^ Leo Paul Dana, "Albania in the Twilight Zone: The Perseritje Model and Its Impact on Small Business" Journal of Small Business Management #34 (1996): "Hoxha was perhaps the most eccentric dictator in Eastern Europe. He banned bananas, beards, bright colors, foreign journalists, most imports, and religion."
  60. ^ Joseph W. Harrison, "Albania begins the long road back from serfdom; mineral resources might pave the road to the West, with contributions from tourism and food processing." Business America (Jan 27, 1992): " Albania prohibited the private ownership of virtually anything: there was simply no such thing as private property. Until 1991, there were absolutely no privately-owned cars, trucks, or any other vehicle. As a result, there are very few cars--or even bicycles--on Albania's roads." See also Vickers, pp. 200-201.
  61. ^ O'Donnell, p. 131.
  62. ^ Minnesota International Human Rights Committee, Human Rights in the People's Socialist Republic of Albania. (Minneapolis: Minnesota Lawyers International Human Rights Committee, 1990), 46.
  63. ^ James S. O'Donnell, "Albania's Sigurimi: The ultimate agents of social control" Problems of Post-Communism #42 (Nov/Dec 1995): 5p.
  64. ^ Minnesota International Human Rights Committee, 46-47.
  65. ^ O'Donnell, A Coming of Age, p. 134.
  66. ^ Minnesota International Human Rights Committee, p. 136.
  67. ^ Minnesota International Human Rights Committee, 50-53.
  68. ^ Anton Logoreci, The Albanians: Europe's Forgotten Survivors (Boulder: Westview Press, 1977), 154.
  69. ^ Enver Hoxha, "The Communists Lead by Means of Example, Sacrifices, Abnegation: Discussion in the Organization of the Party, Sector C, of the 'Enver' Plant", 2 March 1967, in Hoxha, E., Vepra, n. 35, Tirana, 1982, pp. 130-1. "In this matter violence, exaggerated or inflated actions must be condemned. Here it is necessary to use persuasion and only persuasion, political and ideological work, so that the ground is prepared for each concrete action against religion."
  70. ^ Henry Kamm, "Albania's Clerics Lead a Rebirth," New York Times, 27 March 1992, p. A3.
  71. ^ Jacques, p. 489, 495.
  72. ^ One World Divisible: A Global History Since 1945 (The Global Century Series) by David Reynolds, 2001, page 233: "... the country." Henceforth, Hoxha announced, the only religion would be "Albanianism. ..."
  73. ^ The practice of archaeology under dictatorship, Michael L. Galary & Charles Watkinson, Chapter 1, page 9
  74. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The practice of Archaeology under dictatorship, Michael L. Galary & Charles Watkinson, Chapter 1, page 8-17,2
  75. ^ a b Stephanie Schwandner-Sievers, Bernd Jürgen Fischer, Albanian Identities: Myth and History, Indiana University Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0253341891, page 96, "but when Enver Hoxha declared that their origin was Illyrian (without denying their Pelasgian roots), no one dared participate in further discussion of the question".
  76. ^ ISBN 960-210-279-9 Miranda Vickers, The Albanians Chapter 9. "Albania Isolates itself" page 196, "From time to time the state gave out lists with pagan, supposed Illyrian or newly constructed names that would be proper for the new generation of revolutionaries."
  77. ^ Madrugearu A, Gordon M. The wars of the Balkan peninsula. Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. p.146.
  78. ^ Stephanie Schwandner-Sievers, Bernd Jürgen Fischer, Albanian Identities: Myth and History, Indiana University Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0253341891, p. 118.
  79. ^ Belledi et al. (2000) Maternal and paternal lineages in Albania and the genetic structure of Indo-European populations
  80. ^ Stephanie Schwandner-Sievers, Bernd Jürgen Fischer, Albanian Identities: Myth and History, Indiana University Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0253341891, page 92.
  81. ^ Epirus Vetus: The Archaeology of a Late Antique Province (Duckworth Archaeology) by William Bowden,2003,ISBN 0715631160, page 32
  82. ^ The Balkans - a post-communist history by Robert Bideleux & Ian Jeffries, Routledge, 2007, ISBN 0415229626, page 23, "they thus claim to the be oldest indigenous people of the western Balkans".
  83. ^ The Balkans - a post-communist history by Robert Bideleux & Ian Jeffries, Routledge, 2007, ISBN 0415229626, page 26.
  84. ^ The Balkans - a post-communist history by Robert Bideleux & Ian Jeffries, Routledge, 2007, ISBN 0415229626, page 513.
  85. ^ Enver Hoxha, Report on the Activity of the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania (Tirana: 8 Nëntori Publishing House, 1977), 12.
  86. ^ Letter from Albania: Enver Hoxha's legacy, and the question of tourism: "The bunkers were just one component of Hoxha's aim to arm the entire country against enemy invaders. Gun training used to be a part of school, I was told, and every family was expected to have a cache of weapons. Soon, Albania became awash in guns and other armaments – and the country is still dealing with that today, not just in its reputation as a center for weapons trading but in its efforts to finally decommission huge stockpiles of ammunition as part of its new NATO obligations."
  87. ^ Elez Biberaj, Albania and China (Boulder: Westview Press, 1986), 162n. See also The Albanian Constitution of 1976
  88. ^ Hoxha, Report on the Activity of the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania, 8.
  89. ^ On Eagle's Wings: The Albanian Economy in Transition, p. vii
  90. ^ The Directorate of the Intelligence of the Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1986), 3.
  91. ^ O'Donnell, pp. 198-201. Vickers, pp. 207-208. Jacques, pp. 510-512.
  92. ^ NYtimes.com "Hoxha, who died in 1985, was one of the most verbose statesmen of modern times and pressed more than 50 volumes of opinions, diaries and dogma on his long-suffering people, the poorest in Europe."
  93. ^ Jacques, p. 520. "... there was a detailed medical report by a distinguished medical team. Enver Hoxha had suffered since 1948 with diabetes which gradually caused widespread damage to the blood vessels, heart, kidneys and certain other organs. In 1973 as a consequence of this damage a myocardial infarction occurred with rhythmic irregularity. During the following years a serious heart disorder developed. On the morning of 9 April 1985, an unexpected ventricular fibrillation occurred. Despite intensive medication, repeated fibrillation and its irreversible consequences in the brain and kidneys caused death at 2:15 A.M. on 11 April 1985."
  94. ^ O'Donnell, A Coming of Age, p. 186. "On the positive side, an objective analysis must conclude that Enver Hoxha's plan to mobilize all of Albania's resources under the regimentation of a central plan was effective and quite successful... Albania was a tribal society, not necessarily primitive but certainly less developed than most. It had no industrial or working class tradition and no experience using modern production techniques. Thus, the results achieved, especially during the phases of initial planning and construction of the economic base were both impressive and positive."
  95. ^ Liliana Hoxha personal website. February 25, 2010.

