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.This article contains Ethiopic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Ethiopic characters.^ Dear Mr.Kantybye I can see, if I may say, that you have a “heart” for your people and rightly so.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You see Mr. Mark we the people in the horn of Africa, Somalia, Sudan, Ethiopia and Eritrea have lived for thousands of years as good neighbors.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

State of Eritrea
Hagere Ertra
ሃገረ ኤርትራ
دولة إرتريا
Dawlat Iritriya
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemErtra, Ertra, Ertra
Capital
(and largest city)
Asmara.
15°20′N 38°55′E / 15.333°N 38.917°E / 15.333; 38.917
Official language(s) Arabic1, English1, Tigrinya1
Other languages .Tigre, Saho, Bilen, Afar, Kunama, Nara, Hedareb[1], [2].^ In Eritrea, the Afar, Beja, Bilen, Kunama, and Saho were considered the "un-reached" and missionaries eyed the newly independent nation.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tigre, Bilen, Saho, Nara, Kunama, Rashaida, Beja, and Afar are predominantly Muslim peoples and need to hear of God's compelling love for them..."
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

Ethnic groups  50% Tigrinya, 40%Tigre, Kunama, 4% Afar, 3% Saho, 3% other [1]
Demonym Eritrean
Government provisional government
 -  President of State Isaias Afewerki
Independence
 -  From Italy November 1941 
 -  From United Kingdom under UN Mandate 1951 
 -  from Ethiopia de facto 24 May 1991 
 -  From Ethiopia de jure 24 May 1993 
Area
 -  Total 117,600 km2 (100th)
45,405 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  2009 estimate 5,673,520[2] (118th)
 -  2008 census 5,291,370 
 -  Density 43.1/km2 (165th)
111.7/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $3.743 billion[3] 
 -  Per capita $747[3] 
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $1.479 billion[3] 
 -  Per capita $295[3] 
HDI (2007) 0.483 (low) (157th)
Currency Nakfa (ERN)
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .er
Calling code 291
1 [3], [4].
.Eritrea (pronounced /ˌɛrɪˈtreɪə/, /ˌɛrɪˈtriːə/)[4] (Ge'ez: ኤርትራ ʾErtrā, Arabic: إرتريا Iritriya), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa.^ You see Mr. Mark we the people in the horn of Africa, Somalia, Sudan, Ethiopia and Eritrea have lived for thousands of years as good neighbors.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Dispute Accentuates Broader Horn of Africa Tensions .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa , on eritrea , links to this page.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast.^ Eritrea also borders Sudan in the north-west and Djibouti in the south-east.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The east and northeast of the country have an extensive coastline on the Red Sea, directly across from Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The Dahlak Archipelago and several of the Hanish Islands are part of Eritrea. Its size is just under 118,000 km2 (45,560 sq mi) with an estimated population of 5 million. The capital is Asmara.

Contents

Description and History

.The history of the land that is now called Eritrea, in one way or another, is associated with its coastline on the Red Sea, which extends more than 1000 km.^ In less than 20 years of independence Eritrea has achieved more than most African countries that are celebrating their 50+ years of independence and much more than those who claimed "3000 years of independence".
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Shame to those who are spending sleepless nights to demonize and isolate this precious land we call Eritrea and its hospitable people.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There can not be any one to care about Eritrean poor people more than those who are leading the country .They have risked and sacrifice their lives to the betterment of their people.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

From across the seas came various invaders (and colonizers) such as the South Arabians hailing from the present-day Yemen area, the Ottoman Turks, the Portugese from Goa (India), the Egyptians, the British and, in the 19th century, the Italians. .Over the centuries, invaders also came from the neighboring countries of Africa to the south (Ethiopia) and to the west (Sudan).^ You see Mr. Mark we the people in the horn of Africa, Somalia, Sudan, Ethiopia and Eritrea have lived for thousands of years as good neighbors.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the Assemblies of God had not yet entered Eritrea, Ethiopia or Sudan, I asked to survey those three countries.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, present-day Eritrea was largely impacted by the Italian invaders in the 19th century.^ You can twist any thing you want however atleast 95% of we eritreans believe Eritrea is save with the present government of Eritrea.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

In the period following the opening of the Suez canal in 1869, when European powers scrambled for territory in Africa and tried to establish coaling stations for their ships, Italy invaded and occupied Eritrea. On January 1, 1890 Eritrea officially became a colony of Italy. In 1936 it became a province of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana), along with Ethiopia and Italian Somaliland. The British armed forces expelled those of Italy in 1941[5] and took over the administration of the country which had been set up by the Italians. .The British continued to administer the territory under a UN Mandate until 1951 when Eritrea was federated with Ethiopia as per UN resolution 390(A) under the prompting of the United States adopted in December 1950; the resolution was adopted after a referendum to consult the people of Eritrea.^ At the end of World War II in 1945, Eritrea had become a protectorate of the United Nations and in 1950 the UN General Assembly passed a resolution calling for Eritrean autonomy and legislative, executive and judicial authority over its own domestic affairs with all other matters falling under federal, Ethiopian jurisdiction.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Eritrea had fought militarily for its independence, recognition was bolstered by a referendum in April 1993 that was approved by 99.8 per cent of the electorate, and which received UN and international support.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The people of Eritrea did not get their freedom/independence on a silver platter from the US or UN or anybody else but by going thru hell.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.The strategic importance of Eritrea — because of its Red Sea coastline and mineral resources — was the main cause for the federation with Ethiopia, which was the first step in the annexing of Eritrea as its 14th province in 1962. This was the culmination of a gradual process of takeover by the Ethiopian authorities, a process which included a 1959 edict establishing the compulsory teaching of Amharic, the main language of Ethiopia, in all Eritrean schools.^ Clashing personalities sharpened disputes over Ethiopian access to Eritrean ports, the price of Eritrean refined oil to the Ethiopian market and Ethiopia's refusal to conduct trade in Eritrea's new currency.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the end of World War II in 1945, Eritrea had become a protectorate of the United Nations and in 1950 the UN General Assembly passed a resolution calling for Eritrean autonomy and legislative, executive and judicial authority over its own domestic affairs with all other matters falling under federal, Ethiopian jurisdiction.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between 1952 and 1962 Addis Ababa gradually encroached on Eritrean rights, suspending the constitution, imposing Amharic as the language of government, education and business, outlawing political parties, packing the assembly with pliant supporters of the central government and finally incorporating Eritrea into its empire as a province like any other.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The lack of regard for the Eritrean population led to the formation of an independence movement in the early 1960s, which erupted into a 30-year war against successive Ethiopian governments that ended in 1991. Following a UN-supervised referendum in Eritrea (dubbed UNOVER) in which the Eritrean people overwhelmingly voted for independence, Eritrea declared its independence and gained international recognition in 1993.[6]
English is used in the government's international communication and is the language of instruction in all formal education beyond the fifth grade.[7]
Eritrea is a single-party state. .Though its constitution, adopted in 1997, stipulates that the state is a presidential republic with a unicameral parliamentary democracy, it has yet to be implemented.^ When it was released in 1997, the new constitution was thus little more than a PFDJ document, and despite its embrace of multi-party democracy and a catalogue of human rights guarantees, the government did not pursue its implementation.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

According to the government,[8] this is due to the prevailing border conflict with Ethiopia, which began in May 1998.

Politics and government

.Eritrea is an authoritarian state, run by the People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ).^ The people want the government to be removed and they want democracy and justice to reign.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Eritrea, but look who is running & treating this humble peace loving and christian people now?
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

[9] .Other political groups are not allowed to organise, although the non-implemented Constitution of 1997 provides for the existence of multi-party politics.^ Nonetheless, the constitution had wide political support, with the main political opposition coming from exiled political parties, who felt they had not been consulted.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a government wary of ethnic divisions, the war provided further pretext for delays in fulfilling the constitutional provisions for multi-party democracy.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When it was released in 1997, the new constitution was thus little more than a PFDJ document, and despite its embrace of multi-party democracy and a catalogue of human rights guarantees, the government did not pursue its implementation.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The National Assembly has 150 seats, of which 75 are occupied by the PFDJ. National elections have been periodically scheduled and cancelled; none have ever been held in the country.[10]
.Independent local sources of political information on Eritrean domestic politics are scarce; in September 2001 the government closed down all of the nation's privately owned print media, and outspoken critics of the government have been arrested and held without trial, according to various international observers, including Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International.^ All humans have an inalienable right to choose their own religion.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ State added that the government "closely monitored the activities and movements of unregistered religious groups and members, including nonreligious social functions attended by members."
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In May 2001, 15 senior PFDJ members publicly criticized Isaias and called on him to implement the multi-party and human rights provisions of the 1997 constitution.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2004 the U.S. State Department declared Eritrea a Country of Particular Concern (CPC) for its record of religious persecution.^ Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa , on eritrea , links to this page.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Eritrea, as in all other countries, a member of any religious group who breaks the law will be punished as any other individual, and cannot invoke obedience to a religious precept as a cause for impunity.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In its April 1995 country profile on Eritrea, the US State Department´s Office of Asylum Affairs acknowledged the peaceful coexistence and religious harmony in Eritrea.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

[11]

National elections

.Eritrean National elections were set for 1995 and then postponed until 2001; it was then decided that because 20% of Eritrea's land was under occupation, elections would be postponed until the resolution of the conflict with Ethiopia.^ For the new American Obama adminstration Eritrea is not a challenge but an opportunity to forge a new U.S. policy to Africa that will lead to prosperity to all, because Eritrea is a nation that always believed that Yes We Can!
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Security Council extends Ethiopia and Eritrea mission until 31 July 2007, .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ Duff decided to go to Eritrea in 1943, which at the time was under British Military Administration.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

However, local elections have continued in Eritrea. The most recent round of local government elections were held in May 2004. On further elections, the President's Chief of Staff, Yemane Gebremeskel said,[12]
.The electoral commission is handling these elections this time round so that may be the new element in this process.^ Eritrea may be a new country and its leaders may even delude themselves in believing that drastic times call for drastic measures.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.The national assembly has also mandated the electoral commission to set the date for national elections, so whenever the electoral commission sets the date there will be national elections.^ There are 49585 Assemblies of God churches and preaching centers, 48448 national and lay ministers, 232 Bible schools and 11964 Bible school students established in Africa.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

It's not dependent on regional elections.
Government building of Eritrea in Asmara.

Regions and districts

Eritrea is divided into six regions (zobas) and subdivided into districts ("sub-zobas"). The geographical extent of the regions is based on their respective hydrological properties. This a dual intent on the part of the Eritrean government: to provide each administration with sufficient control over its agricultural capacity, and to eliminate historical intra-regional conflicts.
The regions, followed by the sub-region, are:
No. Region (ዞባ) Sub-region (ንኡስ ዞባ)
1 Central
(ዞባ ማእከል)
Berikh, Ghala-Nefhi, Semienawi Mibraq, Serejaka, Debubawi Mibraq, Semienawi Mi'erab, Debubawi Mi'erab
2 Southern
(ዞባ ደቡብ)
Adi Keyh, Adi Quala, Areza, Debarwa, Dekemhare, Mai Ayni, Mai Mne, Mendefera, Segeneiti, Senafe, Tserona
3 Gash-Barka
(ዞባ ጋሽ ባርካ)
Agordat, Barentu, Dghe, Forto, Gogne, Haykota, Logo-Anseba, Mensura, Mogolo, Molki, Guluj, Shambuko, Tesseney, La'elay Gash
4 Anseba
(ዞባ ዓንሰባ)
Adi Tekelezan, Asmat, Elabered, Geleb, Hagaz, Halhal, Habero, Keren City, Kerkebet, Sel'a
5 Northern Red Sea
(ዞባ ሰሜናዊ ቀይሕ ባሕሪ)
Afabet, Dahlak, Ghel'alo, Foro, Ghinda, Karura, Massawa, Nakfa, She'eb
6 Southern Red Sea
(ዞባ ደቡባዊ ቀይሕ ባሕሪ)
Are'eta, Central Dankalia, Southern Dankalia, Assab

Foreign relations

Embassy of Eritrea in Washington, D.C.
.Eritrea is a full member of the African Union (AU), the successor of the Organization of African Unity (OAU).^ On eve of African Union summit, UN secretary-general urged to intercede on behalf of press freedom in Eritrea .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

.However, it has withdrawn its representative to the AU in protest at the AU's alleged lack of leadership in facilitating the implementation of a binding border decision demarcating the border between Eritrea and Ethiopia.^ AU expresses concern over fresh tension between Ethiopia, Eritrea .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ U.N. probes Eritrea-Ethiopia border gunfire .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ U.N. patrols curtailed between Ethiopia, Eritrea .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

Relations with the West

.Eritrea's relationship with the United States is complicated.^ We will have many smaller Free states in the region like Eritrea and we shall form a united states of the horn of Africa and beyond.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although the two nations have a close working relationship regarding the on-going war on terror, there has been a growing tension in other areas.^ That doesn't mean going to war to transform other societies.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Unfortunately, Eritrea is not his sole victim; there have been many other nations that have been violated by this wayward "missionary".
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Eritrean National Service people are working in these so called inhospitable areas erecting the young country's new infrastructure.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.Relations worsened in October 2008 when U.S. Assistant Secretary of State, Jendayi Frazer, called the nation a 'state sponsor of terrorism' and stated that the U.S. government might add Eritrea to its list of rogue states, along with Iran and Sudan.^ Notes the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, "government spokespersons have cited Pentecostals, along with Muslim extremists, as threats to national security."
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In May 2002, the Government of Eritrea once again called on all religious groups to comply with Proclamation No.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The government recognizes four religions as practiced through state-approved institutions: Eritrean Orthodox Christianity, Roman Catholicism, the Evangelical Church of Eritrea, and Islam.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .The reason for this is the presence of Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys, an exiled Somali Islamist leader, whom the U.S. suspects of having links to Al Qaeda, at a recent Somali opposition conference in Asmara.^ U.N.: Eritrea giving arms to Somalis tied to al Qaeda .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

[14]
.Eritrea's relationship with Italy and the EU is still reasonably strong and does not seem to be as strained as is its relationship with the U.S. On 27 January 2009, the Netherlands Ambassador Yoka Brandt, Director General of International Development Cooperation, paid an official visit to the country for bilateral talks with President Isaias' government, which were held in Massawa.^ The US government counts hundreds of international Christian groups as development partners.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Harper's clumnist and Internation human rights Lawyer Scott Horton Said "we may not have realized it at the time, but in the period from late 2001 to January 19, 2009 this country was a dictatorship.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And the many more abuses like Who gets paid in your government 1000’s of $ for allowing people escaping the country?
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

During the week of August 2, 2009, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton claimed that Eritrea is supplying weapons to the Somalian militant group al-Shabab.[15] .Eritrea again denied this accusation in a public statement the next day,[16] however the United Nations, with the backing of the African Union, imposed sanctions and an arms embargo on Eritrea under Resolution 1907 for its role in Somalia and refusal to withdraw troops from the border with Djbouti.^ AU backs 8,000 troops for Somalia .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ Sudan says Eritrea withdraws many border troops .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ The new nation of Eritrea is a beacon of hope for the African continent and she is showing Africans life does exist outside the IMF, UN and the World Bank.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

[17]

Relations with neighboring countries

Eritrea's relations with its neighbors have been strained due to a series of wars and disputes. .These include an undemarcated border with Sudan, a war with Yemen over the Hanish Islands in 1996, and a recent border conflict with Ethiopia.^ Ethiopia: likelihood of border war "not increased" .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ Eritrea accepts it started border war, hits out at Ethiopia .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ Eritrea plays down chance of border war with Ethiopia .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

The undemarcated border with Sudan has posed a problem for Eritrean external relations for most of the nation's existence.[18] However, after a high-level delegation to Sudan from the Eritrean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, relations have been somewhat normalized. Meanwhile, Eritrea has been recognized as a broker for peace between the separate factions of the Sudanese civil war: "It is known that Eritrea played a role in bringing about the peace agreement [between the Southern Sudanese and Government],"[19] In addition, the Sudanese government and Eastern Front rebels requested Eritrea to mediate peace talks in 2006.[20]
A dispute with Yemen over the Hanish Islands in 1996 resulted in a brief war. .As part of an agreement to cease hostilities the two nations agreed to refer the issue to the Permanent Court of Arbitration at the Hague in 1998.[21] Yemen was granted full ownership of the larger islands while Eritrea was awarded the peripheral islands to the southwest of the larger islands.^ Main issues which cause criticism of JH in Eritrea and in many other countries across the globe include failed prophecies, blood transfusions, and nationalism.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

[22] At the conclusion of the proceedings, both nations acquiesced to the decision. Since 1996 both governments have remained wary of one another but relations are relatively normal.[23]

Relations with Ethiopia

A train tunnel on the Eritrean Plateau.
The undemarcated border with Ethiopia is the primary external issue currently facing Eritrea. .Eritrea's relations with Ethiopia turned from that of cautious mutual tolerance, following the 30-year war for Eritrean independence, to a deadly rivalry that led to the outbreak of hostilities from May 1998 to June 2000 which has claimed approximately 70,000 Eritrean and Ethiopian casualties.^ Eritrea had little independent media when hostilities erupted in May 1998.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eritrea warns UN it may resume war with Ethiopia .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ Eritrea and Ethiopia 'sliding into war' .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

[24] .Eritrea also demanded that each family that lost a member in the war should receive $350 in indemnity, but this number has not been verified, although it has been often cited by other groups (see Number of war dead soldiers reportedly 123,000 – internet news message; and clandestineradio.com audio button), and no indemnities have been paid as of 2007.[25][26] As a result, the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) is meant to be occupying a 25 kilometers by 900 kilometers area on the border to help stabilize the region.^ For the new American Obama adminstration Eritrea is not a challenge but an opportunity to forge a new U.S. policy to Africa that will lead to prosperity to all, because Eritrea is a nation that always believed that Yes We Can!
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Unfortunately, Eritrea is not his sole victim; there have been many other nations that have been violated by this wayward "missionary".
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You see Mr. Mark we the people in the horn of Africa, Somalia, Sudan, Ethiopia and Eritrea have lived for thousands of years as good neighbors.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

[27]
.Disagreements following the war have resulted in stalemate punctuated by periods of elevated tension and renewed threats of war.^ So if it is not the race the obstacle that can be overcome what is it that is causing such unhealthy constant tension and threat of war between the 2 countries?
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

[28][29][30] .The stalemate led the President of Eritrea to urge the UN to take action on Ethiopia with the Eleven Letters penned by the President to the United Nations Security Council.^ UN: Ethiopia, Eritrea still a concern .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ Ethiopia, Eritrea "crisis" needs urgent action -UN .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ UN Council action demanded on Eritrea flight ban .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

.The situation is further escalated by the continued efforts of the Eritrean and Ethiopian leaders in supporting opposition in each other's countries.^ You say you are an Ethiopian and yet you don't have any problem to support Eritrea and the Eritrean people right to be free!
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The plight of poor Ethiopian children who are shuffled from one war to another because Ethiopian leaders ignited wars inside or outside the country will have an end to it.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So Mr. Mark I have no problem supporting Eritrean people and government, always have good intention for Ethiopia, despite successive Ethiopian government s ill intentions towards Eritrean people and their governments.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.Amid fears of an emerging Islamic and nationalist Somalia, Ethiopia invaded Somalia with US assistance, putting in place the weak and locally unpopular UN/AU-backed Transitional Federal Government which, without Ethiopian support, had been unable to exercise any control beyond its base in Baidoa and along the Ethio-Somali border.^ The government of Ethiopia fabricated a border crisis and invaded and is occupying Eritrean territory.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is happening without stop even though the government has introduced directives allowing troops to shoot and kill anyone trying to cross the borders.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So Mr. Mark I have no problem supporting Eritrean people and government, always have good intention for Ethiopia, despite successive Ethiopian government s ill intentions towards Eritrean people and their governments.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

[31] .The United States Central Intelligence Agency also conducted a covert program of funding and assisting a coalition of Somali warlords to replace the widely popular Islamic Courts Union government in Somalia[32].^ Notes the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, "government spokespersons have cited Pentecostals, along with Muslim extremists, as threats to national security."
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I am sorry my reference to "our government " was not clear I meant the United States.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

On its part, Eritrea is hosting members of the ousted Union of Islamic Courts and the Somali Free Parliament. .The Eritrean government has been accused of sponsoring, arming and hosting numerous militant leaderships and separatist rebels in the Horn of Africa.^ To mulugheta and those who defend the deeds of eritrean government it is so easy to support the eritrean leadership and show no eritreanism.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

[33] According to the United States, Isaias's government is "sponsoring and supporting the rebel groups" who are "also attacking civilians and are a part of the problem in Darfur." According to Human Rights Watch (HRW), the Eritrean government was coercing the Somali Islamist opposition group Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) so that the peace talks in Somalia would fail. In its report, HRW stated that:
.'Eritrea's efforts to control the ARS and coerce its leaders into rejecting the idea of a negotiated peace were a primary reason that the mainstream core of the opposition alliance relocated to Djibouti in 2008. Eritrea continues to play host to a small breakaway faction of the ARS led by Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys and has reportedly continued to provide weapons and funds to abusive insurgent groups.^ Eritrea rejects US peace mission .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ Ethiopian govt rejects opposition offer on peace deal .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

.One member of the ARS central committee in Djibouti told Human Rights Watch that, "Eritrea will make a maximum effort to make the [Djibouti peace] agreement fail."^ By Oslo Center for Peace and Human Rights, 2009-11-15.
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ Eritrea is an angel compared to the US and other hypocrite countries that only respect human rights when they can afford it but conveniently trash it when they are pressured.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Appeal to urge African states to take action on human rights abuses in Eritrea .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

[34]'

Geography

Eritrean highlands.
.Eritrea is located in Northeast Africa, more specifically in the Horn of Africa, and is bordered on the northeast and east by the Red Sea.^ Horn of Africa neighbours renew border talks .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ You see Mr. Mark we the people in the horn of Africa, Somalia, Sudan, Ethiopia and Eritrea have lived for thousands of years as good neighbors.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa , on eritrea , links to this page.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.The country is virtually bisected by one of the world's longest mountain ranges, formed by the processes that formed the Great Rift Valley, with fertile lands to the west, descending to desert in the east.^ Graham said that Il-Sung was a "different kind of communist" and that he was "one of the great fighters for freedom in his country against the Japanese."
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.Eritrea, at the southern end of the Red Sea, is the home of the fork in the rift.^ Eritrea is divided between a mountainous central plateau, where the capital Asmara is situated, and the lowlands in the north, west and along the Red Sea Coast.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Dahlak Archipelago and its fishing grounds are situated off the sandy and arid coastline. The land to the south, in the highlands, is slightly drier and cooler.
.The Afar Triangle or Danakil Depression of Eritrea is the probable location of a triple junction where three tectonic plates are pulling away from one another: the Arabian Plate, and the two parts of the African Plate (the Nubian and the Somali plate) splitting along the East African Rift Zone (USGS).^ In the east, the depression is known as the coastal lowland, a northward extension of the Rift Valley.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The highest point of the country, Emba Soira, is located in the center of Eritrea, at 3,018 meters (9,902 ft) above sea level.^ The Bada detention center lies in an area 70 meters below sea level and at times experiences temperatures of over 60 degrees C. In such conditions, people have died or gone insane."
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

The main cities of the country are the capital city of Asmara and the port town of Asseb in the southeast, as well as the towns of Massawa to the east, and Keren to the north.

