Epithelium: Wikis

  

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Types of epithelium
.In biology and medicine, an epithelium is a tissue composed of cells that line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body.^ The cells of the epitheliums of the serous cavities provide a smooth, moist surface.

^ Organs are composed of tissues, which are in turn composed of cells.

^ Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces and lines body cavities.

[1] .Many glands are also formed from epithelial tissue.^ With evolving tissue maturity, epithelial units organize as repeating structures, and fibroblasts come to reside in the interstitial spaces that form between functional units.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Evidence that fibroblasts derive from epithelium during tissue fibrosis 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Evidence that fibroblasts derive from epithelium during tissue fibrosis 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The simplest form of a multicellular gland is a secretory epithelial sheath - a surface epithelium consisting entirely of secretory cells (e.g.

^ Many treatments for oral precancers remove or destroy only the most superficial portions of the submucosal tissues, thus leaving behind the salivary glands and their ducts.

[2] .It lies on top of connective tissue, and the two layers are separated by a basement membrane.^ The basement membrane is composed of two sublayers.

^ The connective tissue and the epithelium are separated by a basement membrane .

^ The cells comprising an epithelium are arranged in one (simple epithelium) or more (stratified epithelium and transitional epithelium) layers, usually supported on a basement membrane and united together by a cement-like substance which is chemically similar to the matrix or ground-substance of the connective tissues.

[3]
.In humans, epithelium is classified as a primary body tissue, the other ones being connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.^ The cells comprising an epithelium are arranged in one (simple epithelium) or more (stratified epithelium and transitional epithelium) layers, usually supported on a basement membrane and united together by a cement-like substance which is chemically similar to the matrix or ground-substance of the connective tissues.

^ For example, EMT is seen in the formation of mesoderm during gastrulation ( 15 ), with closure of the midline palate ( 36 ), and in the formation of connective tissue cells from somitic epithelium ( 37 ).
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Evidence that fibroblasts derive from epithelium during tissue fibrosis 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Evidence that fibroblasts derive from epithelium during tissue fibrosis 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The mesoderm will form the muscles, blood system, connective tissue, including bone and dentine, the kidneys and the dermis of the skin.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Epithelium is often defined by the expression of the adhesion molecule e-cadherin (as opposed to n-cadherin, which is used by cells of the connective tissue).^ Basal cells often form a well defined layer at the border of the epithelium to the underlying connective tissue.

^ The cells comprising an epithelium are arranged in one (simple epithelium) or more (stratified epithelium and transitional epithelium) layers, usually supported on a basement membrane and united together by a cement-like substance which is chemically similar to the matrix or ground-substance of the connective tissues.

^ Defining the tissue specificity of SV40T expression in 12T-7f tissue recombinants.
  • Laboratory Investigation - Use of tissue recombination to predict phenotypes of transgenic mouse models of prostate carcinoma 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

.Functions of epithelial cells include secretion, selective absorption, protection, transcellular transport and detection of sensation.^ The prostate's main function is to produce seminal fluid, the liquid in semen that protects, supports and helps transport sperm.
  • CA Patent 2504508 - METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR PROSTATE EPITHELIAL CELL DIFFERENTIATION 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is likely that these variations influence the functional properties of breast epithelium altering the ionic concentrations within the lumen, the transepithelial potential and impedance properties, which are dependent upon the ion transport properties of, epithelial cells and the transcellular and paracellular conductance pathways.
  • Method and System for Detecting Electrophysiological Changes in Pre-Cancerous and Cancerous Tissue and Epithelium - Patent application 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In order to more accurately detect transport, alterations in abnormal pre-cancerous or cancerous epithelial tissue, a pharmacological agent may be introduced to manipulate the tissue.
  • Method and System for Detecting Electrophysiological Changes in Pre-Cancerous and Cancerous Tissue and Epithelium - Patent application 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.As a result, they commonly present extensive apical-basolateral polarity (e.g.^ Although prostate cancer mortality commonly results from metastatic disease, nearly 60% of newly diagnosed patients present with localized primary tumors.
  • Immortal human prostate epithelial cell lines and clones and their applications in the research and therapy of prostate cancer - Patent 6982168 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although blastomeres after the 8-cell stage are not truly epithelial, they are polarized and require the activity of PAR-3 / PAR-6 to maintain cell-cell adhesion and restrict PAR-1 and PAR-2 to their basolateral surfaces.
  • Epithelial junctions and attachments 20 September 2009 9:40 UTC www.wormbook.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Based on these results, both basal polarity-directed signaling and collagen IV appear to contribute to apical polarity formation.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Factors necessary to produce basoapical polarity in human glandular epithelium formed in conventional and high-throughput three-dimensional culture: example of the breast epithelium 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

different membrane proteins expressed) and specialization.

Contents

General characters of epithelial tissue

  • It may develop from ectoderm , mesoderm ,or endoderm.
  • The epithelial cells rest on a basement membrane which may be clear or not clear.
  • No blood vessels can enter in between epithelial cells but nerves can , so epithelial tissue is avascular tissue.
  • Epithelial tissue receives nutrition by diffusion from the underlying connective tissue.

Classification (structural)

.Epithelial tissue can be structurally divided into two groups depending on the number of layers of which it is composed.^ Wnts are classified into two groups [3] .
  • PLoS Genetics: Sfrp Controls Apicobasal Polarity and Oriented Cell Division in Developing Gut Epithelium 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.plosgenetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ With evolving tissue maturity, epithelial units organize as repeating structures, and fibroblasts come to reside in the interstitial spaces that form between functional units.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Evidence that fibroblasts derive from epithelium during tissue fibrosis 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Evidence that fibroblasts derive from epithelium during tissue fibrosis 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thinner connective tissue septa subdivide the lobes into a number of lobules .

