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.Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine.^ "Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health."
  • Epidemiological Thinking For Non-Specialists 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.faculty.umb.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Kirk Phillips Graduate degrees: M.S., Ph.D. in Epidemiology; M.S. in Clinical Investigation Web site: http://www.public-health.uiowa.edu/epi The Department of Epidemiology focuses on surveillance for disease, risk factors for disease in the general population, behavioral factors in disease, use and outcome of health interventions and care, and the establishment and evaluation of disease control measures in the community.

^ Applicants should be a Doctor of Medicine or PhD-level Scientist with a strong professional background in vaccine preventable disease epidemiology and international public health programs, particularly immunization programs.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It is considered a cornerstone methodology of public health research, and is highly regarded in evidence-based medicine for identifying risk factors for disease and determining optimal treatment approaches to clinical practice.^ The reduction in disease when a risk factor is removed.
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Studying the diseases that effect the public's health.
  • General Epidemiology- Programs & Degrees - UM SPH Department of Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.sph.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Understanding evidence-based medicine in 4 days.
  • epidemiology | TrustTheEvidence.net 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC trusttheevidence.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the study of communicable and non-communicable diseases, the work of epidemiologists ranges from outbreak investigation to study design, data collection and analysis including the development of statistical models to test hypotheses and the documentation of results for submission to peer-reviewed journals.^ The candidate would be responsible for study design and statistical analysis of epidemiologic data.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Conduct public health reviews and situation analyses; -Conceptualize applied epidemiology and public health (including surveillance) research strategies, data needed or research questions; -Design surveillance systems and supplementary epidemiology studies to assess burden of disease and investigate diseases outbreaks/population transmission dynamics/underlying social networks; -Evaluate surveillance systems and understand the limitations of surveillance data; -Design studies to address/investigate public health problems, monitor the delivery of health services or evaluate the impact/effectiveness of public health interventions; -Understand the different basic types of study designs, their advantages & limitations; -Develop a research study plan/proposal/protocol (and/or a surveillance procedures and service delivery monitoring manual); -Design a questionnaire/other data collection tool for a study;.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Statistical Intern will assist biomedical investigators in the design and analysis of research studies; and in analyzing and reporting data from these studies.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Epidemiologists also study the interaction of diseases in a population, a condition known as a syndemic.^ Medical Ecology: For infectious disease, the study of the interaction of the components of the triad of infectious disease - the host, the agent and the environment.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Population-based studies of the LEDB are based on large samples with state-of-the-art measures of risk factors and disease.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Prediction of risk of liver disease by alcohol intake, sex and age: a prospective population study.
  • Alcohol and Hepatitis C: Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Epidemiologists rely on a number of other scientific disciplines such as biology (to better understand disease processes), biostatistics (the current raw information available), Geographic Information Science (to store data and map disease patterns) and social science disciplines (to better understand proximate and distal risk factors).^ The reduction in disease when a risk factor is removed.
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Fat is also a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
  • Low Risk Epidemiology and Good Epidemiological Practice 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC tobaccodocuments.org [Source type: Academic]

^ On the other hand, several studies have shown that alcohol abuse is associated with increased numbers of activated lymphocytes in the blood even without liver disease.
  • Alcohol and Hepatitis C: Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Etymology

.Epidemiology, "the study of what is upon the people", is derived from the Greek terms epi = upon, among; demos = people, district; logos = study, word, discourse; suggesting that it applies only to human populations.^ Epidemiology is the study of diseases in populations.
  • School of Public Health Epidemiology and Biostatistics program area 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC publichealth.curtin.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Epidemiology is the study of disease in human populations.
  • Chemrisk.Com Epidemiology - Occupational Health 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chemrisk.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The word epidemiology is based on the Greek roots epi , demos , and ology .
  • Epidemiology Kept Simple - B. Gerstman 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.But the term is widely used in studies of zoological populations (veterinary epidemiology), although the term 'epizoology' is available, and it has also been applied to studies of plant populations (botanical epidemiology).^ This course reviews general principles of epidemiology and health policy and how epidemiological studies have influenced health policy using examples related to smoking, asthma, and Reyes Syndrome.

^ This course emphasis is on the major designs of epidemiology and health services outcomes research and the principles of measurement for these studies, particularly the use of primary data collection.

^ APPLIED PUBLIC HEALTH, EPIDEMIOLOGY & HEALTH SERVICES/OPERATIONS RESEARCH EXPERIENCE: Some experience with applied public health studies (incl.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

[1]
.The distinction between 'epidemic' and 'endemic' was first drawn by Hippocrates[2], to distinguish between diseases that are 'visited upon' a population (epidemic) from those that 'reside within' a population (endemic).^ Below this threshold level the disease is unable to maintain itself within the host population.
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Understanding the distinction between exposure, infection and disease status is important.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A branch of epidemiology which views disease as a result of the ecological interactions between populations of hosts and parasites.
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

[3] .The term 'epidemiology' appears to have first been used to describe the study of epidemics in 1802 by the Spanish physician Villalba in Epidemiología Española[4].^ This course reviews general principles of epidemiology and health policy and how epidemiological studies have influenced health policy using examples related to smoking, asthma, and Reyes Syndrome.

^ Several studies have shown a high prevalence of anti-HCV using first-generation immunosorbent assay among alcoholic patients with liver disease.
  • Alcohol and Hepatitis C: Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This course emphasis is on the major designs of epidemiology and health services outcomes research and the principles of measurement for these studies, particularly the use of primary data collection.

.As described above, the term epidemiology has expanded considerably in scope since to cover the description and causation of not only epidemic disease, but of disease in general, and even many non-disease health-related conditions, such as high blood pressure and obesity.^ Since conditions and materials at each site may present a physical or health hazard, cautions must be exercised.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This study represents an attempt to operationalize cultural factors in the epidemiology of alcohol use and to measure the impact of such cultural variations on an expanded range of behavioral as well as health outcomes.
  • Utilizing Culture and Behaviour in Epidemiological Models of Alcohol Consumption and Consequences for Western Nations 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.peele.net [Source type: Academic]

^ This course reviews general principles of epidemiology and health policy and how epidemiological studies have influenced health policy using examples related to smoking, asthma, and Reyes Syndrome.

History

The Greek physician Hippocrates is sometimes said to be the father of epidemiology. .He is the first person known to have examined the relationships between the occurrence of disease and environmental influences.^ That directly influences the occurrence of disease.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ChemRisk ® has significant experience analyzing and scrutinizing data to accurately identify data trends and patterns, as well as at determining how other risk factors may influence the relationship between exposures to certain toxicants and the risk of developing disease.
  • Chemrisk.Com Epidemiology - Occupational Health 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chemrisk.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Through the principles of epidemiology, we analyze the interactions of host, exposure, and environmental factors to study the occurrence and causes of disease in human populations.
  • Epidemiology & Computational Biology | Who We Are | Careers | Exponent 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.exponent.com [Source type: Academic]

.He coined the terms endemic (for diseases usually found in some places but not in others) and epidemic (for disease that are seen at some times but not others).^ I only mean that some men are changed by persuasion and that others forget; argument steals away the hearts of one class, and time of the other; and this I call theft.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The Republic by Plato 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Likewise, other changes can upset endemic stability, precipitating the expression of clinical disease.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Disease in an individual is often evidence of a group phenomena because the factors that caused the disease in that individual are usually affecting others adversely as well.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[5]
One of the earliest theories on the origin of disease was that it was primarily the fault of human luxury. This was expressed by philosophers such as Plato[6] and Rousseau,[7] and social critics like Jonathan Swift.[8]
.In the medieval Islamic world, physicians discovered the contagious nature of infectious disease.^ A more pure-bred descendant is the glossary by Watt, Dobson and Grenfell in Grenfell and Dobson, Ecology of infectious diseases in natural populations , Cambridge University Press, 1995.
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

^ General description of the natural history of infectious disease processes, emphasizing the interaction between host and agent factors.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Diseases, usually of an infectious nature, whose occurrence is required by law to be made known to a health officer or local government authority.
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

.In particular, the Persian physician Avicenna, considered a "father of modern medicine,"[9] in The Canon of Medicine (1020s), discovered the contagious nature of tuberculosis and sexually transmitted disease, and the distribution of disease through water and soil.^ Sexually transmitted disease.
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Natural History of Disease : The natural course of disease from inception through resolution (complete recovery, chronic carrier or death) in the absence of treatment.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[10] Avicenna stated that bodily secretion is contaminated by foul foreign earthly bodies before being infected.[11] .He introduced the method of quarantine as a means of limiting the spread of contagious disease.^ This is an intermediate level course, which will introduce the student to the unique aspects of infectious disease and epidemiological methods used in their study, prevention and control.

[12] .He also used the method of risk factor analysis, and proposed the idea of a syndrome in the diagnosis of specific diseases.^ The reduction in disease when a risk factor is removed.
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The number of people with disease who were exposed to a risk factor ( Ie ) over those with disease who were not exposed ( Io ) divided by those without disease who were exposed ( Ne ) over those without who were not exposed ( No ).
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, the epidemiology group is involved in a range of other investigations and approaches, including analysis of morbidity datasets (hospital discharge, Medicare, HMO) for estimation of disease burden, cost, and risk factors.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

[13]
.When the Black Death (bubonic plague) reached Al Andalus in the 14th century, Ibn Khatima hypothesized that infectious diseases are caused by "minute bodies" which enter the human body and cause disease.^ Many endemic infectious agents do not cause clinical disease in newly infected hosts under normal circumstances of transmission and infection (low dose to an immunocompetent host).
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the case of an infectious agent, this exposure was by a dose sufficient high to cause clinical disease in most exposed animals and if the exposure is to an index case the R 0 was initially very high.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, according to Vanderhoof, advanced liver disease currently is the most common cause of death of patients with short-bowel syndrome.
  • Short-Bowel Syndrome: eMedicine General Surgery 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Another 14th century Andalusian-Arabian physician, Ibn al-Khatib (1313–1374), wrote a treatise called On the Plague, in which he stated how infectious disease can be transmitted through bodily contact and "through garments, vessels and earrings."[11]
.In the middle of the 16th century, a famous Italian doctor from Verona named Girolamo Fracastoro was the first to propose a theory that these very small, unseeable, particles that cause disease were alive.^ These investigators were able to rule out internal radiation by alpha particles as the cause, and identified external gamma radiation as the source of the breast exposure.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the case of an infectious agent, this exposure was by a dose sufficient high to cause clinical disease in most exposed animals and if the exposure is to an index case the R 0 was initially very high.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These very different viruses all cause the liver disease hepatitis.
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

They were considered to be able to spread by air, multiply by themselves and to be destroyable by fire. In this way he refuted Galen's miasma theory (poison gas in sick people). .In 1543 he wrote a book De contagione et contagiosis morbis, in which he was the first to promote personal and environmental hygiene to prevent disease.^ His research focuses primarily in the areas of obesity, tobacco control, and cardiovascular disease prevention with an emphasis on minority populations and military and first-responder health.
  • NDRI :: About Us :: Senior Staff 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ndri.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The position contributes to the advancement of local public health practice by working on a variety of chronic disease prevention and promoting healthy communities’ initiatives.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Preventive Intervention Center conducts population-based intervention trials to prevent occurrence and recurrence of disease and to promote wellness, with a focus on the elderly.