Environment

Houses in the Gash-Barka region of Eritrea.
Eritrea formerly supported a large population of elephants. The Ptolemaic kings of Egypt used the country as a source of war elephants in the third century BC[citation needed]. Between 1955 and 2001 there were no reported sightings of elephant herds, and they are thought to have fallen victim to the war of independence. In December 2001 a herd of about 30, including 10 juveniles, was observed in the vicinity of the Gash River. The elephants seemed to have formed a symbiotic relationship with olive baboons. .It is estimated that there are around 100 elephants left in Eritrea, the most northerly of East Africa's elephants.^ While most of the established religious groups in Eritrea have complied with the various laws, there are some, like the Jehovah Witnesses who have rejected the laws and refused to abide by them.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

[35] The endangered Painted Hunting Dog (lycaon pictus) was previously found in Eritrea, but is now deemed extirpated from the entire country.[36]
.In 2006, Eritrea announced it would become the first country in the world to turn its entire coast into an environmentally protected zone.^ Eritrea says to open free trade zone in 2006 .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ Not even two decades old, Eritrea has become one of "the world's most systematic human rights violators," according to the State Department.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

The 1,347 km (837 mile) coastline, along with another 1,946 km (1,209-miles) of coast around its more than 350 islands, will come under governmental protection.

Economy

Men and women in Agordat
.Like the economies of many other African nations, the economy is largely based on subsistence agriculture, with 80% of the population involved in farming and herding.^ Main issues which cause criticism of JH in Eritrea and in many other countries across the globe include failed prophecies, blood transfusions, and nationalism.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Unfortunately, Eritrea is not his sole victim; there have been many other nations that have been violated by this wayward "missionary".
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

Drought has often created trouble in the farming areas.[37]
.The Eritrean-Ethiopian War severely hurt Eritrea's economy.^ You say you are an Ethiopian and yet you don't have any problem to support Eritrea and the Eritrean people right to be free!
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For Nettleton and his group, its not just Moslems that are targeted, but as we shall see later, it is the established churches, such as the Eritrean Orthodox Church in Eritrea and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church in Ethiopia, that are prime for "harvest".
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.GDP growth in 1999 fell to less than 1%, and GDP decreased by 8.2% in 2000. In May 2000, the Ethiopian offensive into southern Eritrea caused some $600 million in property damage and loss, including losses of $225 million in livestock and 55,000 homes.^ In less than 20 years of independence Eritrea has achieved more than most African countries that are celebrating their 50+ years of independence and much more than those who claimed "3000 years of independence".
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

The attack prevented the planting of crops in Eritrea's most productive region, causing food production to drop by 62%.[38][39]
.Even during the war Eritrea developed its transportation infrastructure, asphalting new roads, improving its ports, and repairing war-damaged roads and bridges as a part of the Warsay Yika'alo Program.^ Eritrea may be a new country and its leaders may even delude themselves in believing that drastic times call for drastic measures.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.The most significant of these projects was the building of a coastal highway of more than 500 km connecting Massawa with Asseb as well as the rehabilitation of the Eritrean Railway.^ In less than 20 years of independence Eritrea has achieved more than most African countries that are celebrating their 50+ years of independence and much more than those who claimed "3000 years of independence".
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Eritrean People more than ever need the help and effort of the free world to expose the crimes committed by this regime .
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The nationalist movement, however, exhibited the disunity of Eritrean people who had more in common with their neighbours than with each other.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The rail line now runs between the Port of Massawa and the capital Asmara.
Eritrea's future economic outlook remains mixed. .The cessation of Ethiopian trade, which mainly used Eritrean ports before the war, leaves Eritrea with a large economic hole to fill.^ Falley wrote that the mission had provided half $4500 of the $9000 needed to buy a large tent that was sent to Eritrea for the Church´s use.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

Eritrea's economic future depends upon its ability to master fundamental social problems like illiteracy, and low skills.
As of May 6, 2008 Eritrea is the most expensive place in the world to buy fuel. .At $9.58 per gallon, gasoline is 85¢ a gallon higher than in the next most expensive country, Norway.^ In less than 20 years of independence Eritrea has achieved more than most African countries that are celebrating their 50+ years of independence and much more than those who claimed "3000 years of independence".
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

[40]

Society

Demographics

A map indicating the ethnic composition of Eritrea.
A wedding in Eritrea
Eritrean society is ethnically heterogeneous. An independent census has yet to be conducted, but the Tigrinya people and the Tigre people together make up about 80% of the population. These form the bulk of the country's predominantly Semitic-speaking population.
.The rest of the population is from other Afro-Asiatic groups such as the Saho, Hedareb, Afar, and Bilen.^ In Eritrea, the Afar, Beja, Bilen, Kunama, and Saho were considered the "un-reached" and missionaries eyed the newly independent nation.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tigre, Bilen, Saho, Nara, Kunama, Rashaida, Beja, and Afar are predominantly Muslim peoples and need to hear of God's compelling love for them..."
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

These Cushitic-speaking peoples are thought to be the oldest inhabitants of the Horn of Africa.[citation needed]
.There are also a number of Nilotic peoples who are represented in Eritrea by the Kunama and Nara.^ The Tigre, Bilen, Saho, Nara, Kunama, Rashaida, Beja, and Afar are predominantly Muslim peoples and need to hear of God's compelling love for them..."
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There can not be any one to care about Eritrean poor people more than those who are leading the country .They have risked and sacrifice their lives to the betterment of their people.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You look like those who said, is there a sky in Africa or people sleep on top of trees?
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.Each ethnicity speaks a different native tongue but, typically, many of the minorities speak more than one language.^ There can not be any one to care about Eritrean poor people more than those who are leading the country .They have risked and sacrifice their lives to the betterment of their people.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

There exist minorities of Italian Eritreans (concentrated in Asmara) and Ethiopian Tigrayans. Neither is generally given citizenship unless through marriage or, more rarely, by having it conferred upon them by the State.
The most recent addition to the nationalities of Eritrea is the Rashaida. The Rashaida came to Eritrea in the 19th century from the Arabian Coast.[41] .The Rashaida intermarried with the Tigre and Beja clans, and are typically nomadic, and number approximately 61,000, less than 1% of the population.^ They say that their primary mission was to work with the un-reached populations-the Afar, Beja, and Rashaida they also knew that without a national link, they could not do what they wanted to do.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tigre, Bilen, Saho, Nara, Kunama, Rashaida, Beja, and Afar are predominantly Muslim peoples and need to hear of God's compelling love for them..."
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

Ethnic groups with low population have little influence on life in Eritrea.

Languages

Rashaida children in the Eritrean lowlands.
Many languages are spoken in Eritrea today. There is no official language as such, as the Constitution establishes the "equality of all Eritrean languages"[42] but Tigrinya and Arabic are the two predominant languages for official purposes. Italian and English are also widely understood.[citation needed] Most of the languages spoken in Eritrea stem from the Semitic and Cushitic branches of the Afro-Asiatic language family. .The Semitic languages in Eritrea are Tigre, Tigrinya, the newly recognized Dahlik and Arabic (spoken natively by the Rashaida Arabs); these languages (primarily Tigre and Tigrinya) are spoken as a first language by over 80% of the population.^ Claiming Arab origin, their language, Tigre, is Semitic.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eritrea was to have its own government, parliament, prime minister, national flag, police force and two official languages, Arabic and Tigrinya.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana´s first president warned of these groups over 4 decades ago, as he recognized the entry of various "missions" that were established by the neocolonialists to maintain control over the economies of the newly independent African states: .
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Cushitic languages in Eritrea are just as numerous, including Afar, Beja, Blin, and Saho.^ In Eritrea, the Afar, Beja, Bilen, Kunama, and Saho were considered the "un-reached" and missionaries eyed the newly independent nation.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tigre, Bilen, Saho, Nara, Kunama, Rashaida, Beja, and Afar are predominantly Muslim peoples and need to hear of God's compelling love for them..."
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

Kunama and Nara are also spoken in Eritrea and belong to the Nilo-Saharan language family.

Education

There are five levels of education in Eritrea: pre-primary, primary, middle, secondary, and post-secondary. There are nearly 238,000 students in the primary, middle, and secondary levels of education. There are approximately 824 schools[43] in Eritrea and two universities (the University of Asmara and the Institute of Science and Technology) as well as several smaller colleges and technical schools.
One of the most important goals of Eritrea's education policy is to provide basic education in each of Eritrea's mother tongues, as well as to develop a self-motivated and conscientious population to fight poverty and disease. Furthermore it is tooled to produce a society that is equipped with the necessary skills to function in the modern economy.
.The education system in Eritrea is also designed to promote private sector schooling, equal access for all groups (i.e., to prevent gender discrimination, ethnic discrimination, and class discrimination) and promote continuing education, both formally and informally.^ All the reports that have been written about Eritrea come from mercenary groups and individuals.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Eritrea, as in all other countries, a member of any religious group who breaks the law will be punished as any other individual, and cannot invoke obedience to a religious precept as a cause for impunity.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Almost all the faith based groups in Eritrea had similar missions.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

Education in Eritrean include kindergartens for young children of both genders.
Barriers to education in Eritrea include traditional taboos, school fees (for registration and materials), and the opportunity costs of low-income households.[44]

Religion

Enda Mariam Orthodox Church, Roman Catholic Cathedral, Al Khulafa Al Rashiudin Mosque (in the foreground, rear left, and rear right respectively) in the capital Asmara.
.Eritrea has two dominant religions, Islam and Christianity, with approximately half of the population belonging to each faith.^ That includes religious believers, even though Eritrea's population is evenly divided between Christians and Muslims.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

Most Muslims follow Sunni Islam. .The Christians consist primarily of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church, which is the local Oriental Orthodox church, while considerable groups of Roman Catholics (including Italian Eritreans), Protestants, and other denominations also exist.^ As we will see later, the Eritrean Orthodox Church was long targeted and the EQL, instead of defending the rights of the Church, worked in tandem with its enemies to distort its history and its foundation.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Explained the State Department: "There were reports that police forced some adherents of unregistered religious groups held in detention to sign statements to abandon their faith and join the Orthodox Christian Church as a precondition of their release.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For Nettleton and his group, its not just Moslems that are targeted, but as we shall see later, it is the established churches, such as the Eritrean Orthodox Church in Eritrea and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church in Ethiopia, that are prime for "harvest".
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.Since May 2002, the Government of Eritrea has officially recognized the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church, Sunni Islam, Catholicism, and the Evangelical Lutheran church.^ As we will see later, the Eritrean Orthodox Church was long targeted and the EQL, instead of defending the rights of the Church, worked in tandem with its enemies to distort its history and its foundation.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You can twist any thing you want however atleast 95% of we eritreans believe Eritrea is save with the present government of Eritrea.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In May 2002, the Government of Eritrea once again called on all religious groups to comply with Proclamation No.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

All other faiths and denominations are required to undergo a registration process.[45] Among other things, the Government's registration system requires religious groups to submit personal information on their membership to be allowed to worship.[45] .The few organizations that have met all of the registration requirements have still not received official recognition.^ Registration requirements are the same for all religious groups.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For instance, in Equatorial Guinea, the Assemblies of God group registered in 1987, but it was not until 1993 that it received official recognition.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
Jehovah's Witnesses, the Bahá'í Faith, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and numerous Protestant denominations are not registered and cannot worship freely. They have effectively been banned, and measures have been taken against their adherents. Many have been incarcerated for months or even years. Three named men are known to have been imprisoned since 1994.[46] None have been charged officially or given access to the judicial process. .In its 2006 religious freedom report, the U.S. State Department named Eritrea a "Country of Particular Concern"(CPC) for the third year in a row, designating it one of the worst violators of religious freedom in the world.^ It also is one of the world's worst religious persecutors.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ International Religious Freedom Report 2006 .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ There is now religious freedom throughout Eritrea, and all denominations and faiths are permitted to practice.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

[47] On January 16, 2009, Burma, China, Eritrea, Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Uzbekistan were re-designated as CPCs.[48]
There is one last native Jew in Eritrea, from a community formerly of hundreds in Asmara, whose ancestors crossed from Aden in the late 19th century.[49][50]

Media

On Reporters Without Borders' Annual Press Freedom Index for 2009, Eritrea was given the absolute lowest rating for press freedom out of all nations, 173 of 173.[51]

Culture

The typical Kitcha fit-fit is presented here with a scoop of fresh yogurt and topped with berbere (spice).
The Eritrean region has traditionally been a nexus for trade throughout the world. Because of this, the influence of diverse cultures can be seen throughout Eritrea. Today the most obvious influences in the capital, Asmara, are those of Italy. Throughout Asmara, there are small cafes serving beverages common in Italy. In Asmara, there is a clear merging of the Italian colonial influence with the traditional Tigrinya lifestyle. In the villages of Eritrea, these changes never took hold.
In the cities, before the occupation and during the early years, the import of Bollywood films was commonplace, while Italian and American films were available in the cinemas as well. In the 1980s and since independence, however, American films have become the most common. Vying for market share are films by local producers, who have slowly come into their own. The global broadcast of Eri-TV has brought cultural images to the large Eritrean population in the Diaspora that visits the country every summer. Successful domestic films are produced by government and independent studios with revenue from ticket sales typically covering the production costs.
A traditional Nilotic Kunama herder posing for a picture near Barentu, Zoba Gash-Barka.
Traditional Eritrean dress is quite varied, with the women of most lowland ethnicities traditionally dressing in brightly colored clothes, while the Tigrinya traditionally dress in bright white costumes. Of the Muslim ethnicities, only the Arab or Rashaida tribeswomen maintain a tradition of covering their faces.
Popular sports in Eritrea include football and bicycle racing. In recent years Eritrean athletes have seen increasing success in the international arena.
.Almost unique on the African continent is the Tour of Eritrea, whose first race was created by the Italians in 1946.[52] The Tour is a bicycle race from the hot desert beaches of Massawa, up the winding mountain highway with its precipitous valleys and cliffs, to the capital Asmara.^ The new nation of Eritrea is a beacon of hope for the African continent and she is showing Africans life does exist outside the IMF, UN and the World Bank.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

From there it continues downwards onto the western plains of the Gash-Barka Zone, only to return to Asmara from the south. This is by far the most popular sport in Eritrea.
Recently long-distance running has garnered its own supporters. The momentum for long-distance running in Eritrea can be seen in the successes of Zersenay Tadese.

See also

References

  1. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Eritrea
  2. ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (.PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Eritrea". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=643&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=89&pr.y=10. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  4. ^ Merriam-Webster Online
  5. ^ Regions of Eritrea (accessed Nov 17, 2009)
  6. ^ "Eritrea – The spreading revolution". Encyclopædia Britannica Article. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-37675/Eritrea. Retrieved 2007-10-16. 
  7. ^ "Country Profile:EritreaPDF (128 KiB). Library of Congress. Retrieved 18 July 2006
  8. ^ http://www.parade.com/dictators/2008/slideshows/isayas-afewerki/05.html
  9. ^ "Country profile: Eritrea". BBC News. 2008-06-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1070813.stm. Retrieved 2008-07-01. 
  10. ^ "Government - overview". World Factbook. CIA. 2008-07-24. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/er.html#Govt. Retrieved 2008-08-06. 
  11. ^ "2005 Executive Summary". International Religious Freedom Report. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. 2005-11-08. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2005/51386.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-06. 
  12. ^ "Interview of Mr. Yemane Gebremeskel, Director of the Office of the President of Eritrea". PFDJ. 2004-04-01. http://www.shaebia.org/cgi-bin/artman/exec/view.cgi?archive=9&num=2618&printer=1. Retrieved 2006-06-07. 
  13. ^ "Embargoed Countries". US Department of State. October 6, 2008. http://pmddtc.state.gov/embargoed_countries/index.html. 
  14. ^ "How Eritrea fell out with the west". BBC. 2007-09-11. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/6987916.stm. Retrieved 2007-09-12. 
  15. ^ "Clinton vows new US support for Somalia". Yahoo!News. 2009-08-06. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090806/ap_on_re_af/af_us_clinton_africa. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 
  16. ^ "Eritrea: 'We Are Not Arming Somali Insurgents' - Government". Stratfor. 2009-08-07. http://www.stratfor.com/sitrep/20090807_eritrea_we_are_not_arming_somali_insurgents_government. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 
  17. ^ Aziakou, Gerard (December 23, 2009). "UN slaps sanctions on Eritrea". AFP. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5g0XnF3848Jzg5Dh1mAyt2gZ8g4Mg. 
  18. ^ "Eritrea-Sudan relations plummet". BBC. 2004-01-15. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3400575.stm. Retrieved 2006-06-07. 
  19. ^ "Turabi terms USA "world's ignoramuses", fears Sudan's partition". Sudan Tribune. 2005-11-04. http://www.sudantribune.com/article.php3?id_article=12393. Retrieved 2006-06-07. 
  20. ^ "Sudan demands Eritrean mediation with eastern Sudan rebels". Sudan Tribune. 2006-04-18. http://www.sudantribune.com/article.php3?id_article=15117. Retrieved 2006-06-07. 
  21. ^ PCA - Documents: Eritrea-Yemen Award - CHAPTER I
  22. ^ "International Maritime Boundary". http://www.pca-cpa.org/PDF/chart3.gif. Retrieved 2006-07-17. 
  23. ^ "Flights back on between Yemen and Eritrea". BBC. 1998-12-13. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/192667.stm. Retrieved 2006-06-07. 
  24. ^ . http://timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article754553.ece. 
  25. ^ Shinn, Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia, p. 149
  26. ^ "Ethiopia: Number of war dead soldiers reportedly 123,000" (in Amharic). Wonchif. 2001-04-10. 
  27. ^ "Q&A: Horn's bitter border war". BBC. 2005-12-07. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4041073.stm. Retrieved 2006-06-07. 
  28. ^ "Horn tensions trigger UN warning". BBC. 2004-02-04. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3457957.stm. Retrieved 2006-06-07. 
  29. ^ "Army build-up near Horn frontier". BBC. 2005-11-02. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4400580.stm. Retrieved 2006-06-07. 
  30. ^ "Horn border tense before deadline". BBC. 2005-12-23. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4555892.stm. Retrieved 2006-06-07. 
  31. ^ ""U.N.: Eritrea giving arms to Somalis tied to al Qaeda"". CNN. 2007-07-26. http://edition.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/africa/07/26/somalia.arms.ap/index.html. Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  32. ^ Mark Mazzetti (2006-12-27). "U.S. Signals Backing for Ethiopian Incursion Into Somalia". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/27/world/africa/27africa.html?partner=permalink&exprod=permalink. Retrieved 2008-11-20
  33. ^ Accounts of rebels in Eritrea
  34. ^ HRW report on Somalia: Eritrea, Ethiopia roles
  35. ^ "The rediscovery of Eritrea's elephants". BBC Wildlife Magazine. July 2003. http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/animals/features/300feature1.shtml. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  36. ^ C. Michael Hogan (2009) Painted Hunting Dog: Lycaon pictus, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg
  37. ^ An Environmental Impact Assessment of African Armyworm Control in Eritrea: An Amendment to the "Eritrean Supplemental Environmental Assessment For Grasshopper And Locust Control".
  38. ^ "Economy - overview". CIA. 2006-06-06. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/er.html#Econ. Retrieved 2006-06-07. 
  39. ^ "Aid sought for Eritrean recovery". BBC. 2001-02-22. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1184714.stm. Retrieved 2006-06-07. 
  40. ^ "U.S. gas: So cheap it hurts". CNN Money. 2008-05-06. http://money.cnn.com/2008/05/01/news/international/usgas_price/index.htm?cnn=yes. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  41. ^ Alders, Anne. "the Rashaida". http://www.eritreanbeauty.com/r.html. Retrieved 2006-06-07. 
  42. ^ http://www.shaebia.org/constitution.html#CHAP1_
  43. ^ Baseline Study on Livelihood Systems in Eritrea. National Food Information System of Eritrea. 2005. 
  44. ^ Kifle, Temesgen (2002). Educational Gender Gap in Eritrea. 
  45. ^ a b "Religious persecution in Eritrea". BBC News. 2004-09-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3663654.stm. Retrieved 2009-12-11. 
  46. ^ "Jehovah's Witnesses — Eritrea Country Profile - October 2008". http://www.jw-media.org/frames/eri_e081021_list.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-25. 
  47. ^ "Eritrea. International Religious Freedom Report 2008". U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2008/108367.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-08. 
  48. ^ "IRF Report and Countries of Particular Concern". U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/irf/c13003.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-23. 
  49. ^ "Asmara's last Jew recalls 'good old days'". BBC. 2006-04-30. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4955088.stm. Retrieved 2006-09-26. 
  50. ^ "Eritrea's last native Jew tends graves, remembers". Y Net News. 2006-05-02. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3246419,00.html. Retrieved 2006-09-26. 
  51. ^ Annual Press Freedom Index. Reporters Without Borders.
  52. ^ http://www.maitacli.it/arg_menu/Sport/Ciclismo/giro_di_vita.htm The first Tour of Eritrea (in italian)