.Epithelial tissue that is only one cell thick is known as simple epithelium.^ If there is only one layer of cells in the epithelium, it is designated simple .

^ The cells comprising an epithelium are arranged in one (simple epithelium) or more (stratified epithelium and transitional epithelium) layers, usually supported on a basement membrane and united together by a cement-like substance which is chemically similar to the matrix or ground-substance of the connective tissues.

^ Transitional Epithelial cells can slide by one another allowing the epithelium to get thinner (as in a full bladder) without losing the ability to form a strong layer.
  • HistoLab2.htm 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC faculty.une.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If it is two or more cells thick, it is known as stratified epithelium.^ If there are two or more layers of cells, it is termed stratified .

^ The cells comprising an epithelium are arranged in one (simple epithelium) or more (stratified epithelium and transitional epithelium) layers, usually supported on a basement membrane and united together by a cement-like substance which is chemically similar to the matrix or ground-substance of the connective tissues.

^ The highly dynamic nature of the junctional epithelium, however, indicates a much more important role for the cells themselves in the maintenance of tissue integrity ( Schroeder, 1996 ).
  • The Junctional Epithelium: from Health to Disease -- Bosshardt and Lang 84 (1): 9 -- Journal of Dental Research 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC jdr.sagepub.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, when taller simple epithelial cells (see columnar, below) the variably placed nuclei of are viewed in cross section, they can be confused with stratified epithelia.^ N, nuclei of junctional epithelial cells.
  • The Junctional Epithelium: from Health to Disease -- Bosshardt and Lang 84 (1): 9 -- Journal of Dental Research 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC jdr.sagepub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stratified cuboidal and columnar epithelia are not common.

^ Also, it is a columnar epithelium, so the cells should be taller than they are wide.
  • Histology - Epithelial 18 September 2009 5:57 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This kind of epithelium is therefore described as "pseudostratified" epithelium.
.Regardless of the type, any epithelium is separated from the underlying tissue by a thin layer of connective tissue known as the basement membrane.^ This is an example of two layers of simple squamous epithelium separated by some connective tissue.
  • HistoLab2.htm 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC faculty.une.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Basement membrane or basal lamina Epithelia are separated from the underlying connective tissue by an extracellular supporting layer called the basement membrane.

^ The connective tissue and the epithelium are separated by a basement membrane .

.The basement membrane provides structural support for the epithelium and also binds it to neighbouring structures.^ The cells comprising an epithelium are arranged in one (simple epithelium) or more (stratified epithelium and transitional epithelium) layers, usually supported on a basement membrane and united together by a cement-like substance which is chemically similar to the matrix or ground-substance of the connective tissues.

^ It is external to the cell membrane and serves in a structural and supporting role.
  • Discover NOAA's Coral Reef Data 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www8.nos.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As a persistent feature of the basement membrane, pores could facilitate inflammatory cell access to the epithelium and greatly increase the frequency of intercellular contact between trafficking cells.
  • Basement Membrane Pores in Human Bronchial Epithelium : A Conduit for Infiltrating Cells? -- Howat et al. 158 (2): 673 -- American Journal of Pathology 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC ajp.amjpathol.org [Source type: Academic]

Simple epithelium

.Simple epithelium is one cell thick; that is, every cell is in contact with the underlying basal lamina.^ If there is only one layer of cells in the epithelium, it is designated simple .

^ Note the basal lamina at the base of the epithelium.
  • Histology - Epithelial 18 September 2009 5:57 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term “epithelia” as used herein means a tissue comprising a sheet of cells, one or several layers thick, organized above a basal lamina, and often specialized for mechanical protection or active transport.
  • Methods for determining the relative benefits and/or evaluating quantitative changes of products on epithelial tissue - Patent 7229778 18 September 2009 5:57 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Simple epithelium can be subdivided further according to the shape and function of its cells.^ Further, ICCs are considered to represent newly-differentiated β-cells that originate from progenitors localized within the ductal epithelium.
  • PLoS ONE: Cdk4 Regulates Recruitment of Quiescent β-Cells and Ductal Epithelial Progenitors to Reconstitute β-Cell Mass 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This is a functional measurement of the gap-junctions, whereas simple electrical stimulation will measure shunting of a current between the cells (a structural measurement, at least in the high frequency range).
  • Method and System for Detecting Electrophysiological Changes in Pre-Cancerous and Cancerous Tissue and Epithelium - Patent application 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ T HE EPITHELIUM of the small intestine consists of different cell types that have specific morphological and functional characteristics, and typical distributions over the villi and crypts (Cheng and Leblond 1974 ).
  • Vimentin-positive Cells in the Epithelium of Rabbit Ileal Villi Represent Cup Cells but not M-cells -- Ramirez and Gebert 51 (11): 1533 -- Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jhc.org [Source type: Academic]