Further reading

  • A Coming of Age: Albania under Enver Hoxha, James S. O'Donnell, New York 1999, ISBN 0-88033-415-0
  • Albania in Occupation and War, Owen S. Pearson, I.B. Tauris, London 2006, ISBN 1-84511-104-4
  • Albanian Stalinism, Pipa, Arshi, Boulder: East European Monographs, 1990, ISBN 0-88033-184-4

Works

  • Speeches (1961–1962). The '8 Nëntori' Publishing House, Tirana 1977.
  • Speeches and articles (1963–1964). The '8 Nëntori' Publishing House, Tirana 1977.
  • Speeches, conversations and articles (1965–1966). The '8 Nëntori' Publishing House, Tirana 1977.
  • Speeches, conversations and articles (1967–1968). The '8 Nëntori' Publishing House, Tirana 1978.
  • Speeches, conversations and articles (1969–1970). The '8 Nëntori' Publishing House, Tirana 1980.
  • Selected works. 6 Volumes, The '8 Nëntori' Publishing House, Tirana 1974 - 1987.
  • Reflections on China. 2 Volumes, The '8 Nëntori' Publishing House, Tirana 1979.
  • Two Friendly Peoples. The '8 Nëntori' Publishing House, Tirana 1985.
  • The Superpowers. The '8 Nëntori' Publishing House, Tirana 1986.

External links

Preceded by
Victor Emmanuel III (De jure)
Leader of Albania
1944–1985
Succeeded by
Ramiz Alia
Preceded by
New creation
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Albania
1946–1954
Succeeded by
Mehmet Shehu







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