.The development of a sufficiently powerful microscope by Anton van Leeuwenhoek in 1675 provided visual evidence of living particles consistent with a germ theory of disease.^ Providing that the animal has sufficient resistance, most of these infections are subclinical and the animal develops immunity.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Stewart In-Utero Studies provide powerful additional evidence for failure of the hypothesis that, if dose were just sufficiently low and slow, then repair of carcinogenic injury would be flawless.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

Original map by Dr. John Snow showing the clusters of cholera cases in the London epidemic of 1854
John Graunt, a professional haberdasher and serious amateur scientist, published Natural and Political Observations ... upon the .Bills of Mortality in 1662. In it, he used analysis of the mortality rolls in London before the Great Plague to present one of the first life tables and report time trends for many diseases, new and old.^ Reports and Presentations · Develop tables and graphs for reports and presentations.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In one Holstein selection cycle (2 years), bacteria have 175 times as many opportunities for change as has occurred in over 100 years of dairy breeding.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The scope and challenges of epidemiology Idea: The uses of epidemiology are many, but shift over time, and are subject to recurrent challenges from inside and outside the field.
  • Epidemiological Thinking For Non-Specialists 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.faculty.umb.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Epidemiological Thinking For Non-Specialists 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.faculty.umb.edu [Source type: Academic]

.He provided statistical evidence for many theories on disease, and also refuted many widespread ideas on them.^ The ResearchAnalyst provides users with a toolkit that contains statistical and spatial analytic capability as well as spatial statistics and the ability to examine spatial and temporal disease clusters.
  • dBusinessNews :: Daily Business News Delivered to Your Desktop 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC richmond.dbusinessnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Students are trained in epidemiologic study design; statistical analysis; and the biological principles underlying human diseases.  Students utilize their training to implement epidemiologic surveillance and research studies, providing evidence-based information to promote health and prevent disease and injuries.
  • Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cudenver.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Collect, analyze, interpret and monitor disease occurrences in the population Provide statistical data on reportable diseases.
  • www.elpasotexas.gov - Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.elpasotexas.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Dr. John Snow is famous for his investigations into the causes of the 19th Century Cholera epidemics. .He began with noticing the significantly higher death rates in two areas supplied by Southwark Company.^ Cancer-rates for those years were 41 % higher in the ten northeastern areas than in the ten southern areas even though the background radiation exposures were almost identical.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The twenty-two states with the intermediate background doses had the highest cancer death-rate.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients were also younger at the time of hospitalization and had a higher death rate compared with those who had either HCV or alcoholic liver disease alone.
  • Alcohol and Hepatitis C: Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.His identification of the Broad Street pump as the cause of the Soho epidemic is considered the classic example of epidemiology.^ "Map-making and myth-making in Broad Street: the London cholera epidemic, 1854."
  • Epidemiological Thinking For Non-Specialists 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.faculty.umb.edu [Source type: Academic]

He used chlorine in an attempt to clean the water and had the handle removed, thus ending the outbreak. (It has been questioned as to whether the epidemic was already in decline when Snow took action.) .This has been perceived as a major event in the history of public health and can be regarded as the founding event of the science of epidemiology.^ It is a core public health science.
  • Fulton County Department of Health and Wellness - Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.fultoncountyga.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Disaster epidemiology: public health surveillance .
  • Epidemiology - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health."
  • Epidemiological Thinking For Non-Specialists 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.faculty.umb.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Other pioneers include Danish physician P. A. Schleisner, who in 1849 related his work on the prevention of the epidemic of tetanus neonatorum on the Vestmanna Islands in Iceland[14].^ WORK DUTIES MAY INCLUDE, BUT ARE NOT LIMITED TO: Research, Writing and Policy Analysis · Tracking current chronic disease prevention issues particularly related to healthy eating, active living, and obesity prevention.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

Another important pioneer was Hungarian physician Ignaz Semmelweis, who in 1847 brought down infant mortality at a Vienna hospital by instituting a disinfection procedure. His findings were published in 1850, but his work was ill received by his colleagues, who discontinued the procedure. Disinfection did not become widely practiced until British surgeon Joseph Lister 'discovered' antiseptics in 1865 in light of the work of Louis Pasteur.
In the early 20th century, mathematical methods were introduced into epidemiology by Ronald Ross, Anderson Gray McKendrick and others.
.Another breakthrough was the 1954 publication of the results of a British Doctors Study, led by Richard Doll and Austin Bradford Hill, which lent very strong statistical support to the suspicion that tobacco smoking was linked to lung cancer.^ The consistency of these results with one another and with epidemiological studies supports their validity.
  • Utilizing Culture and Behaviour in Epidemiological Models of Alcohol Consumption and Consequences for Western Nations 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.peele.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The results of the Profile study are used extensively by NACCHO, other public health organizations, and public health researchers.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Doll, R., Peto, R., Hall, E., Wheatley, K. and Gray, R. (1994) Mortality in relation to consumption of alcohol: 13 years' observations on male British doctors.
  • Utilizing Culture and Behaviour in Epidemiological Models of Alcohol Consumption and Consequences for Western Nations 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.peele.net [Source type: Academic]

The profession

.To date, few universities offer epidemiology as a course of study at the undergraduate level.^ Completion of at least 3 graduate-level epidemiology courses and 1 graduate-level biostatistics course.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Many epidemiologists are physicians, or hold graduate degrees such as a Master of Public Health (MPH), Master of Science or Epidemiology (MSc.^ The Master of Science in epidemiology requires 38 s.h.

^ The Department of Epidemiology offers the epidemiology subtrack for the Master of Public Health.

^ MPH/PhD program oriented to epidemiology or public health.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

). .Doctorates include the Doctor of Public Health (DrPH), Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD), Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Doctor of Science (ScD), or for clinically trained physicians, Doctor of Medicine (MD) and Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) .^ The department offers a Master of Science and a Doctor of Philosophy in epidemiology, and a Master of Science in clinical investigation.

^ Veterinary Medicine and Human Health , 3 rd ed.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Systematic applications of information science, computer science, and technology to public health practice, research, and learning; methods of disease surveillance, data collection, analysis, and reporting with health informatics.

In the United Kingdom, the title of 'doctor' is by long custom used to refer to general medical practitioners, whose professional degrees are usually those of Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery (MBBS or MBChB). .As public health/health protection practitioners, epidemiologists work in a number of different settings.^ The master of public health (MPH) is the most widely recognized professional degree for those working in the field of public health.

^ CDC EpiInfo http://www.cdc.gov/epiinfo/ Epi Info™ is a public domain software package designed for the global community of public health practitioners and researchers.
  • UNTHSC Lewis Library - Epidemiology Subject Guide 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC library.hsc.unt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ (PSA) is looking for a public health intern to work under contract for the Office of Minority Health (OMH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Some epidemiologists work 'in the field'; i.e., in the community, commonly in a public health/health protection service and are often at the forefront of investigating and combating disease outbreaks.^ (PSA) is looking for a public health intern to work under contract for the Office of Minority Health (OMH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Participate in meetings with stakeholders with interests in community gardens, urban green space and public health.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Survey Development and Execution · Work with state health agencies and state associations for local public health to define the study population.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Others work for non-profit organizations, universities, hospitals and larger government entities such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Health Protection Agency, The World Health Organisation (WHO), or the Public Health Agency of Canada.^ The Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) is the agency Americans trust with their lives.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It also provides technical advice and assistance to partner organizations, such as the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), and to federal public health agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He serves as a consultant to various institutions, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Academy of Sciences and the World Health Organization.
  • NDRI :: About Us :: Senior Staff 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ndri.org [Source type: Academic]

The practice

.Epidemiologists employ a range of study designs from the observational to experimental and generally categorized as descriptive, analytic (aiming to further examine known associations or hypothesized relationships), and experimental (a term often equated with clinical or community trials of treatments and other interventions).^ Epidemiological concepts and methods; design of descriptive and analytic studies, such as aggregate, case series, cross-sectional, case-control, cohort studies, clinical trials; application of epidemiology to public health practice; communication and dissemination of epidemiological findings.

^ The first face recognizes that many hypotheses about treatment and other interventions emerge from observational studies and often such studies provide the only data we have to work with.
  • Epidemiological Thinking For Non-Specialists 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.faculty.umb.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Epidemiological Thinking For Non-Specialists 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.faculty.umb.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Physical activity/disease relationships examined through application of epidemiologic methods, including research design, interpretation of studies, selection of measures to fit research questions.