Type Description
Squamous Squamous cells have the appearance of thin, flat plates. They fit closely together in tissues; providing a smooth, low-friction surface over which fluids can move easily. The shape of the nucleus usually corresponds to the cell form and helps to identify the type of epithelium. Squamous cells tend to have horizontally flattened, elliptical (oval or shape like an egg) nuclei because of the thin flattened form of the cell. Classically, squamous epithelia are found lining surfaces utilising simple passive diffusion such as the alveolar epithelium in the lungs. .Specialised squamous epithelia also form the lining of cavities such as the blood vessels (endothelium) and heart (mesothelium) and the major cavities found within the body.^ Found in blood vessels.
  • Tissue Organization 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Endothelial cells - the epithelial cells of the endothelium which lines blood vessels.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ A simple squamous epithelium, called " endothelium ," lines blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and the chambers of the heart.
  • Histology - Epithelial 18 September 2009 5:57 UTC www.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cuboidal As their name implies, cuboidal cells are roughly cuboidal in shape, appearing square in cross section. Each cell has a spherical nucleus in the centre. Cuboidal epithelium is commonly found in secretive or absorptive tissue: for example the (secretive) exocrine gland the pancreas and the (absorptive) lining of the kidney tubules as well as in the ducts of the glands. They also constitute the germinal epithelium, which produces the egg cells in the female ovary and the sperm cells in the male testes.
Columnar Columnar epithelial cells are elongated and column-shaped. Their nuclei are elongated and are usually located near the base of the cells. Columnar epithelium forms the lining of the stomach and intestines. Some columnar cells are specialised for sensory reception such as in the nose, ears and the taste buds of the tongue. Goblet cells (unicellular glands) are found between the columnar epithelial cells of the duodenum. They secrete mucus, which acts as a lubricant.
Pseudostratified These are simple columnar epithelial cells whose nuclei appear at different heights, giving the misleading (hence "pseudo") impression that the epithelium is stratified when the cells are viewed in cross section. Pseudostratified epithelium can also possess fine hair-like extensions of their apical (luminal) membrane called cilia. .In this case, the epithelium is described as "ciliated" pseudostratified epithelium.^ HAE were generated by provision of an air–liquid interface for 4–6 wk to form well-differentiated, polarized cultures that resemble in vivo pseudostratified ciliated epithelium [13] .
  • PLoS Biology: CFTR Delivery to 25% of Surface Epithelial Cells Restores Normal Rates of Mucus Transport to Human Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelium 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The morphology of WD cultures resembles the pseudostratified ciliated epithelium exhibited by human cartilaginous airway in vivo.
  • Limited Entry of Adenovirus Vectors into Well-Differentiated Airway Epithelium Is Responsible for Inefficient Gene Transfer -- Pickles et al. 72 (7): 6014 -- The Journal of Virology 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium - the ciliated epithelium that lines the trachea (windpipe) of mammals.
  • Discover NOAA's Coral Reef Data 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www8.nos.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Cilia are capable of energy dependent pulsatile beating in a certain direction through interaction of cytoskeletal microtubules and connecting structural proteins and enzymes.^ Cell Tissue Res 1993, 273:41-52 [Medline] Paulsson M: Basement-membrane proteins-structure, assembly and cellular interactions.
  • Basement Membrane Pores in Human Bronchial Epithelium : A Conduit for Infiltrating Cells? -- Howat et al. 158 (2): 673 -- American Journal of Pathology 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC ajp.amjpathol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Structure of some epithelial junctional and cytoskeletal proteins.
  • Epithelial junctions and attachments 20 September 2009 9:40 UTC www.wormbook.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cilia are used for locomotion, the generation of a current, or filter feeding; A cilium is made up of microtubules and has basically the same internal structure as a flagellum.
  • Discover NOAA's Coral Reef Data 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www8.nos.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The wafting effect produced causes mucus secreted locally by the goblet cells (to lubricate and to trap pathogens and particles) to flow in that direction (typically out of the body).^ BIOSKINBALM ™ clears dead cells by producing enzymatic dissolution, destroying pathogens, healing and stimulating the rejuvenation of injured skin tissues.
  • Dermatitis Treatment & Healing Balm 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.bioskinbalm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ciliated epithelium that lines the conducting airways of the lung normally functions to transport hydrated mucus secretions out of the airways to maintain respiratory sterility.
  • PLoS Biology: CFTR Delivery to 25% of Surface Epithelial Cells Restores Normal Rates of Mucus Transport to Human Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelium 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some cells may become resistant to the effects of endogenous TGFß because they cannot produce and/or activate secreted latent TGFß.
  • Ovarian Surface Epithelium: Biology, Endocrinology, and Pathology -- Auersperg et al. 22 (2): 255 -- Endocrine Reviews 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Ciliated epithelium is found in the airways (nose, bronchi), but is also found in the uterus and Fallopian tubes of females, where the cilia propel the ovum to the uterus.^ Similarly, benign serous cystadenomas showed a fallopian tube-like immunostaining, with strongly GHS-R1a positive ciliated cells (C; arrows and inset ).
  • Expression of Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor Type 1a, the Functional Ghrelin Receptor, in Human Ovarian Surface Epithelium, Mullerian Duct Derivatives, and Ovarian Tumors -- Gaytan et al. 90 (3): 1798 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Human airway epithelium is also capable of synthesizing endothelin ( 60 ), which appears to be secreted from bronchial epithelium in culture ( 61 ).
  • Epithelium Smooth Muscle Regulation and Interactions -- SPINA 158 (5): S141 -- American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC ajrccm.atsjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Similarly, strong GHS-R1a immunoreactivity was observed in the fallopian tube epithelium, although peptide signal was selectively restricted to ciliated cells (secretory cells lacked specific GHS-R1a immunoreactivity) regardless of the follicular (B) or luteal (C) phase of the cycle.
  • Expression of Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor Type 1a, the Functional Ghrelin Receptor, in Human Ovarian Surface Epithelium, Mullerian Duct Derivatives, and Ovarian Tumors -- Gaytan et al. 90 (3): 1798 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Stratified Epithelium

.Stratified epithelium differs from simple epithelium in that it is multilayered.^ The cyst wall may be composed of a broad spectrum of epithelium, ranging from flattened squamous or cuboidal cells to multilayered stratified squamous epithelium to even primitive respiratory epithelium.

