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Ergonomics: the science of designing the job, equipment, and workplace to fit the worker.
.Ergonomics is the science of designing the job, equipment, and workplace to fit the worker.^ Ergonomics is the science of fitting workplace conditions and job demands to the capabilities of workers.
  • NJDHSS - HSFE - Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.state.nj.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.ohsah.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ To put it simply, ergonomics is essentially fitting the workplace to the worker.
  • Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.pigottnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ergonomics is an applied science that involves creating and designing the workplace to fit the worker in the best way possible.

.Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries, which can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability.^ Improper use can lead to ergonomic injuries.
  • Ergonomics Training, Safety Videos 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC trainum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prevention is the key to reducing musculoskeletal disorders and repetitive strain injuries.
  • ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.rainin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ergonomics, repetitive strain injuries links .
  • NYCOSH: Ergonomics, repetitive strain injuries links and news 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.nycosh.org [Source type: Academic]

[1]
The International Ergonomics Association defines ergonomics as follows:[2]
Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.
.Ergonomics is employed to fulfill the two goals of health and productivity.^ The goal of ergonomics is to make work more comfortable and to improve both health and productivity.
  • UMD-EHSO Occupational Ergonomics Program 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.ehs.columbia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We employ multiple approaches toward this goal, including cognitive and physiological engineering, classical and experimental ergonomics, augmented reality, and the incorporation and application of new technologies.

^ US Ergonomics approach to workplace ergonomics focuses on achieving sustainable gains in productivity while reducing the ergonomic risks and ensuring employee health & safety.
  • US Ergonomics - Expert Ergonomics Consulting Services 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.us-ergo.com [Source type: General]

.It is relevant in the design of such things as safe furniture and easy-to-use interfaces to machines.^ Ergonomics is the science of designing and arranging things to help ensure the safe and efficient interaction between the things and the people who use them.
  • BioFit Engineered Products | Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.biofit.com [Source type: General]
  • Build My Chair .com | Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.buildmychair.com [Source type: General]

^ The study of how computers, machines, office furniture, and other furnishings can be designed to prevent injuries and to make the equipment easy to use.

^ Ergonomics also addresses how things are arranged in the workplace so that they may be used most easily, safely, and effectively.
  • MedFriendly.com: Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.medfriendly.com [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Overview

.Ergonomics is concerned with the ‘fit’ between people and their technological tools and environments.^ Ergonomics is a science concerned with the ‘fit’ between people and their work.
  • ERGONOMICS CANADA - Ergonomic Assessment, Training and Supply 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergonomicscanada.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ergonomics is the science that studies the relationship between people and their work environments.
  • NOVA Solutions, Inc. - Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.novadesk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ergonomics is the science of fitting jobs to people.
  • Ergonomics - AdvanceMed Hanford 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.hanford.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Performance Ergonomics - FAQ 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.performance-ergonomics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • USC: Ergonomics Home 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ehs.sc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • JAN: Accommodation and Compliance Series: Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.jan.wvu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Faculty/Staff - Ergonomics at Work 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.uhs.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ergonomics Branch 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.asse.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It takes account of the user's capabilities and limitations in seeking to ensure that tasks, equipment, information and the environment suit each user.^ It puts people first, taking account of their capabilities and limitations.
  • Ergonomics : The Physio Company � Chartered Physiotherapy & Sports Injury Clinics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.thephysiocompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ergonomics aims to make sure that tasks, equipment, information and the environment suit each worker.
  • Ergonomics : The Physio Company � Chartered Physiotherapy & Sports Injury Clinics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.thephysiocompany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ergonomics seeks to adapt the work environment to the capabilities and limitations of the worker.
  • Visual Ergonomics in the Office 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.office-ergo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To assess the fit between a person and the used technology, ergonomists consider the job (activity) being done and the demands on the user; the equipment used (its size, shape, and how appropriate it is for the task), and the information used (how it is presented, accessed, and changed).^ It is simply "fitting the job task to the person performing the job".
  • Ergonomics Program | Environment, Health & Safety | University of Calgary 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The concept of ergonomics is to fit the job to the person.
  • Ergonomics - Fish Processing Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.toolboxtopics.com [Source type: General]

^ Personal protective equipment use of personal protective devices 3.
  • Ergonomics Rules:OSHA's Final Ergonomics Standard 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.spineuniverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ergonomics draws on many disciplines in its study of humans and their environments, including anthropometry, biomechanics, mechanical engineering, industrial engineering, industrial design, kinesiology, physiology and psychology.^ Human engineering guide to equipment design .
  • Visual Ergonomics in the Office 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.office-ergo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ergonomics incorporates elements from many subjects including anatomy, physiology, psychology and design.
  • Ergonomics and safety for industry in the workplace 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.jtc-ergobuddy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ergonomics: human factors incorporated into engineering & design.
  • Street Characters Inc. Mascot Ergonomics System� 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.mascots.com [Source type: General]

.Typically, an ergonomist will have a BA or BS in Psychology, Industrial/Mechanical Engineering or Industrial Design or Health Sciences, and usually an MA, MS or PhD in a related discipline.^ It's the design tool that engineers and ergonomists have been demanding.
  • Design For Ergonomics Software | Auburn Engineers, Inc. 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergopage.com [Source type: General]

^ As human factors engineering is the parent discipline of ergonomics, he is well-versed in the impact of good design on both health, comfort and efficiency.
  • Ergnomics Guide Chris Adams - About.com Guide to Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergonomics.about.com [Source type: General]

^ Ergonomics is the science concerned with designing and arranging things people use so that the people and things interact most efficiently and safely; also called human engineering.
  • Ergonomics : Computer Furniture : ImageVision, Inc. 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.imagevisioninc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many universities offer Master of Science degrees in Ergonomics, while some offer Master of Ergonomics or Master of Human Factors degrees.^ Promote the science, application, and profession of Human Factors/Ergonomics through: .
  • NEM Home sponsored by HFES 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC hfesnem.org [Source type: General]

^ Some of the factors evaluated in an ergonomic analysis are: .
  • Safety Library - Ergonomics and Material Handling 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.safetyinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC e-infinity.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Human factors and ergonomics .
  • Design Council | About design | Design techniques | Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.designcouncil.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 2000s, occupational therapists have been moving into the field of ergonomics and the field has been heralded as one of the top ten emerging practice areas.^ To provide post-graduate educational opportunities to chiropractors and other professionals in ergonomics principles and practices to improve health and to promote interdisciplinary cooperation and understanding in the field.
  • Life Chiropractic College West : Centers & Institutes : Ergonomics Institutes 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.lifewest.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If you would like to consult an occupational therapist about an ergonomics evaluation, practitioners are available through most hospitals, community clinics, and medical centers.
  • Ergonomics: Occupational Therapy in the Workplace 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.aota.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.aota.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Selected to start   the ergonomics risk reduction process at one of  the first ten United States Postal Service Processing and Distribution Centers.

[3]

Domains

The International Ergonomics Association (IEA) divides ergonomics broadly into three domains:
.
  • Physical ergonomics: is concerned with human anatomical, and some of the anthropometric, physiological and biomechanical characteristics as they relate to physical activity.^ Ergonomics deals with the human body's responses to physical and physiological loads.

    ^ Physical ergonomics deals with the human body's responses to physical and physiological loads.
    • Superfactory - Ergonomics Resources 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.superfactory.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Physical ergonomics - the study of human anatomical, anthropometric, physiological and biomechanical characteristics as they relate to physical activity.
    • Design Council | About design | Design techniques | Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.designcouncil.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .(Relevant topics include working postures, materials handling, repetitive movements, lifting, work related musculoskeletal disorders, workplace layout, safety and health.^ This includes controls and displays, working postures, manual handling, repetitive movements, work-related musculoskeletal disorders, workplace layout, safety and health, lighting, and the thermal and acoustic environment.
    • Design Council | About design | Design techniques | Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.designcouncil.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Relevant topics include manual materials handling, workstation layout, job demands, and risk factors such as repetition, vibration, force and awkward/static posture as they relate to musculoskeletal disorder.
    • Superfactory - Ergonomics Resources 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.superfactory.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ (Relevant topics include working postures, materials handling, repetitive movements, work related musculoskeletal disorders, workplace layout, safety and health.
    • IEA - The International Ergonomics Association 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.iea.cc [Source type: Academic]