Sources

.
  • Ancient Ethiopia, David W. Phillipson (1998)
  • Cliffe, Lionel; Connell, Dan; Davidson, Basil (2005), Taking on the Superpowers: Collected Articles on the Eritrean Revolution (1976–1982).^ For a time after the revolution in Ethiopia in 1974 that ended the Selassie regime, it seemed that the military government might be prepared to make concessions on Eritrean issues.
    • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Red Sea Press, ISBN 1-56902-188-0
  • Cliffe, Lionel & Davidson, Basil (1988), The Long Struggle of Eritrea for Independence and Constructive Peace.^ Had he known anything about Eritrea´s long and heroic struggle for independence, he would have known that the East German´s never supported the Eritrean peoples struggle and never trained any members of the Eritrean People´s Liberation Front (EPLF).
    • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Eritrea is divided between a mountainous central plateau, where the capital Asmara is situated, and the lowlands in the north, west and along the Red Sea Coast.
    • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In addition, during Eritrea´s 30-year long struggle for independence, Christians and Moslems lived and fought together to liberate Eritrea.
    • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

    Spokesman Press, ISBN 0-85124-463-7
  • Connell, Dan (1997), Against All Odds: A Chronicle of the Eritrean Revolution With a New Afterword on the Postwar Transition. .Red Sea Press, ISBN 1-56902-046-9
  • Connell, Dan (2001), Rethinking Revolution: New Strategies for Democracy & Social Justice : The Experiences of Eritrea, South Africa, Palestine & Nicaragua.^ For the new American Obama adminstration Eritrea is not a challenge but an opportunity to forge a new U.S. policy to Africa that will lead to prosperity to all, because Eritrea is a nation that always believed that Yes We Can!
    • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ East Africa: After Yesterday's Roadblocks, No New Restrictions Reported By UN in Eritrea .
    • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Eritrea denies responsibility for UN peacekeeper death - Reuters South Africa .
    • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

    Red Sea Press, ISBN 1-56902-145-7
  • Connell, Dan (2004), Conversations with Eritrean Political Prisoners. Red Sea Press, ISBN 1-56902-235-6
  • Connell, Dan (2005), Building a New Nation: Collected Articles on the Eritrean Revolution (1983–2002). .Red Sea Press, ISBN 1-56902-198-8
  • Daniel Kendie (2005), The Five Dimensions Of The Eritrean Conflict 1941 - 2004: Deciphering the Geo-Political Puzzle.^ Press Statement Of Five Eritrean Oppostion Organizations .
    • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

    Signature Book Printing, ISBN 1-932433-47-3
  • Firebrace, James & Holand, Stuart (1985), Never Kneel Down: Drought, Development and Liberation in Eritrea. .Red Sea Press, ISBN 0-932415-00-8
  • Hatem Elliesie: Decentralisation of Higher Education in Eritrea, Afrika Spectrum, Vol.^ Eritrea is divided between a mountainous central plateau, where the capital Asmara is situated, and the lowlands in the north, west and along the Red Sea Coast.
    • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    43 (2008) No. 1, p. 115-120.
  • Hogan, C. Michael (2009), Painted Hunting Dog: Lycaon pictus, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg
  • Jordan Gebre-Medhin (1989), Peasants and Nationalism in Eritrea. .Red Sea Press, ISBN 0-932415-38-5
  • Hill, Justin (2002), 'Ciao Asmara, A classic account of contemporary Africa'. Little, Brown, ISBN 978-0349115269
  • Iyob, Ruth (1997), The Eritrean Struggle for Independence : Domination, Resistance, Nationalism, 1941-1993.^ The JH refused to participate in the 1993 Eritrean referendum and when the Proclamation on National Service No.
    • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Eritreans stood on the truth for years and were able to harvest their independence in 1991 and in 1993 through internationally supervised referendum; 98.9% voted for independence.
    • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

    Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-59591-6
  • Jacquin-Berdal, Dominique; Plaut, Martin (2004), Unfinished Business: Ethiopia and Eritrea at War. Red Sea Press, ISBN 1-56902-217-8
  • Johns, Michael (1992), "Does Democracy Have a Chance", Congressional Record, May 6 1992
  • Keneally, Thomas (1990), "To Asmara" ISBN 0446391719
  • Killion, Tom (1998), Historical Dictionary of Eritrea. Scarecrow Press, ISBN 0-8108-3437-5
  • Mauri, Arnaldo (2004), "Eritrea's Early Stages oin Monetary and Banking Development", International Review of Economics, Vol. LI, n. 4.
  • Müller, Tanja R.: Bare life and the developmental State: the Militarization of Higher Education in Eritrea, Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 46 (2008), No. .1, p. 1-21.
  • Wrong, Michela (2005), I Didn't Do It For You: how the world betrayed a small African Nation.^ The new nation of Eritrea is a beacon of hope for the African continent and she is showing Africans life does exist outside the IMF, UN and the World Bank.
    • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There are reportedly 1,900 prisoners held for their religious beliefs in this small African nation.
    • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Harper Collins, ISBN 0-06-078092-4
  • Ogbaselassie, G (2006-01-10). "Response to remarks by Mr. David Triesman, Britain's parliamentary under-secretary of state with responsibility for Africa". http://eri24.com/Article_10043.htm. Retrieved 2006-06-07. 
  • Pateman, Roy (1998), Eritrea: Even the Stones Are Burning. Red Sea Press, ISBN 1-56902-057-4
  • Rena, Ravinder (2006-01-12). "Student-Centered Education is the Best Way of Learning". http://eri24.com/Article_10045.htm. Retrieved 2006-06-07. 
  • "Eritrea-Ethiopia versus western nations". 2005-12-09. http://eri24.com/Article_10031.htm. .Retrieved 2006-06-07. 
  • Mauri, Arnaldo (1998), "The First Monetary and Banking Experiences in Eritrea", African Review of Money, Finance and Banking, n.^ The new nation of Eritrea is a beacon of hope for the African continent and she is showing Africans life does exist outside the IMF, UN and the World Bank.
    • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

    1-2.

External links

Government
General information

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Africa : East Africa : Eritrea
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:er-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Asmara
Government transitional; single-party democracy
Currency nakfa (ERN)
Area 121,320 sq km
Population 4,786,994 (July 2006 est.)
Language Afar, Amharic, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya, other Cushitic languages
Religion Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant
Calling Code +291
Internet TLD .er
Time Zone UTC +3
Travel Warning
.WARNING: Travelers should exercise caution as the Eritrean government has placed restrictions on travel outside the capital city and heightened tensions exist along Eritrea's borders with Ethiopia and Djibouti.^ ERITREA: Government downplays helicopter restrictions .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ ETHIOPIA-ERITREA: Military officials to discuss border tension .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ ETHIOPIA-ERITREA: UNMEE warns of continuing border incidents .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

.Eritrea is in East Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and Sudan, with a long disputed border with Ethiopia.^ U.N. probes Eritrea-Ethiopia border gunfire .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ ETHIOPIA-ERITREA: Less tension on disputed border, says UNMEE .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ It is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Central
  • Anseba
  • Southern Red Sea
  • Northern Red Sea
  • Southern
  • Gash-Barka

Other destinations

.Eritrea is a relatively small country (by African standards), about the same size as Pennsylvania or England, and has a varied and contrasting landscape due to its diverse topography as part of the geological feature of the Great Rift Valley which traverses all of Eastern Africa, the Red Sea and Middle East.^ Countries bordering the Red Sea .
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (East African Standard 4 September 2007) .
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Eritrea at the southern end of the Red Sea is the home of the fork in the rift.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The country's most interesting destinations are its natural attractions, beyond the towns and villages. There are six main topographical features in the country. .The highlands in the center and south of Eritrea, the western lowlands, the Sahel in the north, the subtropical eastern escarpments, the northern coast and archipelago and the southern coast.^ Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except in coastal desert .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Terrain: Central highlands straddle escarpment associated with Rift Valley, dry coastal plains, and western lowlands.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually, heaviest June to September); semiarid in western hills and lowlands .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The highlands where the capital Asmara is situated lie between 1500 and 3500 meters above sea level and are blessed with a temperate, Mediterranean and dry climate, with little seasonal variation in temperature but where the rainy season falls between May and September and dry season between December and April.^ NATURAL DISASTERS AND CLIMATE Rainy season The rainy season extends from June to September.
  • Eritrea Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Climate: Temperate in the highlands; hot in the lowlands.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The weather is usually sunny and dry, with the short or belg rains occurring February-April and the big or meher rains beginning in late June and ending in mid-September.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There is however considerable variation in temperature between the different levels in altitude of the highlands. The landscape essentially consists of valleys, hills and vast expanses of flat plateaus interrupted by very dramatic chasms. The dry season from December to April is distinguished by the red-brown, rusty, beige or black (stone and rubble-colored) landscape, resembling photos from Mars. The vegetation consists largely of shrubbery, eucalyptus, aloes, cacti and the odd explosively colorful specs of bougainvillea, jacaranda or other adornments planted in the villages and towns. The rainy season brings torrents of rain and nourishment to the land which transforms completely into a verdant, emerald and grassy landscape in the post-rain months from August to October. Rural highlanders live a lifestyle which resembles biblical times. .Villages with stone houses, small plots, ancient temples (both Christian and Muslim), people farming and herding with traditional means using little technology, transporting their goods (as well as themselves) with mules and camels.^ In general, most of the Christians live in the highlands, while Muslims and adherents of traditional beliefs live in lowland regions.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thanks to the advancements in cyberweb technology, people have means of checking genuine news, stories on the ground and don't have to dwell on garbage story like this one.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You can't blame Islam for what's happened in Eritrea - The EPLF were Marxists and rejected religion both Christian and Muslim (there is a mix there) .
  • Editorial: Eritrea -The world's biggest prison | Comment is free | The Guardian 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.A good place to explore the highland landscape is in the outskirts of Asmara, the capital.^ The Sabean area in Eritrea is mainly to be found in the Kebessa highlands surrounding the capital Asmara and extending southwards.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Near the village of Tselot is the Martyrs National Park, inaugurated in 2000. It is a mountainous forest and wildlife preserve at the ridge of the highland plateau where the capital was built.
.The western lowlands lie between 1500 and 100 meters above sea level, the climate is tropical with high humidity and heat throughout the day during the rainy season (which falls at the same time as the highlands) and dry hot days with cold nights during the dry season.^ Climate: Temperate in the highlands; hot in the lowlands.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Terrain: Central highlands straddle escarpment associated with Rift Valley, dry coastal plains, and western lowlands.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually, heaviest June to September); semiarid in western hills and lowlands .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The landscape consists largely of plains, grassy, muddy and green during the rainy season and dry, dusty with sparse shrubbery during the dry season. .The plains are interrupted by the odd hills and mounts as well as three seasonal rivers originating in the Eritrean highlands and one perennial river constituting the border with Ethiopia and originating in the Ethiopian highlands (the Setit, known as 'Tekeze' in Ethiopia and 'Atbara' in Sudan).^ Eritrea is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the northeast and east by the Red Sea, on the west and northwest by Sudan, on the south by Ethiopia, and on the southeast by Djibouti.

^ GEOGRAPHY Eritrea is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the northeast and east by the Red Sea, on the west and northwest by Sudan, on the south by Ethiopia, and on the southeast by Djibouti.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All major towns in the lowlands are placed on or around these rivers.^ Click the place tab to see a list of all these pages and click to go any one.
  • ZNet - Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

The southern half of the lowlands consists of a typical African savannah and hosts the odd flocks of wild African elephants and other typically savannah-type flora and fauna. The northern half of the lowlands is considered part of the Sahara desert and consists of vast expanses of sand dunes and rocks with a few sparsely populated oases. .The best place to explore both aspects of the lowlands is the market town Tessenei by the Sudanese border and its surroundings, as it lies right between the dry and green parts of the lowlands and is a place of trade for the nomadic peoples of the desert as well as the sedentary farming communities of the savannah.^ Nevertheless, Eritrean resistance continued mainly in the northern parts of the country around the Sudanese border from where the most important supply lines came.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eritrea was also embroiled in a brief war with Yemen over a border dispute surrounding the Hanish Islands in 1996 which was later resolved by the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague in 1998 [28] and relations between both states have since normalized.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tessenei affords some of the most basic of amenities for visitors such as hotels with showers and flush toilets, shops (including photo shops to buy film and bottled drinks) and restaurants serving well-cooked meals.^ Most hotels, restaurants, shops and other establishments do not accept credit cards.
  • Eritrea Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ You are advised to drink only bottled or sterilized water, and to eat only peeled or cooked food.
  • Eritrea Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.It is accessible by asphalt road from the capital Asmara via Keren and the towns of Agordat and Barentu which takes about 10 hours.^ The main cities of the country are the capital city of Asmara and the port town of Asseb in the southeast, as well as the towns of Massawa to the east, and Keren to the north.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asmara, the capital, is about 2,300 meters (7,500 ft.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Buses run daily from Asmara. It can also be reached by dirt track from the Sudanese city of Kassala only 40 km (25 mi) away. Considering the border bureaucracy, this short distance however could prove to be a whole day's endeavor.
.The Sahel in northern Eritrea lies at the eastern fringes of the greater Sahara desert distinguished by its sharp contrast with the sandy deserts of the western lowlands as well as the eastern coast.^ Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except in coastal desert .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between the eighth and thirteenth century, northern and western Eritrea had largely come under the domination of the Beja , an Islamic, Cushitic people from northeastern Sudan .
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1988, the EPLF captured Afabet, headquarters of the Ethiopian Army in northeastern Eritrea, prompting the Ethiopian Army to withdraw from its garrisons in Eritrea's western lowlands.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Sahel consists of a towering narrow chain of mountains ranging from 1000 to 2500 meters (3280-8200 ft) above sea level aligned between the deserts to the east and west and continuing all the way to the north to Sudan and Egypt (a feature of the Great Rift Valley).^ The country is virtually bisected by one of the world's longest mountain ranges, the Great Rift Valley , with fertile lands to the west and the descent to desert in the East.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The highest point of the country, Amba Soira , is located in the centre of Eritrea, at 3 018 metres (9,902 ft) above sea level.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GEOGRAPHY Eritrea is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the northeast and east by the Red Sea, on the west and northwest by Sudan, on the south by Ethiopia, and on the southeast by Djibouti.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The slopes to the east and west are sparsely populated by herding nomads. .The rainy season in the western slopes falls in the same time as in the highlands and western lowlands and in the eastern slopes it conforms to the Red Sea's schedule of erratic precipitation between December and March.^ Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and Sudan .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except in coastal desert .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eritrea is divided between a mountainous central plateau, where the capital Asmara is situated, and the lowlands in the north, west and along the Red Sea Coast.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, rainfall in this region is generally erratic and of a much lesser quantity than everywhere else. .The climate is desert-like with little humidity, dry hot days and cold nights with little seasonal variation in temperatures.^ He falsely and malicious propagated the false accusation of Christians being imprisoned "in the middle of nowhere in 40-foot shipping containers" which are "very hot during the day and freezing cold at night".
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

Variations in temperature are seen however, between different altitudes. Heavy erosion due to war and previous overgrazing has also seriously impeded the benefits of two rainy seasons. .The landscape is therefore very arid and fit for only the most tenacious of nomadic herding communities.^ Most citizens' only contact with the legal system was with the traditional community courts.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

The central and northern core consists of impenetrable and hair-raising mountain passes, gorges and valleys. .This was the main base for the Eritrean rebels (who now make up the country's current government) when fighting for independence from Ethiopia.^ Ethiopia's annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years later sparked a 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991 with Eritrean rebels defeating governmental forces; independence was overwhelmingly approved in a 1993 referendum.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The global broadcast of Eri-TV has brought cultural images to the large Eritrean population in the Diaspora who frequents the country every summer.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, even though the Eritrean government bringing these same rebels to the table is positive, the US claims that the Eritrean government is doing this "by effectively destabilizing Sudan, because they're paying for rebels who are part of the process of destabilizing that country."
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One seasonal river, Anseba, originating in the highlands, bisects the mountain range and drains in a delta on the Red Sea coast of Sudan just north of the Eritrean border.^ Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and Sudan .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Countries bordering the Red Sea .
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except in coastal desert .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The best place to explore the Sahel is the town of Nakfa, the main base of the Eritrean resistance which gave the national currency its name.^ (The Eritrean currency is named after it.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Little, Brown, ISBN 978-0349115269 Iyob, Ruth (1997), The Eritrean Struggle for Independence : Domination, Resistance, Nationalism, 1941-1993 .
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Economy of Eritrea See also: Eritrean Railway Like the economies of many other African nations, the economy is largely based on subsistence agriculture , with 80% of the population involved in farming and herding.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nakfa also has a war-museum commemorating the liberation struggle and a comfortable yet modest government-run hotel with restaurant and satellite TV. It is accessible from Asmara via Keren on asphalt road and from Keren via the town of Afabet on a dirt road.^ Even during the war, Eritrea developed its transportation infrastructure, asphalting new roads, improving its ports, and repairing war damaged roads and bridges.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite the fighting, Eritrea developed its transportation infrastructure, asphalting new roads, improving its ports, and repairing war-damaged roads and bridges.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main cities of the country are the capital city of Asmara and the port town of Asseb in the southeast, as well as the towns of Massawa to the east, and Keren to the north.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This takes 10 to 12 hours as the road between Keren and Nakfa is awful. Buses run to Nakfa from Keren starting early in the morning so a trip from Asmara would entail an overnight stay in Keren (which is served many times daily from Asmara). .Afabet is accessible by asphalt road from the port of Massawa via the town of She'eb.^ Even during the war, Eritrea developed its transportation infrastructure, asphalting new roads, improving its ports, and repairing war damaged roads and bridges.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite the fighting, Eritrea developed its transportation infrastructure, asphalting new roads, improving its ports, and repairing war-damaged roads and bridges.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main cities of the country are the capital city of Asmara and the port town of Asseb in the southeast, as well as the towns of Massawa to the east, and Keren to the north.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Massawa-Nakfa trip would take about 10 hours still as the unavoidable Afabet-Nakfa leg of the journey is the most taxing.^ Afabet , Dahlak , Ghel'alo, Foro, Ghinda , Karura, Massawa , Nakfa , She'eb .
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Buses run once weekly from Massawa to Nakfa.
The subtropical eastern escarpment, consists basically of the eastern (seaward) slopes of the highland region. .Unique for this thin sliver of landscape is that it hosts the country's only subtropical rainforest and one of the world's largest selection of bird species, both seasonal (winter-migrants) and endemic (tropical).^ The country is virtually bisected by one of the world's longest mountain ranges, the Great Rift Valley , with fertile lands to the west and the descent to desert in the East.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ISSN 1553-8133 For additional information on government leaders in selected foreign countries, go to World Leaders.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Being so mountainous, it has not been heavily settled (luckily) as it was seen as inconvenient for farming. But nevertheless there are some small coffee and spice plantations in its central, higher altitude areas as well as tropical fruit plantations in the lower areas. .The Solomouna National Park is the best place to explore this area and is accessible by asphalt road from the capital Asmara as well as the port of Massawa.^ Even during the war, Eritrea developed its transportation infrastructure, asphalting new roads, improving its ports, and repairing war damaged roads and bridges.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite the fighting, Eritrea developed its transportation infrastructure, asphalting new roads, improving its ports, and repairing war-damaged roads and bridges.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main cities of the country are the capital city of Asmara and the port town of Asseb in the southeast, as well as the towns of Massawa to the east, and Keren to the north.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The only way to the national park is by guided tour with one of Eritrea's tour agencies which all operate out of Asmara.^ For the new American Obama adminstration Eritrea is not a challenge but an opportunity to forge a new U.S. policy to Africa that will lead to prosperity to all, because Eritrea is a nation that always believed that Yes We Can!
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ African salvation for peace and prosperity is being layed out in Eritrea and it is in the interest of all who are concerned for peace and security of our planet to join the Eritreans.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Any one who works to deter Eritreans from upholding and defending their sovereignty should not be allowed to operate in Eritrea not matter what their cover.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.Travelling to the coastal Massawa from highland Asmara one also passes through this region represented by the towns and villages between Nefasit (25 km from Asmara) and Dongollo Alto (50 km from Asmara).^ The main cities of the country are the capital city of Asmara and the port town of Asseb in the southeast, as well as the towns of Massawa to the east, and Keren to the north.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the oldest hominids, representing a link between Homo erectus and an archaic Homo sapiens , was found in Buya (Eritrean Danakil) in 1995 by Italian scientists.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most significant of these projects has been the building of a coastal highway of more than 500 km connecting Massawa with Asseb as well as the rehabilitation of the Eritrean Railway .
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The northern coast and archipelago consists largely of a sandy red-brown and beige semi-desert with some shrubbery and volcanic basalt-rock along the mainland coast. .The elevation is between 0 and 500 meters (1640 ft) above sea level and the climate is always tropical and humid, reaching uncomfortable highs of 37 to 50 degrees C (99-122 F) in the summer months of May to September and to breezy and warm "low's" of 25 to 35 degrees (77-95 F) between October and March.^ The highest point of the country, Amba Soira , is located in the centre of Eritrea, at 3 018 metres (9,902 ft) above sea level.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country has a high central plateau that varies from 1,800 to 3,000 meters (6,000-10,000 ft.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asmara, the capital, is about 2,300 meters (7,500 ft.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Rainy season is an insignificant concept on the coast as it seldom rains at all, save for the freak storm that occurs on the odd year. Some minimal precipitation and cloudiness may occur in the months of November to March, but the coast relies mainly on the runoff from the highlands and eastern escarpments for its water supply (from aquifers and table water). .The few attractions inland are the hot springs resort about 35 km (22 mi) from the port city of Massawa, where hot mineral water baths are available and the water is also bottled as one of the country's most popular mineral water sources and brands (Dongollo, sold in brown glass bottles).^ The main cities of the country are the capital city of Asmara and the port town of Asseb in the southeast, as well as the towns of Massawa to the east, and Keren to the north.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eritrea is one of the most misunderstood countries on earth.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There can not be any one to care about Eritrean poor people more than those who are leading the country .They have risked and sacrifice their lives to the betterment of their people.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