^ The type of keratin differs in different tissues, i.e, there are different types of keratin for keratinized epidermis, hyperproliferative epidermis of palms and soles, corneal epithelium, stratified epithelium of the esophagus and cervix, and simple epithelium of the epidermal glands.
  • Electronic Textbook of Dermatology, Anatomy of the Skin 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC telemedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The epidermis is a multilayered structure (stratified epithelium) which renews itself continuously by cell division in its deepest layer, the basal layer.
  • Electronic Textbook of Dermatology, Anatomy of the Skin 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC telemedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is therefore found where body linings have to withstand mechanical or chemical insult such that layers can be abraded and lost without exposing subepithelial layers.^ Such cell lines probably have abnormal apoptosis mechanisms.
  • Lessons From Genetically Engineered Animal Models. VII. Apoptosis in intestinal epithelium: lessons from transgenic and knockout mice -- Watson and Pritchard 278 (1): 1 -- AJP - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC ajpgi.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In higher animals, cilia are found projecting from cells that line certain tubes and passages, such as the tracheae (windpipe) of mammals .
  • Discover NOAA's Coral Reef Data 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www8.nos.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Without harmful chemicals or surgical procedures, the skin can be significantly regenerated, reducing fine lines, wrinkles, and other signs of aging without irritation.
  • Peptide Skin Care Treatments 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC skincarerx.com [Source type: General]

.Cells flatten as the layers become more apical, though in their most basal layers the cells can be squamous, cuboidal or columnar.^ Basal and squamous cell cancers .
  • ACS :: Skin Cancer Prevention and Early Detection 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Basal cell cancers and squamous cell cancers are the most common cancers of the skin.
  • ACS :: Skin Cancer Prevention and Early Detection 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Basal and squamous cell cancers (keratinocyte cancers) .
  • ACS :: Skin Cancer Prevention and Early Detection 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In addition though, stratified epithelia (of columnar, cuboidal or squamous type) can have the following specializations:
Specialization Description
Keratinized In this case, the most apical layers (exterior) of cells are dead and lose their nucleus and cytoplasm, instead contain a tough, resistant protein called keratin. This specialization makes the epithelium waterproof, so is found in the mammalian skin. The lining of the oesophagus is an example of a non-keratinzied or "moist" stratified epithelium.
Transitional Transitional epithelium, like pseudostratified epithelium, is almost a class of its own; it is found in tissues that stretch and it can appear to be stratified cuboidal when the tissue is not stretched or stratified squamous when the organ is distended and the tissue stretches. It is sometimes called the urothelium since it is almost exclusively found in the bladder, ureters and urethra.

Functions

.
  • Protection: Epithelial cells protect underlying tissue from mechanical injury, harmful chemicals and pathogens and excessive water loss.
  • Sensation: Sensory stimuli are detected by specialised epithelial cells.^ Particular attention has been paid to elucidating the mechanisms by which Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis ( P. gingivalis ), 2 pathogens implicated as major etiological agents in aggressive and chronic periodontitis, adhere to, invade, and replicate in epithelial cells ( Lamont et al.
    • The Junctional Epithelium: from Health to Disease -- Bosshardt and Lang 84 (1): 9 -- Journal of Dental Research 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC jdr.sagepub.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In order to more accurately detect transport, alterations in abnormal pre-cancerous or cancerous epithelial tissue, a pharmacological agent may be introduced to manipulate the tissue.
    • Method and System for Detecting Electrophysiological Changes in Pre-Cancerous and Cancerous Tissue and Epithelium - Patent application 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Generation of a prostate epithelial cell-specific Cre transgenic mouse model for tissue-specific gene ablation.
    • Laboratory Investigation - Use of tissue recombination to predict phenotypes of transgenic mouse models of prostate carcinoma 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Specialised epithelial tissue containing sensory nerve endings is found in the skin, eyes, ears and nose and on the tongue.
  • Secretion: In glands, epithelial tissue is specialised to secrete specific chemical substances such as enzymes, hormones and lubricating fluids.
  • Absorption: Certain epithelial cells lining the small intestine absorb nutrients from the digestion of food.
  • Excretion: Epithelial tissues in the kidney excrete waste products from the body and reabsorb needed materials from the urine.^ Cytokine production by epithelial cells.
    • Epithelium Smooth Muscle Regulation and Interactions -- SPINA 158 (5): S141 -- American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC ajrccm.atsjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The lining cells secrete the waxy substance found in the canal .