.Epidemiological studies are aimed, where possible, at revealing unbiased relationships between exposures such as alcohol or smoking, biological agents, stress, or chemicals to mortality or morbidity.^ Are the same general relationships between alcohol and various non-CHD disease states discovered in within-nation epidemiologic studies evident in cross-cultural analyses?
  • Utilizing Culture and Behaviour in Epidemiological Models of Alcohol Consumption and Consequences for Western Nations 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.peele.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The question of causality between the X-ray exposure and the childhood malignancies has, of course, been raised for this study just as it was for the Stewart Study .
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The current study does not examine the relationship between the institution of alcohol control policies and changes in health outcomes.
  • Utilizing Culture and Behaviour in Epidemiological Models of Alcohol Consumption and Consequences for Western Nations 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.peele.net [Source type: Academic]

.The identification of causal relationships between these exposures and outcomes is an important aspect of epidemiology.^ The current study does not examine the relationship between the institution of alcohol control policies and changes in health outcomes.
  • Utilizing Culture and Behaviour in Epidemiological Models of Alcohol Consumption and Consequences for Western Nations 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.peele.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The purpose of developing a causal web is to provide "the big picture"; a framework for thinking about the relationships between these causes and for developing strategies for controlling and preventing the condition in a group of animals.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Rather, these policies are examined for their relationship at one point in time with health outcomes.
  • Utilizing Culture and Behaviour in Epidemiological Models of Alcohol Consumption and Consequences for Western Nations 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.peele.net [Source type: Academic]

Modern epidemiologists use informatics as a tool.
.The term 'epidemiologic triad' is used to describe the intersection of Host, Agent, and Environment in analyzing an outbreak.^ Most likely a change in some host, agent or environment factor markedly increases the R 0 and infections that would have been subclinical and unrecognized now become clinical and recognized.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For most groups, the response to the host-agent-environment interaction that results in disease is usually not an either / or, black or white phenomenon.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Disease is the result of complex interactions (some would say imbalance) between the triad of the agent (toxic or infectious), the host and the environment.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

As causal inference

.Although epidemiology is sometimes viewed as a collection of statistical tools used to elucidate the associations of exposures to health outcomes, a deeper understanding of this science is that of discovering causal relationships.^ Since almost all studies on health and medicine use epidemiology to reach their conclusions, understanding how it works is the only way to sort out the facts from the deceptions and frauds.
  • The Facts about second hand smoke - Statistics 101 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.davehitt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This broad scope includes understanding the distribution, patterns and causes of adverse health outcomes as well as those associated with their control and prevention, and the complex interaction of factors that play a role in these processes.
  • UK College of Public Health - Department of Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.mc.uky.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Over the years, we have conducted a number of epidemiology studies that have clarified often contentious health risk issues (e.g., the relationship between cyanoacrylate exposure and asthma, skin contact with chromium contaminated soil, exposure to dioxins and diabetes).
  • Chemrisk.Com Epidemiology - Occupational Health 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chemrisk.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is nearly impossible to say with perfect accuracy how even the most simple physical systems behave beyond the immediate future, much less the complex field of epidemiology, which draws on biology, sociology, mathematics, statistics, anthropology, psychology, and policy; "Correlation does not imply causation" is a common theme for much of the epidemiological literature.^ These then, I said, must be banished; even to women who have a character to maintain they are of no use, and much less to men.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The Republic by Plato 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Applicants must have a background in toxicology or related fields, epidemiology, statistics, or risk assessment, and communication.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

For epidemiologists, the key is in the term inference. .Epidemiologists use gathered data and a broad range of biomedical and psychosocial theories in an iterative way to generate or expand theory, to test hypotheses, and to make educated, informed assertions about which relationships are causal, and about exactly how they are causal.^ Focuses on research designs and methods to describe disease occurrence and risk factor associations; uses quantitative and biomedical information to infer whether causal relationships exist between potential causes and disease in populations.

^ Uses comparison groups, which provide baseline data, to quantify the association between exposures and outcomes, and test hypotheses about causal relationships.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although SQL is the standard way to access data stored in a database, using it requires some prior knowledge and experience from the user.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | EURISWEB – Web-based epidemiological surveillance of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci in Day Care Centers 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.Epidemiologists Rothman and Greenland emphasize that the "one cause - one effect" understanding is a simplistic mis-belief.^ Epidemiologists today are involved in attempts to understand the causes and means of controlling AIDS and other infectious diseases, as well as chronic diseases including cancer and coronary heart disease.

^ The Guild of Scientific Troubadours — Authority: 125 A new story on the AP wire backs up one of my hobby-horse beliefs.
  • epidemiology Articles, Posts, Blogs, Videos - Technorati 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC technorati.com [Source type: General]

.Most outcomes, whether disease or death, are caused by a chain or web consisting of many component causes.^ In the case of an infectious agent, this exposure was by a dose sufficient high to cause clinical disease in most exposed animals and if the exposure is to an index case the R 0 was initially very high.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Disease usually develops because of a chain of causes, rather than a single cause, that have acted one after another or together, often in complex ways.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Many endemic infectious agents do not cause clinical disease in newly infected hosts under normal circumstances of transmission and infection (low dose to an immunocompetent host).
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Causes can be distinguished as necessary, sufficient or probabilistic conditions. If a necessary condition can be identified and controlled (e.g., antibodies to a disease agent), the harmful outcome can be avoided.

Bradford-Hill criteria

In 1965 Austin Bradford Hill detailed criteria for assessing evidence of causation.[15] These guidelines are sometimes referred to as the Bradford-Hill criteria, but this makes it seem like it is some sort of checklist. For example, Phillips and Goodman (2004) note that they are often taught or referenced as a checklist for assessing causality, despite this not being Hill's intention.[16] Hill himself said "None of my nine viewpoints can bring indisputable evidence for or against the cause-and-effect hypothesis and none can be required sine qua non".[15]
.
  1. Strength: A small association does not mean that there is not a causal effect, though the larger the association, the more likely that it is causal.^ The cardinal rule is that we should never look for a relatively small carcinogenic effect from low-dose radiation in the presence of massively larger variation in non-radiation effects.
    • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ And all cancer-deaths (breast-cancer excluded) show an O / E value of 1.02, so a more diligent search for cancer-deaths in particular does not seem like a reasonable suspicion.
    • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

    [15]
  2. Consistency: Consistent findings observed by different persons in different places with different samples strengthens the likelihood of an effect.[15]
  3. .
  4. Specificity: Causation is likely if a very specific population at a specific site and disease with no other likely explanation.^ No other diseases .
    • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Carrier: A person or animal without apparent disease who harbours a specific infectious agent and is capable of transmitting the agent to others.
    • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This type of network allows for specific emergent behavior which is not possible with other configurations, for example the emergence of superspreaders in a population.
    • Jill Bigley Dunham: An Agent-Based Spatially Explicit Epidemiological Model in MASON 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

    .The more specific an association between a factor and an effect is, the bigger the probability of a causal relationship.^ Focuses on research designs and methods to describe disease occurrence and risk factor associations; uses quantitative and biomedical information to infer whether causal relationships exist between potential causes and disease in populations.

    ^ Association: Statistical relationship between two or more events, characteristics, or other variables.
    • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A MA is any mathematical measure that is used to quantify the association between two or more variables; thus, it is a measure of the extent to which variables X and Y are related.

    [15]
  5. .
  6. Temporality: The effect has to occur after the cause (and if there is an expected delay between the cause and expected effect, then the effect must occur after that delay).^ If fatty diets cause breast cancer, one would expect that there would be proportionately more women with fatty diets among the cases than among the controls.

    ^ Much speculation has developed concerning the relationships between events, but what is really known about cause and effect?
    • Center for Eco-Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

    [15]
  7. .
  8. Biological gradient: Greater exposure should generally lead to greater incidence of the effect.^ We need to identify these temporal and spatial gradients in order to generate candidate exposures.
    • Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.qcmhr.uq.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

    .However, in some cases, the mere presence of the factor can trigger the effect.^ Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study Lancet.

    ^ Necessary cause: A causal factor whose presence is required for the occurrence of the effect (of disease).
    • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In some cases, alcohol has been identified as an independent risk factor in the pathogenesis of HCV-associated steatosis.
    • Alcohol and Hepatitis C: Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    .In other cases, an inverse proportion is observed: greater exposure leads to lower incidence.^ Independent variable: An exposure, risk factor, or other characteristic being observed or measured that is hypothesized to influence an event or manifestation (the dependent variable).
    • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

    [15]
  9. .
  10. Plausibility: A plausible mechanism between cause and effect is helpful (but Hill noted that knowledge of the mechanism is limited by current knowledge).^ Much speculation has developed concerning the relationships between events, but what is really known about cause and effect?
    • Center for Eco-Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

    [15]
  11. .
  12. Coherence: Coherence between epidemiological and laboratory findings increases the likelihood of an effect.^ Findings: Season of Birth effect varies in timing and size between sizes.
    • Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.qcmhr.uq.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

    However, Hill noted that "... lack of such [laboratory] evidence cannot nullify the epidemiological effect on associations" [15].
  13. Experiment: "Occasionally it is possible to appeal to experimental evidence" [15].
  14. Analogy: The effect of similar factors may be considered[15].
A useful mnemonic for remembering these criteria is 'ACCESS PTB'.

Legal interpretation

Epidemiological studies can only go to prove that an agent could have caused, but not that it did cause, an effect in any particular case:
."Epidemiology is concerned with the incidence of disease in populations and does not address the question of the cause of an individual’s disease.^ Collaborating with team members and other experts within EPA to address challenging scientific issues related to the toxicity and epidemiology data for individual chemicals and chemical classes.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Disease in an individual is often evidence of a group phenomena because the factors that caused the disease in that individual are usually affecting others adversely as well.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "Smoking and Ill Health: Does Lay Epidemiology Explain the Failure of Smoking Cessation Programs Among Deprived Populations?"
  • Epidemiological Thinking For Non-Specialists 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.faculty.umb.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This question, sometimes referred to as specific causation, is beyond the domain of the science of epidemiology.^ The Committee will solicit exam questions from epidemiology and biostatistics faculty and will call on relevant faculty to grade specific answers.

^ If a student is denied admission to the MPH in MCH Epidemiology program and has applied to the Community Health Sciences division, their application will then be referred to the CHS Admissions Committee for review.
  • MCH Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Epidemiology has its limits at the point where an inference is made that the relationship between an agent and a disease is causal (general causation) and where the magnitude of excess risk attributed to the agent has been determined; that is, epidemiology addresses whether an agent can cause a disease, not whether an agent did cause a specific plaintiff’s disease."^ Epidemiology is not the science of determining the cause of disease in an individual.
  • Epidemiology article | PBS 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ No method in any science can determine the specific cause of a specific individual's disease.
  • Epidemiology article | PBS 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mesothelioma Researchers Further Support the Link Between Asbestos Exposure and Mesothelioma 01/14/2010 - German mesothelioma researchers recently published a study further proving the causal relationship between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma.
  • Mesothelioma Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.asbestos.com [Source type: Academic]

[17]
.In United States law, epidemiology alone cannot prove that a causal association does not exist in general.^ Emerg Infect Dis (United States), Apr-Jun 1998, 4(2) p229-37 Broome CV Epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae type b infections in the United States.
  • ActHIB® Hib Epidemiology Article Bibliography 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vaccineplace.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Am J Epidemiol (United States), Jul 15 1992, 136(2) p221-35 van Alphen L, Bijlmer HA Molecular epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae type b.
  • ActHIB® Hib Epidemiology Article Bibliography 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vaccineplace.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Introduction to the epidemiology and control of zoonotic diseases; zoonoses endemic to the midwestern United States.