The coast and archipelago host some of the Red Sea's most untouched coral reefs, rife with marine wildlife ranging from dugongs and manta's to big spools of tigerfish, dolphins and of course sharks. .Eritrea's coast offers some of the best diving in the world but some of the most limited diving and tourist facilities, all of which are based in the port city of Massawa and are extremely expensive.^ Most of all, Eritreans through out the world and inside Eritrea are ones more showing they are one and united.
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Beaches in and immediately surrounding the port city of Massawa as well as to the north are of modest to poor quality due to pollution as well as flooding and erosion from the nearby highlands.^ The main cities of the country are the capital city of Asmara and the port town of Asseb in the southeast, as well as the towns of Massawa to the east, and Keren to the north.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Parts of the northern coast also consists of large mangrove swamps, great for fishing and bird watching but not for beach life. The beaches on the Dahlak islands on the other hand are clean, white and pristine, with lagoons of clear turquoise water. The only way to get to the Dahlak islands is to charter a boat from a licensed company in Massawa. .The biggest island Dahlak Kebir which features one modest resort-hotel is only 90 km (56 mi) away and so are some other smaller uninhabited islands like Dissei, which can make for affordable day-trips from Massawa but the archipelago extends much farther than that and offers much greater attractions.^ There were negative societal attitudes toward members of some religious denominations other than the four sanctioned ones.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ All countries or regions have special requirements for persons intending to reside for extended periods (usually more than 90 days) or who plan to work, study, or engage in non-tourist activities.
  • Eritrea Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ The Dahlak Archipelago and several of the Hanish Islands are part of Eritrea.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With Eritrea's limited facilities, the possibility of going on longer cruises and exploring more of the attractions is very expensive and narrowed down to a few European run companies based in Massawa.^ This I am sure is a very clever move that will bring much more economic benefit to Eritrea by opening the Ethiopian market for Eritrean goods.
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ADDITIONAL HEALTH INFORMATION Medical Resources Medical facilities are very limited.
  • Eritrea Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.With the country's heightened sense of security, doing so independently on ones own boat or a chartered one is impossible.^ Well he is doing that to secure his power by in securing the country.
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

.The best place to explore the northern coast and archipelago is obviously the port city of Massawa.^ The main cities of the country are the capital city of Asmara and the port town of Asseb in the southeast, as well as the towns of Massawa to the east, and Keren to the north.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The southern coast is perhaps Eritrea's most dramatic yet most inhospitable landscape because of its volcanoes, quicksand, bubbling mud pools, salt lakes, coastal cliffs, the inland desert and depressions. .The elevation ranges between peaks of over 2000 meters (6,560 ft) above sea level and depressions of more than 100 meters (330 ft) below sea level with fields of salt pans and strangely shaped rocks where temperatures reach the highest possible on our planet.^ The highest point of the country, Amba Soira , is located in the centre of Eritrea, at 3 018 metres (9,902 ft) above sea level.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimates that the economy shrank by more than 8% in 2000, although it rebounded somewhat in 2001.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Bada detention center lies in an area 70 meters below sea level and at times experiences temperatures of over 60 degrees C. In such conditions, people have died or gone insane."
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

The southern coast has the highest recorded temperatures in Eritrea which regularly reach 55°C (131 F). Humidity maintains the temperatures high all throughout the day and seasonal variations are the same as in the northern coast. .The northern inland areas of the southern coast offer a dramatic landscape of contrast between the backdrop of the towering mountains of the highlands to the west and the vast expanses of coastal desert to the east.^ Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except in coastal desert .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country is virtually bisected by one of the world's longest mountain ranges, the Great Rift Valley , with fertile lands to the west and the descent to desert in the East.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is the only area of considerable vegetation in the whole region, thanks to the highland rainfall and runoff. The area also hosts an interesting wildlife of mountain goats and ostriches. .The region is situated between the port city's of Massawa and Assab which are about 500 km (310 mi) apart so is ideally accessed on a journey between the two cities.^ The main cities of the country are the capital city of Asmara and the port town of Asseb in the southeast, as well as the towns of Massawa to the east, and Keren to the north.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most significant of these projects has been the building of a coastal highway of more than 500 km connecting Massawa with Asseb as well as the rehabilitation of the Eritrean Railway .
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rail line now runs between the Port of Massawa and the capital Asmara.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But can also consist of excursions from Massawa and/or Assab individually. Especially for trips geared towards viewing the inland landscapes. .Any journey without guides to this region is off-limits due to the high dangers associated with the climate as well as political volatility surrounding the Ethiopian border areas.^ The presentation touched upon issues including the Eritrean-Ethiopian conflict and its genesis as well as its adverse political, economic and social consequences.
  • Action Group for Eritrea (AGE) deplores sanctions against Eritrea — AGE: Action Group for Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Situations vary from one location to another, and there may be constraints on government resources, which can limit the ability of the Government of Canada to provide assistance, particularly in countries or regions where the potential for violent conflict or political instability are high.
  • Eritrea Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Border between Eritrea and Djibouti Canadians should avoid all travel to the border areas of Eritrea and Djibouti , where political tension and territorial conflicts continue to cause instability .
  • Eritrea Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.The only public transportation in the area consist of buses from Massawa to Assab and back which run a few times weekly.^ Other ZCom writers may have written only once or a few times, or may be relatively unknown to us.
  • ZNet - Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

^ Public Transportation Public conveyances, especially buses, are often overcrowded.
  • Eritrea Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.Assab is also served by Eritrean Airlines from Asmara a few times weekly as well.^ For those that keep speaking well of the present Eritrean governament: From the American Chonicles March 07, 2009 Eritrea: Too many enemies, too few friends.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

Map of Eritrea
Map of Eritrea
.Eritrea was conquered in 1890 by Italy, who hung onto it until World War II, when they were expelled by the British.^ It was originally part of the ancient Ethiopian Empire, then it was seized by the Ottomans in the 15th century, then ruled by the Egyptian Sudanese, and from 1889, until the British seized it during the 2nd World War, by the Italians.
  • Editorial: Eritrea -The world's biggest prison | Comment is free | The Guardian 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Most of all, Eritreans through out the world and inside Eritrea are ones more showing they are one and united.
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Kingdom of Italy ruled Eritrea from 1890 to 1940.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eritrea was awarded to Ethiopia in 1952 as part of a federation.^ Eritrea was awarded to Ethiopia in 1952 as part of a federation.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was federated to Ethiopia in 1952, and became a province of Ethiopia in 1962, at which point some Eritreans began a violent agitation for independence from Ethiopia.
  • Editorial: Eritrea -The world's biggest prison | Comment is free | The Guardian 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Eritrea was placed under British military administration after the Italian surrender in World War II. In 1952, a UN resolution federating Eritrea with Ethiopia went into effect.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ethiopia's annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years later sparked a 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991 with Eritrean rebels defeating governmental forces; independence was overwhelmingly approved in a 1993 referendum.^ Ethiopia's annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years later sparked a 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991 with Eritrean rebels defeating governmental forces; independence was overwhelmingly approved in a 1993 referendum.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethiopia: Eritrea rebels killed .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ Little, Brown, ISBN 978-0349115269 Iyob, Ruth (1997), The Eritrean Struggle for Independence : Domination, Resistance, Nationalism, 1941-1993 .
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hopes were high when the new state was born, but a new border war with Ethiopia erupted again in 1998, ending under UN auspices in December 2000. Eritrea currently hosts a UN peacekeeping operation that is monitoring a 25 km-wide Temporary Security Zone on the border with Ethiopia.^ The Border issue is the main reason Eritrea is in its current state.
  • Editorial: Eritrea -The world's biggest prison | Comment is free | The Guardian 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The Ethiopian-Eritrea war in 1998-2000 severely hurt Eritrea's economy.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Dispute Following the 1998-2000 war, a UN peacekeeping mission, the UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE), was established and monitored a 25-kilometer-wide Temporary Security Zone separating the two sides.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An international commission, organized to resolve the border dispute, posted its findings in 2002 but final demarcation is on hold due to Ethiopian objections, and the border remains very tense to this day.^ An international commission, organized to resolve the border dispute, posted its findings in 2002 but final demarcation is on hold due to Ethiopian objections.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The border is already demarcated by the geographical coordinates / boundary points published by the commission a year ago on 27 November 2006.
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Government officials also assert that implementation of the constitution is not possible until the border demarcation with Ethiopia is finalized.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Using the war as an excuse, Eritrea's government has devolved into one of the worst police states in the world.^ It also is one of the world's worst religious persecutors.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Eritrea and Ethiopia 'sliding into war' .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ Since the war's conclusion, the government has maintained a firm grip on the economy, expanding the use of the military and party-owned businesses to complete Eritrea's development agenda.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.No national elections have ever been held, the misnamed People's Front for Democracy and Justice is the only allowed party, dissidents disappear into jails and the country comes in dead last (behind North Korea) in the Press Freedom Index.^ The EPLF established itself as a political party, the People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ).
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Autonomous Region of Eritrea on 23-25 April 1993, a National Assembly, composed entirely of the People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ, was established as a transitional legislature; a Constitutional Commission was also established to draft a constitution; ISAIAS Afworki was elected president by the transitional legislature; the constitution, ratified in May 1997, did not enter into effect, pending parliamentary and presidential elections; parliamentary elections were scheduled in December 2001, but were postponed indefinitely; currently the sole legal party is the People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ) .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), previously known as the Eritrean People's Liberation Front, is the sole political party and has controlled the country since 1991.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Obligatory military service has been extended to eight years for men and women, border guards shoot on sight at people trying to escape, and the lucky few Eritreans outside the country need to pay taxes to keep their passports.^ It is still ongoing and combines military service with construction, teaching as well as agricultural work to improve the country's food security.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is happening without stop even though the government has introduced directives allowing troops to shoot and kill anyone trying to cross the borders.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ THE ERITREAN GOVERNAMENT SAYS: -The Eritrean people don’t need any food help from anybody…….while food spoils in the warehouses.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.The country is desperately poor, with half the population subsisting on under a dollar a day, and growth has been crippled by the war and the termination of trade with Ethiopia.^ Since independence from Ethiopia in 1993, Eritrea has faced the economic problems of a small, desperately poor country, accentuated by the recent implementation of restrictive economic policies.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Exports have collapsed due to strict controls on foreign currencies and trade, as well as a closed border with Ethiopia, which was the major trading partner for Eritrea prior to the war.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The border dispute with Ethiopia continued, despite international efforts at demarcation, to the detriment of the country's international trade and external relations.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Climate

.Hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm {24 in}of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except in coastal desert.^ Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except in coastal desert .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually, heaviest June to September); semiarid in western hills and lowlands .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Terrain: Central highlands straddle escarpment associated with Rift Valley, dry coastal plains, and western lowlands.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Landscape

.At the head of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains.^ Terrain: Central highlands straddle escarpment associated with Rift Valley, dry coastal plains, and western lowlands.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sound Radio’s terrestrial coverage area is north to Whipps Cross, west to Paddington, east to Thurrock and south to Bromley.
  • Action Group for Eritrea (AGE) deplores sanctions against Eritrea — AGE: Action Group for Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Very sad to Ethiopian people he is making the people to be hate from north bt Eritrea from South and west from Somalia.
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon declaring independence from Ethiopia in 1993.

Get in

.All nationalities must apply for a visa in advance before entering the country.^ Moreover, as I have said it before all the economy bla..bla..you are taking about is the more than 60% national budget you are getting by boot licking!!
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There were numerous cases where foreign nationals were delayed in leaving for up to two months or initially denied permission to leave when they applied for an exit visa.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Citizens and foreign nationals were required to obtain exit visas to depart the country.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Some Eritrean Embassies have websites where a visa application can be downloaded and printed out, saving you some time. When you apply for a visa to Eritrea, you must do it at an Eritrean Embassy in - or accredited to - the country where you are a citizen and nowhere else.^ Offline Eritrea Visa Application Download, fill out and mail in Eritrea visa application form .
  • Eritrea Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Eritrean Visas Online. 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC eritrea.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maximum stay in Eritrea: 30 days Group discounts Submit Eritrea business visa application Add Eritrea to Selection, and apply for more visas Eritrea visa for citizens of United States is required for more information please contact the nearest Eritrea embassy .
  • Eritrea Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Eritrean Visas Online. 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC eritrea.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its like asking Italian citizens to vote whether Eritrean should be free from colonization.You don't fight 30 years for independence and then after you achieve it, you ask for permission to be free.
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

.If there is no Eritrean Embassy or mission in your country, contact your foreign office/ministry to verify the nearest accredited Eritrean mission.^ The law and unimplemented constitution prohibit trafficking in persons, and there were no reports that persons were trafficked to, from, or within the country.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The National Union of Eritrean Women (NUEWs), Ministry of Labor and Human Welfare, and Ministry of Health are the primary government offices responsible for ensuring legal rights of women.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ There were reports that security forces targeted gatherings of unregistered religious groups; however, unlike in the previous year there were no reports that authorities searched the homes of foreigners.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Below is a list of Eritrean Embassies around the world.
These are the Eritrean Embassies in Europe: London, Paris, Brussels, The Hague, Berlin, Rome, Stockholm and Moscow (+consulates in Athens, Milan, Frankfurt and Geneva). .If you come from a European (EU or EES) country without an Eritrean mission, you contact the Eritrean Embassy in Brussels by default.^ You killed very efficient and country loving Eritrean businessman because they where a threat to you, not the country!
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ People like you confuse your siblings in Eritrea(assuming you are Eritrean) and send them money to come to the West.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If you really love your country, form an Eritrean party that advocate to reunite Ethiopia with Eritrea and save your starved relatives back home insteade of saying, London, Brussels, Washington.
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

.Eritrean Embassies in the Americas: Washington D.C., Ottawa and permanent mission to the U.N. in New York.^ Jeffrey Goldberg of the New York Times wrote about the cartel and its agenda in the 21 December 1997 article "Washington Discovers Christian Persecution".
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

Eritrean Embassies in Africa: Pretoria, Abuja, Nairobi, Kampala, Djibouti, Khartoum (+consulate in Kassala), Cairo and Tripoli. Eritrean Embassies in the Middle East: Riyadh (+consulate in Jeddah), Sanaa, Abu Dhabi (+consulate in Dubai), Doha, Kuwait, Tel Aviv (Ramat Gan) and Damascus. Eritrean Embassies in Asia and Oceania: Islamabad, New Delhi, Singapore, Tokyo, Beijing and Canberra.
.When traveling overland, as of Dec 08 it was NOT possible to obtain visas in Sudan (neither in Khartoum nor Kassala) unless you're a Sudanese national.^ Citizens and foreign nationals were required to obtain exit visas to depart the country.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

The border with Djibouti has been indefinitely closed as of December 2008 and with Ethiopia as of May 1998.
.For a tourist visa, you need to submit specific information about when and at what border post you will arrive and depart, so it is wise to have already made some plans (bought a ticket or so).^ It appears that Lord Brown has already made up his mind about punishing Eritrea - with or without evidence.
  • Action Group for Eritrea (AGE) deplores sanctions against Eritrea — AGE: Action Group for Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To Mark Itch Brother you made me almost spill my coffee this morning when I read your post.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Maximum stay in Eritrea: 30 days Group discounts Submit Eritrea tourist visa application Add Eritrea to Selection, and apply for more visas 1   Select the type of Eritrea business visa application: .
  • Eritrea Visa, Canada: Application for Eritrean Visa for Canadians. 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC eritrea.visahq.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By plane

Eritrea's only international airport at present is in the capital Asmara. .Lufthansa is the most reliable airline flying 3 times a week into Asmara from Frankfurt.^ I have spent most of that time in Asmara working at Halibet hospital.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

Nasair flies twice weekly to Jeddah, as well as once weekly to Milan/Rome, Nairobi, Dubai, Khartoum and Cairo. Eritrean Airlines flies twice weekly to/from Dubai and Jeddah. Egyptair serves Asmara twice weekly from Cairo. Yemenia Air fly twice weekly from Sanaa. Saudi Arabian Airlines fly twice weekly from Jeddah/Riyadh. There is a US$20/€20 airport fee payable upon departure.

By train

.There is no international railway connection to Eritrea.^ This little lamp in Eritrea will shine throughout Africa and there will be no more Dark Continent of Africa it will be known as the Sunshine Continent of Africa.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite the unilateral declaration by the Commission that its ruling is the final marker on Ethiopia-Eritrea international boundary, there is no legal precedent in international law suggesting that such declaration by an ad hoc tribunal will hold water.
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then there is the audacious Kevin Turner, a USAID subcontractor that entered Eritrea pretending to be a "humanitarian" worker, who had no qualms insulting the people and government of Eritrea, while he was still in Eritrea.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

By car

.You can enter Eritrea driving from Sudan (Kassala border crossing) provided you have a valid certificate of ownership of the vehicle you're driving (no rentals) and all your (including your passengers') passports and visas in order as well as a customs declaration (if necessary).^ This will get you no solution for your problem.
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am writing to you as advised by your Mr Thomas Cargill to make a complaint about the way in which Chatham House has been handling issues regarding Eritrea.
  • Action Group for Eritrea (AGE) deplores sanctions against Eritrea — AGE: Action Group for Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You are, after all, talking about Eritrea aren't you?
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

.The roads on the borders are very poor so you should be driving a 4WD. The first gas-station entering Eritrea from the Sudanese border is in Tessenei, a distance of about 40 Km.^ Eritrea has a very clearly deliminated border with Ethiopia now.
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mark I don’t know what is itching you about Eritrean poor plight of religious freedom.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thanks to the stubborness of the regime, today no one can drive a car in Eritrea, because a gallon of petrol will cost you a month's salary.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

Diesel is more easily available than petrol.