    )
  • .
  • Cognitive ergonomics: is concerned with mental processes, such as perception, memory, reasoning, and motor response, as they affect interactions among humans and other elements of a system.^ In addition, they may have other responsibilities not related to ergonomics.
    • The Hong Kong Ergonomics Society 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.ergonomics.org.hk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ergonomics is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of the interactions among humans and other elements of a system .
    • Safety Library - Ergonomics and Material Handling 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.safetyinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Psychological ergonomics - concerned with mental processes, such as perception, cognition, memory, reasoning and emotion and how people interact with products, systems and environments.
    • Design Council | About design | Design techniques | Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.designcouncil.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .(Relevant topics include mental workload, decision-making, skilled performance, human-computer interaction, human reliability, work stress and training as these may relate to human-system and Human-Computer Interaction design.^ The relevant topics include mental workload, cognition, decision-making, skilled performance, human-computer interaction, human reliability, work stress, training, cultural differences, attitudes, pleasure and motivation.
    • Design Council | About design | Design techniques | Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.designcouncil.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Relevant topics include mental workload, vigilance, decision making, skilled performance, human error, human-computer interaction, and training.
    • Superfactory - Ergonomics Resources 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.superfactory.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Human factors ergonomics looks as the psychological aspects of work such as mental stress and decision-making.
    • Ergonomics: The Human Body and Injury Prevention 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.spineuniverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    )
  • .
  • Organizational ergonomics: is concerned with the optimization of socio technical systems, including their organizational structures, policies, and processes.^ Organisational ergonomics - involves optimising socio-technical systems, their organisational structures, policies, and processes.
    • Design Council | About design | Design techniques | Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.designcouncil.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Organizational ergonomics, or macroergonomics, is concerned with the optimization of sociotechnical systems, including their organizational structures, policies, and processes.
    • Superfactory - Ergonomics Resources 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.superfactory.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Ergonomics can optimize the Lean Process.
    • Ergonomics Saves Money 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.danmacleod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (Relevant topics include communication, crew resource management, work design, design of working times, teamwork, participatory design, community ergonomics, cooperative work, new work programs, virtual organizations, telework, and quality management.

History and etymology

.The foundations of the science of ergonomics appear to have been laid within the context of the culture of Ancient Greece.^ The Ergonomics Branch was formed in response to a growing interest within ASSE. As the science of ergonomics evolves, SH&E professionals must stay abreast of the latest concepts and innovations.
  • Ergonomics Branch 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.asse.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A good deal of evidence indicates that Hellenic civilization in the 5th century BC used ergonomic principles in the design of their tools, jobs, and workplaces.^ Good ergonomic design involves?

^ Ergonomics is the science of designing the job, equipment, and workplace to fit the worker.
  • Integrated Safety Management at Berkeley Lab 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.lbl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ergonomic job design .
  • Applied Ergonomics Course 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergonomics.uwm.edu [Source type: Academic]

.One outstanding example of this can be found in the description Hippocrates gave of how a surgeon's workplace should be designed and how the tools he uses should be arranged (see Marmaras, Poulakakis and Papakostopoulos, 1999) [4].^ Design and use of tools .
  • Safety Library - Ergonomics and Material Handling 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.safetyinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A fairly broad definition that fits most situations is that ergonomics is the science of how machines and the people who use them relate to one another.
  • Ergonomic Resources Ergonomic Help for Busy Workers 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergonomic-resources.com [Source type: General]

^ Ergonomics is the science of designing and arranging things to help ensure the safe and efficient interaction between the things and the people who use them.
  • Build My Chair .com | Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.buildmychair.com [Source type: General]

.It is also true that archaeological records of the early Egyptians Dynasties made tools, household equipment, among others that illustrated ergonomic principles.^ Ensure through the provision of training and access to technical resources the incorporation of economically sound ergonomic principles in the design of processes, office equipment, tools, and facilities.
  • Skidmore College: Ergonomics Program 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC cms.skidmore.edu [Source type: General]

^ Experience and practice with eTools, as well as with other ergonomics analysis tools will help the team complete this time-sensitive project.
  • Ergonomic Student Design Competition - Contest Description 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergonomicsdesign.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since each of us has different needs, ergonomic design of tools, equipment, and workspaces must be adjustable enough to accommodate a varied range of body types.
  • Risk Management & Safety Department – Health & Safety – Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC risk.arizona.edu [Source type: Reference]

.It is therefore questionable whether the claim by Marmaras, et al., regarding the origin of ergonomics, can be justified (I G Okorji, 2009).^ During the Preliminary Round Competition, there will be one or two opportunities for the teams to earn extra credit by responding to short and entertaining questions regarding ergonomics.
  • Ergonomic Student Design Competition - Contest Description 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergonomicsdesign.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you're thinking about buying an "ergonomic product" as yourself the following 4 questions: Does the product design and the manufacturer's claims make sense?
  • CUergo: Computer Workstation Ergonomics Guidelines 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergo.human.cornell.edu [Source type: General]

^ Meyers, et al., (1996), identified these three priority risk ergonomics factors as of general concern in California agricultural work.

The term ergonomics is derived from the Greek words ergon [work] and nomos [natural laws] and first entered the modern lexicon when Wojciech Jastrzębowski used the word in his 1857 article Rys ergonomji czyli nauki o pracy, opartej na prawdach poczerpniętych z Nauki Przyrody (The Outline of Ergonomics, i.e. Science of Work, Based on the Truths Taken from the Natural Science).
.Later, in the 19th century, Frederick Winslow Taylor pioneered the "Scientific Management" method, which proposed a way to find the optimum method for carrying out a given task.^ Ergonomics looks at the way we physically interact with our environment at work, rest and play, finding ways to fit the tasks we do to the way our bodies naturally work.
  • ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.ecu.edu [Source type: News]

^ Competence is defined as "the possession of sufficient knowledge, experience and skill to enable the person to know what he or she is doing and to be able to carry out a task in the way in which a person competent in the activity would expect it to be done and to have an appreciation of one's own limitations".
  • The Hong Kong Ergonomics Society 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.ergonomics.org.hk [Source type: Original source]

^ It is designed for office workers and those that may be carrying out lifting tasks as part of their work.
  • Yorkshire Physio 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www26.brinkster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Taylor found that he could, for example, triple the amount of coal that workers were shoveling by incrementally reducing the size and weight of coal shovels until the fastest shoveling rate was reached.^ Reducing the size of items workers must lift or providing lifting equipment also may aid workers.
  • Help For Industry 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ag-ergo.ucdavis.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • http://cc.ysu.edu/eohs/bulletins/Ergonomics.htm 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC cc.ysu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rotating carousels help to store items closer to the worker reducing risky reach.

.Frank and Lillian Gilbreth expanded Taylor's methods in the early 1900s to develop "Time and Motion Studies". They aimed to improve efficiency by eliminating unnecessary steps and actions.^ Ergonomics Ergonomics is the study of the laws of work; applied ergonomics is the science that considers the relationship between people and their workplace and aims to improve comfort, well being, and efficiency on the job.

^ For those who works at a desk for extreme long periods of time steps should be taken to ensure they are seated ergonomically.

^ THE RIGHT MOVES ERGONOMICS IN THE WORKPLACE T173 (18 minutes) By reducing the likelihood of repetitive motion and other ergonomic disorders, employers can reduce lost time and improve productivity.
  • Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.nrsc.com [Source type: General]

.By applying this approach, the Gilbreths reduced the number of motions in bricklaying from 18 to 4.5, allowing bricklayers to increase their productivity from 120 to 350 bricks per hour.^ The dictionary definition of ergonomics is - The applied science of equipment design, as for the workplace, intended to maximize productivity by reducing operator fatigue and discomfort.

^ THE RIGHT MOVES ERGONOMICS IN THE WORKPLACE T173 (18 minutes) By reducing the likelihood of repetitive motion and other ergonomic disorders, employers can reduce lost time and improve productivity.
  • Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.nrsc.com [Source type: General]

^ The results should be increased productivity, user satisfaction, and reduced risk of injury.
  • Visual Ergonomics in the Office 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.office-ergo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.World War II marked the development of new and complex machines and weaponry, and these made new demands on operators' cognition.^ Ergonomics grew further during World War II when it became apparent that people were the weakest link in modern sophisticated military equipment and combat.

^ Planning, development, and production of new equipment and systems and the facilities needed for their support must take into account how the operator and maintainer fit into the design.

^ Nonimaging Electromagnetic Technologies Changes in these passenger screening devices, including improvements to current technologies and the development of new approaches, are likely to be transparent to both passengers and operators.
  • Airline Passenger Security Screening: New Technologies and Implementation Issues 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The decision-making, attention, situational awareness and hand-eye coordination of the machine's operator became key in the success or failure of a task.^ The keys to success are simple: reduce repeated motions, forceful hand exertions, prolonged bending or working above shoulder height.
  • http://cc.ysu.edu/eohs/bulletins/Ergonomics.htm 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC cc.ysu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, touching the keys lightly when typing and using two hands for double key operations will help to minimize strain on the hands and wrists.

^ Placing the input device directly in your immediate reach zone offers natural comfort and maximum hand-to-eye coordination.
  • Computer Workstation Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: General]

.It was observed that fully functional aircraft, flown by the best-trained pilots, still crashed.^ Its function is to present to the pilot the aircraft's attitude or position relative to the horizon: it indicates pitch (climb/dive) and roll (bank angle/rate of turn).