.Conversely, it can be (and is in some circumstances) taken by US courts, in an individual case, to justify an inference that a causal association does exist, based upon a balance of probability.^ Based on the data from the short-term study, NCI scientists believe a cancer causing potential exists upon exposure to the benzidine-derived dyes, most likely through the mechanism of metabolic conversion of the dyes to benzidine in the animal system.
  • DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 78-148 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In a surveillance study based within California, rates of hospitalization and death were reviewed among individuals with probable or confirmed pandemic H1N1 influenza A infection [ 22 ].
  • Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of pandemic H1N1 influenza ('swine influenza') 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It would not be scientifically reasonable to presume that some cell-types have a threshold, when the threshold is provably absent where evidence does exist.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

Advocacy

.As a public health discipline, epidemiologic evidence is often used to advocate both personal measures like diet change and corporate measures like removal of junk food advertising, with study findings disseminated to the general public in order to help people to make informed decisions about their health.^ Epidemiological concepts and methods; design of descriptive and analytic studies, such as aggregate, case series, cross-sectional, case-control, cohort studies, clinical trials; application of epidemiology to public health practice; communication and dissemination of epidemiological findings.

^ Epidemiologic applications and methods used in clinical settings to evaluate clinical medicine and other health profession disciplines, including health measurement, health outcome determination, diagnostic process, risk assessment and communication, prognosis, study design, patient surveys, clinical trials, decision analysis and meta-analysis, health services research.

^ CHAPTER 21 Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans .
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

.Often the uncertainties about these findings are not communicated well; news articles often prominently report the latest result of one study with little mention of its limitations, caveats, or context.^ Before more detailed discussion of these study findings on who becomes cocaine dependent soon after onset of cocaine use, and before review of observed null associations, we should acknowledge and discuss several of the more important study limitations.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Risk of Becoming Cocaine Dependent: Epidemiological Estimates for the United States, 2000-2001 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacterial superinfection — Bacterial superinfection of the lung has been reported in 4 to 29 percent of cases that resulted in hospitalization or death in the United States, Australia, and New Zealand [ 22,31,83 ].
  • Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of pandemic H1N1 influenza ('swine influenza') 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In regions where the majority of circulating influenza viruses are known to be pandemic H1N1 influenza A, a positive result using one of these assays can be presumed to indicate infection with pandemic H1N1 influenza A. .
  • Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of pandemic H1N1 influenza ('swine influenza') 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

.Epidemiological tools have proved effective in establishing major causes of diseases like cholera and lung cancer but have had problems with more subtle health issues, and several recent epidemiological results on medical treatments (for example, on the effects of hormone replacement therapy) have been refuted by later randomized controlled trials.^ Examples of factors causing animals to manifest different disease severity .
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, an "all in, all out" policy is a very effective means of reducing transmission but it usually requires major changes in facilities and management practices to accomplish it.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been suggested that coinfected patients who drank ethanol are more likely to die of end-stage liver disease.
  • Alcohol and Hepatitis C: Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[18]

Population-based health management

.Epidemiological practice and the results of epidemiological analysis make a significant contribution to emerging population-based health management frameworks.^ To gain experience with the analysis, interpretation, and presentation of epidemiologic data by successfully analyzing a data set and presenting the results in the form of a publication quality manuscript.
  • Epidemiology (Ph.D.) 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC main.uab.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The goal of this class is to provide a foundation in applied epidemiological analysis and experience in peer-review productivity based on secondary data analysis.

^ The involvement of birds in public health threats to humans poses significant management dilemmas for wildlife biologists and human disease epidemiologists that are infrequently addressed together.
  • Center for Eco-Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

Population-based health management encompasses the ability to:
  • Assess the health states and health needs of a target population;
  • Implement and evaluate interventions that are designed to improve the health of that population; and
  • Efficiently and effectively provide care for members of that population in a way that is consistent with the community’s cultural, policy and health resource values.
.Modern population-based health management is complex, requiring a multiple set of skills (medical, political, technological, mathematical etc.^ Printer-friendly Version The program in MCH-Epidemiology emphasizes the use of analytic skills to address the health problems of the MCH population.
  • MCH Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The training program will focus on the interface of skills needed to undertake research, with a laboratory emphasis in the population setting.
  • RSPH | EPI PhD Program Information 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.sph.emory.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Program participants will develop a comprehensive set of core skills through competency-based training.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

) of which epidemiological practice and analysis is a core component, that is unified with management science to provide efficient and effective health care and health guidance to a population. .This task requires the forward looking ability of modern risk management approaches that transform health risk factors, incidence, prevalence and mortality statistics (derived from epidemiological analysis) into management metrics that not only guide how a health system responds to current population health issues, but also how a health system can be managed to better respond to future potential population health issues.^ Queensland mental Health Statistics System .
  • Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.qcmhr.uq.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Natural history of atherosclerotic disease in humans and risk factors affecting its development; atherosclerotic disease by age, sex, and in varied populations worldwide; recent guidelines and clinical trials to delay onset, reduce incidence, improve outcome of cardiovascular disease.

^ Reference was made after the word "prospective" to a footnote which read:"O.E.D. Characterized by looking forward into the future.
  • History of epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.epidemiology.ch [Source type: Academic]

.Examples of organizations that use population-based health management that leverage the work and results of epidemiological practice include Canadian Strategy for Cancer Control, Health Canada Tobacco Control Programs, Rick Hansen Foundation, Canadian Tobacco Control Research Initiative.^ Presentation of current epidemiologic research and application of epidemiologic research in the practice of public health.

^ The researcher is also responsible for the use of his data in public health practice.
  • Low Risk Epidemiology and Good Epidemiological Practice 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC tobaccodocuments.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Organization, collection, management, and analysis of epidemiological data using computer programs.

[19][20][21]
Each of these organizations use a population-based health management framework called Life at Risk that combines epidemiological quantitative analysis with demographics, health agency operational research and economics to perform:
  • Population Life Impacts Simulations: Measurement of the future potential impact of disease upon the population with respect to new disease cases, prevalence, premature death as well as potential years of life lost from disability and death;
  • Labour Force Life Impacts Simulations: Measurement of the future potential impact of disease upon the labour force with respect to new disease cases, prevalence, premature death and potential years of life lost from disability and death;
  • Economic Impacts of Disease Simulations: Measurement of the future potential impact of disease upon private sector disposable income impacts (wages, corporate profits, private health care costs) and public sector disposable income impacts (personal income tax, corporate income tax, consumption taxes, publicly funded health care costs).

Types of studies

Case series

.Case-series may refer to the qualititative study of the experience of a single patient, or small group of patients with a similar diagnosis, or to a statistical technique comparing periods during which patients are exposed to some factor with the potential to produce illness with periods when they are unexposed.^ We readily acknowledge that single epidemiological studies can be flawed, just as laboratory experiments can be flawed, and mistaken conclusions can be drawn.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most of these studies have shown alcohol to be an independent risk factor for HCC in HCV-positive patients.
  • Alcohol and Hepatitis C: Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He has formal training and considerable experience in psychometric theory, field-based randomized clinical trial designs, survey research design, and multivariate statistical analysis, as well as qualitative case study approaches.
  • NDRI :: About Us :: Senior Staff 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ndri.org [Source type: Academic]

.The former type of study is purely descriptive and cannot be used to make inferences about the general population of patients with that disease.^ A more pure-bred descendant is the glossary by Watt, Dobson and Grenfell in Grenfell and Dobson, Ecology of infectious diseases in natural populations , Cambridge University Press, 1995.
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

^ About 80 % of the study population is still living.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Population-based studies of the LEDB are based on large samples with state-of-the-art measures of risk factors and disease.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These types of studies, in which an astute clinician identifies an unusual feature of a disease or a patient's history, may lead to formulation of a new hypothesis.^ Other studies evaluate the natural history of the progression of disease in order to assess prognostic factors for predicting outcome.
  • Epidemiology - Graduate Programs - Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics - Case 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC epbiwww.case.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ An example of a clinical study may be the comparison of medical vs. This is called a clinical trial and there are many basic principles in clinical epidemiology that are incorporated in these human experiments.
  • Epidemiology - Graduate Programs - Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics - Case 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC epbiwww.case.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In broader terms an epi-demiological study attempts to determine the natural history of a disease, explore the behavior of the disease and identify the factors that might explain its behavior and relate to its development.
  • Epidemiological Background and Design The Framingham Heart Study 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.framinghamheartstudy.org [Source type: Academic]

.Using the data from the series, analytic studies could be done to investigate possible causal factors.^ Uses comparison groups, which provide baseline data, to quantify the association between exposures and outcomes, and test hypotheses about causal relationships.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Data from the volunteer study indicated that 6,000 exams could be given in this two year cycle.
  • Epidemiological Background and Design The Framingham Heart Study 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.framinghamheartstudy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The analytical process used to explore health problems, the identification of factors associated with them, and the development and evaluation of interventions are covered.

.These can include case control studies or prospective studies.^ A case control study.
  • Alcohol and Hepatitis C: Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Introduces concepts and programming skills necessary to analyze data sets for case-control and cohort studies.