By bus

.There are Sudanese pickup taxis running from Kassala in Sudan to the Eritrean border (a half hour away) daily, and Eritrean taxis from the Eritrean border to Tessenei about an hour away (poor road).^ The undemarcated border with Sudan poses a problem for Eritrean external relations.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Libyan, Eritrean observers on Sudan border -Libya .
  • EDP - Eritrean Democratic Party 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC selfi-democracy.com [Source type: News]

^ Nevertheless, Eritrean resistance continued mainly in the northern parts of the country around the Sudanese border from where the most important supply lines came.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bureaucracy of the border crossings can take hours so start in the morning or early afternoon from Kassala in Sudan as it is not possible to enter Eritrea after dusk (border posts close).^ Eritrea also borders Sudan in the north-west and Djibouti in the south-east.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early this month 4 teenagers attempting to flee were shot at close range and their bodies were on display for hours until the bereaved parents were ordered to pick them up.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the Assemblies of God had not yet entered Eritrea, Ethiopia or Sudan, I asked to survey those three countries.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

By boat

Ports and harbors: Assab (Aseb), Massawa (Mits'iwa). .Sadaka Shipping Lines and Eritrean Shipping Lines serve the route Massawa - Jeddah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.^ A shipping container in the church yard served as a classroom and 21 Eritrean students enrolled for the opening class of the School of Leadership Training.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

They serve mainly Muslim pilgrims and it is quite difficult for non-pilgrims to enter or transit the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Get around

If you are flying in to Asmara, you will need a permit from the Tourist Bureau on Liberation Avenue if you consider traveling outside Asmara's city limits. This permit needs to be applied for 10 days before travel. .There are very few places other than Asmara, Keren and Massawa/Dahlak Islands that foreigners can travel to.^ There were negative societal attitudes toward members of some religious denominations other than the four sanctioned ones.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ While some foreign nationals obtained permission to travel to certain locations, the government refused to issue travel permits to others traveling to the same place.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ But there are other places, for example on the top page of ZNet, where content links offer additional information.
  • ZNet - Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

.If you are coming by land (or ferry to Massawa), you can get a travel permit at the locality of your arrival, to transit the country, given you have a valid entry visa.^ Under ZSoace, you can search members and Sustainers by locale and interest, useful for finding people to hook up with in your city...or creating a group page.
  • ZNet - Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

^ I wish you come to your senses and think of your future.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The government came to power in a 1993 popular referendum in which voters chose to have an independent country managed by a transitional government; however the "transitional government" has not permitted the formation of a democratic system.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.As long as you notify and consult with the Eritrean mission issuing your entry visa about your point of entry and travel plans well ahead of time, getting the travel permit is no problem.^ This will get you no solution for your problem.
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am writing to you as advised by your Mr Thomas Cargill to make a complaint about the way in which Chatham House has been handling issues regarding Eritrea.
  • Action Group for Eritrea (AGE) deplores sanctions against Eritrea — AGE: Action Group for Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yohana, you are bragging about your starving population somehow your moron leaders are doing better job than Ethiopian leaders.
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

The most common form of intercity transportation in Eritrea is bus and/or minibus. .The most frequent services, consisting of several buses/minibuses a day run between Asmara and Keren, Asmara and Massawa as well as between Asmara and the towns of the southern highlands such as Debarwa, Mendefera, Adi Quala as well as Dekemhare, Segeneiti, Adi Caieh and Senafe reaching the Ethiopian border (at and beyond Senafe and Adi Quala) for which it is not possible for foreign nationals to approach as it is a heavily militarized warzone.^ Most persons in national service and the service industry made less than the minimum wage.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the maximum penalty for refusing to perform national service is three years' imprisonment, several members had been detained for more than 14 years.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ There were reports that individuals were severely beaten and killed during roundups of young men and women for national service.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.There are also daily bus services on the road between Teseney (On the Sudanese border close to Kassala) and Asmara traversing Barentu, Agordat and Keren as well as an alternative route traversing Barentu and Mendefera.^ There were reports of summary executions and of individuals shot on sight near the Ethiopian and Sudanese borders, allegedly for attempting to cross the border illegally.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Military police periodically set up roadblocks in Asmara and on roads between other cities to find draft evaders and deserters.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ As well as emphasising the fallacy of the Ethiopian claim that Eritrea was responsible for the kidnapping, AGE was also able to discuss the border situation between Eritrea and Ethiopia with the media.
  • Action Group for Eritrea (AGE) deplores sanctions against Eritrea — AGE: Action Group for Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Once a day, buses/minibuses also run between Asmara and some of the villages of the southern highlands as well. .Buses to the north of the country (Nakfa) are less frequent and travel between once weekly to a couple of times weekly between Asmara and Nakfa traversing Keren and Afabet.^ The main cities of the country are the capital city of Asmara and the port town of Asseb in the southeast, as well as the towns of Massawa to the east, and Keren to the north.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The buses to the southern coast (Assab) from Asmara are equally infrequent, once weekly only, traversing Massawa. Tickets are bought on the bus and the first come first served rule applies. .Some state-run bus lines to remote frontier areas do allow for tickets to be bought in advance at the Asmara bus station, where you can also inquire about the bus-schedule.^ From the United States to Europe, Asia and Africa, nations that have been concerned about the mushrooming of the various NRMs and have instituted some forms of legislation to deal with them.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ People queue for hours to get a seat in a bus, while others sleep at stations to get a ticket.Parliament has not convened since 2000.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The rail line now runs between the Port of Massawa and the capital Asmara.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There will always be some people who speak English and are more than willing to help translate.^ In less than 20 years of independence Eritrea has achieved more than most African countries that are celebrating their 50+ years of independence and much more than those who claimed "3000 years of independence".
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I admire people like Dr.Haile Mezghebe (Howard University trauma surgeon) and others who are on unpaid leave from their positions here in the U.S. for 1-2 years serving Gods people in Eritrea and more importantly helping train physicians there.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There were reports that some persons who were detained because of their religious affiliation died from security force abuses.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Domestic flights also connect Asmara with remote Assab twice weekly, with the airline Nasair which also flies between Asmara and Massawa twice weekly.^ The rail line now runs between the Port of Massawa and the capital Asmara.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However the latter flight route may not be a necessary option since the distance between the two latter cities is only 120 km (75 mi) along one of Eritrea's best and most scenic roads and there are buses several times a day running between the two cities that cost a fraction of the flight and take little more than two hours making time for refreshing stops in the mountains.^ Eritrea is one of the latter.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In less than 20 years of independence Eritrea has achieved more than most African countries that are celebrating their 50+ years of independence and much more than those who claimed "3000 years of independence".
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the maximum penalty for refusing to perform national service is three years' imprisonment, several members had been detained for more than 14 years.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The only rail line in Eritrea runs between Asmara and Massawa and it is only served by a museum railway (steam engine and all) with no regular service apart from in certain areas where there is demand.^ The rail line now runs between the Port of Massawa and the capital Asmara.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are approximately 824 schools [49] in Eritrea and two universities (University of Asmara and the Institute of Science and Technology) as well as several smaller colleges and technical schools.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to the introduction of mechanized farming, only Beni Amer and Sudanese pastoralists used the grazing land of the area between the Setit and Gash.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It only caters to chartered tour groups and it takes a daunting 5 hours to complete the journey just one way.^ The only requirements are that runners are in good health, with a minimum age of 15 and should complete the race in under two hours.
  • Action Group for Eritrea (AGE) deplores sanctions against Eritrea — AGE: Action Group for Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Buy

The currency is the Eritrean nakfa. It is pegged to the US dollar. There are 15 nakfas to the USD. Coins are issued in denominations of 1 cent, 5 cents, 10 cents, 25 cents, 50 cents and 100 cents and 1 nakfa. Banknotes are issued in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 nakfas.
The best souvenirs to bring from Eritrea are traditional handicrafts made from leather, olivewood, clay and straw. These can be found in most souvenir shops in Asmara along with traditional home-spun cotton garments. Posters and postcards are also readily available at most press-kiosks even at the airport. .Leopard and zebra skin as well as ivory items can be found in the souvenir markets but you will be stopped from leaving Eritrea with these as well as stopped and fined at your home destination because international trade in such materials is banned.^ I am writing to you as advised by your Mr Thomas Cargill to make a complaint about the way in which Chatham House has been handling issues regarding Eritrea.
  • Action Group for Eritrea (AGE) deplores sanctions against Eritrea — AGE: Action Group for Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Convert and harvest and build your mega churches in the US if you want to...leave Eritrea alone.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For the price of a slice of pizza a month, or actually, much less, you can get diverse benefits, and do your part to keep ZCom alive and well..
  • ZNet - Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

Eritrea however has several souvenirs made from goatskin. Gold, pearl, and silver jewelry is also available in the markets in Asmara along with frankincense and myrrh. Beware that when you buy any textiles such as home-spun cotton garments, animal skins with fur or mats or any such thing, it could be infested with parasites. Make sure it has been washed, treated and dried before returning home.

Costs

.Eritrea is generally a very cheap place to shop, eat, travel and spend time (Hotel prices apart from the pricy 5-star Intercontinental in Asmara are also very cheap).^ At that time Sudanese would travel into Eritrea for medical treatment rather than go to their own hospitals - as it was so much better.
  • Editorial: Eritrea -The world's biggest prison | Comment is free | The Guardian 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea Home Blogs News Radio Forums Directory Shopping Travel Sport Articles Video .
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

.The only things that could be expensive in the country are understandably imports (fuel and other foreign commodities), services that depend on imports (up-scale restaurants, hotels, private transport or flights) and various government fees (visas, airport taxes, travel permits etc.^ In Asmara at the time it was almost impossible to get basic commodities like milk or sugar, or, I was told, construction materials, due to the government's lack of hard currency for imports.
  • Editorial: Eritrea -The world's biggest prison | Comment is free | The Guardian 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The government banned the import of foreign publications; however, individuals were permitted to purchase satellite dishes and subscribe to international media.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike in the previous year, there were no reports that the government denied exit visas to expatriate journalists, although other expatriates permission to leave was delayed.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

). .If you stay away from imports (or bring them such as toiletries and cosmetics), eat locally and stay at regular budget hotels, especially the government-owned, and if you travel on public land-transportation, you need less than $50 a day for food, lodging and transport in total.^ A beggar regime whose national budget is donor subsidized and whose people are dependent on food aid, and whose institutions of government are externally funded and run, neither has the financial or intellectual capacity, to launch or sustain such a campaign.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ MPs have signed the latest motion and have referred the Ethiopian government as a 'wicked regime that invests its resources in such wars rather than feeding its own people.'
  • Action Group for Eritrea (AGE) deplores sanctions against Eritrea — AGE: Action Group for Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We don’t need foreign construction companies (not a bad idea) …..but who owns the construction companies in Eritrea (can you please give their name or rank…ooophs I shouldn’t say that!
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

Eat

.Eritrean cuisine in the highlands (around Asmara) consists largely of spicy dishes very similar to Ethiopian food.^ After D'mt's decline around the fifth century BC, the state of Aksum arose in much of Eritrea and northern Ethiopian Highlands .
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Italians met with stiffer resistance in the Eritrean highlands from the army of the Ethiopian Emperor Yohannes IV .
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The staple is a flat, spongy crepe or bread called injera made from a batter of fermented grains. Spicy stews with meat and vegetables are served on top of it and eaten with the hands. This cuisine is generally found in many restaurants in the country.
.Middle Eastern dishes such as shahan-ful (bean stew) served with pitas are also readily available everywhere but more commonly eaten for breakfast or brunch in modest establishments.^ Such incidents were more commonly addressed, if at all, within families or by clergy.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Lowland cuisine is not readily available in many restaurants, but in the old town (outermost island) of Massawa, adjacent to the freeport area, there are some simple restaurants that serve cuisine typical to the Red Sea area such as grilled spicy fish and "khobzen" (pita's drenched in goats butter and honey).^ In the main highland area and adjacent coastline of what is now Eritrea there emerged a Kingdom called Midir Bahr or Midri Bahri (Tigrinya) ruled by the Bahr negus (or Bahr negash, "ruler of the sea"), [13] Parts of the southwestern lowlands were under the dominion of the Funj sultanate of Sinnar .
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An Ottoman invading force under Suleiman I conquered Massawa in 1557, building what is now considered the 'old town' of Massawa on Batsi island.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are Jehovah's Witnesses who are over 70 years old and who are imprisoned in dangerous conditions for their simple attempt to share their faith.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.Owing to its colonial history, Italian food is abundant albeit not too varied all across Eritrea.^ Nevertheless the Italians consolidated their possessions into one colony, henceforth known as Eritrea, territory of Italy as of New Years Day 1890.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eritrea was consolidated into a colony by the Italian government on January 1 , 1890 .
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.You will always find a restaurant that serves quite good pasta, lasagna, steak, grilled fish etc.^ You can find particular writers', members', and sustainers' ZSpace pages with all their content, preferences, etc.
  • ZNet - Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

^ If you don't find something that is quite old one way, try another....
  • ZNet - Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

.In Asmara there are also several Chinese restaurants, a Sudanese restaurant and an Indian restaurant (Rooftop).^ There are approximately 824 schools [49] in Eritrea and two universities (University of Asmara and the Institute of Science and Technology) as well as several smaller colleges and technical schools.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Drink

The most common beverage in Eritrea is by far Beer. .There is only one (state-owned) brand in the country so there is not much choice, but it is quite good at that.^ There can not be any one to care about Eritrean poor people more than those who are leading the country .They have risked and sacrifice their lives to the betterment of their people.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

Beer is consumed cold in Eritrea! .This is closely followed by various soft drinks, the most common flavors are as elsewhere in the world: orange flavor, lemon/lime flavor and cola flavor, produced by one of the most recognizable brands in the world.^ Blaming one of the most effective and efficient gov't of the world for the growing pains of your homeland is utter folly on your part.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Not even two decades old, Eritrea has become one of "the world's most systematic human rights violators," according to the State Department.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

The same company that holds the beer monopoly also holds the monopoly on producing the local form of sambouca colloquially called "Araqi" as well as Vermouth and other spirits. International brands of the same spirits as well as others and are also readily available at most bars for a cheap price. Sophisticated cocktails are not known in Eritrea (as of yet) outside of perhaps the Intercontinental Hotel who charge a steep price. On a side note, there is an Irish bar in the hotel.
Traditionally Eritreans also drink the local form of mead called "suwa" and consists of old bread fermented in water with honey, as well as a sweet honeywine called "mies".
Tap water should not be drunk by foreigners. There is plenty of relatively cheap bottled mineral water, both carbonated and non-carbonated in Eritrea.
Cafes in some towns offer fresh fruit juices. These should be avoided as this may cause food-poisoning to foreigners. Unpeeled fruits can be eaten or squeezed fresh by you. But avoid "ready-squeezed" juices and that goes for ice-creams and fruit salads and regular salads as well. Stick to bottled drinks and cooked foods.

Sleep

.There are hotels in all price and standard ranges in Asmara, from the modest ones costing 200 Nakfa ($30 per night) to the overpriced Hotel Asmara, the only international hotel present in the country at the moment, setting you back more than at least the equivalent of $150 per night.^ The country is virtually bisected by one of the world's longest mountain ranges, the Great Rift Valley , with fertile lands to the west and the descent to desert in the East.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You are shouting your youth on the back, torturing Eritrean people for their faith & beating them with such hate and anger that makes you wonder if there is something wrong with you and that the reason is more then what you say, shall we make a list?
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The minimum wage in the civil service sector of $24 (360 nakfa) per month did not provide a decent standard of living for a worker and family.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Some hotels have one price for foreigners and another for locals.^ One of two citizens who worked for another foreign embassy and were arrested in 2005 and 2006 was released during the year; the other remained in detention.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

In most smaller towns, the lodging is quite modest and priced accordingly. .The only expensive hotels outside of Asmara would be the hotels on the sea in Massawa, neither of which exceeds $65 per night as of 2007. Modest in Eritrean terms means shared bathroom with several other tenants, no room-service, TV may or may not be available in the room (might be shared by many in cafeteria or common room), no air-conditioning and no change of sheets or cleaning throughout occupancy unless asked for (and then you might be charged extra just as if you had your clothes washed and ironed which is also readily available for an additional price).^ Not only have prices of basic necessities such as food items gone astronomically high, but they are also not available.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Dear Mr.Kantybye I can see, if I may say, that you have a “heart” for your people and rightly so.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The law and unimplemented constitution prohibit discrimination against persons with disabilities in employment, education, or in the provision of other state services, and there were no reports of discrimination in practice.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The middle-range hotels will have all these missing amenities (own bathroom, TV, air-conditioning etc.^ All these lies about people being imprisoned in inhospitable areas etc do not hold water.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

) but no room-service and change of sheets/cleaning/wash of clothes during occupancy is obviously for a charge. Restaurants and/or cafes are available at most mid-range hotels and are regular hangout places for people other than hotel-guests. In a hot place like Massawa, it is very highly recommended to stay at least at a middle-range hotel where air-conditioning is available. .The only hotel that accepts credit cards in Eritrea is the intercontinental (for a fee) and it is also the only hotel in the entire country with a swimming pool (both indoor and outdoor), gym and other common amenities in a modern standard hotel.^ In 2006, Eritrea announced it would become the first country in the world to turn its entire coast into an environmentally protected zone.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eritrea is an angel compared to the US and other hypocrite countries that only respect human rights when they can afford it but conveniently trash it when they are pressured.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the entire history of Eritrea, the only "religious conflict" happened during the British Administration, when individuals in that Administration deliberately and maliciously sought to bring conflict amongst Christians and Moslems in Eritrea.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.Most if not all hotels beyond the towns of Asmara, Massawa, Keren and Assab are of the modest category.^ The main cities of the country are the capital city of Asmara and the port town of Asseb in the southeast, as well as the towns of Massawa to the east, and Keren to the north.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are reported to be mid-range hotels in Nakfa, Barentu and Tessenei as well as resorts in Gel'alo and Dahlak (on the coast south and east of Massawa).^ There also were reports that security force personnel detained individuals for reasons ranging from evading national service to unspecified national security charges.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2006 there were reports that the government forced the resettlement of individuals residing in Massawa based on professed concerns for the security of the president.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Learn

.There are opportunities to go to Eritrea to teach and/or to do a research product at the country's institutions of Higher Education and Ministries.^ In his letter, Minister Osman Saleh acknowledged 'the noble contribution' that AGE and partners have made to the Ministry and other institutions in Eritrea.
  • Action Group for Eritrea (AGE) deplores sanctions against Eritrea — AGE: Action Group for Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But funding must be provided from your home country as well as a clearance from the Embassy of Eritrea either in your country or accredited to your country.^ Home » Under Secretary for Democracy and Global Affairs » Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor » Releases » Human Rights » 2007 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices » Africa » Eritrea .
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Work

.Working in Eritrea for an Eritrean employer (state or private) and for an Eritrean wage is not an attractive prospect for most westerners or people reading Wikitravel:) Most foreigners in Eritrea work for foreign employers (the UN, the few remaining NGOs, Foreign Companies, Foreign Embassies and related agencies as well as the International School) and a few foreigners mainly from South Asia work for the Eritrean government in various state-job contracts.^ You say you are an Ethiopian and yet you don't have any problem to support Eritrea and the Eritrean people right to be free!
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You can twist any thing you want however atleast 95% of we eritreans believe Eritrea is save with the present government of Eritrea.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By requiring NGOs and UN organizations to obtain permission to travel outside the capital, the government effectively controlled access by relief organizations to the rural areas.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Most if not all of these individuals acquired their jobs in their home country and/or were recruited and provided with their legal documentation by the Eritrean government while in their home country.^ Thus, even though the Eritrean government bringing these same rebels to the table is positive, the US claims that the Eritrean government is doing this "by effectively destabilizing Sudan, because they're paying for rebels who are part of the process of destabilizing that country."
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This a dual intent on the part of the Eritrean government: to provide each administration with sufficient control over its agricultural capacity and eliminate historical intra-regional conflicts.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of these detainees had not been tried and did not have access to legal counsel.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.It is unusual and perhaps difficult to arrive in Eritrea on a tourist visa and later apply for a work and residence permit while there.^ There is now religious freedom throughout Eritrea, and all denominations and faiths are permitted to practice.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Apply for Eritrea Visa Online » To apply for visas to several countries add Eritrea to selection and return to the list of destinations.
  • Eritrea Visa, Canada: Application for Eritrean Visa for Canadians. 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC eritrea.visahq.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eritrea tourist visa fees for citizens of Canada .
  • Eritrea Visa, Canada: Application for Eritrean Visa for Canadians. 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC eritrea.visahq.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Stay safe

Watch out for bicycle riders, vehicle drivers and pedestrians. People don’t look when crossing and bike riding accidents are common. It is a safe city though and you can walk about at night and anywhere in the city and not worry about crime. .There are sometimes children that aggressively beg but usually leave you alone if you are stern with them.^ Convert and harvest and build your mega churches in the US if you want to...leave Eritrea alone.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

Stay healthy

Do not drink the water and even check bottled water to make sure the cap is sealed. Be very careful what you eat. Many people get sick here. There is a Jordanian UN hospital that will treat foreigners. Local hospitals have inadequate facilities. Be healthy if you come here. Avoid uncooked food and unbottled drinks.
Practice safe sex because adult HIV/AIDS is currently 2.4% or 1 in 42 adults.
  • Eritreans are polite, hospitable and soft-spoken but due to the language barrier may generally keep their distance from foreigners. If approached by an English speaker, try to maintain an innocent topic of conversation and use universal common sense. Avoid displaying disdain, arrogance or too harsh criticism towards the country, culture, religion or politics of the country. .Although most if not all will be more than tolerant of your "mistakes" as you are a passing foreigner.
  • Do not fall prey to those willing to offer you a better exchange rate for your hard currency or some other "shady economic deal". A) They could be undercover government agents, which can land you in severe trouble with the zero-tolerance Eritrean justice system, or B) Even if they were not, you run the risk of not receiving a fair trade or getting caught by the law which is something you must avoid at all costs in Eritrea.
  • It is rude to take pictures of people or their property without asking for permission.^ Although more and more people are getting disillusioned with the government, not enough are participating in opposition activities.
    • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It looks to me, after this, that you are an agent of the government!
    • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The people want the government to be removed and they want democracy and justice to reign.
    • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

    .When taking pictures of public buildings beware of government buildings, especially police and military buildings.^ The government deployed military and police throughout the country, using roadblocks, street sweeps, and house‑to‑house searches, to find deserters and draft evaders as well as parents of deserters and draft evaders.
    • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    Taking pictures of these is not always illegal but if done without permission or supervision, it can be viewed as highly suspect and can result in an uncomfortable arrest and interrogation. Ask the closest official (receptionist or police) for permission.
  • Prostitution is legal but only in licensed establishments discretely placed out of the public eye (certain bars, nightclubs, hotels). .Public display of romantic affection is considered immodest and overt flirting with an Eritrean is viewed by the general public as akin to prostitution or soliciting thereof and can be taken as extremely offensive if the person in question or their kin is not involved in such business.
  • Like in many East African and Middle Eastern countries, use of the left hand to greet, eat or hand something to someone is considered very dirty.^ Main article: Economy of Eritrea See also: Eritrean Railway Like the economies of many other African nations, the economy is largely based on subsistence agriculture , with 80% of the population involved in farming and herding.
    • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And the many more abuses like Who gets paid in your government 1000’s of $ for allowing people escaping the country?
    • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There are no laws mandating access for persons with disabilities to public thoroughfares or public or private buildings, but many newly constructed buildings provided such access.
    • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    .When handing something over, using both hands is accepted and even seen as respectful, but not using the left hand alone.
  • Dress code is generally western, women are not required to "cover up" or wear veils, but showing too much skin, both for men and women will earn them very little respect and women (who show too much cleavage, wear too short a skirt/pair of shorts) will be viewed as prostitutes.^ Women generally did not enjoy a social status equal to men.
    • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Security forces occasionally followed women engaged in prostitution and arrested those who had spent the night with a foreigner.
    • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I have the utmost respect for the Eritrean people who are working very hard to build their nation.
    • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

    ."Western" (women) are generally allowed more freedom, as they are seen as already "different" from the norm, than Eritrean or Eritrean-looking women, who would be judged badly also for smoking or even riding a bicycle in public.^ The nationalist movement, however, exhibited the disunity of Eritrean people who had more in common with their neighbours than with each other.
    • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In its annual International Religious Freedom report 2007, the US State Department said the Eritrean government's record on religious freedom had deteriorated even further.
    • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Women do however drive in Eritrea, all vehicles, even military tanks, ships, planes and they command troops, serve in all the ranks of the army and government in the same capacity as men.^ The catholic church is legal in Eritrea…….all foreign catholic missionary are kick out little by little even when possessing legal permits.
    • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You can twist any thing you want however atleast 95% of we eritreans believe Eritrea is save with the present government of Eritrea.
    • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After all, what seems to matter more to the British and US governments is punishing Eritrea than resolving the conflict in Somalia.
    • Action Group for Eritrea (AGE) deplores sanctions against Eritrea — AGE: Action Group for Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It is a country undergoing a post-liberation accelerated (and sometimes paradoxical) cultural evolution.
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.an ERITREA Italian colony on the African coast of the Red Sea.^ Eritrea An east African country on the Red Sea.
  • Eritrea Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eritrea becomes an Italian colony.