^ If they are not, then assigned functions will not be performed well, even if the best personnel selection, training, and motivation approaches are employed.
  • Airline Passenger Security Screening: New Technologies and Implementation Issues 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In 1943, Alphonse Chapanis, a lieutenant in the U.S. Army, showed that this so-called "pilot error" could be greatly reduced when more logical and differentiable controls replaced confusing designs in airplane cockpits.^ Their goal was to create a cockpit that was more human compatible, so that the pilots could physically reach all the knobs and switches as well as understand the increasingly complex array of dials and indicators.
  • Ergonomics Saves Money 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.danmacleod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At that time it was acknowledged that this sophisticated military equipment, for example aeroplanes, function could be compromised by poor design of controls and pilot position.

^ Strength testing has shown that this spreading of the fingers significantly reduces grip strength, requiring more pressure to maintain control of the tool.
  • Fiskars - ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.fiskars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the decades since the war, ergonomics has continued to flourish and diversify. .The Space Age created new human factors issues such as weightlessness and extreme g-forces.^ Human factors in Space Craft Design .
  • Humanics ErgoSystems: Ergonomics presentations 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergonomics4children.com [Source type: Academic]

^ NEW! ANSI/HFES 200 Human Factors Engineering of Software User Interfaces (final approved version August 2008) .
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics Society: Publications 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.hfes.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Increased automation will also introduce a host of new human factors issues that must be addressed (see, for example, Rasmussen, 1986; Wiener, 1987; Reason, 1990).
  • Airline Passenger Security Screening: New Technologies and Implementation Issues 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.How far could environments in space be tolerated, and what effects would they have on the mind and body?^ The Technique can be described as a simple and practical educational method which alerts people to ways in which they are misusing their bodies, and how their everyday habits of work may be harming them.
  • Ergonomics.org - Posture, Movement and Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergonomics.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OFFICE ERGONOMICS O135 (20 minutes) This video will explain how your body interacts with your office environment and the equipment you use as part of your job.
  • Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.nrsc.com [Source type: General]

^ They also can determine how the components of the workplace can facilitate a healthy and efficient environment or one that could cause injury or illness.
  • Ergonomics: Occupational Therapy in the Workplace 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.aota.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.aota.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The dawn of the Information Age has resulted in the new ergonomics field of human-computer interaction (HCI).^ Ergonomics news and information .
  • Ergonomics and RSI. Links999. 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.links999.net [Source type: News]

^ The Human Interface - the ergonomics of computer use 2.
  • Computer Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.klis.com [Source type: General]

^ Design When there is interaction between the human and the environment, it is never too early to involve the Ergonomist in your new plan and projects.
  • UCSF Office of Environmental Health and Safety Ergonomics Program 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.ehs.ucsf.edu [Source type: General]

.Likewise, the growing demand for and competition among consumer goods and electronics has resulted in more companies including human factors in product design.^ Anthropometric factors in human factors design.

^ Human factors in Space Craft Design .
  • Humanics ErgoSystems: Ergonomics presentations 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergonomics4children.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The result is a safer and more productive workplace.
  • Weber Knapp's Ergonmic Accessories 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC weberknapp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the coining of the term Ergonomics is now widely attributed to Hywel Murrell, a psychologist in a meeting at the UK admirality in 1949. He used it to encompass the studies on which he had been engaged during and after the Second World War.^ The term ergonomics was coined by aircraft designers for the British Royal Air Force in the Second World War.
  • Ergonomics Saves Money 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.danmacleod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ergonomics began during World War II in the design of aircraft.
  • Ergonomic Safety - DrGreene.com 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.drgreene.com [Source type: General]

^ So, in simple terms, ergonomics is the study of work.
  • AFGE | Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.afge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]

Applications

.More than twenty technical subgroups within the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society [6] (HFES) indicate the range of applications for ergonomics.^ Promote the science, application, and profession of Human Factors/Ergonomics through: .
  • NEM Home sponsored by HFES 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC hfesnem.org [Source type: General]

^ Copyright 2005-2010, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics Society: Publications 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.hfes.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics Society: Product Detail 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.hfes.org [Source type: Academic]

^ ANSI/HFES100-1988 , Human Factors & Ergonomic Society, 1988.

.Human factors engineering continues to be successfully applied in the fields of aerospace, aging, health care, IT, product design, transportation, training, nuclear and virtual environments, among others.^ Also called biotechnology , human engineering , human factors engineering .
  • Ergonomic Definition | Definition of Ergonomic at Dictionary.com 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Ergonomics Definition | Definition of Ergonomics at Dictionary.com 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Human engineering guide to equipment design .
  • Visual Ergonomics in the Office 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.office-ergo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also known as human factors engineering.
  • ergonomics webpage 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.library.ucsb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kim Vicente, a University of Toronto Professor of Ergonomics, argues that the nuclear disaster in Chernobyl is attributable to plant designers not paying enough attention to human factors.^ Anthropometric factors in human factors design.
  • Ergonomics | rmLibrary 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.rmlibrary.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Human factors and ergonomics .
  • Design Council | About design | Design techniques | Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.designcouncil.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A critical factor in ergonomics is human posture.
  • Ergonomic Resources Ergonomic Help for Busy Workers 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergonomic-resources.com [Source type: General]

."The operators were trained but the complexity of the reactor and the control panels nevertheless outstripped their ability to grasp what they were seeing [during the prelude to the disaster]."^ The location of the operators control panels,( note when safety distance is used as a primary control method this safe distance must be re-measured to assure that the users safety operation controls are at the correct distance.
  • Ergonomics - Online Safety Community 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.safetycommunity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Equipment controls are insufficiently distinguishable by shape and location coding to permit operation without looking at the control panel.
  • Airline Passenger Security Screening: New Technologies and Implementation Issues 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Physical ergonomics is important in the medical field, particularly to those diagnosed with physiological ailments or disorders such as arthritis (both chronic and temporary) or carpal tunnel syndrome.^ Carpal tunnel syndrome.
  • Ergonomics | rmLibrary 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.rmlibrary.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Designed for constant or chronic wrist problems, particularly for those who describe their problem as Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.
  • Dentec Safety Specialists Inc. 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.dentecsafety.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Carpal tunnel syndrome, Tendonitis, Tenosynovitis, DeQuarvain's Syndrome, Thoracic Outlet Syndrome, many back injuries, and several other conditions may result from repetitive motions.
  • MU Environmental Health and Safety: Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ehs.missouri.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pressure that is insignificant or imperceptible to those unaffected by these disorders may be very painful, or render a device unusable, for those who are.^ His policy has always been to offer these types of products at a very slim profit, so those in need can have usable products.
  • RACHIELE - The ergonomics of kitchen sink design 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.rachiele.com [Source type: General]

^ This course is designed specifically for those who seek to improve their ergonomics knowledge so that they may become leaders in their companies or career.
  • Computer based online ergonomics training 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.ergobuyer.com [Source type: General]

^ Researchers must be aware that the promise of confidentiality and restriction on data use must he made clear to those contracting research and those who may be the subjects of such work.
  • The Hong Kong Ergonomics Society 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.ergonomics.org.hk [Source type: Original source]

.Many ergonomically designed products are also used or recommended to treat or prevent such disorders, and to treat pressure-related chronic pain.^ Many work-related musculoskeletal injuries can be prevented by use of appropriate ergonomic equipment.
  • SONOWORLD : Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.sonoworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three out of four dental professionals experience chronic neck and shoulder pain that can affect quality of life, productivity, or career longevity.
  • IneedCE.com - Online Dental Continuing Education Courses: Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.ineedce.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ergonomics is the science of making the work environment safer and more comfortable for workers using design and anthropometric data.

.Human factors issues arise in simple systems and consumer products as well.^ Emantras Product Design was approached by Signals & Systems India Private Limited (SANDS) to design and develop a new model of TPRS for the Indian as well as international markets.
  • » Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC emantras.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • » Visual Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC emantras.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ergonomics in Design: The Quarterly of Human Factors Applications is intended to serve the needs of practicing human factors/ergonomics professionals who are concerned with the usability of products, systems, tools, and environments.
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics Society: Product Detail 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.hfes.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Optimal use of human resources requires systems and equipment that fit the user, provide for maximal productivity, and minimize the potential for injuries and errors.

.Some examples include cellular telephones and other handheld devices that continue to shrink yet grow more complex (a phenomenon referred to as "creeping featurism"), millions of VCRs blinking "12:00" across the world because very few people can figure out how to program them, or alarm clocks that allow sleepy users to inadvertently turn off the alarm when they mean to hit 'snooze'. A user-centered design (UCD), also known as a systems approach or the usability engineering lifecycle aims to improve the user-system.^ Fundamental themes of ergonomics, such as 'user-centred design', 'user-friendly', 'inclusive design' and 'usability' have become buzz-words within the design industry.
  • Design Council | About design | Design techniques | Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.designcouncil.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently very few businesses operate under this policy simply because of the cost involved.