    ^ The PV is characterized by the development of compound glands, which secrete digestive enzymes.
    • Notch signaling functions as a binary switch for the determination of glandular and luminal fates of endodermal epithelium during chicken stomach development — Development 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC dev.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Sweat is also excreted from the body by epithelial cells in the sweat glands.
  • Diffusion: Simple epithelium promotes the diffusion of gases, liquids and nutrients.^ Transitional Epithelial cells can slide by one another allowing the epithelium to get thinner (as in a full bladder) without losing the ability to form a strong layer.
    • HistoLab2.htm 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC faculty.une.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Mammary epithelial cells from I B -deficient glands display increased branching and tubulogenesis in three-dimensional culture.
    • Nuclear Factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) Regulates Proliferation and Branching in Mouse Mammary Epithelium -- Brantley et al. 12 (5): 1445 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Individual vimentin-positive (V9 + ) epithelial cells (red) are found in the villous epithelium.
    • Vimentin-positive Cells in the Epithelium of Rabbit Ileal Villi Represent Cup Cells but not M-cells -- Ramirez and Gebert 51 (11): 1533 -- Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jhc.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Because they form such a thin lining, they are ideal for the diffusion of gases (e.g.^ You may also look at any blood vessel such as the two arterioles illustrated below and see that they have an internal lining of endothelium.
    • HistoLab2.htm 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC faculty.une.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This is because such previous experiments were performed before acinar morphogenesis, while our experiments were conducted on already formed acini.
    • BioMed Central | Full text | Factors necessary to produce basoapical polarity in human glandular epithelium formed in conventional and high-throughput three-dimensional culture: example of the breast epithelium 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Subretinal Membranes As mentioned previously, RPE cells do have a potential to transform into fibroblasts and as such they can form a collagenous extracellular matrix.
    • An Overview on the Toxic Morphological Changes in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium after Systemic Compound Administration -- Mecklenburg and Schraermeyer 35 (2): 252 -- Toxicologic Pathology 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC tpx.sagepub.com [Source type: Academic]

    walls of capillaries and lungs).

Location

.Epithelium lines both the outside (skin) and the inside cavities and lumen of bodies.^ Both types produce keratin from the squamous epithelium lining ( 32 , 33 ).

^ They are lined with ectodermally derived squamous epithelium that contains a variable number of skin appendages (sebaceous glands, hair follicles, and sweat glands).

^ HIAWATHA'S MITTENS He killed the noble Mudjokivis [beaver], Of the skin he made him mittens, Made them with the fur side inside, Made them with the skin side outside, He, to get the warm side inside, Put the inside skin side outside; He, to get the cold side outside, Put the warm side fur side inside.
  • SKIN DISEASES 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The outermost layer of our skin is composed of dead stratified squamous, keratinized epithelial cells.^ This layer of dead cells is often refered to as 'false' skin.

^ Stratified Squamous Epithelium, Keratinized, in human skin.
  • HistoLab2.htm 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC faculty.une.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transitional Epithelial cells can slide by one another allowing the epithelium to get thinner (as in a full bladder) without losing the ability to form a strong layer.
  • HistoLab2.htm 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC faculty.une.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tissues that line the inside of the mouth, the oesophagus and part of the rectum are composed of nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium.^ It is lined with squamous epithelium.

^ The esophagus is lined with non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium.
  • HistoLab2.htm 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC faculty.une.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two types: Nonkeratinized forms moist linings of esophagus, mouth, and vagina; Keratinized forms epidermis of skin- dry membrane, so "K"eep your epidermis "K"overed.
  • Tissue Organization 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Other surfaces that separate body cavities from the outside environment are lined by simple squamous, columnar, or pseudostratified epithelial cells.^ A cervical bronchogenic cyst has a columnar, ciliated, pseudostratified epithelial lining.

^ Epithelial cells line the surfaces of the body and act as a barrier to isolate the body from the outside world.
  • Method and System for Detecting Electrophysiological Changes in Pre-Cancerous and Cancerous Tissue and Epithelium - Patent application 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The internal surface is lined by a pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
  • HistoLab2.htm 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC faculty.une.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other epithelial cells line the insides of the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, the reproductive and urinary tracts, and make up the exocrine and endocrine glands.^ Mammary epithelial cells from I B -deficient glands display increased branching and tubulogenesis in three-dimensional culture.
  • Nuclear Factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) Regulates Proliferation and Branching in Mouse Mammary Epithelium -- Brantley et al. 12 (5): 1445 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbonic anhydrase II-positive pancreatic cells are progenitors for both endocrine and exocrine pancreas after birth.
  • PLoS ONE: Cdk4 Regulates Recruitment of Quiescent β-Cells and Ductal Epithelial Progenitors to Reconstitute β-Cell Mass 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Expression of B7-2 is associated with medullary epithelium but not by epithelial cells lining the cysts.
  • An Organized Medullary Epithelial Structure in the Normal Thymus Expresses Molecules of Respiratory Epithelium and Resembles the Epithelial Thymic Rudiment of Nude Mice -- Dooley et al. 175 (7): 4331 -- The Journal of Immunology 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

.The outer surface of the cornea is covered with fast-growing, easily-regenerated epithelial cells.^ We will extend this study to the analysis of the interactions between bacteria and epithelial cells during these different steps of regeneration in non-CF and CF human airway surface epithelium.
  • Differentiated and functional human airway epithelium regeneration in tracheal xenografts -- Dupuit et al. 278 (1): 165 -- AJP - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC ajplung.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Percentage of proliferating airway epithelial cells through steps of regeneration process.
  • Differentiated and functional human airway epithelium regeneration in tracheal xenografts -- Dupuit et al. 278 (1): 165 -- AJP - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC ajplung.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the current studies extended this work to examine whether epithelial cells might also express NTPDase surface activity.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- PMNs facilitate translocation of platelets across human and mouse epithelium and together alter fluid homeostasis via epithelial cell–expressed ecto-NTPDases 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

.Endothelium (the inner lining of blood vessels, the heart, and lymphatic vessels) is a specialized form of epithelium.^ Endothelial cells - the epithelial cells of the endothelium which lines blood vessels.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Confirming earlier reports (7 , 9) , blood vessels in the control glands formed basket-like structures around the alveoli during pregnancy ( Fig.
  • Inactivation of VEGF in mammary gland epithelium severely compromises mammary gland development and function -- Rossiter et al. 21 (14): 3994 -- The FASEB Journal 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.fasebj.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Early in development, the future OSE forms part of the celomic epithelium, which is the mesodermally derived epithelial lining of the intraembryonic celom.
  • Ovarian Surface Epithelium: Biology, Endocrinology, and Pathology -- Auersperg et al. 22 (2): 255 -- Endocrine Reviews 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Another type, mesothelium, forms the walls of the pericardium, pleurae, and peritoneum.^ The segment of the ethmoid bone which forms part of the inner wall of the orbital cavity is called the orbital plate, while another segment , forming the roof and back part of the septum of the nasal cavity is called the perpendicular plate.