^ ERITREA Italian colony on the African coast of the Red Sea .

It extends from Ras Kasar, a cape I IO m. .S. of Suakin, in 18° 2' N., as far as Ras Dumeira (12° 42' N.), in the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, a coast-line of about 650 m.^ At the end of the reign of Nero , and perhaps even earlier, the king of the Axumites ruled over the Red Sea coast from Suakin to the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, and traded constantly with Egypt.

^ S. of Suakin , in 18° 2' N., as far as Ras Dumeira (12° 42' N.), in the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb , a coast-line of about 650 m.

^ Also in July, fighting erupted briefly between Eritrea and Djibouti near the Bab el Mandeb strait; Djibouti had accused Eritrea of occupying Djiboutian territory there earlier in the year.
  • Eritrea Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The colony is bounded inland by the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Abyssinia and French Somaliland.^ The colony is bounded inland by the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan , Abyssinia and French Somaliland .

^ The Eritrean colony was formed in an area where the peoples had varying and discontinuous relations with the Ethiopian empire in the South, the Ottoman and Egyptian empires in the North and various Sudanic empires to the west and north west.
  • Case Study 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www1.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It consists of the coast lands lying between the capes named and of part of the northern portion of the Abyssinian plateau.^ It consists of the coast lands lying between the capes named and of part of the northern portion of the Abyssinian plateau.

^ The northern division is part of the Abyssinian highlands.

^ Tigre is widely spoken in the western lowlands, on the northern coast, and in parts of the Sahel.
  • Eritrea Overview - Climate, Flora and fauna, Environment, Languages, International cooperation, Forestry, Science and technology, Insurance, Taxation 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.nationsencyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The total area is about 60,000 sq.^ Total area (sq mi) .
  • Eritrea -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The total area is about 60,000 sq.

^ Total area (sq km) .
  • Eritrea -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

m. .The population is approximately 450,000, of which, exclusive of soldiers, not more than 3000 are whites.^ More than 50,000 soldiers have been discharged since 1993.
  • Case Study 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www1.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to non-governmental organizations, there are more than 3,000 Christians from unregistered groups in prison.
  • VOA News - Religious Repression In Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AP, 12/22/07) 2008 Jan 25, Ethiopia's administration for refugee and returnee affairs said that more than 450 Eritreans, including 234 soldiers, fled their country into Ethiopia in January alone.
  • Timeline Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The land frontier starting from Ras Kasar runs in a southwesterly direction until in about 14° 15' N., 36° 35' E. it reaches the river Setit, some distance above the junction of that stream with the Atbara.^ From west to east, starting at Khor Um Hagger on the Sudanese border, the frontier line follows the river Tekezze (Setit) to the point at which it meets the river Maieteb, then runs in a straight line to the river Mereb in the north, at its confluence with the Ambessa.
  • Ethiopia and Eritrea — 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ethiopiaeritrea.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She fought in this movement from the age of 14 right up until independence about 15 years ago.
  • Benn loxo du taccu » eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC bennloxo.com [Source type: General]

.This, the farthest point inland, is 198 m.^ This, the farthest point inland, is 198 m.

S.W. of Massawa. .The frontier now turns east, following for a short distance the course of the river Setit; thence it strikes northeasterly to the Mareb, and from 38° E. follows that river and its tributaries the Belesa and Muna, until within 42 m.^ After that it runs along the Mereb, crossing most of the central plateau, then along its tributary, the Melessa, to the east and finally along the river Muna.
  • Ethiopia and Eritrea — 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ethiopiaeritrea.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From west to east, starting at Khor Um Hagger on the Sudanese border, the frontier line follows the river Tekezze (Setit) to the point at which it meets the river Maieteb, then runs in a straight line to the river Mereb in the north, at its confluence with the Ambessa.
  • Ethiopia and Eritrea — 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ethiopiaeritrea.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

of the sea directly south of Annesley Bay. .At this point the frontier turns south and east, crossing the Afar or Danakil country at a distance of 60 kilometres (37.28 m.^ At this point the frontier turns south and east, crossing the Afar or Danakil country at a distance of 60 kilometres (37.28 m.

^ The frontier now turns east, following for a short distance the course of the river Setit; thence it strikes northeasterly to the Mareb, and from 38° E. follows that river and its tributaries the Belesa and Muna, until within 42 m.

^ The Afar country is part of the East African rift-valley, and in the southern parts of the valley its surface is diversified by ranges of hills, frequently volcanic, and by lakes.

) from the coast-line. .About 12°20' N. the French possessions in Somaliland are reached.^ About 12°20' N. the French possessions in Somaliland are reached.

.Here the frontier turns N.E. and so continues until the coast of the Red Sea is again reached at a point south of the town of Raheita.^ Here the frontier turns N.E. and so continues until the coast of the Red Sea is again reached at a point south of the town of Raheita.

^ In 1889, a treaty between Italy and King Menilek of Ethiopia recognized Italian possessions on the Red Sea coast, which were formally adopted as Italian colonies the following year.
  • Eritrea History | iExplore 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.iexplore.com [Source type: News]

^ It extends about 600 mi (1,000 km) along the Red Sea coast and includes the Dahlak Archipelago.
  • Eritrea -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the southern part of the colony are small sultanates, such as those of Aussa and Raheita, which are under Italian protection.^ In the southern part of the colony are small sultanates, such as those of Aussa and Raheita, which are under Italian protection.

^ Between 1869 and 1880 an Italian line, the Rubattino Navigation Company, acquires from the local sultan stretches of coastline near the small town of Aseb.
  • History of ERITREA 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.historyworld.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The purchase of Assab and the neighbouring region for L1880, from the sultan Berehan of Raheita for use as a coaling station by the Italian Rubattino Steamship Company, in March 1870, formed the nucleus of Italy's colonial possessions.

.The Dahlak archipelago and other groups of islands along the coast belong to Eritrea.^ The Dahlak archipelago and other groups of islands along the coast belong to Eritrea.

^ The inhabitants of Eritrea belong to several ethnic groups, primarily the Tigrinya, Tigre and Kunama, Afar, and Saho, each of whom has a distinct language.
  • Eritrea News - Breaking World Eritrea News - The New York Times 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Eritrea Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It extends about 600 mi (1,000 km) along the Red Sea coast and includes the Dahlak Archipelago.
  • Eritrea -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Table of contents

Physical Features

.The coast-line is of coral formation and is, in the neighbourhood of Massawa, thickly studded with small islands.^ The coast-line is of coral formation and is, in the neighbourhood of Massawa, thickly studded with small islands.

.The chief indentations are Annesley Bay, immediately south of Massawa, and Assab Bay in the south.^ The chief indentations are Annesley Bay, immediately south of Massawa, and Assab Bay in the south.

^ The southern division, part of the Afar or Danakil country, includes all the territory of the colony south of Annesley Bay.

.The colony consists of two widely differing regions.^ The colony consists of two widely differing regions.

.The northern division is part of the Abyssinian highlands.^ The northern division is part of the Abyssinian highlands.

^ The early kingdom of Aksum, in Tigre in the highlands of northern Ethiopia, is a part of both Eritrean as Ethiopian history.
  • History of ERITREA 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.historyworld.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It consists of the coast lands lying between the capes named and of part of the northern portion of the Abyssinian plateau.

.The southern division, part of the Afar or Danakil country, includes all the territory of the colony south of Annesley Bay.^ The southern division, part of the Afar or Danakil country, includes all the territory of the colony south of Annesley Bay.

^ On the southern part of the coastal region live Afar nomads, whose relatives live across the borders in Djibouti and Ethiopia; they are also called the Denakil, after the region that they inhabit.
  • Map Zones : Eritrea Map 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Atlas - Eritrea Map 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC atlas.freegk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chief indentations are Annesley Bay, immediately south of Massawa, and Assab Bay in the south.

.These two regions are connected by a narrow strip of land behind Annesley Bay, where the Abyssinian hills approach close to the sea.^ Peace and stability will be established in the region only by the end of these two tyrants .
  • Eritrea opposes border demarcation on map 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: General]

^ But as long as the disparity between these two groups prevails, Eritrea will likely remain a land of misery.
  • Eritrea: a cheap holiday in other people's misery | openDemocracy 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We do not allow these world organs to be active on our land to distort the facts and create discord in our country or our region and in our environment.
  • ERITREA: A Nation Turned into Grand Prison 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

.From this bay the coast-line trends S.E. so that at Tajura Bay the distance between the Abyssinian hills and the sea is over 200 m.^ Eritrea is divided between a mountainous central plateau, where the capital Asmara is situated, and the lowlands in the north, west and along the Red Sea Coast.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Afar country is part of the East African rift-valley, and in the southern parts of the valley its surface is diversified by ranges of hills, frequently volcanic, and by lakes.^ In the east, the depression is known as the coastal lowland, a northward extension of the Rift Valley.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country is virtually bisected by one of the world's longest mountain ranges, the Great Rift Valley , with fertile lands to the west and the descent to desert in the East.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Afar Triangle or Danakil Depression of Eritrea is the probable location of a triple junction where three tectonic plates are pulling away from one another: the Arabian Plate, and the two parts of the African Plate (the Nubian and the Somali plate) splitting along the East African Rift Zone (USGS).
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The plains, however, extend over large areas, they are generally arid and are often covered with mimosa trees which form a kind of jungle called by the natives khala. The torrents which descend from the Abyssinian plateau usually fail to reach the sea.^ The torrents which descend from the Abyssinian plateau usually fail to reach the sea.

^ The plains, however, extend over large areas, they are generally arid and are often covered with mimosa trees which form a kind of jungle called by the natives khala.

^ To the west and north the plateau sinks in terraces to the plains of the Sudan, and eastward falls more abruptly to the Red Sea, the coast plain, known as the Samhar, consisting of sandy country covered with mimosa and, along the khors, with a somewhat richer vegetation.

.They are mostly bordered by dense vegetation; in the dry season water is found in pools in the river beds or can be obtained by digging.^ They are mostly bordered by dense vegetation; in the dry season water is found in pools in the river beds or can be obtained by digging.

.The principal rivers enter and are lost in one or other of two salt plains or basins, that of Asali in the north and that of Aussa in the south.^ The Raguali and other rivers drain into the Asali basin.

^ The principal rivers enter and are lost in one or other of two salt plains or basins, that of Asali in the north and that of Aussa in the south.

^ Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains .
  • Eritrea Facts 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.tet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Flag Counter » Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC flagcounter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Hawash flows through the Aussa country in a N.E. direction, but is lost in lakes Abbebad and Aussa (see Abyssinia).^ The Hawash flows through the Aussa country in a N.E. direction, but is lost in lakes Abbebad and Aussa (see Abyssinia ).

^ Assab, chief town of the Danakil region, to which converges the trade from Abyssinia across the Aussa country, and Zula , identified with the ancient Adulis.

^ Salt, obtained from the salt lakes in the Aussa and Danakil countries, is a valuable article of commerce.

.The Raguali and other rivers drain into the Asali basin.^ The Raguali and other rivers drain into the Asali basin.

^ The principal rivers enter and are lost in one or other of two salt plains or basins, that of Asali in the north and that of Aussa in the south.

.This basin, like that of Aussa, is in places 200 ft.^ This basin, like that of Aussa, is in places 200 ft.

below sea-level. .On the west the Asali basin reaches to the Abyssinian foot-hills; in its southern part is the small lake Alelbad.^ On the west the Asali basin reaches to the Abyssinian foot-hills; in its southern part is the small lake Alelbad.

^ The southern part, known as the Gash-Setit Basin, supports a dense equatorial vegetation, rich soils and monsoon rains.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Afar country is part of the East African rift-valley, and in the southern parts of the valley its surface is diversified by ranges of hills, frequently volcanic, and by lakes.

.The eastern edge of the basin is formed by a ridge of gypsum and on its margin grow palms.^ The eastern edge of the basin is formed by a ridge of gypsum and on its margin grow palms.

.In parts the salt lies thick on the plain, which then has the appearance of a lake frozen over.^ In parts the salt lies thick on the plain, which then has the appearance of a lake frozen over.

.South of Lake Alelbad is a volcano called Artali or Erta-ale ("the smoky"), and farther to the S.E., in about 13° 15' N., is the peak of Afdera, which was in eruption in June 1907. The hills, 1000 to 4000 ft.^ The hills, 1000 to 4000 ft.

^ South of Lake Alelbad is a volcano called Artali or Erta- ale ("the smoky"), and farther to the S.E., in about 13° 15' N., is the peak of Afdera, which was in eruption in June 1907.

^ The highest hills in Eritrean territory rise to about 10,000 ft.

in height, which run more or less parallel to and a few miles from the coast, include the volcano of .Dubbi (reported active in 1861), some 30 m.^ Dubbi (reported active in 1861), some 30 m.

S. of the port of Edd (Eddi). .In 1 4° 5 2 ' N., 39° 53' E. and near the northern end of the zone of depression the volcano of Alid (2985 ft.^ In 1 4° 5 2 ' N., 39° 53' E. and near the northern end of the zone of depression the volcano of Alid (2985 ft.

) rises from the trough. .Its chief crest forms an elongated ring and encloses a crater over half a mile in diameter and with walls 350 ft.^ Its chief crest forms an elongated ring and encloses a crater over half a mile in diameter and with walls 350 ft.

high. .North and south of Alid extends a vast lava field.^ North and south of Alid extends a vast lava field.

.Dubbi and Alid are in Italian territory; the greater part of Afar belongs to Abyssinia.^ Dubbi and Alid are in Italian territory; the greater part of Afar belongs to Abyssinia.

^ In 1879 his territory was given by King John to Ras Alula, who retained it until, in August 1889, the Italians occupied Asmara (see Abyssinia : History).

^ Eritrea was an Italian East African colony from which Italian forces invaded Abyssinia in October 1935, after which it became part of Italian East Africa.
  • Eritrea Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At Annesley Bay the narrow coast plain is succeeded by foothills separated by small valleys through which flow innumerable streams.^ At Annesley Bay the narrow coast plain is succeeded by foothills separated by small valleys through which flow innumerable streams.

^ These two regions are connected by a narrow strip of land behind Annesley Bay, where the Abyssinian hills approach close to the sea.

.From these hills the ascent to the plateau which constitutes northern Eritrea is very steep.^ From these hills the ascent to the plateau which constitutes northern Eritrea is very steep.

^ I am very impressed by your work and the way you captured all these beautiful people of Eritrea (my people).
  • The beauty of Eritrea Photo Gallery by Johan Gerrits at pbase.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This tableland, which has a general elevation of about 6500 ft., is fairly fertile despite a desert region - Sheb - to the S.E. of Keren.^ This tableland, which has a general elevation of about 6500 ft., is fairly fertile despite a desert region - Sheb - to the S.E. of Keren.

.It is characterized by rich, well-watered valleys, verdant plains and flat-topped hills with steep sides, running in ranges or isolated.^ It is characterized by rich, well-watered valleys, verdant plains and flat-topped hills with steep sides, running in ranges or isolated.

^ The upper layers have been highly dissected by deep gorges and river channels, forming small steep-sided, flat-topped tablelands known as ambas.
  • Atlas - Eritrea Map 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC atlas.freegk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The image subset above includes the Tserona hotel, a newly built marketplace and a water tower a top a hill (identified by red dots clockwise from the bottom).
  • AAAS - Science and Human Rights Program 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC shr.aaas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The highest hills in Eritrean territory rise to about 10,000 ft.^ The highest hills in Eritrean territory rise to about 10,000 ft.

^ The annual value of the fisheries is about £40,000 (pearls £10,000, mother of pearl £30,000).

^ Ethiopia expelled 77,000 Eritreans from its territory, and the fighting displaced hundreds of thousands more at various points during the conflict.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The plateau is known by various names, the region directly west of Massawa being called Hamasen.^ To the north and west of the Eritrean Plateau the land gradually diminishes into the broken hill region, known as the Rora.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For three centuries Massawa remains either directly in the hands of the Turks or in the possession of their vassal states (at various times it is ruled from Mecca and from Egypt).
  • History of ERITREA 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.historyworld.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Traditionally, agriculture was the norm in the plateau region and in the north and west where rainfall was sufficient.
  • Map Zones : Eritrea Map 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Atlas - Eritrea Map 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC atlas.freegk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To the west and north the plateau sinks in terraces to the plains of the Sudan, and eastward falls more abruptly to the Red Sea, the coast plain, known as the Samhar, consisting of sandy country covered with mimosa and, along the khors, with a somewhat richer vegetation.^ Countries bordering the Red Sea .
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country lies along the Red Sea coast in northern Africa and borders Sudan in the north and west, Djibouti in the southeast, and Ethiopia in the south.
  • Eritrea Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.pressreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To the west and north the plateau sinks in terraces to the plains of the Sudan, and eastward falls more abruptly to the Red Sea, the coast plain, known as the Samhar, consisting of sandy country covered with mimosa and, along the khors, with a somewhat richer vegetation.

.The colony contains no navigable streams.^ The colony contains no navigable streams.

.For a short distance the Setit (known in its upper course as the Takazze), a tributary of the Atbara, forms the frontier, as does also in its upper course the Gash or Mareb (see Abyssinia).^ For a short distance the Setit (known in its upper course as the Takazze), a tributary of the Atbara, forms the frontier, as does also in its upper course the Gash or Mareb (see Abyssinia ).

^ The southern part, known as the Gash-Setit Basin, supports a dense equatorial vegetation, rich soils and monsoon rains.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The upper layers have been highly dissected by deep gorges and river channels, forming small steep-sided, flat-topped tablelands known as ambas.
  • Atlas - Eritrea Map 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC atlas.freegk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Mareb, often dry in summer, in the floods is a large and impassable river.^ The Mareb, often dry in summer, in the floods is a large and impassable river.

.Both the Setit and Mareb have a general westerly course across the Abyssinian plateau.^ Both the Setit and Mareb have a general westerly course across the Abyssinian plateau.

^ For a short distance the Setit (known in its upper course as the Takazze), a tributary of the Atbara, forms the frontier, as does also in its upper course the Gash or Mareb (see Abyssinia ).

.The Baraka (otherwise Barka) and Anseba rise in the Hamasen plateau near Asmara within a short distance of each other.^ The Baraka (otherwise Barka) and Anseba rise in the Hamasen plateau near Asmara within a short distance of each other.

^ The six regions or principal provinces are: - Asmara, which includes Hamasen and other small districts; Keren, which comprises the high territories to the north of Asmara, i.e.

^ The whole of the hill country north of Asmara belongs to the drainage area of the Baraka or Anseba.

.The Baraka flows west and then north; the Anseba, which has a more easterly course, also flows northward and joins the Baraka a little N. of 17° N. A few miles below the confluence the Baraka leaves Italian territory.^ The Baraka flows west and then north; the Anseba, which has a more easterly course, also flows northward and joins the Baraka a little N. of 17° N. A few miles below the confluence the Baraka leaves Italian territory.

^ They are all more or less practicable for carts, and are flanked by a good telegraph line as long as they lie in Italian territory.

^ The whole of the hill country north of Asmara belongs to the drainage area of the Baraka or Anseba.

.It is (as is the Anseba) an intermittent stream.^ It is (as is the Anseba) an intermittent stream.

.After heavy rain it discharges some of its water into the Red Sea north of Tokar.^ The country lies along the Red Sea coast in northern Africa and borders Sudan in the north and west, Djibouti in the southeast, and Ethiopia in the south.
  • Eritrea Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.pressreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the largest natural deep water port on the Red Sea.
  • Asmara and Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.asmera.nl [Source type: General]

^ Eritrea is divided between a mountainous central plateau, where the capital Asmara is situated, and the lowlands in the north, west and along the Red Sea Coast.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Eritrea : Eritrea Overview 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The whole of the hill country north of Asmara belongs to the drainage area of the Baraka or Anseba.^ The whole of the hill country north of Asmara belongs to the drainage area of the Baraka or Anseba.

^ The main cities of the country are the capital city of Asmara and the port town of Asseb in the southeast, as well as the towns of Massawa to the east, and Keren to the north.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Baraka (otherwise Barka) and Anseba rise in the Hamasen plateau near Asmara within a short distance of each other.