^ This course is designed to provide doctoral students in epidemiology with practical experience in the analysis and interpretation of data from case-control studies.
  • Epidemiology (Ph.D.) 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC main.uab.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A case control study would involve matching comparable controls without the disease to the cases in the series.^ Control: In a case-control study, comparison group of persons without disease.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A study in which the risk factors of people with a disease are compared with those without a disease.
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

^ A case control study.
  • Alcohol and Hepatitis C: Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.A prospective study would involve following the case series over time to evaluate the disease’s natural history.^ This has given us the "natural history" of the risk factors and the diseases that followed them.
  • Epidemiological Background and Design The Framingham Heart Study 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.framinghamheartstudy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other studies evaluate the natural history of the progression of disease in order to assess prognostic factors for predicting outcome.
  • Epidemiology - Graduate Programs - Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics - Case 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC epbiwww.case.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In broader terms an epi-demiological study attempts to determine the natural history of a disease, explore the behavior of the disease and identify the factors that might explain its behavior and relate to its development.
  • Epidemiological Background and Design The Framingham Heart Study 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.framinghamheartstudy.org [Source type: Academic]

[22]
.The latter type, more formally described as self-controlled case-series studies, divide individual patient follow-up time into exposed and unexposed periods and use fixed-effects poisson regression processes to compare the incidence rate of a given outcome between exposed and unexposed periods.^ A study in which people are initially enrolled and then followed up at subsequent times.
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

^ A case control study.
  • Alcohol and Hepatitis C: Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If individuals are followed, this is a longitudinal cohort study.
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

.This technique has been extensively used in the study of adverse reactions to vaccination, and has been shown to provide statistical power comparable to that available in cohort studies.^ Since MacMahon did not provide an average dose per film, we shall use the central estimate of Knox and co-workers ( Study 5 ), which is 0.3 rad per film.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The results of the Profile study are used extensively by NACCHO, other public health organizations, and public health researchers.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Several studies have shown a high prevalence of anti-HCV using first-generation immunosorbent assay among alcoholic patients with liver disease.
  • Alcohol and Hepatitis C: Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Case control studies

.Case control studies select subjects based on their disease status.^ Control: In a case-control study, comparison group of persons without disease.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A case control study.
  • Alcohol and Hepatitis C: Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Case-control study .
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

.A group of individuals that are disease positive (the "case" group) is compared with a group of disease negative individuals (the "control" group).^ Disease in an individual is often evidence of a group phenomena because the factors that caused the disease in that individual are usually affecting others adversely as well.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Understanding the spectrum of disease that can be manifested in a group is important because an animal's position in this spectrum strongly affects how well most diagnostic tests perform on that individual and thus on the group overall.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Attacking the transmission cycle of a disease or the causal chain of a disease at several critical control points will enhance the biosecurity of a group of animals.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The control group should ideally come from the same population that gave rise to the cases.^ The rates of reported cases per 100,000 population in various age groups are shown below: .
  • Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of pandemic H1N1 influenza ('swine influenza') 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Basic human genetic and population genetics principles; methods of integrating genetic principles into epidemiological studies; analytical methods for case control and family data.

.The case control study looks back through time at potential exposures that both groups (cases and controls) may have encountered.^ A case control study.
  • Alcohol and Hepatitis C: Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The relationships of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis to alcohol intake, hepatitis B and C, and delta virus infection: a case control study in Albania.
  • Alcohol and Hepatitis C: Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These epidemics progress through a group over a period of time that is considerably longer than the typical incubation period.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A 2x2 table is constructed, displaying exposed cases (A), exposed controls (B), unexposed cases (C) and unexposed controls (D).^ The search for cases, by incidence and mortality is very much more exhaustive, both in exposed and unexposed women.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

^ By now, a total of 74 histologically-verified cases of breast cancer are available for analysis (56 among exposed, and 18 among unexposed, women).
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

The statistic generated to measure association is the odds ratio (OR), which is the ratio of the odds of exposure in the cases (A/C) to the odds of exposure in the controls (B/D), i.e. OR = (A/C) / (B/D) .
..... Cases Controls
Exposed A B
Unexposed C D
.If the OR is clearly greater than 1, then the conclusion is "those with the disease are more likely to have been exposed," whereas if it is close to 1 then the exposure and disease are not likely associated.^ For example, if volunteers are chosen to test the effects of a vaccine, one might find a lower incidence of disease in this population simply because they are more health conscious than those who would not volunteer for such a study.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The number of people with disease who were exposed to a risk factor ( Ie ) over those with disease who were not exposed ( Io ) divided by those without disease who were exposed ( Ne ) over those without who were not exposed ( No ).
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Hypothesis, alternative: The hypothesis, to be adopted if the null hypothesis proves implausible, in which exposure is associated with disease.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

.If the OR is far less than one, then this suggests that the exposure is a protective factor in the causation of the disease.^ Through the principles of epidemiology, we analyze the interactions of host, exposure, and environmental factors to study the occurrence and causes of disease in human populations.
  • Epidemiology & Computational Biology | Who We Are | Careers | Exponent 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.exponent.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Yes, he will feel such a misfortune far less than another.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The Republic by Plato 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Interpret values of the basic reproductive ratio that are less than one, one and greater than one and give examples of interventions to reduce this ratio.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Case control studies are usually faster and more cost effective than cohort studies, but are sensitive to bias (such as recall bias and selection bias).^ A case control study.
  • Alcohol and Hepatitis C: Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Case-control study .
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Further the Hrubec study has a complement of younger women than does the Davis study, and it is clear that the radiation-sensitivity for breast-cancer is greater in the younger women.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

.The main challenge is to identify the appropriate control group; the distribution of exposure among the control group should be representative of the distribution in the population that gave rise to the cases.^ As for study design, case-control studies are often the sole alternative, as exposure descriptions are poor or nonexistent in most health registers.
  • Low Risk Epidemiology and Good Epidemiological Practice 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC tobaccodocuments.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Control: In a case-control study, comparison group of persons without disease.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Criteria for exposure assessment in case-control studies have recently been reviewed (6).
  • Low Risk Epidemiology and Good Epidemiological Practice 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC tobaccodocuments.org [Source type: Academic]

.This can be achieved by drawing a random sample from the original population at risk.^ Representative sample: A sample whose characteristics correspond to those of the original population or reference population.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Population-based studies of the LEDB are based on large samples with state-of-the-art measures of risk factors and disease.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This has as a consequence that the control group can contain people with the disease under study when the disease has a high attack rate in a population.^ Control: In a case-control study, comparison group of persons without disease.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The study of the causes, distribution, and control of disease within populations.
  • Epidemiology - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prevalence rate: The proportion of persons in a population who have a particular disease or attribute at a specified point in time or over a specified period of time.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

Cohort studies

.Cohort studies select subjects based on their exposure status.^ In this study, hospital records were examined to ascertain X-ray exposure, whereas the original Stewart Study was based on mothers stating whether or not they had had X-rays in the pregnancy.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

.The study subjects should be at risk of the outcome under investigation at the beginning of the cohort study; this usually means that they should be disease free when the cohort study starts.^ Other studies evaluate the natural history of the progression of disease in order to assess prognostic factors for predicting outcome.
  • Epidemiology - Graduate Programs - Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics - Case 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC epbiwww.case.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Previous epidemiological studies sought single causes or agents respon-sible for the epidemic under investigation.
  • Epidemiological Background and Design The Framingham Heart Study 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.framinghamheartstudy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Epidemiology is the study of populations in order to determine the frequency and distribution of disease and measure risks.
  • Epidemiology - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

The cohort is followed through time to assess their later outcome status. .An example of a cohort study would be the investigation of a cohort of smokers and non-smokers over time to estimate the incidence of lung cancer.^ For example, if volunteers are chosen to test the effects of a vaccine, one might find a lower incidence of disease in this population simply because they are more health conscious than those who would not volunteer for such a study.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It would seem unreasonable to attribute the excess breast-cancer deaths to a more efficient ascertainment of total deaths or cancer deaths in the study population.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CHD incidence and mortality in prospective cohort studies (Peele 1993).
  • Utilizing Culture and Behaviour in Epidemiological Models of Alcohol Consumption and Consequences for Western Nations 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.peele.net [Source type: Academic]

.The same 2x2 table is constructed as with the case control study.^ A case control study.
  • Alcohol and Hepatitis C: Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Case-control study .
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

^ This advanced course will focus on design and methodological challenges particularly important in case control studies.

However, the point estimate generated is the Relative Risk (RR), which is the probability of disease for a person in the exposed group, Pe = A / (A+B) over the probability of disease for a person in the unexposed group, Pu = C / (C+D), i.e. RR = Pe / Pu.
..... Case Non case Total
Exposed A B (A+B)
Unexposed C D (C+D)
.As with the OR, a RR greater than 1 shows association, where the conclusion can be read "those with the exposure were more likely to develop disease."^ For example, if volunteers are chosen to test the effects of a vaccine, one might find a lower incidence of disease in this population simply because they are more health conscious than those who would not volunteer for such a study.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Figure 9, the average over 20 simulations, shows the periodic character of a disease like RSV, although at a lower time scale and higher prevalence.
  • Jill Bigley Dunham: An Agent-Based Spatially Explicit Epidemiological Model in MASON 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been suggested that coinfected patients who drank ethanol are more likely to die of end-stage liver disease.
  • Alcohol and Hepatitis C: Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Prospective studies have many benefits over case control studies.^ A case control study.
  • Alcohol and Hepatitis C: Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Case-control study .
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Three papers (on the history of cohort analysis, case-control studies and cancer registries) were written after the conference but will also be part of this series.
  • History of epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.epidemiology.ch [Source type: Academic]

.The RR is a more powerful effect measure than the OR, as the OR is just an estimation of the RR, since true incidence cannot be calculated in a case control study where subjects are selected based on disease status.^ Control: In a case-control study, comparison group of persons without disease.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A case control study.
  • Alcohol and Hepatitis C: Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Case-control study .
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

.Temporality can be established in a prospective study, and confounders are more easily controlled for.^ Covers confounding, randomized trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, and selected topics.

^ About Metropolitan College Boston University Metropolitan College was established in 1965 and offers over 800 courses in more than 30 areas of study.
  • Epidemiology | Online Master of Science in Health Communication 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC healthcommunication.bu.edu [Source type: General]

.However, they are more costly, and there is a greater chance of losing subjects to follow-up based on the long time period over which the cohort is followed.^ The findings are that the relative risk of breast cancer induction from multiple fluoroscopic exams is even greater than observed in the earlier follow-up (our Study 3 ).
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Among the women whose average age was 20 years at the time of irradiation, breast-cancer was observed at more than twice the expected rate during a limited follow-up period.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However the priests of our times are epidemiologists, toxicologists and statisticians, and the procedures followed to arrive at numbers for risk have become very complicated.
  • Low Risk Epidemiology and Good Epidemiological Practice 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC tobaccodocuments.org [Source type: Academic]

Outbreak investigation

For information on investigation of infectious disease outbreaks, please see outbreak investigation.

