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Ephedra
Ephedra distachya in France
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Gnetophyta
Class: Gnetopsida
Order: Ephedrales
Family: Ephedraceae
Genus: Ephedra
L.
Species

See text.

Ephedra is a genus of gymnosperm shrubs, the only genus in the family Ephedraceae and order Ephedrales. These plants occur in dry climates over a wide area mainly in the northern hemisphere, across southern Europe, north Africa, southwest and central Asia, southwestern North America, and, in the southern hemisphere, in South America south to Patagonia. They are also called Joint-pine, Jointfir, Mormon-tea or Brigham Tea. The Chinese name is 麻黄, má huáng, which means "yellow hemp". Ephedra is also sometimes called sea grape (from the French raisin de mer), although that is also a common name for Coccoloba uvifera.

Contents

Medical uses

Plants of the Ephedra genus, including E. sinica and others, have traditionally been used by indigenous people for a variety of medicinal purposes, including treatment of asthma, hay fever, and the common cold.[1] They have also been proposed as a candidate for the Soma plant of Indo-Iranian religion. The alkaloids ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are active constituents of E. sinica and other members of the genus. These compounds are sympathomimetics with stimulant and decongestant qualities and are related chemically to the amphetamines. Ephedra nevadensis contains ephedrine in its roots, stems and branches.[2] Ephedra distachya contains up to 3% ephedrine in the entire plant.[3] Ephedra sinica contains approximately 2.2% ephedrine.[4]

Species

  • Ephedra alata Decne
  • Ephedra altissima Desf.
  • Ephedra americana Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.[5]
  • Ephedra antisyphilitica Berl. ex C.A.Meyer - Clapweed, Erect Ephedra
  • Ephedra aspera Engelm. ex S.Wats. - Boundary Ephedra, Pitamoreal
  • Ephedra boelckei F.A.Roig
  • Ephedra californica S.Wats. - California Ephedra, California Jointfir
  • Ephedra campylopoda C. A. Mey.[5]
  • Ephedra chilensis C. Presl[5]
  • Ephedra ciliata Fisch. ex C. A. Mey.[5]
  • Ephedra coryi E.L.Reed - Cory's Ephedra
  • Ephedra cutleri Peebles - Navajo Ephedra, Cutler's Ephedra, Cutler Mormon-tea, Cutler's Jointfir
  • Ephedra dahurica Turcz.[6]
  • Ephedra distachya L. - Joint-pine, Jointfir
    • Ephedra distachya L. subsp. distachya[5]
    • Ephedra distachya subsp. helvetica (C.A.Meyer) Aschers. & Graebn.
    • Ephedra distachya L. subsp. monostachya (L.) Riedl[5]
  • Ephedra equisetina Bunge - Ma huang
  • Ephedra fasciculata A.Nels. - Arizona Ephedra, Arizona Jointfir, Desert Mormon-tea Photo
  • Ephedra fedtschenkoae Pauls.
  • Ephedra foliata Boiss. ex C.A.Mey.
  • Ephedra fragilis Desf.
    • Ephedra fragilis subsp. campylopoda (C.A.Meyer) Aschers. & Graebn.
  • Ephedra frustillata Miers - Patagonian Ephedra
  • Ephedra funerea Coville & Morton - Death Valley Ephedra, Death Valley Jointfir
  • Ephedra gerardiana Wallich ex C.A.Meyer - Gerard's Jointfir, Shan Ling Ma Huang
  • Ephedra holoptera Riedl
  • Ephedra intermedia Schrenk ex C.A.Meyer
  • Ephedra lepidosperma C.Y.Cheng
    Ephedra distachya
  • Ephedra likiangensis Florin
  • Ephedra lomatolepis Shrenk
  • Ephedra macedonica Kos.
  • Ephedra major Host
    • Ephedra major subsp. procera Fischer & C.A.Meyer
  • Ephedra minuta Florin
  • Ephedra monosperma C.A.Meyer
  • Ephedra multiflora Phil. ex Stapf
  • Ephedra nevadensis S.Wats. - Nevada Ephedra, Nevada Jointfir, Nevada Mormon-tea
  • Ephedra pachyclada Boiss.[5]
  • Ephedra pedunculata Engelm. ex S.Wats. - Vine Ephedra, Vine Jointfir
  • Ephedra procera Fisch. & C. A. Mey.[5]
  • Ephedra przewalskii Stapf
    • Ephedra przewalskii var. kaschgarica (B.Fedtsch. & Bobr.) C.Y.Cheng
  • Ephedra regeliana Florin - Xi Zi Ma Huang
  • Ephedra saxatilis (Stapf) Royle ex Florin
  • Ephedra sinica Stapf - Cao Ma Huang, Chinese ephedra
  • Ephedra strobilacea Bunge[5]
  • Ephedra torreyana S.Wats. - Torrey's Ephedra, Torrey's Jointfir, Torrey's Mormon-tea, Cañutillo
  • Ephedra trifurca Torrey ex S.Wats. - Longleaf Ephedra, Longleaf Jointfir, Longleaf Mormon-tea, Popotilla, Teposote
  • Ephedra viridis Coville - Green Ephedra, Green Mormon-tea

Gallery

Seeds

References

  1. ^ Abourashed E, El-Alfy A, Khan I, Walker L (2003). "Ephedra in perspective--a current review". Phytother Res 17 (7): 703–12. doi:10.1002/ptr.1337. PMID 12916063.  
  2. ^ "Species Information". sun.ars-grin.gov. http://sun.ars-grin.gov:8080/npgspub/xsql/duke/plantdisp.xsql?taxon=381. Retrieved 2008-04-17.  
  3. ^ "Meerträubel (Ephedra distachya) im GIFTPFLANZEN.COMpendium - www.giftpflanzen.com". www.giftpflanzen.com. http://www.giftpflanzen.com/ephedra_distachya.html. Retrieved 2008-04-18.  
  4. ^ "Species Information". sun.ars-grin.gov. http://sun.ars-grin.gov:8080/npgspub/xsql/duke/plantdisp.xsql?taxon=382. Retrieved 2008-04-18.  
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Species in GRIN for genus". www.ars-grin.gov. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/splist.pl?4296. Retrieved 2008-05-03.  
  6. ^ Ephedraceae Ephedra dahurica Turcz. The International Plant Names Index

External links








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