^ Ergonomics Ergonomics is the study of the laws of work; applied ergonomics is the science that considers the relationship between people and their workplace and aims to improve comfort, well being, and efficiency on the job.

Design of ergonomics experiments

.There is a specific series of steps that should be used in order to properly design an ergonomics experiment.^ For those who works at a desk for extreme long periods of time steps should be taken to ensure they are seated ergonomically.

^ In the context of Web sites, ergonomics is a discipline that brings together human physiological and psychological aspects, and can be applied to Web site design, evaluation, utilization and maintenance in order to ensure that they are efficient and comfortable for different people to use.

^ This course is designed specifically for those who seek to improve their ergonomics knowledge so that they may become leaders in their companies or career.
  • Computer based online ergonomics training 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.ergobuyer.com [Source type: General]

.First, one should select a problem that has practical impact.^ In one study, over half of employees who used computers for at least 15 hours a week reported musculoskeletal problems in the first year of a new job.

^ Typing also presents some problems and should be practiced with proper technique.
  • Ergonomics : Safe Workplace 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.headsetzone.com [Source type: General]

The problem should support or test a current theory. .The user should select one or a few dependent variable(s) which usually measures safety, health, and/or physiological performance.^ The ADA is one of many associations and organizations that have signed voluntary agreements with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to share information on ergonomic issues.
  • ADA.org: Health and Wellness: Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ada.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The associate practitioner reacts to performance, safety, health, and/or quality issues in currently operating work systems.
  • Board of Certification in Professional Ergonomics - Information 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.bcpe.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Define goals Measure current performance Analyze to determine root causes of performance barriers Improve the process Control future performance variations .
  • Ergonomics and Manufacturing Excellence 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ehstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Independent variable(s) should also be chosen at different levels.^ Muscle fatigue is a variable that can occur at different levels depending on individual body physique and conditioning.
  • Introduction to Ergonomics Guidelines for Veterinary Practice 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.avma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Normally, this involves paid participants, the existing environment, equipment, and/or software. .When testing the users, one should give careful instructions describing the method or task and then get voluntary consent.^ This publication includes the rationale and supporting criteria for the development of the revised NIOSH lifting equation and provides users with methods and examples for accurately applying the lifting equation to a variety of lifting tasks.
  • NIOSH Topic: Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders | CDC/NIOSH 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The user should recognize all the possible combinations and interactions to notice the many differences that could occur.^ Different types of office chairs and the adjustments possible on many of them to accommodate various workplace environments were mentioned.
  • ergonomics webpage 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.library.ucsb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Occasional users will have less risk of injury than full-time users, but all users should pay attention to how they use their laptop computers.
  • Computer Posture - Laptop Workstations and How to Make Your Laptop Workstation Ergonomic 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.ergoindemand.com [Source type: General]

Multiple observations and trials should be conducted and compared to maximize the best results. .Once completed, redesigning within and between subjects should be done to vary the data.^ The angle of the back rest is subjective but the trunk and upper legs should form an angle between 90 to 115 degrees.
  • Computer Workstation Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: General]

It is often that permission is needed from the Institutional Review Board before an experiment can be done. .A mathematical model should be used so that the data will be clear once the experiment is completed.^ Before making any adjustments to your chair, you should receive clear, hands-on training on the proper use of the chair.
  • Office Ergonomics : Environmental & Occupational Disease Epidemiology : NYC DOHMH 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.nyc.gov [Source type: General]

^ Researchers must be aware that the promise of confidentiality and restriction on data use must he made clear to those contracting research and those who may be the subjects of such work.
  • The Hong Kong Ergonomics Society 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.ergonomics.org.hk [Source type: Original source]

^ Once the 3D-Model was complete and verified for its size and proportions, the required machining drawings and dimensions were provided for the workshop.
  • » Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC emantras.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The experiment starts with a pilot test. .Make sure in advance that the subjects understand the test, the equipment works, and that the test is able to be finished within the given time.^ If you wear bifocals or trifocal lenses, check with your doctor to make sure they are appropriate for computer work.

^ Simple adjustments to office equipment can work wonders, making work more comfortable and more productive.
  • Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.icwusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vibration Ergonomic Hazards - Working with vibrating tools or equipment for extended periods of time can potentially cause damage to the nerves in the arms, hands, and wrists.
  • Safety Library - Ergonomics and Material Handling 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.safetyinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the experiment actually begins, the subjects should be paid for their work.^ It was agreed that David should speak with Sarah as to an emerging direction for the group to begin working on.
  • ergonomics webpage 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.library.ucsb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All times and other measurements should be carefully measured and recorded.^ Occasional users will have less risk of injury than full-time users, but all users should pay attention to how they use their laptop computers.
  • Computer Posture - Laptop Workstations and How to Make Your Laptop Workstation Ergonomic 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.ergoindemand.com [Source type: General]

Once all the data is compiled, it should be analyzed, reduced, and formatted in the right way. A report explaining the experiment should be written. It should often display statistics including an ANOVA table, plots, and means of central tendency. A final paper should be written and edited after numerous drafts to ensure an adequate report is the final product.

Ergonomics in the workplace

Fundamentals for the Flexible Workplace Variability and compatibility with desk components, that flex from individual work activities to team settings. .Workstations provide supportive ergonomics for task-intensive environments.^ Ergonomics (or human factors) is concerned with interactions among humans and other elements of a system (e.g., the tools, equipment, products, tasks, organization, technology and environment).
  • Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.hse.ubc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Ergonomics means fitting the workplace to the worker by modifying or redesigning the job, workstation, tool, or environment.
  • Safety Library - Ergonomics and Material Handling 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.safetyinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Training provides information for mitigating ergonomic hazards, strategies to improve a workstation layout, and stress-reduction exercises.
  • Safety Library - Ergonomics and Material Handling 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.safetyinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]
.Outside of the discipline itself, the term 'ergonomics' is generally used to refer to physical ergonomics as it relates to the workplace (as in for example ergonomic chairs and keyboards).^ Examples of effective ergonomics workplace practices.

^ Most people are used to ergonomics being related to computer workstations, however ergonomics is applicable to any work enviroment where a persons and a machine or tool interact.
  • Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.tru.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ergonomics is the science of fitting the job to the worker and has proven important in preventing the types of musculoskeletal injuries that contribute to increasing workplace related disability claims.
  • CSU EHS Health and Safety Ergonomics Division 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.ehs.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ergonomics in the workplace has to do largely with the safety of employees, both long and short-term.^ The Applied Ergonomics course is designed both for the practicing ergonomist as well as nurses, physical and occupational therapists, safety professionals, occupational physicians, industrial hygienists and for those responsible for health and safety in the workplace.
  • Applied Ergonomics Course 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergonomics.uwm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Dale cited that generally speaking, there is a new attitude, a new awareness of ergonomic issues and workplace safety.
  • ergonomics webpage 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.library.ucsb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ergonomics training in the workplace or office, our ergonomic professional safety trainers and consultants have years of expertise in employee injury prevention training and consulting.

.Ergonomics can help reduce costs by improving safety.^ Ergonomics helps to reduce job related injuries, illnesses, and stresses, and to increase job satisfaction, which leads to improve productivity.
  • AFGE | Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.afge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ergonomics is a field of study that attempts to reduce strain, fatigue, and injuries by improving product design and workspace arrangement.
  • Computer Ergonomics | UM University Health Service 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.uhs.umich.edu [Source type: General]

^ Working in awkward postures can directly reduce efficiency in three ways that ergonomics can help remedy: .
  • Ergonomics Saves Money 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.danmacleod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This would decrease the money paid out in workers’ compensation. .For example, over five million workers sustain overextension injuries per year.^ Resulting worker injury claims and loss of productivity are estimated to cost US employers $13 billion to $20 billion per year.
  • APTA | Working Solutions: PT Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.apta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Direct Medical costs: $20,000 Medical Care for the Employee: Medical bills for the average shoulder injury (this does not include the possibility of surgical treatment) $20,000 per year.
  • SONOWORLD : Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.sonoworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ergonomics Standard is an important step in combating the widespread cases of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) that now affect 1.8 million U.S. workers each year.
  • Ergonomics Rules:OSHA's Final Ergonomics Standard 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.spineuniverse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Through ergonomics, workplaces can be designed so that workers do not have to overextend themselves and the manufacturing industry could save billions in workers’ compensation.^ Ergonomics is the science of making the work environment safer and more comfortable for workers using design and anthropometric data.