Validity: precision and bias

Random error

.Random error is the result of fluctuations around a true value because of sampling variability.^ Standard error (of the mean): The standard deviation of a theoretical distribution of sample means about the true population mean.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A mathematical model in which the parameters and variables are not subject to random fluctuations, so that the system is at any time entirely defined by the initial conditions chosen.
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

^ A relative risk, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

Random error is just that: random. .It can occur during data collection, coding, transfer, or analysis.^ Any trend in the collection, analysis, interpretation, publication, or review of data that can lead to conclusions that are systematically different from the truth.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Systematic applications of information science, computer science, and technology to public health practice, research, and learning; methods of disease surveillance, data collection, analysis, and reporting with health informatics.

^ Organization, collection, management, and analysis of epidemiological data using computer programs.

.Examples of random error include: poorly worded questions, a misunderstanding in interpreting an individual answer from a particular respondent, or a typographical error during coding.^ Extensive reviews of possible errors have been presented previously, in particular during a workshop reported by Wynder (23).
  • Low Risk Epidemiology and Good Epidemiological Practice 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC tobaccodocuments.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hands-on experience in weekly workshops will include conducting analyses designed to answer a research question on existing data.

^ A small number of respondents chose to have the interviewer read the questions aloud and then log the answers for them.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Risk of Becoming Cocaine Dependent: Epidemiological Estimates for the United States, 2000-2001 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

Random error affects measurement in a transient, inconsistent manner and it is impossible to correct for random error.
.There is random error in all sampling procedures.^ Biases in the Framingham Cohort The Framingham investigators anticipated that they would obtain all their sample via random selection.
  • Epidemiological Background and Design The Framingham Heart Study 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.framinghamheartstudy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Confidence interval: Epidemiological studies nearly always deal with samples, so the result of any study is subject to random sampling error.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

This is called sampling error.
.Precision in epidemiological variables is a measure of random error.^ Confidence interval: Epidemiological studies nearly always deal with samples, so the result of any study is subject to random sampling error.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dose Errors The potential errors in low risk epidemiology are not different from those in epidemiology in , general, but there is a need for high precision in view of the normal random variation in a studied material.
  • Low Risk Epidemiology and Good Epidemiological Practice 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC tobaccodocuments.org [Source type: Academic]

Precision is also inversely related to random error, so that to reduce random error is to increase precision. .Confidence intervals are computed to demonstrate the precision of relative risk estimates.^ Second, the estimated relative risk of cancer associated with obstetric radiography is now estimated to be about 1.94, which is appreciably higher than the earlier estimates for the Oxford Studies.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Defining exposed populations, characterizing exposure levels, estimating disease risks relative to exposure.

^ The final estimated overall relative risk associated with prenatal X-ray exposure was 2.4, adjusted only for twin birth-weight.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

.The narrower the confidence interval, the more precise the relative risk estimate.^ While it would have been helpful if the entire series of cases in the Harvey Twins Study were larger, the 95 % confidence limits on the relative risk were 1.0 to 5.9.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Second, the estimated relative risk of cancer associated with obstetric radiography is now estimated to be about 1.94, which is appreciably higher than the earlier estimates for the Oxford Studies.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Defining exposed populations, characterizing exposure levels, estimating disease risks relative to exposure.

There are two basic ways to reduce random error in an epidemiological study. .The first is to increase the sample size of the study.^ Sampling Plan, Sample Size and Length of Study The investigators decided that examinations would be given every two years.
  • Epidemiological Background and Design The Framingham Heart Study 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.framinghamheartstudy.org [Source type: Academic]

.In other words, add more subjects to your study.^ In other words, the results of the studies were bound to be negative before the studies were ever undertaken.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In other words, 87 % of the rads received in this study were received at a rate of 5.22 rads per delivery or exposure-session, not 1.5 rad per exposure.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

.The second is to reduce the variability in measurement in the study.^ The current study broadens the base of previous cross-cultural studies of drinking by incorporating cultural variables as primary predictors in statistical analyses, along with, secondarily, policy measures.
  • Utilizing Culture and Behaviour in Epidemiological Models of Alcohol Consumption and Consequences for Western Nations 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.peele.net [Source type: Academic]

.This might be accomplished by using a more precise measuring device or by increasing the number of measurements.^ More precisely TP/(TP+FN), where TP is the number of true positives and FN is the number of false negatives .
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

^ More precisely TN/(TN+FP), where TN is the number of true negatives and FP is the number of false positives .
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

.Note, that if sample size or number of measurements are increased, or a more precise measuring tool is purchased, the costs of the study are usually increased.^ More precisely TP/(TP+FN), where TP is the number of true positives and FN is the number of false negatives .
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Population-based studies of the LEDB are based on large samples with state-of-the-art measures of risk factors and disease.
  • Student Jobs & Internships | School of Public Health and Health Services | George Washington University 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gwumc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Important Corollaries : Because subclinical (silent) cases of most diseases are considerably more numerous than clinical cases in a herd, the economic cost of subclinical disease usually exceeds that of the clinical disease.
  • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.There is usually an uneasy balance between the need for adequate precision and the practical issue of study cost.^ Dose Errors The potential errors in low risk epidemiology are not different from those in epidemiology in , general, but there is a need for high precision in view of the normal random variation in a studied material.
  • Low Risk Epidemiology and Good Epidemiological Practice 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC tobaccodocuments.org [Source type: Academic]

^ How epidemiologic and other scientific studies underlie public health practice; relationship between evidence and action; controversies at interface of science and policy.

Systematic error

.A systematic error or bias occurs when there is a difference between the true value (in the population) and the observed value (in the study) from any cause other than sampling variability.^ Through the principles of epidemiology, we analyze the interactions of host, exposure, and environmental factors to study the occurrence and causes of disease in human populations.
  • Epidemiology & Computational Biology | Who We Are | Careers | Exponent 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.exponent.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An infection which requires close contact, other than sexual contact, between susceptible and infectious individuals, for transmission.
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Association: Statistical relationship between two or more events, characteristics, or other variables.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

.An example of systematic error is if, unbeknown to you, the pulse oximeter you are using is set incorrectly and adds two points to the true value each time a measurement is taken.^ The differential equation which embodies a model provides the values of these derivatives at any particular time point; calculus or a computer can then be used to move the state of the model forwards in time.
  • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

The measuring device could be precise but not accurate. Because the error happens in every instance, it is systematic. Conclusions you draw based on that data will still be incorrect. But the error can be reproduced in the future (e.g., by using the same mis-set instrument).
A mistake in coding that affects all responses for that particular question is another example of a systematic error.
.The validity of a study is dependent on the degree of systematic error.^ What are the shortcomings of observational studies we need to pay attention to (e.g., systematic sampling errors leading to unmeasured confounders-see next class)?
  • Epidemiological Thinking For Non-Specialists 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.faculty.umb.edu [Source type: Academic]

Validity is usually separated into two components:
.
  • Internal validity is dependent on the amount of error in measurements, including exposure, disease, and the associations between these variables.^ While an exposure estimation error may cause the risk to vary between e.g.
    • Low Risk Epidemiology and Good Epidemiological Practice 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC tobaccodocuments.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ For most of these recent-onset users, the maximum interval of recall of cocaine-dependence problems is measured in 0–12 months, some in 1–2 years, none in decades.
    • Neuropsychopharmacology - Risk of Becoming Cocaine Dependent: Epidemiological Estimates for the United States, 2000-2001 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Uses comparison groups, which provide baseline data, to quantify the association between exposures and outcomes, and test hypotheses about causal relationships.
    • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Good internal validity implies a lack of error in measurement and suggests that inferences may be drawn at least as they pertain to the subjects under study.
  • External validity pertains to the process of generalizing the findings of the study to the population from which the sample was drawn (or even beyond that population to a more universal statement).^ For example, if volunteers are chosen to test the effects of a vaccine, one might find a lower incidence of disease in this population simply because they are more health conscious than those who would not volunteer for such a study.
    • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It would seem unreasonable to attribute the excess breast-cancer deaths to a more efficient ascertainment of total deaths or cancer deaths in the study population.
    • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ For a surprising number of veterinary vaccines, evidence of efficacy is either lacking (which means that it may or may not be efficacious) or the evidence suggests that the vaccine is not efficacious.
    • Epidemiology Concepts for Disease in Animal Groups 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.vetmed.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    This requires an understanding of which conditions are relevant (or irrelevant) to the generalization. Internal validity is clearly a prerequisite for external validity.

Selection bias

.Selection bias is one of three types of bias that threatens the validity of a study.^ The reasoning was that the likelihood of medical selection bias would be reduced in the study of twins.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

.Selection bias is an inaccurate measure of effect which results from a systematic difference in the relation between exposure and disease between those who are in the study and those who should be in the study.^ For example, if volunteers are chosen to test the effects of a vaccine, one might find a lower incidence of disease in this population simply because they are more health conscious than those who would not volunteer for such a study.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is a very different status from a study where a cancer-effect from radiation clearly should have been found, but was not.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Now the most skilful physicians are those who, from their youth upwards, have combined with the knowledge of their art the greatest experience of disease; they had better not be robust in health, and should have had all manner of diseases in their own persons.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | The Republic by Plato 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.If one or more of the sampled groups does not accurately represent the population they are intended to represent, then the results of that comparison may be misleading.^ A sample may be random or non-random and it may be representative or non-representative.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, if volunteers are chosen to test the effects of a vaccine, one might find a lower incidence of disease in this population simply because they are more health conscious than those who would not volunteer for such a study.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Representative sample: A sample whose characteristics correspond to those of the original population or reference population.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

Selection bias can produce either an overestimation or underestimation of the effect measure. It can also produce an effect when none actually exists.
An example of selection bias is volunteer bias. Volunteers may not be representative of the true population. .They may exhibit exposures or outcomes which may differ from nonvolunteers (e.g.^ In what follows, we used measured exposures from the literature, but we know that ostensibly equal doses may really be different.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

volunteers tend to be healthier or they may seek out the study because they already have a problem with the disease being studied and want free treatment).
Another type of selection bias is caused by non-respondents. .For example, women who have been subjected to politically motivated sexual assault may be more fearful of participating in a survey measuring incidents of mass rape than non-victims, leading researchers to underestimate the number of rapes.^ Research that may lead to a dissertation.