.Of the numerous streams which, north of the Danakil country, run direct from the hills to the Red Sea, the Hadas may be mentioned, as along the valley of that stream is one of the most frequented routes to the tableland.^ Countries bordering the Red Sea .
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the numerous streams which, north of the Danakil country, run direct from the hills to the Red Sea, the Hadas may be mentioned, as along the valley of that stream is one of the most frequented routes to the tableland.

^ The country is virtually bisected by one of the world's longest mountain ranges, the Great Rift Valley , with fertile lands to the west and the descent to desert in the East.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Hadas, in time of flood, reaches the ocean near Adulis in Annesley Bay.^ The Hadas, in time of flood , reaches the ocean near Adulis in Annesley Bay.

Climate

.The climate in different parts of the colony varies greatly.^ The climate in different parts of the colony varies greatly.

.Three distinct climatic zones are found: - (1) that of the coastlands, including altitudes up to 1650 ft., (2) that of the escarpments and valleys, and (3) that of the high plateau and alpine summits.^ Three distinct climatic zones are found: - (1) that of the coastlands, including altitudes up to 1650 ft., (2) that of the escarpments and valleys, and (3) that of the high plateau and alpine summits.

^ The southern part of the country is made up of a low, largely desert coastal strip c.30 mi (50 km) wide; in N Eritrea there is a narrower, level coastal zone adjoining a ruggedly mountainous inland plateau (3,000-8,000 ft/914-2,438 m high).
  • Eritrea News - Breaking World Eritrea News - The New York Times 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand almost all European cereals flourish in the intermediate zone and on the high plateau, and the Abyssinian is a good agriculturist and understands irrigation .

.In the coast zone the heat and humidity are excessive during most of the year, June, September and October being the hottest months.^ In the coast zone the heat and humidity are excessive during most of the year, June, September and October being the hottest months.

^ Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except in coastal desert .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Eritrea, Travellers information - Horizons Unlimited 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.horizonsunlimited.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An Egyptian garrison remained at Keren in the Bogos country until 1884, when in consequence of the revolt of the Mandi it was withdrawn, Bogos being occupied by Abyssinia on the 12th of September of that year.

.Rains occur between November and April, during which time the temperature is lower.^ Rains occur between November and April, during which time the temperature is lower.

^ The weather is usually sunny and dry, with the short or belg rains occurring February-April and the big or meher rains beginning in late June and ending in mid-September.
  • Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Eritrea - Conservapedia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC conservapedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.In this zone malarial fevers prevail in winter.^ In this zone malarial fevers prevail in winter.

The heat is greatest at Massawa, where the mean temperature averages 88° F., but where, in summer, the thermometer often rises to 120° F. in the shade. .In the second zone the climate is more temperate and there is considerable variation in temperature owing to nocturnal radiation.^ In the second zone the climate is more temperate and there is considerable variation in temperature owing to nocturnal radiation.

.This zone falls within the regime of the summer monsoon rains, while those districts adjoining the coast zone enjoy also winter rains.^ This zone falls within the regime of the summer monsoon rains, while those districts adjoining the coast zone enjoy also winter rains.

^ Slight rain falls in the spring and abundant monsoon rains from June to September.

.August is the most rainy and May the hottest month.^ August is the most rainy and May the hottest month.

^ In the coast zone the heat and humidity are excessive during most of the year, June, September and October being the hottest months.

.On the high plateau, i.e. the third zone, the climate is generally moderately cool.^ On the other hand almost all European cereals flourish in the intermediate zone and on the high plateau, and the Abyssinian is a good agriculturist and understands irrigation .

^ Three distinct climatic zones are found: - (1) that of the coastlands, including altitudes up to 1650 ft., (2) that of the escarpments and valleys, and (3) that of the high plateau and alpine summits.

^ In the low country the flora differs little from that of tropical Africa generally, whilst on the plateau the vegetation is characteristic of the temperate zone.

.Slight rain falls in the spring and abundant monsoon rains from June to September.^ Slight rain falls in the spring and abundant monsoon rains from June to September.

^ The weather is usually sunny and dry, with the short or belg rains occurring February-April and the big or meher rains beginning in late June and ending in mid-September.
  • Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Eritrea - Conservapedia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC conservapedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This zone falls within the regime of the summer monsoon rains, while those districts adjoining the coast zone enjoy also winter rains.

.The heat is greatest in the dry season, November to April.^ The heat is greatest in the dry season, November to April.

Above 8500 ft. the climate becomes sub-alpine in character.

Flora and Fauna

.In the low country the flora differs little from that of tropical Africa generally, whilst on the plateau the vegetation is characteristic of the temperate zone.^ In the low country the flora differs little from that of tropical Africa generally, whilst on the plateau the vegetation is characteristic of the temperate zone.

^ Related Topix: World News , Ethiopia , Africa , Terrorism , The General , Country .
  • Eritrea News - Topix 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]
  • Eritrea News - Topix 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]

.The olive tree grows on the high plateau and covers the flanks of the hills to within 3000 ft.^ The olive tree grows on the high plateau and covers the flanks of the hills to within 3000 ft.

^ Three distinct climatic zones are found: - (1) that of the coastlands, including altitudes up to 1650 ft., (2) that of the escarpments and valleys, and (3) that of the high plateau and alpine summits.

^ The country has a high central plateau that varies from 1,800 to 3,000 meters (6,000-10,000 ft.
  • Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Eritrea - Conservapedia 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC conservapedia.com [Source type: Original source]

of sea-level. .The sycamore-fig tree grows to enormous proportions in parts of the plateau.^ The sycamore-fig tree grows to enormous proportions in parts of the plateau.

^ The olive tree grows on the high plateau and covers the flanks of the hills to within 3000 ft.

.Lower down durra, maize and bultuc grow in profusion.^ Lower down durra , maize and bultuc grow in profusion.

.In the northern part of the colony, especially along the Khor Baraka, the dom palm flourishes.^ In the northern part of the colony, especially along the Khor Baraka, the dom palm flourishes.

.The fauna includes, in the low country, the lion, panther, elephant, camel, and antelope of numerous species.^ The fauna includes, in the low country, the lion , panther , elephant , camel , and antelope of numerous species.

.On the plateau the fauna is that of Abyssinia.^ On the plateau the fauna is that of Abyssinia .

Inhabitants

.The inhabitants of the plains and foothills are for the most part semi-nomad shepherds, living on durra and milk.^ The inhabitants of the plains and foothills are for the most part semi- nomad shepherds, living on durra and milk .

^ On the southern part of the coastal region live Afar nomads, whose relatives live across the borders in Djibouti and Ethiopia; they are also called the Denakil, after the region that they inhabit.
  • Map Zones : Eritrea Map 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of the lowland groups, however, lead semi-nomadic pastoral or agro pastoral lives.
  • Culture of Eritrea - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the north these people are largely of Arab or Hamitic stock, such as the Beni-Amer, but include various negro tribes.^ In the north these people are largely of Arab or Hamitic stock, such as the Beni-Amer , but include various negro tribes.

^ In the last 100 years that we experienced such animosity among the various nationalities, tribes or clans in the region.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.Afar and Somali form the population of the southern regions.^ Afar and Somali form the population of the southern regions.

^ On the southern part of the coastal region live Afar nomads, whose relatives live across the borders in Djibouti and Ethiopia; they are also called the Denakil, after the region that they inhabit.
  • Map Zones : Eritrea Map 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: Original source]

.The inhabitants of the plateau are Abyssinians.^ The inhabitants of the plateau are Abyssinians.

.The nomads are Mussulmans and are, as a rule, docile and pacific, though the Danakils are given to occasional raiding.^ The nomads are Mussulmans and are, as a rule, docile and pacific, though the Danakils are given to occasional raiding.

.The Abyssinians are more warlike, but they have settled down under Italian rule.^ The Abyssinians are more warlike, but they have settled down under Italian rule.

^ Under the Italian and British rule the rudiments of an urban social and economic order were founded, political parties and trade unions were permitted and a free press was established.
  • Case Study 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www1.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are all more or less practicable for carts, and are flanked by a good telegraph line as long as they lie in Italian territory.

.Among the native industries are mat-weaving, cotton-weaving, silver-working and rudimentary iron and leather working.^ Among the native industries are mat - weaving , cotton -weaving, silver -working and rudimentary iron and leather working.

.(See Afars; Somaliland and Abyssinia.^ (See Afars ; Somaliland and Abyssinia .

) Towns. - .The principal places on the coast are Massawa, pop.^ The principal places on the coast are Massawa , pop.

about .10,000, the chief seaport of the colony, Assab, chief town of the Danakil region, to which converges the trade from Abyssinia across the Aussa country, and Zula, identified with the ancient Adulis.^ Assab, chief town of the Danakil region, to which converges the trade from Abyssinia across the Aussa country, and Zula , identified with the ancient Adulis.

^ Between 1883 and 1888 various treaties were concluded with the sultan of Aussa ceding the Danakil coast to Italy and recognizing an Italian protectorate over the whole of his country - through which passes the trade route from Assab Bay to Shoa .

^ There are also two caravan routes from Assab Bay, across the Danakil country to southern Abyssinia.

.The chief town in the interior is Asmara, the capital of the colony and under the Abyssinians capital of the province of Hamasen, and favourite headquarters of Ras Alula (see below and also Abyssinia).^ The chief town in the interior is Asmara , the capital of the colony and under the Abyssinians capital of the province of Hamasen, and favourite headquarters of Ras Alula (see below and also Abyssinia ).

^ Towards Abyssinia the chief towns are Saganeiti (capital of the Okule-Kusai province), Godofelassi and Adi-Ugri, the two latter situated in the fertile plain of the Serae; Adiquala, on the edge of the Mareb gorge ; and Arrasa, the centre of the districts constituting the province of Deki-Tesfa.

^ In 1879 his territory was given by King John to Ras Alula, who retained it until, in August 1889, the Italians occupied Asmara (see Abyssinia : History).

.It is situated 7800 ft.^ It is situated 7800 ft.

above the sea, and has something of the aspect of a European town. Keren, 50 m. .N.W. of Asmara, is the centre for a district (Bogos) fertilized by the upper course of the Anseba; Agordat, on the river Baraka, on the road from Keren to Kassala, is the centre of the Beni-Amer, Algheden and Sabderat tribes; Mogolo, on the lower Mareb, is the rendezvous of the Baria and Baza tribes.^ N.W. of Asmara, is the centre for a district (Bogos) fertilized by the upper course of the Anseba; Agordat , on the river Baraka, on the road from Keren to Kassala , is the centre of the Beni-Amer, Algheden and Sabderat tribes; Mogolo, on the lower Mareb, is the rendezvous of the Baria and Baza tribes.

^ The whole of the hill country north of Asmara belongs to the drainage area of the Baraka or Anseba.

^ There are paved roads between the cities of Asmara, Massawa, Mendefera, Dekemhare, Baretun and Keren.
  • Travel Advice for Eritrea - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.smartraveller.gov.au [Source type: News]

.Towards Abyssinia the chief towns are Saganeiti (capital of the Okule-Kusai province), Godofelassi and Adi-Ugri, the two latter situated in the fertile plain of the Serae; Adiquala, on the edge of the Mareb gorge; and Arrasa, the centre of the districts constituting the province of Deki-Tesfa.^ Towards Abyssinia the chief towns are Saganeiti (capital of the Okule-Kusai province), Godofelassi and Adi-Ugri, the two latter situated in the fertile plain of the Serae; Adiquala, on the edge of the Mareb gorge ; and Arrasa, the centre of the districts constituting the province of Deki-Tesfa.

^ N.W. of Asmara, is the centre for a district (Bogos) fertilized by the upper course of the Anseba; Agordat , on the river Baraka, on the road from Keren to Kassala , is the centre of the Beni-Amer, Algheden and Sabderat tribes; Mogolo, on the lower Mareb, is the rendezvous of the Baria and Baza tribes.

^ Assab, chief town of the Danakil region, to which converges the trade from Abyssinia across the Aussa country, and Zula , identified with the ancient Adulis.

Agriculture and Trade

.The nomads of the plains possess large herds of cattle and camels.^ The nomads of the plains possess large herds of cattle and camels.

.The low country is almost entirely pastoral and unsuited for the cultivation of crops.^ The low country is almost entirely pastoral and unsuited for the cultivation of crops.

.On the other hand almost all European cereals flourish in the intermediate zone and on the high plateau, and the Abyssinian is a good agriculturist and understands irrigation.^ On the other hand almost all European cereals flourish in the intermediate zone and on the high plateau, and the Abyssinian is a good agriculturist and understands irrigation .

^ Three distinct climatic zones are found: - (1) that of the coastlands, including altitudes up to 1650 ft., (2) that of the escarpments and valleys, and (3) that of the high plateau and alpine summits.

^ As written in the good old book “Seek the Kingdom of God (Peace) and all other things will be added to you.” Yes again Peace at any cost.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.Numbers of emigrants from Italy possess farms on the plateau.^ Numbers of emigrants from Italy possess farms on the plateau.

.Experiments in the cultivation of coffee, tobacco and cotton have given good results in the intermediate zone.^ Experiments in the cultivation of coffee , tobacco and cotton have given good results in the intermediate zone.

^ On the other hand almost all European cereals flourish in the intermediate zone and on the high plateau, and the Abyssinian is a good agriculturist and understands irrigation .

.Besides camels and oxen, sheep and goats are numerous, and meat, hides and butter are articles of local trade.^ Besides camels and oxen, sheep and goats are numerous, and meat , hides and butter are articles of local trade.

^ Cattle, sheep, goats, and camels are raised, and hides are produced.
  • Eritrea News - Breaking World Eritrea News - The New York Times 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Eritrea Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hides are the principal export (about £50,000 a year).^ Hides are the principal export (about £50,000 a year).

^ The local revenue, which for the period 1897-1907 was about £100,000 a year, is supplemented by grants from Italy, the total cost of the administration being about £400,000 yearly.

Wax, gum, coffee and ivory are also exported. .Pearl fishing is carried on at Massawa and the Dahlak islands.^ Pearl fishing is carried on at Massawa and the Dahlak islands.

^ There is a fishing industry and some pearl fisheries remain in the Dahlak Archipelago.
  • Eritrea News - Breaking World Eritrea News - The New York Times 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Eritrea Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The annual value of the fisheries is about £40,000 (pearls £10,000, mother of pearl £30,000).^ The annual value of the fisheries is about £40,000 (pearls £10,000, mother of pearl £30,000).

^ The highest hills in Eritrean territory rise to about 10,000 ft.

^ Ethiopian military has clear all the ONLF terrors who hind among the population in Ogaden Ethiopia is building its economy at about 10% annually.
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

.Gold mines are worked near Asmara.^ Gold mines are worked near Asmara.

.Salt, obtained from the salt lakes in the Aussa and Danakil countries, is a valuable article of commerce.^ Salt, obtained from the salt lakes in the Aussa and Danakil countries, is a valuable article of commerce.

^ Assab, chief town of the Danakil region, to which converges the trade from Abyssinia across the Aussa country, and Zula , identified with the ancient Adulis.

^ The Hawash flows through the Aussa country in a N.E. direction, but is lost in lakes Abbebad and Aussa (see Abyssinia ).

.Cotton goods are the chief imports.^ Cotton goods are the chief imports.

There is a little trade with northern Abyssinia, but it is undeveloped. .For the five years 1901-1905 the average value of the external trade was £456,000 per annum.^ For the five years 1901-1905 the average value of the external trade was £456,000 per annum.

.The imports more than doubled the exports.^ The imports more than doubled the exports.

^ Yemen annually loses $ 3.5 billion in wasted tax incomes, more than double the annual revenues from gas exports estimated at about $ 1 billion, officials said on Monday.

Communications

A railway, 65 m. long, connects Massawa with Asmara. .An extension of the line is planned from Asmara to Sabderat and Kassala.^ An extension of the line is planned from Asmara to Sabderat and Kassala.

The whole territory is crossed by camel and mule paths between the sea and the high plateau, and between the various centres of population. Every valley that brings water to the Red Sea has a route leading to the high plateau. .The great arteries, however, number three, which, starting from Massawa by way of Asmara, run, two to Abyssinia, and one to Kassala and Khartum.^ The great arteries , however, number three, which, starting from Massawa by way of Asmara, run, two to Abyssinia, and one to Kassala and Khartum .

^ The rail line now runs between the Port of Massawa and the capital Asmara.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The scores of young ones who flee through the Sahara and die on a little raft on their way to Sicily are not running away from paradise, but they fleeing pure hell.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.They are all more or less practicable for carts, and are flanked by a good telegraph line as long as they lie in Italian territory.^ No the West have all these good stuff because they worked for it and we should all work to build Eritrea.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of all, Eritreans through out the world and inside Eritrea are ones more showing they are one and united.
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were in the middle of a long war then that no one cared about but were still managing to achieve some good things in health care and education - especially with women.
  • Editorial: Eritrea -The world's biggest prison | Comment is free | The Guardian 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.There are also two caravan routes from Assab Bay, across the Danakil country to southern Abyssinia.^ There are also two caravan routes from Assab Bay, across the Danakil country to southern Abyssinia.

^ Between 1883 and 1888 various treaties were concluded with the sultan of Aussa ceding the Danakil coast to Italy and recognizing an Italian protectorate over the whole of his country - through which passes the trade route from Assab Bay to Shoa .

^ Assab, chief town of the Danakil region, to which converges the trade from Abyssinia across the Aussa country, and Zula , identified with the ancient Adulis.

The northern leads by a comparatively easy ascent to Yejju, the more southern follows the valley of the Hawash. .A telegraph line 500 m.^ A telegraph line 500 m.

long connects .Massawa with Adis Ababa via Asmara.^ Massawa with Adis Ababa via Asmara.

Massawa is also telegraphically connected with the outside world by a cable to Perim via Assab. There is regular steamship communication with Italy.

Administration

.Eritrea is administered by a civil governor responsible to the ministry of foreign affairs at Rome.^ Eritrea is administered by a civil governor responsible to the ministry of foreign affairs at Rome .

^ After a high-level delegation to Sudan from the Eritrean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ties are being normalized.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Visafric Productions Current news (Eritrean News Agency, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, etc.

.It is divided into six provinces, each governed by a regional commissioner.^ It is divided into six provinces, each governed by a regional commissioner.

^ Administratively, the country is divided into six regions.
  • Eritrea Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main articles: Regions of Eritrea and Districts of Eritrea Regions of Eritrea Eritrea is divided into six regions ( zobas ) and subdivided into districts ("sub-zobas").
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some tracts of frontier territory are detached from the various regions and entrusted to political residents, as, for instance, on the Sudan frontier and also on the Abyssinian boundary, where strict surveillance is necessary to repress raiding incursions from Tigre, and where the chief intelligence department is established. .The six regions or principal provinces are: - Asmara, which includes Hamasen and other small districts; Keren, which comprises the high territories to the north of Asmara, i.e. the Bogos country; Massawa, extending over all the tribes between the high plateau and the sea from the Hababs to the Danakil; Assab, which extends from Edd to Raheita; Okule-Kusai, the plateau country S.E. of Asmara; Serae, including Deki-Tesfa, the country S.W. of Asmara.^ U.S. citizens are strongly advised to avoid non-essential travel to the Southern Red Sea region of Eritrea, including the port of Assab.

^ In the 1880s, Italy occupied the coastal areas around Aseb and Massawa, and by 1890 had extended its territory enough to proclaim the colony of Eritrea (named after the Roman term for the Red Sea, Mare erythraeum ).
  • Eritrea Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The roads between the major cities of Asmara, Massawa, Mendefera, Dekemhare, Barentu, and Keren are paved and are in relatively good condition.
  • ERITREA Visa Application; Tourist Visas, Business Visas, Expedited Visas - Eritrea Page 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.travisa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The regional commissioners and the political residents act either by means of the village headmen (Shum or Chicca), by the chiefs of districts in the few localities where villages are still organized in districts, or by the headmen of tribes, and by the councils of the elders wherever these remain.^ The regional commissioners and the political residents act either by means of the village headmen ( Shum or Chicca ), by the chiefs of districts in the few localities where villages are still organized in districts, or by the headmen of tribes, and by the councils of the elders wherever these remain.

^ Some tracts of frontier territory are detached from the various regions and entrusted to political residents, as, for instance, on the Sudan frontier and also on the Abyssinian boundary, where strict surveillance is necessary to repress raiding incursions from Tigre , and where the chief intelligence department is established.

^ In these areas, feudal authority was particularly weak or inexistent and the autonomy of the landowning peasantry was particularly strong, a kind of Republic was exemplified by the set of local customary laws legislated by elected elders councils (shimagile).
  • The Official ERITREA © space. on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Revenue is derived from customs duties, direct taxation and tribute paid by the nomad tribes.^ Revenue is derived from customs duties , direct taxation and tribute paid by the nomad tribes.

^ Government revenues come from custom duties and taxes on income and sales.
  • ERITREA Visa Application; Tourist Visas, Business Visas, Expedited Visas - Eritrea Page 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.travisa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Eritrea, Travellers information - Horizons Unlimited 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.horizonsunlimited.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The local revenue, which for the period 1897-1907 was about £100,000 a year, is supplemented by grants from Italy, the total cost of the administration being about £400,000 yearly.^ The local revenue, which for the period 1897-1907 was about £100,000 a year, is supplemented by grants from Italy, the total cost of the administration being about £400,000 yearly.

^ An arbitary decision has being made about where the border lies, 8 years ago.
  • Editorial: Eritrea -The world's biggest prison | Comment is free | The Guardian 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The total area is about 60,000 sq.