Click the table headings to sort
System Tissue Epithelium Subtype
circulatory blood vessels Simple squamous endothelium
digestive ducts of submandibular glands Stratified columnar -
digestive attached gingiva Stratified squamous, keratinized -
digestive dorsum of tongue Stratified squamous, keratinized -
digestive hard palate Stratified squamous, keratinized -
digestive oesophagus Stratified squamous, non-keratinized -
digestive stomach Simple columnar, non-ciliated -
digestive small intestine Simple columnar, non-ciliated intestinal epithelium
digestive large intestine Simple columnar, non-ciliated intestinal epithelium
digestive rectum Simple columnar, non-ciliated -
digestive anus Stratified squamous, non-keratinized superior to Hilton's white line
Stratified squamous, keratinised inferior to Hilton's white line
-
digestive gallbladder Simple columnar, non-ciliated -
endocrine thyroid follicles Simple cuboidal -
nervous ependyma Simple cuboidal -
lymphatic lymph vessel Simple squamous endothelium
integumentary skin - dead superficial layer Stratified squamous, keratinized -
integumentary sweat gland ducts Stratified cuboidal -
integumentary mesothelium of body cavities Simple squamous mesothelium
reproductive - female ovaries Simple cuboidal germinal epithelium (female)
reproductive - female Fallopian tubes Simple columnar, ciliated -
reproductive - female endometrium (uterus) Simple columnar, ciliated -
reproductive - female cervix (endocervix) Simple columnar -
reproductive - female cervix (ectocervix) Stratified squamous, non-keratinised -
reproductive - female vagina Stratified squamous, non-keratinized -
reproductive - female labia majora Stratified squamous, keratinized -
reproductive - male tubuli recti Simple cuboidal germinal epithelium (male)
reproductive - male rete testis Simple cuboidal -
reproductive - male ductuli efferentes Pseudostratified columnar -
reproductive - male epididymis Pseudostratified columnar, with stereocilia -
reproductive - male vas deferens Pseudostratified columnar -
reproductive - male ejaculatory duct Simple columnar -
reproductive - male (gland) bulbourethral glands Simple columnar -
reproductive - male (gland) seminal vesicle Pseudostratified columnar -
respiratory oropharynx Stratified squamous, non-keratinized -
respiratory larynx Pseudostratified columnar, ciliated respiratory epithelium
respiratory larynx - True vocal cords Stratified squamous, non-keratinized -
respiratory trachea Pseudostratified columnar, ciliated respiratory epithelium
respiratory respiratory bronchioles Simple cuboidal -
sensory cornea Stratified squamous, non-keratinized corneal epithelium
sensory nose Pseudostratified columnar olfactory epithelium
urinary kidney - proximal convoluted tubule Simple cuboidal, with microvilli -
urinary kidney - ascending thin limb Simple squamous -
urinary kidney - distal convoluted tubule Simple cuboidal, without microvilli -
urinary kidney - collecting duct Simple cuboidal -
urinary renal pelvis Transitional urothelium
urinary ureter Transitional urothelium
urinary urinary bladder Transitional urothelium
urinary prostatic urethra Transitional urothelium
urinary membranous urethra Pseudostratified columnar, non-ciliated -
urinary penile urethra Pseudostratified columnar, non-ciliated -
urinary external urethral orifice Stratified squamous -

Additional information

Cell junctions

.A cell junction is a structure within a tissue of a multicellular organism.^ The highly dynamic nature of the junctional epithelium, however, indicates a much more important role for the cells themselves in the maintenance of tissue integrity ( Schroeder, 1996 ).
  • The Junctional Epithelium: from Health to Disease -- Bosshardt and Lang 84 (1): 9 -- Journal of Dental Research 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC jdr.sagepub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Organisms exist either as single cells (unicellular) or as multicellular units .
  • Discover NOAA's Coral Reef Data 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www8.nos.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This is a functional measurement of the gap-junctions, whereas simple electrical stimulation will measure shunting of a current between the cells (a structural measurement, at least in the high frequency range).
  • Method and System for Detecting Electrophysiological Changes in Pre-Cancerous and Cancerous Tissue and Epithelium - Patent application 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.Cell junctions are especially abundant in epithelial tissues.^ N, nucleus of a junctional epithelial cell.
  • The Junctional Epithelium: from Health to Disease -- Bosshardt and Lang 84 (1): 9 -- Journal of Dental Research 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC jdr.sagepub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ N, nuclei of junctional epithelial cells.
  • The Junctional Epithelium: from Health to Disease -- Bosshardt and Lang 84 (1): 9 -- Journal of Dental Research 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC jdr.sagepub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Junctions as organizing centers in epithelial cells?
  • Epithelium--The Primary Building Block for Metazoan Complexity -- Tyler 43 (1): 55 -- Integrative and Comparative Biology 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC icb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.They consist of protein complexes and provide contact between neighbouring cells, between a cell and the extracellular matrix, or they built up the paracellular barrier of epithelia and control the paracellular transport.^ These adhesion proteins regulate the paracellular transport of molecules and ions between cells and are dynamic structures that can tighten the epithelium, preventing the movement of substances, or loosen allowing, substances to pass between cells.
  • Method and System for Detecting Electrophysiological Changes in Pre-Cancerous and Cancerous Tissue and Epithelium - Patent application 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Depending on the levels of ER, up-regulation of c-myc protein by estrogen has been shown to mediate estrogen-induced ovarian cancer cell growth.
  • Ovarian Surface Epithelium: Biology, Endocrinology, and Pathology -- Auersperg et al. 22 (2): 255 -- Endocrine Reviews 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (B) Transmission electron micrograph of the adhesion complex between two ajacent epidermal cells in embryos (picture, courtesy of Dr. Renaud Legouis).
  • Epithelial junctions and attachments 20 September 2009 9:40 UTC www.wormbook.org [Source type: Academic]