^ For example, if volunteers are chosen to test the effects of a vaccine, one might find a lower incidence of disease in this population simply because they are more health conscious than those who would not volunteer for such a study.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ On the other hand, women who consume alcohol are more prone to develop liver disease and cirrhosis with relatively lower amounts of alcohol consumption.
  • Alcohol and Hepatitis C: Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.To reduce selection bias, you should develop explicit (objective) definitions of exposure and/or disease.^ Pathogenicity: The proportion of persons infected, after exposure to a causative agent, who then develop clinical disease.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The reasoning was that the likelihood of medical selection bias would be reduced in the study of twins.
  • CHAPTER 21, Decisive Epidemiological Evidence from Humans, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

You should strive for high participation rates. .Have a large sample size and randomly select the respondents so that you have a better chance of truly representing the population.^ Sample: A selected subset of a population.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Representative sample: A sample whose characteristics correspond to those of the original population or reference population.
  • ISPUB - Glossary Of Epidemiological Terms 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nonetheless, NHSDA sample selection probabilities vary by MSA size.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Risk of Becoming Cocaine Dependent: Epidemiological Estimates for the United States, 2000-2001 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

Journals

A list of journals:[23]

General journals

Specialty journals

Areas

By physiology/disease

By methodological approach

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Nutter, Jr., F.W. (1999). "Understanding the interrelationships between botanical, human, and veterinary epidemiology: the Ys and Rs of it all". Ecosys Health 5 (3): 131–40. doi:10.1046/j.1526-0992.1999.09922.x. 
  2. ^ Hippocrates. (~200BC). Airs, Waters, Places.
  3. ^ Carol Buck, Alvaro Llopis, Enrique Nájera, Milton Terris. (1998). The Challenge of Epidemiology: Issues and Selected Readings. Scientific Publication No. 505. Pan American Health Organization. Washington, DC. p3.
  4. ^ ibid.
  5. ^ "Changing Concepts: Background to Epidemiology". Duncan & Associates. http://www.duncan-associates.com/changing_concepts.pdf. Retrieved 2008-02-03. 
  6. ^ "The Republic, by Plato". The Internet Classic Archive. http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/republic.4.iii.html. Retrieved 2008-02-03. 
  7. ^ "A Dissertation on the Origin and Foundation of the Inequality of Mankind". Constitution Society. http://www.constitution.org/jjr/ineq_03.htm. 
  8. ^ Swift, Jonathan. "Gulliver's Travels: Part IV. A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms". http://www.jaffebros.com/lee/gulliver/bk4/chap4-7.html. Retrieved 2008-02-03. 
  9. ^ Cesk, Cas Lek (1980). "The father of medicine, Avicenna, in our science and culture: Abu Ali ibn Sina (980-1037)" (in Czech). Becka J. 119 (1): 17–23. 
  10. ^ George Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science. (cf. Dr. A. Zahoor and Dr. Z. Haq (1997), Quotations From Famous Historians of Science, Cyberistan.
  11. ^ a b Ibrahim B. Syed, Ph.D. (2002). "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times", Journal of the Islamic Medical Association '2', p. 2-9.
  12. ^ Tschanz, David W. (August 2003). "Arab Roots of European Medicine". Heart Views (Qatar: The Gulf Heart Association) 4 (2). http://www.hmc.org.qa/hmc/heartviews/H-V-v4%20N2/9.htm. 
  13. ^ Goodman, Lenn Evan (2003). Islamic Humanism. Oxford University Press. pp. 155. ISBN 0195135806. 
  14. ^ "An Isolated Case of Early Medical Intervention. The Battle Against Neonatal Tetanus in the Island of Vestmannaeyjar (Iceland) During the 19th Century". Instituto de Economía y Geografía. http://www.ieg.csic.es/workshop/pdf/olofpaper.pdf. Retrieved 2010-02-19. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Hill, A.B. (1965). "The environment and disease: association or causation?". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 58: 295–300. PMID 14283879. PMC 1898525. http://www.edwardtufte.com/tufte/hill. 
  16. ^ Phillips, Carl V.; Karen J. Goodman (October 2004). "The missed lessons of Sir Austin Bradford Hill". Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations 1 (3): 3. doi:10.1186/1742-5573-1-3. http://www.epi-perspectives.com/content/1/1/3. 
  17. ^ Green, Michael D.; D. Michal Freedman, and Leon Gordis (PDF). Reference Guide on Epidemiology. Federal Judicial Centre. http://www.fjc.gov/public/pdf.nsf/lookup/sciman06.pdf/$file/sciman06.pdf. Retrieved 2008-02-03. 
  18. ^ Taubes, Gary (2007-09-16). "Do we really know what makes us healthy?". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/16/magazine/16epidemiology-t.html. Retrieved 2007-09-18. 
  19. ^ Smetanin, P.; P. Kobak (October 2005). "Interdisciplinary Cancer Risk Management: Canadian Life and Economic Impacts". 1st International Cancer Control Congress. http://www.cancercontrol2005.com. 
  20. ^ Smetanin, P.; P. Kobak (July 2006). "A Population-Based Risk Management Framework for Cancer Control" (PDF). The International Union Against Cancer Conference. http://www.riskanalytica.com/Library/Papers/Population%20Based%20Risk%20Management%20Framework%20for%20Cancer%20Control.pdf. 
  21. ^ Smetanin, P.; P. Kobak (July 2005). "Selected Canadian Life and Economic Forecast Impacts of Lung Cancer" (PDF). 11th World Conference on Lung Cancer. http://www.riskanalytica.com/Library/Papers/Canadian%20Lung%20Cancer%20Abstract%20Jan%202005.pdf. 
  22. ^ Hennekens, Charles H.; Julie E. Buring (1987). Mayrent, Sherry L. (Ed.). ed. Epidemiology in Medicine. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins. ISBN 978-0316356367. 
  23. ^ "Epidemiologic Inquiry: Impact Factors of leading epidemiology journals". Epidemiologic.org. http://www.epidemiologic.org/2006/10/impact-factors-of-epidemiology-and.html. Retrieved 2008-02-03. 

Bibliography

.
  • Clayton, David and Michael Hills (1993) Statistical Models in Epidemiology Oxford University Press.^ Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology , Oxford University Press, 1995 provides an authoritative printed dictionary of classical epidemiology (and if you have my copy then please bring it back), with some cross coverage of these terms.
    • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-19-852221-5
  • Last JM (2001). ."A dictionary of epidemiology", 4th edn, Oxford: Oxford University Press.^ Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology , Oxford University Press, 1995 provides an authoritative printed dictionary of classical epidemiology (and if you have my copy then please bring it back), with some cross coverage of these terms.
    • Dictionary of (Ecological) Epidemiology 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.swintons.net [Source type: Academic]

    5th. edn (2008), edited by Miquel Porta [1]
  • Morabia, Alfredo. ed. .(2004) A History of Epidemiologic Methods and Concepts.^ Basic epidemiologic concepts of neurologic disease; concepts, methods, examples of neuroepidemiology; varied diseases, methods.

    ^ Concepts and methods of obtaining and using public health data in community settings; how public health data are used for epidemiologic investigations and prevention programs.

    Basel, Birkhauser Verlag. .Part I. [2] [3]
  • Smetanin P., Kobak P., Moyer C., Maley O (2005) “The Risk Management of Tobacco Control Research Policy Programs” The World Conference on Tobacco OR Health Conference, July 12–15, 2006 in Washington DC.
  • Szklo MM & Nieto FJ (2002).^ Adolescent Health: Issues, Programs, and Policies .
    • EpiCH - Students 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.epi.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Children's Health: Issues, Programs, and Policies - Online Course .
    • EpiCH - Students 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.epi.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Children's Health: Issues, Programs, and Policies .
    • EpiCH - Students 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.epi.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    "Epidemiology: beyond the basics", Aspen Publishers, Inc.
  • Rothman, Kenneth, Sander Greenland and Timothy Lash (2008). "Modern Epidemiology", 3rd Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0781755646, ISBN 978-0781755641
  • Rothman, Kenneth (2002). "Epidemiology. An introduction", Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195135547, ISBN 978-0195135541

External links


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

File:Bubonic-plague.jpg
Knowledge limits Hysteria; an undertaker during the Bubonic Plague, one of the most infamous epidemics in human history

What is Epidemiology?

.Epidemiology is the basic science of public health, as it is "the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states in specified populations, and the application of this study to control health problems."^ "Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health."
  • Epidemiological Thinking For Non-Specialists 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.faculty.umb.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Epidemiological concepts and methods; design of descriptive and analytic studies, such as aggregate, case series, cross-sectional, case-control, cohort studies, clinical trials; application of epidemiology to public health practice; communication and dissemination of epidemiological findings.

^ The principal goals of this seminar class are to: 1) familiarize students with the historical development, philosophy and culture of epidemiology; 2) explore, critique, and have in-depth discussions regarding the current state of epidemiology practice and science; and 3) formulate innovative research questions and epidemiology study designs to answer important health-related scientific questions for the future.

.(CDC, Excite) This basically means it is the study of what causes health issues, its spread amongst populations, and using such analysis to solve such health issues.^ This study represents an attempt to operationalize cultural factors in the epidemiology of alcohol use and to measure the impact of such cultural variations on an expanded range of behavioral as well as health outcomes.
  • Utilizing Culture and Behaviour in Epidemiological Models of Alcohol Consumption and Consequences for Western Nations 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.peele.net [Source type: Academic]

^ This course reviews general principles of epidemiology and health policy and how epidemiological studies have influenced health policy using examples related to smoking, asthma, and Reyes Syndrome.

^ This course emphasis is on the major designs of epidemiology and health services outcomes research and the principles of measurement for these studies, particularly the use of primary data collection.