^ Ergonomics is the science of fitting the job to the worker and has proven important in preventing the types of musculoskeletal injuries that contribute to increasing workplace related disability claims.
  • CSU EHS Health and Safety Ergonomics Division 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.ehs.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The agency has identified significant problems for workers involved in production operations in manufacturing and manual handling throughout general industry.
  • Ergonomics FAQs 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.coleparmer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Workplaces may either take the reactive or proactive approach when applying ergonomics practices.^ Examples of effective ergonomics workplace practices.

^ What are the most useful and cost-effective types of government involvement to address workplace ergonomics injuries (e.g., rulemaking, guidelines, best practices, publications/conferences, technical assistance, consultations, partnerships or combinations of such approaches)?
  • AFGE | Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.afge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Applied Ergonomics Training Take advantage of IIE's applied ergonomics courses to master the basic concepts of ergonomics and the appropriate way to apply the principles in your organization.
  • Applied Ergonomics resources 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.iienet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Reactive ergonomics is when something needs to be fixed, and corrective action is taken.^ There is an option here to implement a Quick Fix which eliminates the need to implement the complete ergonomics program.
  • OSHA Ergonomic Program Standard 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.inventoryops.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Proactive ergonomics is the process of seeking areas that could be improved and fixing the issues before they become a large problem.^ However, this can become unwieldy for large areas.
  • Visual Ergonomics in the Office 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.office-ergo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This course is designed specifically for those who seek to improve their ergonomics knowledge so that they may become leaders in their companies or career.
  • Computer based online ergonomics training 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.ergobuyer.com [Source type: General]

^ The document is organized to reflect the four areas of the NORA Team agenda: Surveillance research agenda, etiologic and medical research agenda, intervention research agenda, and improving the research process.
  • NIOSH Topic: Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders | CDC/NIOSH 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Problems may be fixed through equipment design, task design, or environmental design.^ University of Maryland, Baltimore - Environmental Health and Safety Ergonomics is the study of the relationship between people and their work with the goal of designing job tasks, workstations, tools and equipment to fit the physical capabilities of people.
  • ergonomics webpage 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.library.ucsb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Herein lies the problem, designing a fair, comprehensive, enforceable and understandable standard that applies to all general industry is a task destined for failure.
  • OSHA Ergonomic Program Standard 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.inventoryops.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's a way of looking at the overall organization of the design of tasks, tools, equipment, and workplace layouts, with individual people to fit the job to the worker, rather than the worker to the job.
  • Ergonomics: An Effective Productivity Tool 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ecmweb.com [Source type: General]

.Equipment design changes the actual, physical devices used by people.^ The SELF (2) defines ergonomics as: " the implementation of scientific knowledge relating to humans and required to design tools, machines and devices that can be used by as many people as possible, with a maximum of comfort, safety and efficiency " (3) .

^ University of Maryland, Baltimore - Environmental Health and Safety Ergonomics is the study of the relationship between people and their work with the goal of designing job tasks, workstations, tools and equipment to fit the physical capabilities of people.
  • ergonomics webpage 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.library.ucsb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We use quantitative methods to evaluate the workplace and determine those areas that will most benefit from design and placement changes.

.Task design changes what people do with the equipment.^ University of Maryland, Baltimore - Environmental Health and Safety Ergonomics is the study of the relationship between people and their work with the goal of designing job tasks, workstations, tools and equipment to fit the physical capabilities of people.
  • ergonomics webpage 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.library.ucsb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is essential that Human Factors Engineering/Ergonomics be used to design systems and equipment that are matched to the abilities, dimensions, and limitations of the people who will operate and maintain them.

^ Ergonomics refers to the science that designs jobs, equipment, products and workplaces with the people who use them in mind (AIHA, 1994).
  • ergonomics webpage 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.library.ucsb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Environmental design changes the environment in which people work, but not the physical equipment they use.^ Design and layout of the work area or equipment .
  • Safety Library - Ergonomics and Material Handling 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.safetyinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ergonomics is the study of work and the physical work environment.

^ What equipment is used in the work setting?
  • JAN: Accommodation and Compliance Series: Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.jan.wvu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fields of ergonomics

Engineering psychology

.Engineering psychology is an interdisciplinary part of ergonomics and studies the relationships of people to machines, with the intent of improving such relationships.^ Ergonomics realizes that people are physically and mentally different, and have limitations based on these differences and on the fact that the human body is not a machine.
  • ergonomics webpage 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.library.ucsb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ergonomic research is performed by those who study human capabilities in relationship to their work demands.
  • Safety Library - Ergonomics and Material Handling 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.safetyinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most people are used to ergonomics being related to computer workstations, however ergonomics is applicable to any work enviroment where a persons and a machine or tool interact.
  • Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.tru.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This may involve redesigning equipment, changing the way people use machines, or changing the location in which the work takes place.^ To improve the ergonomic features of an application it became necessary to take people's cognitive (1) processes and their work habits into account, right from the initial design phases.

^ Even when working comfortably, it is important to routinely take breaks that involve different muscle groups and remove the eyes from a monitor screen.
  • Office Ergonomics : Environmental & Occupational Disease Epidemiology : NYC DOHMH 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.nyc.gov [Source type: General]

^ Most people are used to ergonomics being related to computer workstations, however ergonomics is applicable to any work enviroment where a persons and a machine or tool interact.
  • Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.tru.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Often, the work of an engineering psychologist is described as making the relationship more "user-friendly."^ Make your work space user friendly.
  • Computer Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.klis.com [Source type: General]

^ Ergonomics is the science of making the work environment safer and more comfortable for workers using design and anthropometric data.

^ The study of the engineering aspects of the relationship between workers and their working environment.
  • ergonomics Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Engineering psychology is an applied field of psychology concerned with psychological factors in the design and use of equipment.^ Human engineering guide to equipment design .
  • Visual Ergonomics in the Office 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.office-ergo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The field is also called human engineering, and human factors.
  • Safety Library - Ergonomics and Material Handling 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.safetyinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ergonomics (or human factors) is concerned with interactions among humans and other elements of a system (e.g., the tools, equipment, products, tasks, organization, technology and environment).
  • Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.hse.ubc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Human factors is broader than engineering psychology, which is focused specifically on designing systems that accommodate the information-processing capabilities of the brain.^ It is also known as human factors engineering.
  • ergonomics webpage 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.library.ucsb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anthropometric factors in human factors design.

^ The field is also called human engineering, and human factors.
  • Safety Library - Ergonomics and Material Handling 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.safetyinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]

Macroergonomics

.Macroergonomics is an approach to ergonomics that emphasizes a broad system view of design, examining organizational environments, culture, history, and work goals.^ This represents the view that ergonomics means adapting the worker to the work environment.
  • Visual Ergonomics in the Office 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.office-ergo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ergonomics is the study of work and the physical work environment.

^ Ergonomics is the science of making the work environment safer and more comfortable for workers using design and anthropometric data.

.It deals with the physical design of tools and the environment.^ It's the science of designing the tools and the environment to fit the worker.
  • Ergonomic Safety - DrGreene.com 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.drgreene.com [Source type: General]

^ Designed for Learning  - Learning tools and environments for the 21st century .

It is the study of the society/technology interface and their consequences for relationships, processes, and institutions. .It also deals with the optimization of the designs of organizational and work systems through the consideration of personnel, technological, and environmental variables and their interactions.^ Human-system interaction design considerations include physical, cognitive, social, organizational and environmental factors.
  • ergonomics webpage 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.library.ucsb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This paper discusses the many variables to take into consideration when purchasing or designing hand tools, such as physical stressors, work performance, engineering requirements, human operator capabilities, and work station or task factors.
  • NIOSH Topic: Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders | CDC/NIOSH 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Extreme use situations: For 2- or 3-shift work organization, select a chair designed for 24-hour use.
  • Office Ergonomics : Environmental & Occupational Disease Epidemiology : NYC DOHMH 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.nyc.gov [Source type: General]

.The goal of macroergonomics is a completely efficient work system at both the macro- and micro-ergonomic level which results in improved productivity, and employee satisfaction, health, safety, and commitment.^ Improved safety and health in the workplace .
  • Safety Library - Ergonomics and Material Handling 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.safetyinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Improved efficiency with better working posture.
  • Ergonomics Saves Money 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.danmacleod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Improved employee morale and job satisfaction .
  • Safety Library - Ergonomics and Material Handling 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.safetyinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It analyzes the whole system, finds how each element should be placed in the system, and considers all aspects for a fully efficient system.^ Designs that consider the human element in all phases, maximize productivity and operational effectiveness while protecting operators and maintainers from accidents and injuries.