.Nearly half the expenditure is on the military force maintained.^ Nearly half the expenditure is on the military force maintained.

Justice

.Civil justice for natives is administered, in the first instance, by the headmen of villages, provinces, tribes, or by councils of notables (Shumagalle); in appeal, by the residents and regional tribunals, and, in the last instance, by the colonial court of appeal.^ Civil justice for natives is administered, in the first instance, by the headmen of villages, provinces, tribes, or by councils of notables ( Shumagalle); in appeal, by the residents and regional tribunals, and, in the last instance, by the colonial court of appeal.

^ An administrative tribunal settles, without appeal, questions of tribute, disputes concerning family, village or tribal landmarks, as well as suits involving the colonial government.

^ The regional commissioners and the political residents act either by means of the village headmen ( Shum or Chicca ), by the chiefs of districts in the few localities where villages are still organized in districts, or by the headmen of tribes, and by the councils of the elders wherever these remain.

Europeans are entirely under Italian jurisdiction. Penal justice is administered by Italian judges only. .An administrative tribunal settles, without appeal, questions of tribute, disputes concerning family, village or tribal landmarks, as well as suits involving the colonial government.^ In 1897, the Italian colonial government moved the administration from Massawa.
  • Eritrea Travel: Deals and travel information for Eritrea, Africa- lastminute.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.lastminute.com [Source type: General]

The civil laws for the natives are those established by local usage. Europeans are answerable to the Italian civil code. Penal laws are the same as in Italy, except where modified by local usages. Appeal to the Rome court of cassation is admitted against all penal and civil sentences.

Defence

.Defence is entrusted to a corps of colonial troops, partly Italian and partly native; to a militia (milizia mobile) formed by natives who have already served in the colonial corps; and to the chitet or general levy which, in time of war, places all male able-bodied inhabitants under arms.^ The best Italian colonial forces were the Eritrean Ascari, who were defined by Amedeo Guillet as "the Prussians of Africa, but without the defects of the Prussians".
  • The Official ERITREA © space. on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This time Eritrea has the right to make a war which are occupied by Ethiopian troops.
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Eritrea was placed under British military administration after the Italian surrender in World War II. In 1952, a UN resolution federating Eritrea with Ethiopia went into effect.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The regional commissioners and political residents have at their disposal some hundreds of irregular paid soldiers under native chiefs. .In war time these irregulars form part of the colonial corps, but in time of peace serve as frontier police.^ All of these treaties were entered into between Emperor Menelik II and the Fascist Italy a century ago and during colonial times, as the 2000 so called peace treaty itself states.
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

The colonial corps, about 5000 strong, garrisons the chief places of strategic importance, such as Asmara, Keren and Saganeiti. The irregular troops, on foot, or mounted on camels, number about moo men. .The militia consists of 3500 men of all arms, and is intended in time of war to reinforce the various divisions of the colonial corps.^ First of all, I would like to thank you again for accepting our request and taking your time to meet the Eritrean community, representing various organisations.
  • Action Group for Eritrea (AGE) deplores sanctions against Eritrea — AGE: Action Group for Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The chitet yields between 3000 and 4000 men, to be employed on the lines of communication or in caravan service. .All these troops are intended to ward off a first attack, so as to allow time for the arrival of reinforcements from Italy.^ The shipping containers were reportedly not large enough to allow all of those incarcerated together to lie down at the same time.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ First of all, I would like to thank you again for accepting our request and taking your time to meet the Eritrean community, representing various organisations.
  • Action Group for Eritrea (AGE) deplores sanctions against Eritrea — AGE: Action Group for Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of these treaties were entered into between Emperor Menelik II and the Fascist Italy a century ago and during colonial times, as the 2000 so called peace treaty itself states.
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

.The customs and political surveillance along the coast is entrusted, afloat, to the Massawa naval station, and, ashore, to a coastguard company 400 strong stationed at Meder, with detachments at Assab, Massawa, Raheita, Edd and Taclai.^ Banditry occurs along the coast north of Massawa.
  • Eritrea Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

History

Traces of the ancient Eritrean civilization are scarce. .During the prosperous periods of ancient Egypt, Egyptian squadrons asserted their rule over the west Red Sea coast, and under the Ptolemies the port of Golden Berenice (Adulis?^ Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September except in coastal desert .
  • Eritrea, Travellers information - Horizons Unlimited 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.horizonsunlimited.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. citizens are strongly advised to avoid non-essential travel to the Southern Red Sea region of Eritrea, including the port of Assab.

^ GEOGRAPHY Eritrea is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the northeast and east by the Red Sea, on the west and northwest by Sudan, on the south by Ethiopia, and on the southeast by Djibouti.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) was an Egyptian fortress, afterwards abandoned. .During the early years of the Roman empire, Eritrea formed part of an important independent state - that of the Axumites (Assamites).^ Formerly a province of Ethiopia, Eritrea became an independent country on May 24, 1993, following a 30-year struggle that culminated in an overwhelming referendum vote for independence.

^ The Eritrean authorities declared Eritrea an independent state on April 27, and Eritrea officially celebrated its independence on May 24, 1993.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Orthodox Christian tradition in Eritrea stretches back to the fourth century, and Orthodox Christianity forms an integral part of the Tigrinya cultural expression.
  • Culture of Eritrea - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the end of the reign of Nero, and perhaps even earlier, the king of the Axumites ruled over the Red Sea coast from Suakin to the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, and traded constantly with Egypt.^ The geographical location of the missions to Punt is described as roughly corresponding to the southern west coast of the Red Sea .
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The geographical location of the missions to Punt is described as roughly corresponding to the southern west coast of the Red Sea.
  • The Official ERITREA © space. on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HISTORY Prior to Italian colonization in 1885, what is now Eritrea had been ruled by the various local or international powers that successively dominated the Red Sea region.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This potentate called himself "king of kings," commanded an army and a fleet, coined money, adopted Greek as the official language, and lived on good terms with the Roman empire.^ Later, during the Roman Empire, the Romans called it Mare Erythraeum, literary meaning "the red sea."
  • Culture of Eritrea - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Axumites belonged originally to the Hamitic race, but the immigration of the Himyaritic tribes of southern Arabia speedily imposed a new language and civilization. Therefore the ancient Abyssinian language, Geez, and its living dialects, Amharic and Tigrina, are Semitic, although modified by the influence of the old Hamitic Agau or Agao. Adulis (Adovlis), slightly to the north of Zula, was the chief Axumite port. From Adulis started the main road, which led across the high plateau to the capital Axomis (Axum). .Along the road are still to be seen vestiges of cities and inscribed monuments, such as the Himyaritic inscriptions on the high plateau of Kohait, the six obelisks with a Saban inscription at Toconda, and an obelisk with an inscription at Amba Sait.^ CRIME: Although still a safe city by many measures, Asmara reported significant increases of street crime, such as theft, robbery, and assault in 2008.

^ Around this time, several cities with a high amount of Sabean remains (inscriptions, artifacts, monuments, architecture, etc.
  • The Official ERITREA © space. on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other monuments exist elsewhere, as well as coins of the Axumite period with Greek and Ethiopian inscriptions. .After the rise of the Ethiopian empire the history of Eritrea is bound up with that of Ethiopia, but not so entirely as to be completely fused.^ Eritrea retained the entire coastline of Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993 .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Eritrea, Travellers information - Horizons Unlimited 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.horizonsunlimited.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ethiopia's imperial government received support from the United States which had established a radio listening base (the Kagnew base) in Eritrea's Ethiopian-occupied capital, Asmara.
  • The Official ERITREA © space. on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ethiopian army finally capitulated and Eritrea was completely in Eritrean hands in May 24, 1991 when the rebels marched into Asmara while Ethiopian rebels with Eritrean assistance overtook the government in Ethiopia.
  • The Official ERITREA © space. on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The documents of the Portuguese expedition of the 16th century and other Ethiopian records show that all the country north of the Mareb enjoyed relative autonomy under a vassal of the Ethiopian emperor.^ In Eritrea, as in all other countries, a member of any religious group who breaks the law will be punished as any other individual, and cannot invoke obedience to a religious precept as a cause for impunity.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides Ethiopians of all walks, we don't care about shabialand but we care about our country and we want woyane gone period.
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethiopian government has only been able to finance its invasion of Somalia and threaten neighbouring countries through the large financial assistance it has been receiving from the British government and others.
  • Action Group for Eritrea (AGE) deplores sanctions against Eritrea — AGE: Action Group for Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Michael, counsellor of Solomon, who was king of the country north of the Mareb, usurped the throne of Solomon during the reign of the Emperor Atzie Jasu II. (1729-1753), and, after proclaiming himself ras of Tigre and "protector of the empire," ceded the North Mareb country to an enemy of the rightful dynasty. Hence a long struggle between the dispossessed family and the occupants of the North Mareb throne. The coast regions had meantime passed from the control of the Abyssinians. In the 16th century the Turks made themselves masters of Zula, Massawa, &c., and these places were never recovered by the Abyssinians. .In 1865 Massawa and the neighbouring coast was acquired by Egypt, the khedive Ismail entertaining projects for connecting the port by railway with the Nile.^ The most significant of these projects has been the building of a coastal highway of more than 500 km connecting Massawa with Asseb as well as the rehabilitation of the Eritrean Railway .
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Based on the archaeological evidence, there seems to have been a connection between the peoples of the Gash group and the civilizations of the Nile Valley namely Ancient Egypt and Nubia .
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Based on the archaeological evidence, there seems to have been a connection between the peoples of the Gash group and the civilizations of the Nile Valley namely Ancient Egypt and Nubia.
  • The Official ERITREA © space. on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Egyptians took advantage of civil war in Abyssinia to seize Keren and the Bogos country in 1872 1, an action against which the negus Johannes (King John), newly come to the throne, did not at the 1 During the Second Empire unsuccessful efforts were made by France to obtain a Red Sea port and a foothold in northern Abyssinia.^ Countries bordering the Red Sea .
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was originally part of the ancient Ethiopian Empire, then it was seized by the Ottomans in the 15th century, then ruled by the Egyptian Sudanese, and from 1889, until the British seized it during the 2nd World War, by the Italians.
  • Editorial: Eritrea -The world's biggest prison | Comment is free | The Guardian 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Eritrea, the Red Sea paradise has never been recognized as a neighbouring country or even as an independent country, because of the Ethiopian occupation until its independence in 1991.

(See Somaliland: French.) time protest. In 1875 and 1876 the Egyptians, who sought to increase their conquests, were defeated by the Abyssinians at Gundet and Gura. Walad Michael,the hereditary ruler of Bogos, fought as ally of King John at Gundet and of the Egyptians at Gura. .For two years Walad Michael continued to harass the border, but in December 1878 he submitted to King John, by whose orders he was (Sept.^ The government also continued to monitor, harass, threaten, and arrest members of the Orthodox Medhane Alem group, whose religious services it had not approved.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ A two-and-a-half-year border war with Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 ended under UN auspices on 12 December 2000.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A two-and-a-half-year border war with Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 ended under UN auspices in December 2000.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.1879) imprisoned upon an amba, or flat-topped mountain, whence he only succeeded in escaping in 1890. In 1879 his territory was given by King John to Ras Alula, who retained it until, in August 1889, the Italians occupied Asmara (see Abyssinia: History). An Egyptian garrison remained at Keren in the Bogos country until 1884, when in consequence of the revolt of the Mandi it was withdrawn, Bogos being occupied by Abyssinia on the 12th of September of that year.^ It was originally part of the ancient Ethiopian Empire, then it was seized by the Ottomans in the 15th century, then ruled by the Egyptian Sudanese, and from 1889, until the British seized it during the 2nd World War, by the Italians.
  • Editorial: Eritrea -The world's biggest prison | Comment is free | The Guardian 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Before the advent of the Italians at the end of the 19th century, the history of Eritrea is characterized by the domination of various powers, such as the Turks and Egyptians.
  • Eritrea - adventure and hospitality 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike in the previous year, there were no reports that Ethiopians who remained in the country were prohibited from living in the Debub Province bordering Ethiopia.
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.On the 5th of February 1885 an Italian force, with the approval of Great Britain, occupied Massawa, the Egyptian garrison returning to Egypt.^ Their possessions were left to their Egyptian heirs in 1865 and were taken over by the Italians in 1885.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This occupation led to wars with Abyssinia and finally to the establishment of the colony in its present limits. The history of the Italian-Abyssinian relations is fully told in the articles Italy and Abyssinia (history sections).
It was not, however, at Massawa that Italy first obtained a foothold in eastern Africa. .The completion of the Suez Canal led Italy as well as Great Britain and France to seek territorial rights on the Red Sea coasts.^ When Italy colonized a strip of land along the Red Sea in 1890, they gave it the name Eritrea.
  • Culture of Eritrea - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Located in northeastern Africa, Eritrea has about 620 miles (1,000 kilometers) of coastline along the west coast of the Red Sea.
  • Culture of Eritrea - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tigrinya 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%, Saho (Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%, other 3% .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The purchase of Assab and the neighbouring region for L1880, from the sultan Berehan of Raheita for use as a coaling station by the Italian Rubattino Steamship Company, in March 1870, formed the nucleus of Italy's colonial possessions.^ When Italy occupied the area 1869-1889, the Italian colonization named the colony Eritrea in a degree issued on 1 January 1890.

^ With the approval of the Italian parliament and King Umberto I of Italy (later succeeded by his son Victor Emmanuel III ), the government of Italy bought the Rubattino company's holdings and expanded its possessions northward along the Red Sea coast toward and beyond Massawa, encroaching on and quickly expelling previously 'Egyptian' possessions.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless the Italians consolidated their possessions into one colony, henceforth known as Eritrea, territory of Italy as of New Years Day 1890.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This purchase was protested against by Egypt, Turkey and Great Britain; the last named power being willing to recognize an Italian commercial settlement, but nothing more. .(The Indian government viewed the establishment of the Italians on the new highway to the East with a good deal of ill-humour.^ So Mr. Mark I have no problem supporting Eritrean people and government, always have good intention for Ethiopia, despite successive Ethiopian government s ill intentions towards Eritrean people and their governments.
  • The American Spectator : Religious Persecution on the Horn of Africa 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

) .Eventually, the British opposition being overcome and that of Egypt and Turkey disregarded, Assab, by a decree of the 5th of July 1882, was declared an Italian colony.^ The Italians took it in 1889 when they formally declared Eritrea as their colony.
  • Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.eritrea.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italian Colonialism in Eritrea, 1882-1941: Policies, Praxis and Impact, 1987.
  • Culture of Eritrea - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Between 1883 and 1888 various treaties were concluded with the sultan of Aussa ceding the Danakil coast to Italy and recognizing an Italian protectorate over the whole of his country - through which passes the trade route from Assab Bay to Shoa.^ Upon Italy's losses in World War II , Eritrea was ruled as a British protectorate between 1941 and 1952.
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2006, Eritrea normalized relations with Sudan and is beginning to open the border to trade between the two countries.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the 1st of January 1890 the various Italian possessions on the coast of the Red Sea were united by royal decree into one province under the title of the Colony of Eritrea - so named after the Erythraeum Mare of the Romans.^ Eritrea was consolidated into a colony by the Italian government on January 1, 1890.
  • The Official ERITREA © space. on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eritrea was consolidated into a colony by the Italian government on January 1 , 1890 .
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, the strategic interests of the United States in the Red Sea Basin and considerations of security and world peace make it necessary that the country [Eritrea] has to be linked with our ally, Ethiopia.
  • The Official ERITREA © space. on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At first the government of the colony was purely military, but after the defeat of the Italians by the Abyssinians at Adowa, the administration was placed upon a civil basis (1898-1900).^ Eritrea was placed under British military administration until 1952 when it was federated with Ethiopia (1952-1962) and was finally annexed as a province of Ethiopia.
  • Eritrea 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.eritrea.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eritrea was placed under British military administration after the Italian surrender in World War II. In 1952, a UN resolution federating Eritrea with Ethiopia went into effect.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eritrea was consolidated into a colony by the Italian government on January 1 , 1890 .
  • What is Eritrea? 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The frontiers were further defined by a French-Italian convention (24th of January 1900) fixing the frontier between French Somaliland and the Italian possessions at Raheita, and also by various agreements with Great Britain and Abyssinia. .A tripartite agreement between Italy, Abyssinia and Great Britain, dated the 15th of May 1902, placed the territory of the Kanama tribe, on the north bank of the Setit, within Eritrea.^ Before this aggression, in 1906, Italy entered a tripartite treaty with Britain and France with intention to divide Ethiopia amongst themselves.That shows lack of good faith with regard to, at least, the 1900 and 1902 treaties with Ethiopia.
  • Ethiopia - Letter from Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Letter dated 21 May 2006 from the President of the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission addressed to the Secretary-General .
  • Action Group for Eritrea (AGE) deplores sanctions against Eritrea — AGE: Action Group for Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are writing to you on the 9 th anniversary of the signing of the Algiers Agreement between Eritrea and Ethiopia.
  • Action Group for Eritrea (AGE) deplores sanctions against Eritrea — AGE: Action Group for Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A convention of the 16th of May 1908 settled the Abyssinian-Eritrean frontier in the Afar country, the boundary being fixed at 60 kilometres from the coast.^ Eritrean scums think about ethiopia being western puppet, Ethiopa has every right to chose which country to befriend or work with.
  • ERITREA: A Nation Turned into Grand Prison 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You may have seen a number of newspaper articles that depicts Eritrea as an Islamic country where Christians are being pressed to convert to Islam.
  • Action Group for Eritrea (AGE) deplores sanctions against Eritrea — AGE: Action Group for Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The task of reconstructing the administration on a civil basis and of developing the commerce of the colony was entrusted to Signor F. Martini, who was governor for nine years (1898-1906).^ Under Italian colonial administration, infrastructure was developed, and a modern administrative state structure was established.
  • Culture of Eritrea - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 22 September 2009 16:48 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Under civil rule the colony made steady though somewhat slow progress.

Authorities

- .See B. Melli, La Colonia Eritrea dalle sue origini al anno 1por (Parma, 1901); G. B. Penne, Per l'Italia Africana.^ La televisione eritrea ha annunciato la morte per infarto di Saleh Meki.

.Studio critico
(Rome, 1906); R. Perini, Di qua dal Mareb (Florence, 1905), a monograph on the Asmara zone; F. Martini, Nell' Africa Italiana (3rd ed., Milan, 1891); A. B. Wylde, Modern Abyssinia, chaps.^ Asmara: Africa’s Secret Modernist City at RIBA, July 3rd August 18th 2007 .
  • Action Group for Eritrea (AGE) deplores sanctions against Eritrea — AGE: Action Group for Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.eritrea.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

v.-ix. (London, 1901); E. D. Schoenfeld, Erythrda and der dgyptische Sudan, chaps. i.-xii. .(Berlin, 1904); Luigi Chiala, La Spedizione di Massana(Turin,1888); Abyssinian Green Books published at intervals in 1895 and 1896, covering the period from 1870 to the end of the ItaloAbyssinian War; Vico Mantegazza, La Guerra in Africa (Florence, 1896); General Baratieri, Memorie d'Africa (Rome, 1898); C. de la Jonquiere, Les Italiens en Erythrêe (Paris, 1897); G. F. H. Berkeley, The Campaign of Adowa (London, 1902).^ Later that month, the United States chaired talks in London to formalize the end of the war.
  • Eritrea (11/09) 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Per la cronaca, tuttavia, di seguito sono sottolineate le dimensioni oggettive e legali dell'intera questione.

^ Come Abyei, le due parti combatterono l'una contro l'altra una sanguinosa guerra civile e decisero di affidare la loro controversia transfrontaliera a una Corte di Arbitrato.

For orography and geology see an article by P. Verri in Boll. Soc. geog. italiana, 1909, and for climate an article in Rivista coloniale (1906), by A. Tancredi. A. Allori compiled a Piccolo Dizionario eritreo, italianoarabo-amarico (Milan, 1895).
For Afar consult W. Munzinger, "A Journey through the Afar Country" in Journ. Royal Geog. Soc. for 1869; V. Bottego, "Nella Terra dei Danakil," in Boll. Soc. Geog. Italiana, 1892; Count C. Rossini, "Al Ragali" in L'Espl. Comm. of Milan, 1903-1904; and articles by G. Dainelli and O. Marinelli in the Riv. Geog. Italiana of Florence for 1906-1908, dealing with the volcanic regions.
Bibliographies will be found in G. Fumagalli's Bibliografia Etiopica (Milan, 1893) and in the Riv. Geog. Italiana for 1907.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Latin Erythraea

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Eritrea
.
  1. Country in Eastern Africa.^ Polio outbreaks were reported in several previously polio-free countries in Central, Eastern, and Western Africa beginning in 2003.
    • Health Information for Eritrea | CDC Travelers' Health 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC wwwnc.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Country in Eastern Africa which became independent from Ethiopia in 1993 after a long struggle .
    • Eritrea@Everything2.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Eritrea is a country in northern East Africa with its eastern border on the shores of the Red Sea .
    • Eritrea 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

    .Official name: State of Eritrea.^ Eritrea Official name: State of Eritrea.
    • Geography - Merriam-Webster's Atlas 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC www.merriam-webster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There are now 130 member states (including Eritrea), although the name G-77 was retained because of its historical significance.

    ^ PRINCIPAL GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS Chief of State: President Isaias Afwerki Head of Government: President Isaias Afwerki   Eritrea's Government faced formidable challenges following independence.
    • Eritrea Government | globalEDGE 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC globaledge.msu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Its capital city is Asmara.

Translations

See also

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Breton

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Up to date as of December 15, 2010

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