Purpose of this Wikibook

.The purpose of this wikibook is to provide an introductory look into the field of epidemiology to those interested in such issues, but not to ultimately replace any sort of advanced textbook.^ However, due to the strength of our applicant pool, typically those admitted already hold an advanced degree in Epidemiology or another area.
  • RSPH | EPI PhD Program Information 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.sph.emory.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ People who have Epidemiology as a research interest (102) Find people in: sort by: recently joined .
  • Academia.edu | People | People who have Epidemiology as a research interest (102) 17 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.academia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition to discussion of current findings, this course will serve as an introduction to methodological approaches to the field of social epidemiology with specific attention to measurement issues.

It will look at
  • 1.) the history and development of public health,
  • 2.) terms and concepts applied in the public health field,
  • 3.) common concerns and knowledge related to public health (i.e. what causes diseases, preventive methods), and
  • 4.) an overview of the math used in epidemiological studies.
The goal is to demystify a subject which may appear daunting at first, but whose knowledge is beneficial to the general public.

Go to the Table of Contents.

Simple English

Epidemiology is the study of factors which affect the health and illness of populations by communicable and non-communicable diseases. The study is the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. It also is an important methodology of public health research, and an evidence-based medicine for identifying risk factors for disease and determining optimal treatment approaches to clinical practice.

Epidemiologists work from outbreak investigation to study design, data collection and analysis including the development of statistical models to test hypotheses and the documentation of results. Epidemiologists also study the interaction of diseases in a population. Epidemiologists rely on biology (to better understand disease processes), biostatistics (the current raw information available), Geographic Information Science (to store data and map disease patterns) and social science disciplines (to better understand proximate and distal risk factors).

Epidemiology means "the study of what is upon the people". The word derived from the Greek terms epi = upon, among; demos = people, district; logos = study, word, discourse. It applies only to human populations. But the term is used in studies of zoological populations, although there is the term 'epizoology', and it has also been applied to studies of plant populations.

Contents

History

Hippocrates is viewed as the father of epidemiology as the first who has examined the relationships between the occurrence of disease and environmental influences. He has also drawn the distinction between 'epidemic' and 'endemic' to distinguish between diseases that are 'visited upon' a population (epidemic) from those that 'reside within' a population (endemic). The Persian physician Avicenna considered a "father of modern medicine.” In 1020s, he discovered the contagious nature of tuberculosis and sexually transmitted disease, and the distribution of disease through water and soil. Avicenna stated that bodily secretion is contaminated by foul foreign earthly bodies before being infected. He introduced the method of quarantine as a means of limiting the spread of contagious disease.

When the Black Death (bubonic plague) reached Al Andalus in the 14th century, Ibn Khatima hypothesized that infectious diseases are caused by "minute bodies" which enter the human body and cause disease. Another Andalusian-Arabian physician, Ibn al-Khatib (1313–1374) in his treatise On the Plague stated how infectious disease can be transmitted through bodily contact and "through garments, vessels and earrings. Italian doctor from Verona named Girolamo Fracastoro was the first to propose a theory that these very small, unseeable, particles that cause disease were alive. They were considered to be able to spread by air, multiply by themselves and to be destroyable by fire. He refuted Galen's miasma theory (poison gas in sick people). In 1543, he in his book De contagione et contagiosis morbis was the first to promote personal and environmental hygiene to prevent disease. The development of a sufficiently powerful microscope by Anton van Leeuwenhoek in 1675 provided visual evidence of living particles consistent with a germ theory of disease.

In 1662 John Graunt used analysis of the mortality rolls in London before the Great Plague to provide statistical evidence for many theories on disease, and refute widespread ideas on them. Dr. John Snow investigated into the causes of the 19th Century Cholera epidemics. He noticed the significantly higher death rates in two areas supplied by Southwark Company. His identification of the Broad Street pump as the cause of the Soho epidemic is the classic example of epidemiology. He used chlorine in an attempt to clean the water and had the handle removed, thus ending the outbreak. This has been perceived as a major event in the history of public health and can be regarded as the founding event of the science of epidemiology.

The term 'epidemiology' has first been used to describe the study of epidemics in 1802 by the Spanish physician Villalba. The term has expanded considerably in scope since to cover the description and causation of not only epidemic disease, but of disease in general, and even many non-disease health-related conditions, such as high blood pressure and obesity.

In 1847 Hungarian physician Ignaz Semmelweis brought down infant mortality at a Vienna hospital by instituting a disinfection procedure. Unfortunately, disinfection did not become widely practiced until British surgeon Joseph Lister 'discovered' antiseptics in 1865 in light of the work of Louis Pasteur. In the early 20th century, mathematical methods were introduced into epidemiology by Ronald Ross and others. In 1954 there was a publication of the results of a British Doctors Study, led by Richard Doll, which lent very strong statistical support to the suspicion that tobacco smoking was linked to lung cancer.

The profession

Many epidemiologists are physicians, or hold graduate degrees of Master of Public Health (MPH), Master of Science or Epidemiology (MSc.). Doctorates include the Doctor of Public Health (DrPH), Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD), Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Doctor of Science (ScD), or for clinically trained physicians, Doctor of Medicine (MD) and Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) . As public health/health protection practitioners, epidemiologists work in a number of different settings. Some epidemiologists work in the community, commonly in a public health/health protection service and are at the forefront of investigating and combating disease outbreaks. Others work for non-profit organizations, universities, hospitals and larger government entities such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Health Protection Agency, The World Health Organisation (WHO).

The practice

Epidemiology isn’t a collection of statistical tools used to elucidate the associations of exposures to health outcomes, but discovers causal relationships. Epidemiologists employ a range of study designs from the observational to experimental and generally categorized as descriptive, analytic (aiming to further examine known associations or hypothesized relationships), and experimental (a term often equated with clinical or community trials of treatments and other interventions). Epidemiological studies are aimed, where possible, at revealing unbiased relationships between Exposure|exposures such as alcohol or smoking, biological agents, stress, or chemicals to mortality or morbidity. The identification of causal relationships between these exposures and outcomes is an important aspect of epidemiology. Epidemiologists use informatics as a tool. The term ‘’’epidemiologic triad’’’ means the intersection of Host, Agent, and Environment in analyzing an outbreak. Epidemiologists use the key term inference and gather data, a broad range of biomedical and psychosocial theories biology, sociology, mathematics, statistics, anthropology, psychology, and policy in an iterative way to generate or expand theory, to test hypotheses, and to make educated, informed assertions about which relationships are causal, and about exactly how they are causal. Since 1965 they use Bradford-Hill criteria for assessing evidence of causation.

Legal interpretation and advocacy

Epidemiological studies can only go to prove that an agent could have caused disease in population, but not that it did cause, an effect in any particular case. Epidemiology has its limits at the point where an inference is made that the relationship between an agent and a disease is causal (general causation) and where the magnitude of excess risk attributed to the agent has been determined; that is, epidemiology addresses whether an agent can cause a disease, not whether an agent did cause a specific plaintiff’s disease. As a public health discipline, epidemiologic evidence is often used to advocate both personal measures like diet change and corporate measures like removal of junk food advertising, with study findings disseminated to the general public in order to help people to make informed decisions about their health. Often the uncertainties about these findings are not communicated well; news articles often prominently report the latest result of one study with little mention of its limitations, or context. Epidemiological tools have proved effective in establishing major causes of diseases like cholera and lung cancer but have had problems with more subtle health issues, and several recent epidemiological results on medical treatments (for example, on the effects of hormone replacement therapy) have been refuted by later randomized controlled trials.

Population-based health management

Epidemiological practice and the results of epidemiological analysis make a significant contribution to emerging population-based health management frameworks:

  • Assess the health states and health needs of a target population;
  • Implement and evaluate interventions that are designed to improve the health of that population; and
  • Efficiently and effectively provide care for members of that population in a way that is consistent with the community’s cultural, policy and health resource values.

Modern population-based health management is complex, requiring a multiple set of skills (medical, political, technological, mathematical etc.) of which epidemiological practice and analysis is a core component, that is unified with management science to provide efficient and effective health care and health guidance to a population. This task requires the forward looking ability of modern risk management approaches that transform health risk factors, incidence, prevalence and mortality statistics (derived from epidemiological analysis) into management metrics that not only guide how a health system responds to current population health issues, but also how a health system can be managed to better respond to future potential population health issues.

Types of studies

Case series

Case-series may refer to the qualititative study of the experience of a single patient, or small group of patients with a similar diagnosis, or to a statistical technique comparing periods during which patients are exposed to some factor with the potential to produce illness with periods when they are unexposed.

Cohort studies

Cohort studies select subjects based on their exposure status. The study subjects should be at risk of the outcome under investigation at the beginning of the cohort study; this usually means that they should be disease free when the cohort study starts. The cohort is followed through time to assess their later outcome status.

Outbreak investigation

For information on investigation of infectious disease outbreaks, please see outbreak investigation.

General journals

  • American Journal of Epidemiology
  • Epidemiology
  • International Journal of Epidemiology
  • European Journal of Epidemiology

Areas

By physiology/disease

  • Infectious disease epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular disease epidemiology
  • Cancer epidemiology
  • Neuroepidemiology
  • Epidemiology of Aging
  • Oral/Dental epidemiology
  • Obesity/diabetes epidemiology
  • Renal epidemiology
  • Intestinal epidemiology
  • Psychiatric epidemiology
  • Respiratory Epidemiology
  • Pediatric Epidemiology

By methodological approach

  • Environmental epidemiology
  • Economic epidemiology
  • Clinical epidemiology
  • Genetic epidemiology
  • Molecular epidemiology
  • Nutritional epidemiology
  • Social epidemiology
  • Pharmacoepidemiology
  • Infection control and hospital epidemiology
  • Public Health practice epidemiology
  • Biostatistics
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States
  • Epidemiological methods
  • Epidemiological Transition
  • European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control

References

Bibliography

  • Last JM (2001). "A dictionary of epidemiology", 4th edn, Oxford: Oxford University Press. 5th. edn (2008), edited by Miquel Porta [1]
  • Morabia, Alfredo. ed. (2004) A History of Epidemiologic Methods and Concepts. Basel, Birkhauser Verlag. Part I. [2] [3]
  • Rothman, Kenneth, Sander Greenland and Timothy Lash (2008). "Modern Epidemiology", 3rd Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0781755646, ISBN 978-0781755641

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Epidemiology, which are similar to those in the above article.








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