^ You should consider attaching a keyboard/mouse tray system to your work surface.
  • CUergo: Computer Workstation Ergonomics Guidelines 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergo.human.cornell.edu [Source type: General]

^ Occasional users will have less risk of injury than full-time users, but all users should pay attention to how they use their laptop computers.
  • Computer Posture - Laptop Workstations and How to Make Your Laptop Workstation Ergonomic 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.ergoindemand.com [Source type: General]

A misplaced element in the system can lead to total failure.
History
.Macroergonomics, also known as organizational design and management factors, deals with the overall design of work systems.^ Home » Ergonomics & Human Factors » Work Design » Ergonomics in Developing Regions: Needs and Applications Please enable JavaScript in your browser!
  • CRC Press Online - Book: Ergonomics in Developing Regions 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.crcpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Human-system interaction design considerations include physical, cognitive, social, organizational and environmental factors.
  • ergonomics webpage 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.library.ucsb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is essential that Human Factors Engineering/Ergonomics be used to design systems and equipment that are matched to the abilities, dimensions, and limitations of the people who will operate and maintain them.

.This domain did not begin to receive recognition as a sub-discipline of ergonomics until the beginning of the 1980s.^ Managing risks begins with the recognition of ergonomic issues, the hassles and barriers to productivity that are present in many manufacturing jobs.
  • Ergonomics and Manufacturing Excellence 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ehstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The idea and current perspective of the discipline was the work of the U.S. Human Factors Society Select Committee on the Future of Human Factors, 1980-2000. This committee was formed to analyze trends in all aspects of life and to look at how they would impact ergonomics over the following 20 years.^ A look at how Australia works ergonomics into building design.
  • Applied Ergonomics resources 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.iienet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CSERIAC - this index is formally organised under topical headings following a Taxonomy of Human Factors and Ergonomics .

^ I have ignored computer ergonomic professionals my entire computing life, but this winter, a pain in my lower back would not go away.
  • Samurai Ergonomics - Samurai - Gizmodo 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC gizmodo.com [Source type: General]

The developments they found include:
  1. Breakthroughs in technology that would change the nature of work, such as the desktop computer,
  2. The need for organizations to adapt to the expectations and needs of this more mature workforce,
  3. Differences between the post-World War II generation and the older generation regarding their expectations the nature of the new workplace,
  4. The inability of solely microergonomics to achieve reductions in lost-time accidents and injuries and increases in productivity,
  5. Increasing workplace liability litigation based on safety design deficiencies.
These predictions have become and continue to become reality. .The macroergonomic intervention in the workplace has been particularly effective in establishing a work culture that promotes and sustains performance and safety improvements.^ Through a clear focus on low-cost workplace improvements that produce quantifiable savings, Humantech clients benefit from health and safety improvements and business results.
  • Ergonomics and Manufacturing Excellence 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ehstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Methods[9]
.
  • Cognitive Walk-through Method: This method is a usability inspection method in which the evaluators can apply user perspective to task scenarios to identify design problems.^ The profession applies theoretical and empirical methods to optimize socio-technical systems design to optimize human well-being and overall system performance by improving the overlap between people's capability and task demands.
    • : Department of Kinesiology: School of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation: Indiana University 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ We use quantitative methods to evaluate the workplace and determine those areas that will most benefit from design and placement changes.

    ^ Risk management in ergonomics is simple and straightforward: Identify ergonomic issues, evaluate tasks associated with those issues, and control exposures where task requirements exceed human capabilities.
    • Ergonomics and Manufacturing Excellence 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ehstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .As applied to macroergonomics, evaluators are able to analyze the usability of work system designs to identify how well a work system is organized and how well the workflow is integrated.
  • Kansei Method: This is a method that transforms consumer’s responses to new products into design specifications.^ How is the work organized?
    • JAN: Accommodation and Compliance Series: Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.jan.wvu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A look at how Australia works ergonomics into building design.
    • Applied Ergonomics resources 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.iienet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ To improve the ergonomic features of an application it became necessary to take people's cognitive (1) processes and their work habits into account, right from the initial design phases.

    .As applied to macroergonomics, this method can translate employee’s responses to changes to a work system into design specifications.
  • High Integration of Technology, Organization, and People (HITOP): This is a manual procedure done step-by-step to apply technological change to the workplace.^ Design and test interventions Recommend work load/procedural changes.
    • SONOWORLD : Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.sonoworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ To improve the ergonomic features of an application it became necessary to take people's cognitive (1) processes and their work habits into account, right from the initial design phases.

    ^ The profession applies theoretical and empirical methods to optimize socio-technical systems design to optimize human well-being and overall system performance by improving the overlap between people's capability and task demands.
    • : Department of Kinesiology: School of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation: Indiana University 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

    It allows managers to be more aware of the human and organizational aspects of their technology plans, allowing them to efficiently integrate technology in these contexts.
  • Top Modeler: This model helps manufacturing companies identify the organizational changes needed when new technologies are being considered for their process.
  • Computer-integrated Manufacturing, Organization, and People System Design (CIMOP): This model allows for evaluating computer-integrated manufacturing, organization, and people system design based on knowledge of the system.
  • Anthropotechnology: This method considers analysis and design modification of systems for the efficient transfer of technology from one culture to another.
  • Systems Analysis Tool (SAT): This is a method to conduct systematic trade-off evaluations of work-system intervention alternatives.
  • Macroergonomic Analysis of Structure (MAS): This method analyzes the structure of work systems according to their compatibility with unique sociotechnical aspects.
  • Macroergonomic Analysis and Design (MEAD): This method assesses work-system processes by using a ten-step process.

Seating ergonomics

.The best way to reduce pressure in the back is to be in a standing position.^ Such an arrangement reduces potential stress to the back, shoulders, and arms by avoiding awkward postures and positions.
  • Safety Library - Ergonomics and Material Handling 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.safetyinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, there are times when you need to sit.^ You may set an amount of "work time," during which Coffee Break sits in the background with a timer displayed, and an amount of "break time," or "sleep time," during which you are forced to take a break from the computer.
  • indexpub 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.lib.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, there is scant evidence that sit-stand furniture has cost effective benefits.
  • CUergo: Computer Workstation Ergonomics Guidelines 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergo.human.cornell.edu [Source type: General]

^ If you cant reach an object at all, you may need to stop productive work and fetch a step stool or take time to remove an obstruction.
  • Ergonomics Saves Money 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.danmacleod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

When sitting, the main part of the body weight is transferred to the seat. .Some weight is also transferred to the floor, back rest, and armrests.^ Adjust height of chair so feet rest flat on floor Sit upright in the chair with the low back against the backrest and the shoulders touching the backrest.
  • Computer Workstation Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: General]

^ If you don't have armrests, push your keyboard back far enough so that your forearms can rest on the desk at the same open angle.
  • Ergonomics : Safe Workplace 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.headsetzone.com [Source type: General]

Where the weight is transferred is the key to a good seat design. .When the proper areas are not supported, sitting in a seat all day can put unwanted pressure on the back causing pain.^ Steps to Beating Cervical Radiculopathy) Proper Ergonomics For The Computer Professional - From The Ground Up As it turns out humans were not really built to sit in front of a computer all day.
  • Ergonomics Are Everything 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.cfsnap.com [Source type: General]

^ This is avoided by putting your weight evenly on both feet when standing and using your abdominal muscles to support your trunk when sitting.
  • SONOWORLD : Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.sonoworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sit back against the lumbar support or the back of your chair so that your lumbar curve is supported and release your upper back into the back of the chair.
  • Ergonomics : Safe Workplace 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.headsetzone.com [Source type: General]

.The lumbar (bottom five vertebrate in the spine) needs to be supported to decrease disc pressure.^ A. Expensive motors and adjustable sections are not necessary if the backrest has firm support for the inward curve of the lower spine (lumbar) and outward curve of the upper spine (thoracic).
  • Ergonomics & Computer Injury: FAQs 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.netsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In  the recommended posture the chair starts to work for the body and there are significant decreases in postural muscle activity and in intervertebral disc pressure in the lumbar spine.
  • CUergo: Computer Workstation Ergonomics Guidelines 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergo.human.cornell.edu [Source type: General]

.Providing both a seat back that inclines backwards and has a lumbar support is critical to prevent excessive low back pressures.^ This collection of Allsteel seating products provides solutions for both open plan and private office management and executive seating.