Secretory epithelia

.As stated above, secretion is one major function of epithelial cells.^ The ultrastructural features of this epithelium were very reminiscent of respiratory epithelium, displaying mixtures of ciliated epithelium and epithelial cells that resembled mucus-secreting goblet cells.
  • An Organized Medullary Epithelial Structure in the Normal Thymus Expresses Molecules of Respiratory Epithelium and Resembles the Epithelial Thymic Rudiment of Nude Mice -- Dooley et al. 175 (7): 4331 -- The Journal of Immunology 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thymopoiesis requires Pax9 function in thymic epithelial cells.
  • An Organized Medullary Epithelial Structure in the Normal Thymus Expresses Molecules of Respiratory Epithelium and Resembles the Epithelial Thymic Rudiment of Nude Mice -- Dooley et al. 175 (7): 4331 -- The Journal of Immunology 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In one embodiment, the kit comprises the immortalized, human adult normal epithelial cell line, 1532-NP in combination with the autologous, immortalized, human, adult, malignant cell line 1532-CP1 and/or 1532-CP2.
  • Immortal human prostate epithelial cell lines and clones and their applications in the research and therapy of prostate cancer - Patent 6982168 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Glands are formed from the invagination / infolding of epithelial cells and subsequent growth in the underlying connective tissue.^ With evolving tissue maturity, epithelial units organize as repeating structures, and fibroblasts come to reside in the interstitial spaces that form between functional units.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Evidence that fibroblasts derive from epithelium during tissue fibrosis 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Evidence that fibroblasts derive from epithelium during tissue fibrosis 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Generation of a prostate epithelial cell-specific Cre transgenic mouse model for tissue-specific gene ablation.
  • Laboratory Investigation - Use of tissue recombination to predict phenotypes of transgenic mouse models of prostate carcinoma 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The combined treatment of hCG with estradiol may regulate the growth response of epithelial ovarian cancer cells through IGF-I and EGF pathway ( 249 ).
  • Ovarian Surface Epithelium: Biology, Endocrinology, and Pathology -- Auersperg et al. 22 (2): 255 -- Endocrine Reviews 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.There are two major classifications of glands: endocrine glands and exocrine glands.^ There are two major ways the body defends itself; one is by antibody, production, the so called humeral response, as the antibodies circulate in the blood and the fluid between cells.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Endocrine glands are glands that secrete their product directly onto a surface rather than through a duct.^ An exocrine gland is one which secretes onto a surface.

^ Top Endocrine glands - the secretion passes into the blood stream, like insulin, epinephrine.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Rather than impedance, current density may be measured using an array of electrodes at the epithelial or, skin surface.
  • Method and System for Detecting Electrophysiological Changes in Pre-Cancerous and Cancerous Tissue and Epithelium - Patent application 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.This group contains the glands of the Endocrine system.^ Research Endocrine gland ENDOCRINE SYSTEM .

^ An authoritative document containing a system of rules and recommendations to be followed in giving a scientific name to an animal or animal group .
  • Discover NOAA's Coral Reef Data 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www8.nos.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

Sensing the extracellular environment

"Some epithelial cells are ciliated, and they commonly exist as a sheet of polarised cells forming a tube or tubule with cilia projecting into the lumen." Primary cilia on epithelial cells provide chemosensation, thermosensation and mechanosensation of the extracellular environment by playing "a sensory role mediating specific signalling cues, including soluble factors in the external cell environment, a secretory role in which a soluble protein is released to have an effect downstream of the fluid flow, and mediation of fluid flow if the cilia are motile."[4]