^ Co-chaired workshop with Kageyu Noro, Rethinking back support: Sacral, lumbar or "live backs" ?
  • Humanics ErgoSystems: Ergonomics presentations 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergonomics4children.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sit back against the lumbar support or the back of your chair so that your lumbar curve is supported and release your upper back into the back of the chair.
  • Ergonomics : Safe Workplace 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.headsetzone.com [Source type: General]

.The combination which minimizes pressure on the lower back is having a backrest inclination of 120 degrees and a lumbar support of 5 cm.^ The spine has three natural curves in the cervical (neck), thoracic (upper back) and lumbar (lower back) regions.
  • Ergonomics : Safe Workplace 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.headsetzone.com [Source type: General]

^ If only one person is using this the chair can even be at a fixed height providing that it is comfortable to sit on and has a good backrest that provides lumbar support .
  • CUergo: Computer Workstation Ergonomics Guidelines 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergo.human.cornell.edu [Source type: General]

^ A properly designed backrest should support the upper and lower spine.
  • JAN: Accommodation and Compliance Series: Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.jan.wvu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 120 degrees inclination means the angle between the seat and the backrest should be 120 degrees.^ Elbows should be kept at a 90 to 100 degree angle.
  • Ergonomic Safety - DrGreene.com 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.drgreene.com [Source type: General]

^ There should be 2-4 inches between the edge of the seat and the back of the knee Arm rests should be removable and the distance between the arm rests should be adjustable.
  • Computer Workstation Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: General]

^ Make sure that the user's elbow angle (the angle between the inner surface of the upper arm and the forearm) is at or greater than 90 degrees to avoid nerve compression at the elbow.
  • CUergo: Computer Workstation Ergonomics Guidelines 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergo.human.cornell.edu [Source type: General]

.The lumbar support of 5 cm means the chair backrest supports the lumbar by sticking out 5 cm in the lower back area.^ The chair back should have a lumbar support Adjust height of backrest to support the natural inward curve of the lower back.
  • Computer Workstation Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: General]

^ A chair that does not provide good posture can lead to lower back pain.
  • Home-Office Ergonomics : Decorating : Home & Garden Television 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.hgtv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The spine has three natural curves in the cervical (neck), thoracic (upper back) and lumbar (lower back) regions.
  • Ergonomics : Safe Workplace 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.headsetzone.com [Source type: General]

.One drawback to creating an open body angle by moving the backrest backwards is that it takes ones body away from the tasking position, which typically involves leaning inward towards a desk or table.^ You should also position your workstation facing towards windows instead of away from them to prevent window glare from being reflected in the monitor.
  • Ergonomics : Safe Workplace 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.headsetzone.com [Source type: General]

^ Are door closers adjusted so that from an open position of 70 degrees, the door will take at least 3 seconds to move to a point 3 inches from the latch?
  • JAN: Accommodation and Compliance Series: Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.jan.wvu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Position monitors away from direct lighting which creates excessive glare or use a glare filter over the monitor to reduce glare.
  • Computer Workstation Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: General]

.One solution to this problem can be found in the kneeling chair.^ It seems easy to understand that, if having the monitor too close contributes to the problem, one of the solutions is to place it farther away.
  • Visual Ergonomics in the Office 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.office-ergo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A keyboard tray with a mouse shelf extension is one easy and inexpensive solution to this problem.
  • Ergonomics & Computer Injury: FAQs 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.netsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A proper kneeling chair creates the open body angle by lowering the angle of the lower body, keeping the spine in alignment and the sitter properly positioned to task.^ Proper alignment of the spine means keeping these natural curves lifted, not collapsed or held.
  • Ergonomics : Safe Workplace 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.headsetzone.com [Source type: General]

^ A properly designed backrest should support the upper and lower spine.
  • JAN: Accommodation and Compliance Series: Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.jan.wvu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the table lower and the chair higher the angle of abduction is now les than 30 degrees.
  • SONOWORLD : Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.sonoworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The benefit of this position is that if one leans inward, the body angle remains 90 degrees or wider.^ Elbows should be kept at a 90 to 100 degree angle.
  • Ergonomic Safety - DrGreene.com 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.drgreene.com [Source type: General]

^ To ensure a 90-degree angle, the back of the knees should touch the chair's seat.
  • Home-Office Ergonomics : Decorating : Home & Garden Television 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.hgtv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Make sure that the user's elbow angle (the angle between the inner surface of the upper arm and the forearm) is at or greater than 90 degrees to avoid nerve compression at the elbow.
  • CUergo: Computer Workstation Ergonomics Guidelines 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergo.human.cornell.edu [Source type: General]

.One mis-perception regarding kneeling chairs is that the body's weight bears on the knees, and thus users with poor knees cannot use the chair.^ Being over-weight puts a lot more compression on the weight-bearing joints in the spine, hips and knees and feet.
  • Computer Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.klis.com [Source type: General]

^ If more than one person will be using the computer, consider buying and a chair with several ergonomic features .
  • CUergo: Computer Workstation Ergonomics Guidelines 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergo.human.cornell.edu [Source type: General]

^ If only one person is using this the chair can even be at a fixed height providing that it is comfortable to sit on and has a good backrest that provides lumbar support .
  • CUergo: Computer Workstation Ergonomics Guidelines 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergo.human.cornell.edu [Source type: General]

.This misperception has led to a generation of kneeling chairs that attempt to correct this by providing a horizontal seating surface with an ancillary knee pad.^ Ergonomic chair Adjustable Seating's EquipoisE  - A dynamic kneel/sit chair for superb comfort & healthy back.

^ In general, the clearance between the top of the seat pan and the bottom of the work surface should be about 11 inches with about 24 to 32 inches provided horizontally at the knee and ankle respectively.
  • JAN: Accommodation and Compliance Series: Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.jan.wvu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adjustable Seating's ergonomic chair EquipoisE  - A dynamic, kneel-sit chair, perfect posture, superb comfort.

This design wholly defeats the purpose of the chair. .In a proper kneeling chair, some of the weight bears on the shins, not the knees, but the primary function of the shin rests (knee rests) are to keep one from falling forward out of the chair.^ Being over-weight puts a lot more compression on the weight-bearing joints in the spine, hips and knees and feet.
  • Computer Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.klis.com [Source type: General]

^ Proper Weight: Avoiding the extra pounds not only helps your joints stay young, but also is very good for the rest of your body especially your heart and weight bearing parts.
  • Computer Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.klis.com [Source type: General]

^ Use a footrest when attempts to adjust your chair and the rest of the workstation fail to keep your feet on the ground.
  • Computer Workstation Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: General]

Most of the weight remains on the buttocks. .Another way to keep the body from falling forward is with a saddle seat.^ Keep trying until you get it the way your body likes.
  • Computer Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.klis.com [Source type: General]

.This type of seat is generally seen in some sit stand stools, which seek to emulate the riding or saddle position of a horseback rider, the first "job" involving extended periods of sitting.^ Sit/stand seat from Univ.
  • Ergonomics workplace & product design research, anthropometrics, training, ergonomic standards & guidelines 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.humanics-es.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sit/stand stools or foot rails can also be used to reduce fatigue and discomfort.

^ People working in awkward and uncomfortable postures are not in a position to do their jobs right the first time.
  • Ergonomics Saves Money 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.danmacleod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another key to reducing lumbar disc pressure is the use of armrests.^ Don't forget to use the lightest possible finger pressure during keying.
  • Ergonomics & Computer Injury: FAQs 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.netsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In  the recommended posture the chair starts to work for the body and there are significant decreases in postural muscle activity and in intervertebral disc pressure in the lumbar spine.
  • CUergo: Computer Workstation Ergonomics Guidelines 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergo.human.cornell.edu [Source type: General]

.They help by putting the force of your body not entirely on the seat and back rest, but putting some of this pressure on the armrests.^ There should be 2-4 inches between the edge of the seat and the back of the knee Arm rests should be removable and the distance between the arm rests should be adjustable.
  • Computer Workstation Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: General]

^ Seat Positioning: Feet Flat As the picture below illustrates, position yourself on your office chair so that your feet rest flat on the floor with the tops of your thighs parallel with the floor.
  • Ergonomics Are Everything 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.cfsnap.com [Source type: General]

^ A padded wrist rest will help to keep your wrist in a straight and neutral position while typing and keep your arms off the sharp edges of the work surface.
  • Computer Workstation Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: General]

.Armrest needs to be adjustable in height to assure shoulders are not overstressed.^ Adjust height and/or width of armrests so they allow the user to rest arms at their sides and relax/drop their shoulders while keyboarding.
  • Computer Workstation Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: General]

Organizations

.The International Ergonomics Association [1] (IEA) is a federation of ergonomics and human factors societies from around the world.^ CSERIAC - this index is formally organised under topical headings following a Taxonomy of Human Factors and Ergonomics .

^ (IEA) From the International Ergonomics Association website Ergonomics is the study of the design of requirements of work in relation to the physical and psychological capabilities and limitations of people: that is, ergonomics seeks to fit the job to the person rather than the person to the job.
  • ergonomics webpage 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.library.ucsb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34 th Annual Meeting , p.
  • Visual Ergonomics in the Office 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.office-ergo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mission of the IEA is to elaborate and advance ergonomics science and practice, and to improve the quality of life by expanding its scope of application and contribution to society.^ Guided by integrity, life-long learning, and a commitment to comprehensive and accessible health programs for all people, physical therapists and physical therapist assistants will render evidence-based service throughout the continuum of care and improve quality of life for society.
  • APTA | Working Solutions: PT Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.apta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, ergonomics --the science of designing things...are quick to point out that "good" ergonomics can improve productivity.
  • ergonomics Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ International Ergonomics Society: www.iea.cc SEMAC (Sociedad de Ergonomistas de Mexico) www.semac.org.mx .