Embryology

In general, there are epithelial tissues deriving from all of the embryological germ layers:
.However, it is important to note that pathologists do not consider endothelium and mesothelium (both derived from mesoderm) to be true epithelium.^ The highly dynamic nature of the junctional epithelium, however, indicates a much more important role for the cells themselves in the maintenance of tissue integrity ( Schroeder, 1996 ).
  • The Junctional Epithelium: from Health to Disease -- Bosshardt and Lang 84 (1): 9 -- Journal of Dental Research 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC jdr.sagepub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These findings indicate that pigment epithelium-derived factor could play an important role in regulating the normal prostate, and its loss in prostate tumors could contribute to tumor progression.
  • Decreased Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Is Associated with Metastatic Phenotype in Human and Rat Prostate Tumors -- Halin et al. 64 (16): 5664 -- Cancer Research 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Early in development, the future OSE forms part of the celomic epithelium, which is the mesodermally derived epithelial lining of the intraembryonic celom.
  • Ovarian Surface Epithelium: Biology, Endocrinology, and Pathology -- Auersperg et al. 22 (2): 255 -- Endocrine Reviews 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.This is because such tissues present very different pathology.^ Two different vascular markers were used on human tissues, because they are known to stain partly different types of blood vessels in prostate cancer.
  • Decreased Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Is Associated with Metastatic Phenotype in Human and Rat Prostate Tumors -- Halin et al. 64 (16): 5664 -- Cancer Research 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.For that reason, pathologists label cancers in endothelium and mesothelium sarcomas, whereas true epithelial cancers are called carcinomas.^ The epithelial ovarian carcinomas, which make up more than 85% of human ovarian cancer, arise in the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE).
  • Ovarian Surface Epithelium: Biology, Endocrinology, and Pathology -- Auersperg et al. 22 (2): 255 -- Endocrine Reviews 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In this regard, it has been shown that normal ovarian epithelial cells can produce and activate TGFß1 and -2, whereas production or activation does not occur in several ovarian cancer cell lines ( 74 ).
  • Ovarian Surface Epithelium: Biology, Endocrinology, and Pathology -- Auersperg et al. 22 (2): 255 -- Endocrine Reviews 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Interest in the OSE revived when it became apparent that approximately 90% of human ovarian cancers, viz the epithelial ovarian carcinomas, might arise in the OSE ( 1 , 6 , 7 , 8 ).
  • Ovarian Surface Epithelium: Biology, Endocrinology, and Pathology -- Auersperg et al. 22 (2): 255 -- Endocrine Reviews 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Also, the filaments that support these mesoderm-derived tissues are very distinct.^ These thin-walled spaces are lined by endothelial cells and supporting connective tissue stroma ( Fig 13 ) ( 10 , 37 ).

^ Mesenchyme - dental mesenchyme is tissue derived from the mesoderm of the embryo and which has been infiltrated and highly influenced by migrating cells from the neural crest.
  • Oral Physiology Biology Dictionary 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ In general, expression of N-cadherin alone or of N- and E-cadherin together characterize adhesive mechanisms of mesodermally derived tissues (reviewed in Ref.
  • Ovarian Surface Epithelium: Biology, Endocrinology, and Pathology -- Auersperg et al. 22 (2): 255 -- Endocrine Reviews 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Outside of the field of pathology, it is, in general, accepted that the epithelium arises from all three germ layers.^ All three types of cysts are covered by squamous epithelium.

^ Because of the squamous epithelium lining, all three of these cysts may have cheesy keratinaceous material within the lumen ( 55 ).

^ These cysts can contain structures from one or more of the three primary embryonic germ layers: skin, hair or teeth.
  • Skin, Benign Skin Lesions: eMedicine Plastic Surgery 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Additional images

References

  • OX.ac.uk, University of Oxford
  • Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2002). .Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.^ Short Protocols in Molecular Biology, 3rd ed.
    • Immortal human prostate epithelial cell lines and clones and their applications in the research and therapy of prostate cancer - Patent 6982168 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Basic Methods in Molecular Biology, 2nd ed.
    • Immortal human prostate epithelial cell lines and clones and their applications in the research and therapy of prostate cancer - Patent 6982168 15 September 2009 8:21 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Molecular Biology of the Cell .
    • Nuclear Factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) Regulates Proliferation and Branching in Mouse Mammary Epithelium -- Brantley et al. 12 (5): 1445 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

    ). Garland. ISBN 0815332181. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=mboc4.TOC&depth=2.
     

Further Reading

  • Nagpal R, Patel A, Gibson MC (March 2008). "Epithelial topology". Bioessays 30 (3): 260–6. doi:10.1002/bies.2072210.1002/bies.20722. PMID 18293365. 
  • Green H (September 2008). ."The birth of therapy with cultured cells". Bioessays 30 (9): 897–903. doi:10.1002/bies.2079710.1002/bies.20797.^ Although restitution is impaired by TNF- in cultured mouse intestinal epithelial cells ( 10 ), this is not the case in the intestinal epithelial cell line-6 (IEC-6) ( 12 ).
    • Restitution of single-cell defects in the mouse colon epithelium differs from that of cultured cells -- Günzel et al. 290 (6): R1496 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Restitution was more than 10 times faster than in the cell cultures investigated previously ( 16 , 38 ).
    • Restitution of single-cell defects in the mouse colon epithelium differs from that of cultured cells -- Günzel et al. 290 (6): R1496 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 30 January 2010 2:02 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    PMID 18693268.
     
  • Yamaguchi Y, Brenner M, Hearing VJ (September 2007). ."The regulation of skin pigmentation" (Review).^ Our product regulates pigmentation tone for the total skin surface, lightening the complexion, and blocking the deleterious effects on the appearance caused by certain endocrine disorders.
    • Melasma, Hyperpigmentation, Dark Spots - BioSkinRefiner 17 January 2010 14:49 UTC bioskinrefiner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    J. Biol. Chem. 282 (38): 27557–61. doi:10.1074/jbc.R700026200. PMID 17635904. http://www.jbc.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17635904.
     

Simple English

File:Illu
Types of epithelium

Epithelium is one of the four main types of tissue in the body of animals. It is made up of one or more layers of cells. Epithelium is found on the surface of organs and many other parts of the body. The main functions of epithelium is moving fluids into or out of an organ or body part. It can also help protect organs and sense things. There are many different types of epithelium that do different things in the body. The essentials of the epithelium can be informed by the same features that the lungs work like. It also helps in the excretory system.



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