.As of September 2008, the International Ergonomics Association has 46 federated societies and 2 affiliated societies.^ International Ergonomics Society: www.iea.cc SEMAC (Sociedad de Ergonomistas de Mexico) www.semac.org.mx .

^ Invited speaker, Behavioral ergonomics , Southern California American Industrial Hygiene Association & the American Society of Safety Engineers .
  • Humanics ErgoSystems: Ergonomics presentations 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergonomics4children.com [Source type: Academic]

^ International Ergonomics Association Convention .
  • Humanics ErgoSystems: Ergonomics presentations 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergonomics4children.com [Source type: Academic]

.The International Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) is a professional organization for mobility engineering professionals in the aerospace, automotive, and commercial vehicle industries.^ Invited speaker, Behavioral ergonomics , Southern California American Industrial Hygiene Association & the American Society of Safety Engineers .
  • Humanics ErgoSystems: Ergonomics presentations 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergonomics4children.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Human Factors and Ergonomic Society (HFES) » The Ergonomics Society » Human Factors and Ergonomics Society of Australia (HFESA) » Institute of Industrial Engineers (IIE) » International Ergonomics Association (IEA) » Applied Ergonomics Conference (AEC) » ErgoExpo Ergonomic Resources .

.The Society is a standards development organization for the engineering of powered vehicles of all kinds, including cars, trucks, boats, aircraft, and others.^ A Sun Developer Network Site Unless otherwise licensed, code in all technical manuals herein (including articles, FAQs, samples) is provided under this License .
  • Ergonomics in the 5.0 Java[tm] Virtual Machine 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC java.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Believing that a material could be developed to meet any testing standard applied to vibration reduction materials - including Europe's EN ISO 10819 - Chase Ergonomics, Inc.
  • Dentec Safety Specialists Inc. 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.dentecsafety.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Society of Automotive Engineers has established a number of standards used in the automotive industry and elsewhere.^ Find out how a classic industrial engineering tool, time studies, can be used concurrently with ergonomic analysis.
  • Applied Ergonomics resources 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.iienet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Traditional, detailed approaches used by industrial engineers are time consuming and far too complex for .
  • Ergonomics and Manufacturing Excellence 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ehstoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Invited speaker, Behavioral ergonomics , Southern California American Industrial Hygiene Association & the American Society of Safety Engineers .
  • Humanics ErgoSystems: Ergonomics presentations 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergonomics4children.com [Source type: Academic]

.It encourages the design of vehicles in accordance with established Human Factors principles.^ Human factors in Space Craft Design .
  • Humanics ErgoSystems: Ergonomics presentations 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergonomics4children.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bad Human Factors Designs  - A scrapbook of examples of bad human factors designs.

^ ERGO/GERO Human Factors Science  - HCI, displays, error-proofing, design for aging, forensics .

.It is one the most influential organizations with respect to Ergonomics work in Automotive Design.^ One of the key elements of Ergonomics is environmental design.
  • SONOWORLD : Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.sonoworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A. Ergonomics is the science of adjusting your work environment to fit your body and make it most comfortable.
  • Ergonomics & Computer Injury: FAQs 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.netsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you choose to use a wrist rest, using one with a broad, flat, firm surface design works best, and rest the heel of your palm on this NOT your wrist.
  • CUergo: Computer Workstation Ergonomics Guidelines 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergo.human.cornell.edu [Source type: General]

.This society regularly holds conferences which address topics spanning all aspects of Human Factors/Ergonomics.^ These all are considered ergonomic factors.
  • APTA | Working Solutions: PT Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.apta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CSERIAC - this index is formally organised under topical headings following a Taxonomy of Human Factors and Ergonomics .

^ Ergonomics (or human factors) is concerned with interactions among humans and other elements of a system (e.g., the tools, equipment, products, tasks, organization, technology and environment).
  • Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.hse.ubc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.In the UK the professional body for ergonomists is the The Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors and in the USA it is the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society [2].^ CSERIAC - this index is formally organised under topical headings following a Taxonomy of Human Factors and Ergonomics .

^ Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34 th Annual Meeting , p.
  • Visual Ergonomics in the Office 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.office-ergo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Human Factors Society Chapter .
  • Humanics ErgoSystems: Ergonomics presentations 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergonomics4children.com [Source type: Academic]

In Europe professional certification is managed by the Centre for Registration of European Ergonomists [3] (CREE). .In the USA the Board of Certification in Professional Ergonomics [4] performs this function.^ From workstations to conference rooms, training areas and reception, Allsteel seating provides ergonomics that are comfortable, functionality that's flexible, and performance that endures.

^ Certificant, Board of Certification in Professional Ergonomics .
  • Humanics ErgoSystems: Ergonomics presentations 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergonomics4children.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ergoweb » Board of Certification in Professional Ergonomics » The Ergonomics Center of North Carolina » Cornell University Ergonomics Web Privacy Policy .

See also

References

  1. ^ Berkeley Lab. Integrated Safety Management: Ergonomics. Website. Retrieved 9 July 2008.
  2. ^ International Ergonomics Association. What is Ergonomics. Website. Retrieved 21 August 2008.
  3. ^ Top 10 Emerging Practice Areas To Watch in the New Millenium, article on American Occupational Therapy Association web site
  4. ^ Marmaras, N., Poulakakis, G. and Papakostopoulos, V. (1999). Ergonomic design in ancient Greece. Applied Ergonomics, 30 (4), pp. 361-368.
  5. ^ http://www.ergonomics.org.uk/page.php?p=45&s=5
  6. ^ Technical Groups page at HFES Web site
  7. ^ Unicor.gov. XXI Notes System Furniture. Retrieved 9 July 2008.
  8. ^ Wickens, C. and Hollands, J. (1999), Engineering Psychology and Human Performance, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0321047117
  9. ^ Brookhuis, K., Hedge, A., Hendrick, H., Salas, E., and Stanton, N. (2005). Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics Models. Florida: CRC Press.

Further reading

Books
.
  • Jan Dul and Bernard Weerdmeester, Ergonomics for Beginners - - A classic introduction on ergonomics - Original title: Vademecum Ergonomie (Dutch) -published and updated since 1960's
  • Stephen Pheasant, Bodyspace - - A classic exploration of ergonomics
  • Kim Vicente, The Human Factor Full of examples and statistics illustrating the gap between existing technology and the human mind, with suggestions to narrow it
  • Donald Norman, The Design of Everyday Things - - An entertaining user-centered critique of nearly every gadget out there (at the time it was published)
  • Liu, Y (2007).^ Anthropometric factors in human factors design.
    • Ergonomics | rmLibrary 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.rmlibrary.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bad Human Factors Designs  - A scrapbook of examples of bad human factors designs.

    ^ Human factors in Space Craft Design .
    • Humanics ErgoSystems: Ergonomics presentations 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC ergonomics4children.com [Source type: Academic]

    IOE 333. Course pack. .Industrial and Operations Engineering 333 (Introduction to Ergonomics), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Winter 2007
  • Wilson & Corlett, Evaluation of Human Work A practical ergonomics methodology.^ On Site Consultation: I do on site work place ergonomic consultation for heavy industry as well as office work.
    • Computer Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.klis.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Finally, the sonographer must take personal responsibility for aggressively applying good ergonomic work practices at all times.
    • SONOWORLD : Ergonomics 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.sonoworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Iowa Spine Research center of the Biomedical Engineering Department at the University of Iowa and patent co-applicant Chase Ergonomics, Inc.
    • Dentec Safety Specialists Inc. 11 January 2010 12:012 UTC www.dentecsafety.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Warning: very technical and not a suitable 'intro' to ergonomics
  • Wickens and Hollands (200). Engineering Psychology and Human Performance. Discusses memory, attention, decision making, stress and human error, among other topics
  • Alvin R. Tilley & Henry Dreyfuss Associates (1993, 2002), The Measure of Man & Woman: Human Factors in Design A human factors design manual.
  • Valerie J Gawron (2000), Human Performance Measures Handbook Lawrence Erlbaum Associates - A useful summary of human performance measures.
  • Peter Opsvik (2009), "Re-Thinking Sitting" Interesting insights on the history of the chair and how we sit from an ergonomic pioneer
  • Thomas J. Armstrong (2008), Chapter 10: Allowances, Localized Fatigue, Musculoskeletal Disorders, and Biomechanics (not yet published)
Peer-reviewed Publications
(numbers between brackets are the ISI impact factor 2001-2003)
  • Ergonomics (0.747)
  • Applied Ergonomics (0.738)
  • Human Factors (0.723)
  • International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics (0.395)
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing (0.311)
  • Travail Humain (0.260)
  • Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science (-)
  • International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (-)

Related software

  • 3DSSPP
  • ErgoFellow
  • RAMSIS

External links


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Ergonomics, which are similar to those in the above article.








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